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Sample records for early-modern human origins

  1. East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Christopher A.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Peck, John A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Talbot, Michael R.; Brown, Erik T.; Kalindekafe, Leonard; Amoako, Philip Y. O.; Lyons, Robert P.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Castañeda, Isla S.; Heil, Clifford W.; Forman, Steven L.; McHargue, Lanny R.; Beuning, Kristina R.; Gomez, Jeanette; Pierson, James

    2007-01-01

    The environmental backdrop to the evolution and spread of early Homo sapiens in East Africa is known mainly from isolated outcrops and distant marine sediment cores. Here we present results from new scientific drill cores from Lake Malawi, the first long and continuous, high-fidelity records of tropical climate change from the continent itself. Our record shows periods of severe aridity between 135 and 75 thousand years (kyr) ago, when the lake's water volume was reduced by at least 95%. Surprisingly, these intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the period previously recognized as one of the most arid of the Quaternary. From these cores and from records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa), we document a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions over much of tropical Africa after ?70 kyr ago. This transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with diminished orbital eccentricity, and a reduction in precession-dominated climatic extremes. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but our records provide evidence for dramatically wetter conditions after 70 kyr ago. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations. PMID:17785420

  2. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  3. Late Pleistocene Neandertal-Early Modern Human Population Dynamics: The Dental Evidence 

    E-print Network

    Springer, Victoria Suzanne

    2013-04-11

    Recent genetic studies have confirmed that there was admixture between African early modern humans and archaic populations throughout the Old World. In this dissertation, I examine European early modern human dental morphology to assess...

  4. European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A consideration of the morphological aspects of the earliest modern humans in Europe (more than ?33,000 B.P.) and the subsequent Gravettian human remains indicates that they possess an anatomical pattern congruent with the autapomorphic (derived) morphology of the earliest (Middle Paleolithic) African modern humans. However, they exhibit a variable suite of features that are either distinctive Neandertal traits and/or plesiomorphic (ancestral) aspects that had been lost among the African Middle Paleolithic modern humans. These features include aspects of neurocranial shape, basicranial external morphology, mandibular ramal and symphyseal form, dental morphology and size, and anteroposterior dental proportions, as well as aspects of the clavicles, scapulae, metacarpals, and appendicular proportions. The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe. This interpretation is in agreement with current analyses of recent and past human molecular data. PMID:17452632

  5. An early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Zhang, Shuangquan; Chen, Fuyou; Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-four elements of an early modern human (EMH) were found in Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China in 2003. Dated to 42,000–39,000 calendrical years before present by using direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon, the Tianyuan 1 skeleton is among the oldest directly dated EMHs in eastern Eurasia. Morphological comparison shows Tianyuan 1 to have a series of derived modern human characteristics, including a projecting tuber symphyseos, a high anterior symphyseal angle, a broad scapular glenoid fossa, a reduced hamulus, a gluteal buttress, and a pilaster on the femora. Other features of Tianyuan 1 that are more common among EMHs are its modest humeral pectoralis major tuberosities, anteriorly rotated radial tuberosity, reduced radial curvature, and modest talar trochlea. It also lacks several mandibular features common among western Eurasian late archaic humans, including mandibular foramen bridging, mandibular notch asymmetry, and a large superior medial pterygoid tubercle. However, Tianyuan 1 exhibits several late archaic human features, such as its anterior to posterior dental proportions, a large hamulus length, and a broad and rounded distal phalangeal tuberosity. This morphological pattern implies that a simple spread of modern humans from Africa is unlikely. PMID:17416672

  6. Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Nehlich, Olaf; Liu, Wu; Zhao, Chaohong; Yu, Jincheng; Wang, Changsui; Trinkaus, Erik; Richards, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    We report here on the isotopic analysis of the diet of one of the oldest modern humans found in Eurasia, the Tianyuan 1 early modern human dating to ?40,000 calendar years ago from Tianyuan Cave (Tianyuandong) in the Zhoukoudian region of China. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of the human and associated faunal remains indicate a diet high in animal protein, and the high nitrogen isotope values suggest the consumption of freshwater fish. To confirm this inference, we measured the sulfur isotope values of terrestrial and freshwater animals around the Zhoukoudian area and of the Tianyuan 1 human, which also support the interpretation of a substantial portion of the diet from freshwater fish. This analysis provides the direct evidence for the consumption of aquatic resources by early modern humans in China and has implications for early modern human subsistence and demography. PMID:19581579

  7. No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution. PMID:15024415

  8. Early Modern Humans and Morphological Variation in Southeast Asia: Fossil Evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura; Westaway, Kira; Duringer, Philippe; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wu, Xiujie; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Barnes, Lani; Boyon, Marc; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Sénégas, Frank; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Coppens, Yves; Braga, José

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling‘s cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3. PMID:25849125

  9. Plant foods and the dietary ecology of Neanderthals and early modern humans.

    PubMed

    Henry, Amanda G; Brooks, Alison S; Piperno, Dolores R

    2014-04-01

    One of the most important challenges in anthropology is understanding the disappearance of Neanderthals. Previous research suggests that Neanderthals had a narrower diet than early modern humans, in part because they lacked various social and technological advances that lead to greater dietary variety, such as a sexual division of labor and the use of complex projectile weapons. The wider diet of early modern humans would have provided more calories and nutrients, increasing fertility, decreasing mortality and supporting large population sizes, allowing them to out-compete Neanderthals. However, this model for Neanderthal dietary behavior is based on analysis of animal remains, stable isotopes, and other methods that provide evidence only of animal food in the diet. This model does not take into account the potential role of plant food. Here we present results from the first broad comparison of plant foods in the diets of Neanderthals and early modern humans from several populations in Europe, the Near East, and Africa. Our data comes from the analysis of plant microremains (starch grains and phytoliths) in dental calculus and on stone tools. Our results suggest that both species consumed a similarly wide array of plant foods, including foods that are often considered low-ranked, like underground storage organs and grass seeds. Plants were consumed across the entire range of individuals and sites we examined, and none of the expected predictors of variation (species, geographic region, or associated stone tool technology) had a strong influence on the number of plant species consumed. Our data suggest that Neanderthal dietary ecology was more complex than previously thought. This implies that the relationship between Neanderthal technology, social behavior, and food acquisition strategies must be better explored. PMID:24612646

  10. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C; Stringer, Chris B; Tomlinson, Emma L; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C

    2012-08-21

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

  11. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S.; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C.; Stringer, Chris B.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Bori?, Dušan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C.; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

  12. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature14558 An early modern human from Romania with a recent

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    -old2 modern human from Pes¸tera cu Oase, Romania. Although the specimen contains small amounts of human, disappeared. How this process occurred has long been debated1,3­5 . Comparisons between the Neanderthal genome to all non-Africans mixed with Neanderthals. The size of segments of Neanderthal ancestry in present

  13. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Constantin, Silviu; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Lazaridis, Iosif; Nickel, Birgit; Viola, Bence; Prüfer, Kay; Meyer, Matthias; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-08-13

    Neanderthals are thought to have disappeared in Europe approximately 39,000-41,000 years ago but they have contributed 1-3% of the DNA of present-day people in Eurasia. Here we analyse DNA from a 37,000-42,000-year-old modern human from Pe?tera cu Oase, Romania. Although the specimen contains small amounts of human DNA, we use an enrichment strategy to isolate sites that are informative about its relationship to Neanderthals and present-day humans. We find that on the order of 6-9% of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date. Three chromosomal segments of Neanderthal ancestry are over 50 centimorgans in size, indicating that this individual had a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back. However, the Oase individual does not share more alleles with later Europeans than with East Asians, suggesting that the Oase population did not contribute substantially to later humans in Europe. PMID:26098372

  14. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Anne H.; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J.; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa ?150–200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant ?120–90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130–117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of—now buried—fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa. PMID:18936490

  15. Preterit Loss in Early Modern Nuremberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Angela Catania

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates "Prateritumschwund," one of the most salient developments in the Upper German dialect area during the Early Modern period. Drawing on a wide range of text types originating in Nuremberg and its surrounding areas from the 13th to the 17th centuries, this study tests various hypotheses put forward as alleged causes…

  16. Early modern experimentation on live animals.

    PubMed

    Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli's work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my study include Johannes Walaeus, Jean Pecquet, Marcello Malpighi, Reinier de Graaf, Richard Lower, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters expanded the range of practices and epistemic motivations associated with it, displaying considerable technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive and the issue of generalizing results to humans. Many practitioners expressed great discomfort at the suffering of the animals; however, many remained convinced that their investigations were not only indispensable from an epistemic standpoint but also had potential medical applications. Early modern vivisection experiments were both extensive and sophisticated and cannot be ignored in the literature of early modern experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time. PMID:22684270

  17. Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972

  18. Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

    2011-05-22

    Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins. PMID:21047863

  19. [Between science and moral injury--dead human bodies' treatment in anatomy and pathology during early modern times].

    PubMed

    Bauer, Axel W

    2005-01-01

    In this essay the history of anatomy and pathology between the 16th and the 19th century is focused under the two aspects of scientific development and of moral injury. In anatomy, which came along as a special field of theoretical medicine in 16th century, the human corpse was used as a suitable and to an increasing degree legitimate model of the healthy living body. About two hundred years later, even pathology started to be transformed into pathological anatomy. While anatomists were dealing with the structure of the healthy body pathological anatomists were interested in the morbid changes of the human corpse; the pathologist perceived the dead body as a static model of the dynamic pathological process in the living patient. Anatomy came along in the era of Renaissance and Humanism not least because of a close connection between science and the fine arts, whereas its practical relevance during the 16th and the 17th century resulted from a preparatory function for army surgery. The corpses of executed criminals, infanticides, and of unmarried mothers who had died from natural causes were often used for anatomical purposes including public autopsy. Pathological anatomy, however, unfolded its power not until the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century when a new medical institution had been established: the clinic. The physical methods of examination such as percussion and auscultation of the patient's body could now be reviewed by the results of a post-mortem autopsy. The growing influence of pathological anatomy during 19th century medicine was reflected by a modified perception and evaluation of disease: The spatial dimensions of the visible findings received priority to the chronological development of the process of disease with the consequence of a heightened risk of separating the pathological structures from the suffering patient's biographical context. For the gain to scientism pathological anatomy had to tolerate a loss of reality, replacing the complexity of "heart and soul" by a reductionist model of the dead body. PMID:17153300

  20. Dental wear patterns in early modern humans from Skhul and Qafzeh: A response to Sarig and Tillier.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar

    2015-10-01

    The use of teeth as tools for manipulating objects and simple food-processing methods was common among prehistoric and modern hunter-gatherer human populations. Paramasticatory uses of teeth frequently produce enamel chipping and distinctive types of dental wear that can readily be related to specific tool functions. In particular, the presence of unusual occlusal wear areas (named para-facets) on maxillary teeth of prehistoric, historic and modern hunter-gatherers has been associated with cultural habits involving extensive use of teeth (Fiorenza et al., 2011; Fiorenza and Kullmer, 2013). However, Sarig and Tillier (2014) believe that this wear had been caused by pathological occlusal relationships rather than by the use of teeth as tools. In this contribution, we show how occlusal contacts are created and how it is possible to distinguish between masticatory and non-masticatory wear facets by using an innovative digital approach called Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis. Statistical results from the analysis of comparative modern samples clearly demonstrate that described para-facets in Skhul and Qafzeh could not have been produced by dental occlusal anomalies such as malocclusions and crossbites. Moreover, dental pathologies in prehistoric humans were extremely rare. Only with the adoption of the modern lifestyle between 18th and 19th centuries, did the emergence of malocclusions become significantly more common. Because more than 50% of the Skhul and Qafzeh individuals analysed in our study are characterised by this distinctive type of wear, it is highly unlikely that their para-facets occurred as a result of dental pathologies. PMID:26048367

  1. Distal tephras of the eastern Lake Victoria basin, equatorial East Africa: correlations, chronology and a context for early modern humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegen, Nick; Tryon, Christian A.; Faith, J. Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J.; Beverly, Emily J.; Li, Bo; Jacobs, Zenobia

    2015-08-01

    The tephrostratigraphic framework for Pliocene and Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological sites in East Africa has been well established through nearly 50 years of research, but a similarly comprehensive framework is lacking for the Middle and particularly the Late Pleistocene. We provide the first detailed regional record of Late Pleistocene tephra deposits associated with artifacts or fossils from the Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. Correlations of Late Pleistocene distal tephra deposits from the Wasiriya beds on Rusinga Island, the Waware beds on Mfangano Island and deposits near Karungu, mainland Kenya, are based on field stratigraphy coupled with 916 electron microprobe analyses of eleven major and minor element oxides from 50 samples. At least eight distinct distal tephra deposits are distinguished, four of which are found at multiple localities spanning >60 km over an approximately north to south transect. New optically stimulated luminescence dates help to constrain the Late Pleistocene depositional ages of these deposits. Our correlation and characterization of volcaniclastic deposits expand and refine the current stratigraphy of the eastern Lake Victoria basin. This provides the basis for relating fossil- and artifact-bearing sediments and a framework for ongoing geological, archaeological and paleontological studies of Late Pleistocene East Africa, a crucial time period for human evolution and dispersal within and out of Africa.

  2. Sodomy and heresy in early modern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Monter, E W

    The author compares records, from the early modern era, of sodomy trials in two parts of French Switzerland (Geneva, a Protestant city, and Fribourg, A Catholic pastoral area) and presents evidence that: (1) men charged with "sodomy" were prosecuted more often for homosexuality in cities and for bestiality in rural areas, (2) male homosexual subcultures were associated with the growth of large urban centers, (3) sodomy was punished with greater severity than any other crime than infanticide, (4) in both Geneva and Fribourg repression of sodomy increased during periods of religious zeal. With the advent of the Enlightenment, the number of sodomy trials fell as prosecutions for crimes of personal violence declined and prosecutions for crimes against property increased. This is the first English translation of Monter's article, originally written in French. PMID:7042829

  3. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    PubMed Central

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  4. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment

    PubMed Central

    Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages—demonstrably made by modern humans—are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

  5. SYMPOSIUM: CAUSALITY IN EARLY MODERN THOUGHT

    E-print Network

    Shutler, Dave

    will probe current arguments over the extent to which central early modern perspectives on causality may of Michigan): "Descartes' Critique of Scholastic Teleology" 7:30 ­ 8:15 Reception Session papers

  6. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world. PMID:20509359

  7. A Review of "Magic and Masculinity in Early Modern English Drama" by Ian McAdam 

    E-print Network

    Tiffany, Grace

    2011-01-01

    , and witchcraft. Some Puritans even practiced exorcism. Many early modern English plays displayed a like concern with the powers and dangers attendant on human involvement with the spirit world through the pseudo-science of alchemy or other ways of spirit... as to Renaissance humanism, alchemical and scientific theories, early-modern ideas about black and white magic, and the influence and legacy of the Protestant Reformation. McAdam?s complicated thesis is grounded in the puzzling but undeniable fact that, though...

  8. Early Modern India and World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, John F.

    1997-01-01

    Characterizes the early modern period in world history (roughly 1500-1800) as one marked by worldwide processes of change unprecedented in scope and intensity. Argues that the society of the Indian subcontinent shared directly in the massive processes of change that influenced societies throughout the world. (MJP)

  9. A review of "Bodily Extremities: Preoccupations with the Human Body in Early Modern European Culture." by Florike Egmond and Robert Zwijnenberg eds. 

    E-print Network

    Rebecca De Haas

    2004-01-01

    at the outset that the essays in their book will address the more extreme treatments of the human body, including execution, torture, and pain. In addition, the editors emphasize that in addressing these ?bodily extremities,? the approach will necessarily... group of essays. As the editors assert, the collection has ?four closely connected themes that recur in different combinations in most of the chapters: honour and shame, bodily integrity, identity and self-preservation, and pain? (9). REVIEWS 19...

  10. Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPlessis, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

  11. The Construction of Early Modernity in Spanish Film 

    E-print Network

    Zarate Casanova, Miguel Angel

    2011-10-21

    The presence of early modern Spanish history in Spanish film has received only limited scholarly attention. The entire group of Spanish films dealing with the Spanish early modern era has never been placed under study by ...

  12. Being Mad in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    It has become almost a rule that the birth of scientific psychiatry and what we today term clinical psychology took place in the short period between the last decade of the XVIII century and the 1820s. Everything that happened before that period—every description, diagnosis, and therapy—has been considered “pre-scientific,” outdated, in a way worthless. In this paper, however, I am providing the argument that, first, the roots of contemporary psychiatry reach at least to England of the early modern period, and that, second, it may still turn out that in the field of mental health care historical continuities are more numerous and persistent than discontinuities. Thus, I briefly review the most important surviving documents about the treatment of mental disorders in England of Elizabethan and Jacobian period, organizing the argument around the well-known markers: diagnostics and etiology, therapy, organization of the asylum, the public image of the mentally ill. PMID:26635656

  13. Making medicines in the early modern household.

    PubMed

    Leong, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This article is a study of household medicine production and consumption through an examination of the papers of Elizabeth Freke (1641-1714) and a wider survey of around nine thousand medical recipes in printed and manuscript collections from seventeenth-century England. It investigates the sorts of medicines that may have been produced in early modern households and the production methods, ingredients, and equipment used. Focusing on three inventories of medicines compiled by Freke between 1710 and 1712 as well as her manuscript recipe collection and medical reading notes, I contend that she kept on hand a number of cure-alls and medicines for general weaknesses, while holding onto recipes for more-specific ailments; the recipes, in these cases, would be the "just-in-case" medicine cabinet. I also argue for a close relationship between commercial and domestic medicine, and present the idea that household practitioners purchased not only ingredients (both processed and unprocessed) and equipment, but also medical knowledge. PMID:18344588

  14. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-02-23

    C. Spary, ‘Of Nutmegs and Botanists: the colonial cultivation of botanical identity’, in Londa Schiebinger and Claudia Swan (eds.), Colonial Botany: Science, Commerce, and Politics in the Early Modern World, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania...

  15. Astrology in Early Modern Scotland ca. 1560-1726 

    E-print Network

    Ridder-Patrick, Janet Harkness; Patrick, Janet Harkness Ridder

    2012-11-30

    Over the last generation scholars have demonstrated the fundamental importance of astrology in the early modern European worldview. While detailed studies have been undertaken of England and many areas of continental ...

  16. Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Keiser, George R

    2003-07-01

    This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends. PMID:12938716

  17. Exotic origins: the emblematic biogeographies of early modern scaly mammals

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    creatures moved.3 Animals were physically altered and valued in different ways by the people who hunted, traded and collected them. Transportation often necessitated the dismantling of whole animals, because 2 of the obstacles and costs involved... dramatic changes as the symbolic construction of the creature shifted over time.7 Benjamin Schmidt, for example, has shown how stereotyped exotic icons were transformed, in form and provenance, as they moved across media in "iconic circuits...

  18. Servants as Educators in Early-Modern England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sheila McIsaac

    2007-01-01

    This paper will address the role of early-modern (1550-1800) English servants in the training and education of the children residing in the households in which these servants worked. Some resident servants were employed primarily, if not solely, to educate the children of their masters and mistresses. These tutors, governesses and chaplains are…

  19. Early Modern Experimentation on Live Animals* DOMENICO BERTOLONI MELI

    E-print Network

    Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

    Early Modern Experimentation on Live Animals* DOMENICO BERTOLONI MELI Indiana University to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive

  20. "Old Poems Have Heart": Teenage Students Reading Early Modern Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The proposals for the revised National Curriculum in English suggest limiting the pre-twentieth century poetry that GCSE pupils read to "representative Romantic poetry" (Department for Education [DFE], 2013, p. 4). This paper argues that poetry of the early modern period is challenging and enriching study for adolescent pupils and that…

  1. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Kutas, Marta

    HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 10 February 2015 doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015 and Johnson (1980) propose that abstract target domains (e.g., mind) are structured and grounded via metaphors (THE MIND IS A CONTAINER) which support everyday metaphorical expressions (e.g., "He couldn't get

  2. Evidence for a (15)N positive excursion in terrestrial foodwebs at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France: Implications for early modern human palaeodiet and palaeoenvironment.

    PubMed

    Bocherens, Hervé; Drucker, Dorothée G; Madelaine, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition around 35,000 years ago coincides with the replacement of Neanderthals by anatomically modern humans in Europe. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this replacement, one of them being the ability of anatomically modern humans to broaden their dietary spectrum beyond the large ungulate prey that Neanderthals consumed exclusively. This scenario is notably based on higher nitrogen-15 amounts in early Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern human bone collagen compared with late Neanderthals. In this paper, we document a clear increase of nitrogen-15 in bone collagen of terrestrial herbivores during the early Aurignacian associated with anatomically modern humans compared with the stratigraphically older Châtelperronian and late Mousterian fauna associated with Neanderthals. Carnivores such as wolves also exhibit a significant increase in nitrogen-15, which is similar to that documented for early anatomically modern humans compared with Neanderthals in Europe. A shift in nitrogen-15 at the base of the terrestrial foodweb is responsible for such a pattern, with a preserved foodweb structure before and after the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France. Such an isotopic shift in the terrestrial ecosystem may be due to an increase in aridity during the time of deposition of the early Aurignacian layers. If it occurred across Europe, such a shift in nitrogen-15 in terrestrial foodwebs would be enough to explain the observed isotopic trend between late Neanderthals and early anatomically modern humans, without any significant change in the diet composition at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. PMID:24630359

  3. A review of "Comedy, Youth, Manhood in Early Modern England." by Ira Clark 

    E-print Network

    Byron Nelson

    2004-01-01

    ; however, there is always a danger that, in having won the widow, the gallant finds himself, in marriage, ruled by her. The fifth chapter, which is the book?s longest, ponders the arguments for and against dueling. Not sharing our modern distaste... for this practice, early modern playwrights made dueling an ?urgent preoccupation? and were willing to consider arguments on both sides. The anti-dueling tracts saw this stylized action not so much as a violent abuse of human rights, as we do, but as an offence...

  4. A review of "Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern England." by Juliet Fleming 

    E-print Network

    Thomas H. Luxon

    2002-01-01

    . Fleming?s second bold thesis follows from the first: The early modern period had a way of understand- ing the relation of writing to the mind, and to the world outside it, that was not that of representation or reference. This relation . . . proposes a... with the human mind. (164) Fleming argues both theses successfully and uses them to produce wonderful readings of wall-writing both at home and in church, impresas and sentences written on clothes and jewelry. The sense of a sentence cannot be gathered...

  5. The origins of human ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, T B

    1997-01-01

    The origins of human ageing are to be found in the origins and evolution of senescence as a general feature in the life histories of higher animals. Ageing is an intriguing problem in evolutionary biology because a trait that limits the duration of life, including the fertile period, has a negative impact on Darwinian fitness. Current theory suggests that senescence occurs because the force of natural selection declines with age and because longevity is only acquired at some metabolic cost. In effect, organisms may trade late survival for enhanced reproductive investments in earlier life. The comparative study of ageing supports the general evolutionary theory and reveals that human senescence, while broadly similar to senescence in other mammalian species, has distinct features, such as menopause, that may derive from the interplay of biological and social evolution. PMID:9460059

  6. Bat origin of human coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ben; Ge, Xingyi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Shi, Zhengli

    2015-01-01

    Bats have been recognized as the natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses. Special attention has been paid to bat coronaviruses as the two emerging coronaviruses which have caused unexpected human disease outbreaks in the 21st century, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are suggested to be originated from bats. Various species of horseshoe bats in China have been found to harbor genetically diverse SARS-like coronaviruses. Some strains are highly similar to SARS-CoV even in the spike protein and are able to use the same receptor as SARS-CoV for cell entry. On the other hand, diverse coronaviruses phylogenetically related to MERS-CoV have been discovered worldwide in a wide range of bat species, some of which can be classified to the same coronavirus species as MERS-CoV. Coronaviruses genetically related to human coronavirus 229E and NL63 have been detected in bats as well. Moreover, intermediate hosts are believed to play an important role in the transmission and emergence of these coronaviruses from bats to humans. Understanding the bat origin of human coronaviruses is helpful for the prediction and prevention of another pandemic emergence in the future. PMID:26689940

  7. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

  8. ‘Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  9. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history. PMID:26256311

  10. Renaissance plays as a useful source for the comparison between English and Croatian early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Atalic, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the differences between English and Croatian views of early modern medicine through the respective Renaissance plays. As Renaissance made no particular distinction between arts and sciences, plays of that time provide a very common source of medical narrative. During Renaissance both languages produced high literary achievements, which makes them exemplars among their Germanic and Slavic counterparts, and justifies this comparison, regardless of their significant differences. One should bear in mind that while England was a unified kingdom, with London as the major cultural centre, Croatia's division among the neighbouring powers produced several prominent cultural centres such as Zadar, Šibenik, Split, Hvar, Kor?ula, and the most important one, Dubrovnik. One should also bear in mind that the golden age of Croatian Renaissance plays had finished as early as 1567 with the death of Marin DrŽi?, before it even started in England with the foundation of the first permanent theatrical companies in 1576. Along these lines, this paper compares their early modern attitudes toward medicine in general and men and women practitioners in particular. In this respect, it evaluates the influences of the origin, patronage, and religion of their authors. Special attention is given to William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and Marin DrŽi? (1508-1567) as the exemplars of English and Croatian Renaissance literature. PMID:23094840

  11. Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Alanna

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580–1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over ‘aggravating’ the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous ‘cures’ including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

  12. A review of "Devising, Dying and Dispute: Probate Litigation in Early Modern England" by Lloyd Bonfield 

    E-print Network

    Kneidel, Greg

    2012-01-01

    -1 150 ???????????-???? ? ???? Lloyd Bon? eld. Devising, Dying and Dispute: Probate Litigation in Early Modern England. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012. xvi + 290. $119.95. Review by ? ?? ??? ???, ? ?? ? ?? ?? ??????? ? ?. Any monograph that casts... light into the shadowy corners of early modern law is to be welcomed, especially one that is accessible to a non-specialist audience for whom most of early modern law is shadowy corners. Lloyd Bon? eld?s Devising, Dying and Dispute is just such a...

  13. A review of "Early Modern French Thought: The Age of Suspicion." by Michael Moriarty 

    E-print Network

    Todd Janke

    2006-01-01

    Moriarty. Early Modern French Thought: The Age of Suspicion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. xii + 271 pp. $120.00. Review by TODD JANKE, CLAYTON STATE UNIVERSITY. For those with an interest in early modern philosophy, this book by Michael... the roots and trajectory of early modern French thinking about these issues, placing them squarely within a cultural milieu dominated by belief in a transcendent God, drawing liberally on both historical, primary texts and contemporary sources (from...

  14. Human origins: Out of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  15. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    PubMed

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  16. Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damsen, Silver

    2009-01-01

    My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

  17. Pe?tera cu Oase 2 and the cranial morphology of early modern Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Rougier, Hélène; Milota, ?tefan; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Gherase, Mircea; Sarcin?, Lauren?iu; Moldovan, Oana; Zilhão, João; Constantin, Silviu; Franciscus, Robert G.; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia; Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2005, the Pe?tera cu Oase, Romania yielded a largely complete early modern human cranium, Oase 2, scattered on the surface of a Late Pleistocene hydraulically displaced bone bed containing principally the remains of Ursus spelaeus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate an age of ?40.5 thousand calendar years before the present (?35 ka 14C B.P.). Morphological comparison of the adolescent Oase 2 cranium to relevant Late Pleistocene human samples documents a suite of derived modern human and/or non-Neandertal features, including absence of a supraorbital torus, subrectangular orbits, prominent canine fossae, narrow nasal aperture, level nasal floor, angled and anteriorly oriented zygomatic bones, a high neurocranium with prominent parietal bosses and marked sagittal parietal curvature, superiorly positioned temporal zygomatic root, vertical auditory porous, laterally bulbous mastoid processes, superiorly positioned posterior semicircular canal, absence of a nuchal torus and a suprainiac fossa, and a small occipital bun. However, these features are associated with an exceptionally flat frontal arc, a moderately large juxtamastoid eminence, extremely large molars that become progressively larger distally, complex occlusal morphology of the upper third molar, and relatively anteriorly positioned zygomatic arches. Moreover, the featureless occipital region and small mastoid process are at variance with the large facial skeleton and dentition. This unusual mosaic in Oase 2, some of which is paralleled in the Oase 1 mandible, indicates both complex population dynamics as modern humans dispersed into Europe and significant ongoing human evolution once modern humans were established within Europe. PMID:17227863

  18. Modern human origins: progress and prospects.

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The question of the mode of origin of modern humans (Homo sapiens) has dominated palaeoanthropological debate over the last decade. This review discusses the main models proposed to explain modern human origins, and examines relevant fossil evidence from Eurasia, Africa and Australasia. Archaeological and genetic data are also discussed, as well as problems with the concept of 'modernity' itself. It is concluded that a recent African origin can be supported for H. sapiens, morphologically, behaviourally and genetically, but that more evidence will be needed, both from Africa and elsewhere, before an absolute African origin for our species and its behavioural characteristics can be established and explained. PMID:12028792

  19. [Academy idea and Curiositas as leitmotif of the early modern Leopoldina].

    PubMed

    Boehm, Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    Founded in 1652, the Academia Naturae Curiosorum fiercely defended this name, which it wished to bear. On the occasion of the founder's 400th birthday, this article will try to examine the objectives of the concept of academia and the understanding of curiositas in its historical context, with a focus on the early history of the academy up to its receipt of imperial privilege in 1687/88. This is done in four chapters (I-IV). The memorial occasion suggests a preliminary note on our contemporary situation: I. The Jubilee Triangle--Berlin (Berlin academies), Halle-Wittenberg (university), Schweinfurt-Halle (Leopoldina)--considering the fate of the different historical models of scholarly organizations before and after the political turnaround (die "Wende") in 1989/90. The main questions about the 17th century orient themselves around the founding documents, the imperial status of the foundational city, as well as the Bausch family's places of study, educational travels, and library.--II. The Imperially Privileged Leopoldina--"Academy" or "Society"? This question's point of departure is the incipient engagement--the year after J. L. Bausch died (1665)--of G. W. Leibniz, who had likewise earned his doctorate at the University of Altdorf. He was engaged for his state-based vision of society that considered scholarly critique of hitherto extant academies, including the curiosité of the Collegium Medicorum. The summing up of the naturae-curiosi's pursuit of imperial privilege emphasizes the denominational controversy, which pitted the imperial counsellors against the societal Nomen preferred by Vienna. The attempt to interpret both sides of the argument deals on the one hand with the semantic expansion to universities of the concept of academia, inspired by humanism and the reception of Roman law; this expansion also affected the imperial reservation rights (exemplary references to legal argumentation from the work on imperial publicity by Ch. Besold). On the other hand, it deals with aspects of privilege law, regarding the development of new kinds of higher learning institutions and university politics in the imperial city in the confessional era ("Semi-Universities"/"Academies" Strassburg, Nuremberg-Altdorf). This is followed by a thematic balancing.--Chapter III. Curiositas as an Early Modern Leitmotif of Natural Science Academies refers first to the multivalent popular usage of the fashionable and borrowed German word "Kuriosität" [curiosity] during the Enlightenment, then inquires about the word's original definitions in ancient and medieval scholarly traditions. In the age of humanist source study and expeditions into "new worlds", the concept of curiositas as an (ethically ambivalent) "desire for knowledge" was revitalized; this is exemplified by two types of sources: the report of the Orient and Brazil explorer André Thevet and the literarily virulent figure (around 1600) of knowledge-thirsty Faust. A reexamination of the academy's foundational documents, in conjunction with the peregrinatio academica of Schweinfurt doctors to Italy, confirms the old question, now newly posed, about the methodological and programmatic signal of the curiositas device. The self-reflection of the naturae-curiosi and their focus on observational development and natural-historical classifications in the area of "materia medica" show--besides other advances in scholarship in the early 17th century--clear correlation with the "phenomenology of modern thought" that is so often discussed today. However, there must be an evolutionary and innovative differentiation from what would later be called "natural science" disciplines (like biology, zoology, mineralogy, chemistry), as opposed to an all-inclusively defined "scientific revolution", which pertains to astronomical and mathematical ways of thinking, as well as new insights in the physical-instrumental field.--Chapter IV. The Urban Medical Profession Between Scholarly Medicin

  20. Performing Women’s Speech in Early Modern Drama: Troubling Silence, Complicating Voice 

    E-print Network

    Van Note, Beverly Marshall

    2012-10-19

    This dissertation attempts to fill a void in early modern English drama studies by offering an in-depth, cross-gendered comparative study emphasizing representations of women’s discursive agency. Such an examination ...

  1. Renaissance Fare: Appetite and Authority on the Early Modern English Stage

    E-print Network

    Behre, Keri Sanburn

    2011-05-31

    The politics of food are naturally central to many early modern plays in part because of unstable supply and means of distribution in London. Food is a type of property that can represent a great deal of power, especially ...

  2. A review of "Borders and Travellers in Early Modern Europe" edited by Thomas Betteridge 

    E-print Network

    McJannet, Linda

    2008-01-01

    suggests that demonization of his antagonists was not part of his worldview. In ?Unwanted Travellers: The Tightening of City Borders in Early Modern Germany,? historian Maria R. Boes provides a fascinating and meticulously documented account...

  3. Strange and Terrible Wonders: Climate Change in the Early Modern World 

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Christopher Ryan

    2015-07-01

    The study of climate and climatic change began during the Little Ice Age of the early modern world. Beginning in the sixteenth century, European clerics, scientists, and natural philosophers penned detailed observations of the era’s unusually cool...

  4. Original Research Measuring Human Cardiac Tissue Sodium

    E-print Network

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    Original Research Measuring Human Cardiac Tissue Sodium Concentrations Using Surface Coils G. Weiss, MD,2 and Paul A. Bottomley, PhD1 Purpose: To measure tissue sodium concentrations: 23 Na MRI; sodium; human heart; adiabatic pulses; quantitation J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2005

  5. Original Paper Human sensorimotor learning for

    E-print Network

    Babic, Jan

    to drive a car. After human learning, the skilled control of the robot is used to build an autonomousOriginal Paper Human sensorimotor learning for humanoid robot skill synthesis Jan Babic1 , Joshua G learning capacity to obtain robot behaviors, which would otherwise require manual programming by experts

  6. A Review of "Oral Culture and Catholicism in Early Modern England" by Alison Shell 

    E-print Network

    Landrum, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Shell. Oral Culture and Catholicism in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. xiv + 244 pp. $95.00. Review by robert landrum, university of south carolina beaufort. In Oral Culture and Catholicism in Early Modern England... Alison Shell assigns herself an ambitious task, to assess the impact of post-Refor- mation Catholicism on England?s oral culture. It is an investigation of a persecuted and deliberately opaque subculture through the use of notoriously shifting...

  7. A review of "Autobiography in Early Modern England" by Adam Smyth 

    E-print Network

    Trettien, Whitney Anne

    2011-01-01

    is very good, and it makes a valuable contribution to the ever growing area of utopian research writings. Adam Smyth. Autobiography in Early Modern England. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010. x + 222 pp. + 7 illus. $85.00. Review... by ??????? ???? ????????, ???? ??????????. Annotated almanacs, ?nancial account records, commonplace books, parish registers: in these four ostensibly mundane sources, Adam Smyth uncovers a network of textual practices through which early modern individuals wrote their own lives. e term...

  8. A review of "British Interventions in Early Modern Ireland." by Ciaran Brady and Jane Ohlmeyer eds. 

    E-print Network

    B. R. Siegfried

    2005-01-01

    SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Ciaran Brady and Jane Ohlmeyer, eds. British Interventions in Early Modern Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. xx + 210 pp. + 1 illus. $80.00. Review by B. R. SIEGFRIED, BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY. The editors... of British Interventions in Early Modern Ireland, Ciaran Brady and Jane Ohlmeyer, have collected sixteen essays in honor of Aidan Clarke whose scrupulous and energetic work as teacher and historian is acknowledged throughout the volume. Marshaling the whole...

  9. A review of "Labor and Writing in Early Modern England, 1567-1667" by Laurie Ellinghausen 

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Julie D.

    2010-01-01

    ? (15). The key notions that Ellinghausen seeks to illustrate are that privileging the virtues of labor creates a new paradigm in the writing of early modern England and that through observing this develop- ment one may have a better understanding... labor Bowes invested in writing this much-needed and interesting biography of Richard Brathwait. Laurie Ellinghausen. Labor and Writing in Early Modern England, 1567- 1667. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008. ix + 155 pp. + 5 illustrations. $99.95. Review...

  10. A Review of "Marriage, Manners and Mobility in Early Modern Venice" by Alexander Cowan 

    E-print Network

    Litchfield, Burr

    2009-01-01

    and institutional pow- ers that produced works of art and facilitated their appreciation in a period so critical to the development of the Enlightenment, and yet so often neglected by scholars. Alexander Cowan. Marriage, Manners and Mobility in Early Modern... Venice. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007. xvi + 209 pp. + 8 illus. $99.95. Review by r. burr litchfield, brown university. This book will be of interest to historians of Venice and to those interested in the definition of nobility in Early Modern Europe...

  11. A review of "Renaissance Tropologies: The Cultural Imagination of Early Modern England" by Jeanne Shami 

    E-print Network

    Stanwood, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    contributors so that the volume is coherent. But ?cultural imagination? is obviously not well or fully contained in such loose baggage as these tropologies might wish to hold or embrace. Bernadette Andrea. Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature... with Muslim cultures in the early modern period. Andrea?s exploration of the ?significance of women?s agency in the inaugural Anglo-Ottoman encounter? from the sixteenth century to the eighteenth century is bold and innovative (1). English engagements...

  12. A review of "Pamphlets and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain" by Joad Raymond. 

    E-print Network

    Timothy Raylor

    2004-01-01

    - ommended for graduate students and others interested in the ques- tion of how the royal court maintained its tradition, organization and ceremonial in the face of exile and military defeat. Joad Raymond. Pamphlets and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain.... Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xviii + 403 pp. + 41 illus. + 6 figs. $70.00. Review by TIMOTHY RAYLOR, CARLETON COLLEGE. Over the last decade, Joad Raymond has emerged as one of our foremost analysts of the early modern English newsbook...

  13. Curiosity, forbidden knowledge, and the reformation of natural philosophy in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P

    2001-06-01

    From the patristic period to the beginning of the seventeenth century curiosity was regarded as an intellectual vice. Curious individuals were considered to be proud and "puffed up," and the objects of their investigations were deemed illicit, dispute engendering, unknowable, or useless. Seventeenth-century projects for the advancement of learning had to distance themselves from curiosity and its dubious fruits or, alternatively, enhance the moral status of the curious sensibility. Francis Bacon's proposals for the instauration of knowledge were an integral part of a process by which curiosity underwent a remarkable transformation from vice to virtue over the course of the seventeenth century. The changing fortunes of this human propensity highlight the morally charged nature of early modern debates over the status of natural philosophy and the particular virtues required of its practitioners. The rehabilitation of curiosity was a crucial element in the objectification of scientific knowledge and led to a gradual shift of focus away from the moral qualities of investigators and the propriety of particular objects of knowledge to specific procedures and methods. PMID:11590893

  14. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-02-10

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons. PMID:25624493

  15. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Boldsen, Jesper L.; Milner, George R.; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons. PMID:25624493

  16. Love and love of self in early modern French writing

    E-print Network

    Moriarty, Michael

    2013-07-01

    as antithetical. He took over the existentialist claim that feeling cannot determine action, but that the choices we make in effect construct the feelings they appeal to. He grafted this onto a perception, derived from psychoanalysis, of human agency...

  17. Sidrak and Bokkus: An Early Modern Reader Response

    E-print Network

    Grund, Peter

    2009-02-03

    contains numerous margin- al comments from one reader in particular that suggest how the text was digested and what texts it was used in conjunction with. For example, pas- sages that originally had no connection with alchemy or metallurgy have been (re... a clearer chronology. Although some aspects of the notes remain uncertain, there are examples that clearly testify to how Sidrak and Bokkus was interpreted. The most prominent interpretive framework is alchemy. Considering the fact that BPH M199...

  18. Speaking England: nationalism(s) in early modern literature and culture 

    E-print Network

    Morrow, Christopher L.

    2009-06-02

    and Imperial Rome in a struggle for control over the island of Britain. I argue that by staging these conflicts, these two plays also attempt to define the relationship between Rome and England. The residue of the Roman colonization of Britain pervades... early modern England not only in physical reminders (such as roads and ruins) but also conceptually, since early modern England styled itself as the re-birth of classical Rome. Rome, then, is situated ambiguously in these plays as both as imperial...

  19. A review of "The Poetics of Melancholy in Early Modern England." by Douglas Trevor 

    E-print Network

    Thomas P. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    that by the seventeenth century melan- choly was both a ?condition and a practice? (7). Where much past work on the topic has understood melancholy in relation to the redemptive or genial sadness associated with Marsilio Ficino?s late medieval accounts, Trevor con- tends... that early modern scholars could be both sad and sick without con- comitant moral or spiritual uprightness. The book?s challenge to the Ficinian model of melancholy is the first of Trevor?s major contributions to recent accounts of early modern melancholy...

  20. [Longlived examples. Function and formal principles of historical exempla of old age in the early-modern dietetic literature].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Since antiquity, the exemplum can be proven in numerous types of texts, as it fulfills a notable didactic and rhetorical function: On the one hand it serves to a deductive illustration of common doctrines; on the other it is until the Enlightenment the scientific basis of cognition: in the view of medieval artistotelists, of who FRANCIS BACON was (in a special sense) one of the last champions, the exemplum takes on an inductive function: the sensual perception of the exampla generates the understanding of the universal, as the exemplum always refers to the exemplar, to the original form. Regarding the eminent deductive/inductive significance of the exempla, it is not surprising that they are an essential factor in dietetic literature. Whereas such exemples were very rare in the general literature on health care written by physicians and in specific papers of old-age assistance, they formed an integral part of texts composed for a large public by medical laymen such as (Ps.-) ROGER BACON, MARSILIO FICINO, ALVISE CORNARO or FRANCIS BACON. In these studies, the issue of a natural limit of human life was discussed intensively. In this context the "historical" sources were of high importance, even if, from a todays point of view, their use was completely non-historical. Often their crude instrumentalization and new interpretations can only be understood in the scholarly context of the time: E.g. in debates of specialists with outsiders or when serving as argument for physiological theories and therapeutical regimes. Not until late Renaissance, the historical exemple was replaced by the individual experience. It is striking that most of all historical exemples found in dietetic papers were positive. This humanistic and Christian ideal concept of old age, which completely contradicts the medical reality, had obviously a stronger fascination on the authors of early modern times than the inductive function of negative exempla (which are very important for a rational reasoning). Besides the scientific exemple, it is the idealizing one which, in the dietetic texts, gradually assumes the moral function of not discouraging the often aged readers, but of encouraging them to a constructive way of living. PMID:15641198

  1. Identifying the seasonal origins of human campylobacteriosis

    PubMed Central

    STRACHAN, N. J. C.; ROTARIU, O.; SMITH-PALMER, A.; COWDEN, J.; SHEPPARD, S. K.; O’BRIEN, S. J.; MAIDEN, M. C. J.; MACRAE, M.; BESSELL, P. R.; MATTHEWS, L.; REID, S. W. J.; INNOCENT, G. T.; OGDEN, I. D.; FORBES, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human campylobacteriosis exhibits a distinctive seasonality in temperate regions. This paper aims to identify the origins of this seasonality. Clinical isolates [typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)] and epidemiological data were collected from Scotland. Young rural children were found to have an increased burden of disease in the late spring due to strains of non-chicken origin (e.g. ruminant and wild bird strains from environmental sources). In contrast the adult population had an extended summer peak associated with chicken strains. Travel abroad and UK mainland travel were associated with up to 17% and 18% of cases, respectively. International strains were associated with chicken, had a higher diversity than indigenous strains and a different spectrum of MLST types representative of these countries. Integrating empirical epidemiology and molecular subtyping can successfully elucidate the seasonal components of human campylobacteriosis. The findings will enable public health officials to focus strategies to reduce the disease burden. PMID:22989449

  2. A review of "Reading Green in Early Modern England" by Leah Knight 

    E-print Network

    Salenius, Maria

    2015-01-01

    . Reading Green in Early Modern England. Farnham, Surrey and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. ix + 165 pp. $104.95. Review by Maria Salenius, University of Helsinki. The study of an era from the point of view of a concept, or even a word, can bring a fresh...

  3. From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberland, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

  4. FROM PRINT TO PATENTS: LIVING ON INSTRUMENTS IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE

    E-print Network

    FROM PRINT TO PATENTS: LIVING ON INSTRUMENTS IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE Mario Biagioli Harvard University Surprisingly, patents are nowhere as central to the history of scientific instruments a comparison of printed patent rolls up to 1800 (which I am making available electronically) and other tactics

  5. The Commerce of Utility: Teaching Mathematical Geography in Early Modern England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormack, Lesley B.

    2006-01-01

    The teaching and learning of geographical and mathematical knowledge in early modern England was a complex interaction among scholars, practitioners, merchants, and gentry. Each group had different values and goals associated with geographical knowledge and therefore different educational venues and different topics to be investigated. This paper…

  6. A Step towards Clerical Preferment: Secondary School Teachers' Careers in Early Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindmark, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in early modern Sweden. The study is restricted to the eighty-nine teachers serving at Pitea Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from 1650 to 1849. The investigation pays considerable attention to the…

  7. Elementary Education and the Practices of Literacy in Catholic Girls' Schools in Early Modern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutz, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Girls' schools in the early modern era were largely run by nuns and can therefore be distinguished as Catholic institutions of learning. These schools flourished in the Catholic parts of Europe since the turn of the seventeenth century. Despite their focus on religious education, elementary skills such as reading, writing and sometimes arithmetic…

  8. Teaching the Past in the Early Modern Era: Two Different Ways to Make Use of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruter, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Were teachers, of the early modern era not longing for the present? Most colleges of that time did not offer a history course. Still, they did teach a lot about the past since the teaching consisted in the reading of the works of ancient writers. This is because ancient science and literature were considered much more advanced than the science and…

  9. FUNDING EMPIRE: RISK, DIVERSIFICATION AND THE UNDERWRITING OF EARLY MODERN SOVEREIGN LOANS*

    E-print Network

    . International financiers unlocked the excess returns in sovereign debt markets by parceling out the risk of sovereign defaults on the prominent international bankers who risked their wealth (and sometimes their livesFUNDING EMPIRE: RISK, DIVERSIFICATION AND THE UNDERWRITING OF EARLY MODERN SOVEREIGN LOANS

  10. A review of "Locke, Language and Early-Modern Philosophy" by Hannah Dawson 

    E-print Network

    Fester, Karin Susan

    2010-01-01

    during Locke?s time. 66 seventeenth-century news Dawson begins her book by stating: ?Language was a problem for early-modern philosophers? (1). For Locke, as well as most phi- losophers, language obstructed philosophy?they worried about the misuse...

  11. Between Charity and Education: Orphans and Orphanages in Early Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    In early modern times orphans have been children who could not expect sufficient support from their family because of lack of at least one parent, in most cases the father. This article will clarify of whom we are talking if we talk about orphans and what have been the conditions of living in a society which was organised by a high variety of…

  12. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21797075

  13. Teaching Petrarchan and Anti-Petrarchan Discourses in Early Modern English Lyrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribes, Purificación

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to help students realize that Petrarchism has been an influential source of inspiration for Early Modern English lyrics. Its topics and conventions have lent themselves to a wide variety of appropriations which the present selection of texts for analysis tries to illustrate. A few telling examples from Spenser,…

  14. A review of "Law and Representation in Early Modern Drama" by Subha Mukherji 

    E-print Network

    Bunker, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    of early modern favoritism beginning with Wolsey and Cromwell,? he admits, ?[t]his is not the book I have written? [20]), each succeeding chapter considers the subject from a specific angle (e.g., the as- sumed erotic relationship between monarch...

  15. The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in Early Modern English Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Christina J.

    2010-01-01

    The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…

  16. A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maffioli, Cesare S.

    2013-01-01

    Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…

  17. Early Modern ET, Reflexive Telescopics, and Their Relevance Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Dennis

    The period from the discovery of Tycho's New Star in 1572 to Galileo's "geometrization of astronomical space" in 1610 (and the years following) saw the disintegration of the boundary between the sublunary and superlunary spheres—between the "lower storey" and "upper storey" of the Aristotelian Universe. This establishment of a strong physical affinity between the universe "up there" and the earthly realm "down here" was also complemented by the rise of Copernicanism: for once the Earth was seen as a planet, the other planets could readily be imagined as other Earths. This analogy suggested not only physical but also biological affinities and supported the plausibility of humans' capacity to travel to the Moon and beyond. Robert Burton—given the demise of Aristotle's physics—declared in 1621 that "If the heavens be penetrable … it were not amiss in this aerial progress to make wings and fly up." John Wilkins and Francis Godwin in the 1630s actively imagined creatures in the Moon and human journeys thither. The epic poet John Milton in 1667 hinted that "every star [is] perhaps a world / Of destined habitation." Moreover, space travel was no one-way street: Thomas Traherne in the 1670s imagined a dweller among the stars visiting Earth and remarking on what must be the condition of its inhabitants. In these and other ways, seventeenth-century writers offered serious and impressive speculation about extraterrestrial life and its possible perceptions of Earth. Such speculations remain pertinent to astrobiological theory today. What Hans Blumenberg in the 1970s called "reflexive telescopics"—the examination of Earth from an imagined extraterrestrial viewpoint—is an important counterpart to the search for life "out there." It serves as a reminder of the obvious but profound premise that Earth is part of the cosmos. At a popular level we often continue to speak of "outer space" as if the old "two-storey" picture of the universe still had some residual legitimacy. However, if Galileo, Wilkins, and other devotees of the New Astronomy were right about Earth's being a full participant in "the dance of the stars," then "outer" is a merely relative and parochial term, not a scientific or qualitative one. And it is no trivial claim to assert that the search for intelligent life in the universe has already identified its first specimens.

  18. Population Structure and Modern Human Origins Alan R. Rogers

    E-print Network

    Rogers, Alan R.

    Population Structure and Modern Human Origins Alan R. Rogers 1997 Abstract This paper reviews population growth rather than selection, then the confidence regions reject the multiregional hypothesis hypothesis. Keywords coalescent, mitochondrial DNA, modern human origins, mismatch distribution, population

  19. ‘A Wonderfull Monster Borne in Germany’: Hairy Girls in Medieval and Early Modern German Book, Court and Performance Culture*

    PubMed Central

    Katritzky, MA

    2014-01-01

    Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. Modern investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most early modern European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, modern historians routinely link early modern reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising early modern awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives. One concerns an Italian girl taken to Prague in 1355 by the Holy Roman Empress, Anna von Schweidnitz. Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the ‘Wild Man’ of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the 1580s. The third and fourth cases consider the medieval bearded Sankt Kümmernis (also known as St Wilgefortis or St Uncumber), and the seventeenth-century Bavarian fairground performer Barbara Urslerin. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u.a. genetische Veränderungen und Vererbung, verschiedene Krebserkrankungen und hormonelle Störungen gehören. Die moderne Hirsutismus-Forschung ist im 19. Jh. von deutschen Forschern initiiert worden. Die meisten europäischen frühneuzeitlichen Erscheinungen von Hypertrichose (dem genetisch bedingten Haarwuchs am gesamten Körper und im Gesicht) gehen auf deutschsprachige Eltern oder Förderer zurück und sind in Deutschland in den Druck gelangt. Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des Wilden Mannes zieht die aktuelle geschichtswissenschaftliche Forschung in der Regel Verbindungslinien zwischen der frühneuzeitlichen Wahrnehmung von Hypertrichose-Fällen und Fragen der Ethnizität, ohne jedoch zu beachten, dass in der Frühen Neuzeit die Verbindung zwischen temporärem Hirsutismus und der krankhaften Verknüpfung von Unterernährung und Anorexie bekannt war. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden vier Fälle von an Hirsutismus erkrankten Frauen neu analysiert, unter Einbezug dieser medizinischen Perspektive und unter Beachtung von Texten und Abbildungen, die meine jüngsten Forschungen in der Herzog August Bibliothek und an deutschen Archiven ans Licht gefördert haben. Die hier betrachteten Fälle betreffen ein italienisches Mädchen, das 1355 von Anna von Schweidnitz, Kaiserin des Hl. Römischen Reichs, nach Prag gebracht wurde; Madeleine und Antonietta Gonzalez, die Töchter des ‘Wilden Manns’ von Teneriffa, die in den 1580er Jahren an deutschen Höfen bezeugt sind; die bärtige Sankt Kümmernis (Wilgefortis), und die bayerische Jahrmarktkünstlerin Barbara Urslerin. PMID:25598545

  20. [The morphology of Silesian religiousness in early modern history: Socinianism and anabaptism].

    PubMed

    Wollgast, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    In the 16th and 17th century religion and religiousness had been more important than today. This also applies to Silesia which ahd a particular position in Germany of the Early Modern History and kept close connections wtih Poland. Among the religious streams - Catholicism, Lutheranism, Calvinism - there were also potent religious substreams. Some thinkers (J. Böhme, H. Th. von Tschesch, A. von Franckenberg, D. Czepko a.o.) were based on Mysticism. This article deals with Socianism and Anabaptism. Principally the Socinianism had come from Poland to Silesia. Soon Silesians like A. Witrelin and G. Schomann - originally Calvinists - represented it. Centres of German Socianians were situated in Small Poland near the Silesian border: Schmiegel (near Lissa resp. Fraustadt, Bobelwitz (near Meseritz) and Kosten (Posener Country). The Thirty Years War and the Polish-Swedish War supported the reciprocal emigration of Polish and Silesian Protestants and Socinians. And the tolerance, too! Since 1655-1660 the emigration of Polish Socinians has extended - also to Silesia. Furthermore some basic principles of the Unitarism (Socinianism) and concepts of the Anabaptists in Silesia are described, the latter especially in their connection to the Socinians. Since 1526/27 Anabaptists - led by B. Hubmaier, O. Glaidt, S. Froschauer, A. Fischer, G. Ascherham a.o. - have settled in Breslau and in the areas around Glogau and Liegnitz. Approximately since 1538 no Anabaptists have been in Silesia anymore, they have affiliated to the Antitrinitarism in Poland since 1562. From the second half of the 16th to the first half of the 17th century many German Socinians went to Poland and operated there (e.g. V. Schmalz, J. Völkel, M. Ruar). Among the theorists, who worked in Silesia resp. who came from there, are counted J. Felbinger, M Scheffer (Schäfer), Th. Pisecki, A. Dudith, G. and D. Vechner, A. Wissowatius, Pater Matthias, S. Pistorius, G. Manlius, J. Licinius, M. Seidel, J. Pastorius von Hirtenberg and others. The connection between the Socinians and the Bohemian Brothers (J. A. Comenius) is mentioned, as a Cryptosocinianism at the "Akademisches Gymnasium" in Beuthen/Oder. In 1663 the Socinians held a synod in Kreuzberg. PMID:15648113

  1. Origin and differentiation of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Excoffier, L; Langaney, A

    1989-01-01

    A recent study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism has generated much debate about modern human origins by proposing the existence of an "African Eve" living 200,000 years ago somewhere in Africa. In an attempt to synthesize information concerning human mtDNA genetic polymorphism, all available data on mtDNA RFLP have been gathered. A phylogeny of the mtDNA types found in 10 populations reveals that all types could have issued from a single common ancestral type. The distribution of shared types between continental groups indicates that caucasoid populations could be the closest to an ancestral population from which all other continental groups would have diverged. A partial phylogeny of the types found in five other populations also demonstrates that the myth of an African Eden was based on an incorrect "genealogical tree" of mtDNA types. Two measures of molecular diversity have been computed on all samples on the basis of mtDNA type frequencies, on one hand, and on the basis of the number of polymorphic sites in the samples, on the other. A large discrepancy is found between the two measures except in African populations; this suggests the existence of some differential selective mechanisms. The lapse of time necessary for creating the observed molecular diversity from an ancestral monomorphic population has been calculated and is found generally greater in Oriental and caucasoid populations. Implications concerning human mtDNA evolution are discussed. PMID:2562823

  2. A review of "The Duel in Early Modern England: Civility, Politeness and Honour." by Markku Peltonen 

    E-print Network

    Brett F. Parker

    2005-01-01

    -CENTURY NEWS available in such a handy format. Markku Peltonen. The Duel in Early Modern England: Civility, Politeness and Honour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ix + 355 pp. $60.00. Review by BRETT F. PARKER, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA... of civility and increasingly served to legitimate native political and social values. By tracing the arguments underlying the duel, Peltonen demonstrates the considerable flexibility of the ideology of civility and its attendant notion of honor, which...

  3. A review of "Renaissance Hybrids: Culture and Genre in Early Modern England" by Gary A. Schmidt 

    E-print Network

    Swann, Adam

    2014-01-01

    . Renaissance Hybrids: Culture and Genre in Early Modern England. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2013. vii + 246 pp. + 3 illus. $109.95. Review by adam swann, university of glasgow. The connotations of the term “hybrid” have shifted over... of Adam and Eve produces the coming and sacrifice of Christ” (Forman 7). It is regrettable that Schmidt makes no mention of Forman’s work, as it would have provided a fruitful opportunity to develop contemporary readings of Jacobean tragicomedy...

  4. A review of "Literature, Nationalism, and Memory in Early Modern England and Wales." by Philip Schwyzer 

    E-print Network

    Thomas P. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    of Milton?s construction of the elusive causality of evil. Philip Schwyzer. Literature, Nationalism, and Memory in Early Modern England and Wales. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. xi + 194 pp. $75.00. Review by THOMAS P. ANDERSON.... John Bunyan and the Language of Conviction. Studies in Renaissance Literature, Volume 15. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2004. xiii + 183 pp. $75.00. Review by CHRISTOPHER E. GARRETT, TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY. ...

  5. A review of "Reading History in Early Modern England." by D. R. Woolf 

    E-print Network

    Michael Mendle

    2004-01-01

    History,? advances booksellers? shops as ?social spaces? (263) akin to the coffee houses much beloved by Habermasians; the observation may be yet another index of Habermas?s back weighted view of the English seventeenth century, since the booksellers (and... their catalogues) were notable well before the coffee houses. Much is also done with subscription lists. One of two appendices, dealing with auction catalogues, adds to the picture. Reading History in Early Modern England, thus, is a smorgasbord of research...

  6. A review of "Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature" by Bernadette Andrea 

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jyotsna G.

    2010-01-01

    in sustaining considerable unity among the various contributors so that the volume is coherent. But ?cultural imagination? is obviously not well or fully contained in such loose baggage as these tropologies might wish to hold or embrace. Bernadette Andrea... growing body of scholarship on Europe?s encounter with Muslim cultures in the early modern period. Andrea?s exploration of the ?significance of women?s agency in the inaugural Anglo-Ottoman encounter? from the sixteenth century to the eighteenth...

  7. Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the Early Modern English Household

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this ‘treasury for health.’ Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax ‘family books,’ this essay traces on the process through which early modern recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of early modern recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in early modern households. PMID:23926360

  8. Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the Early Modern English Household.

    PubMed

    Leong, Elaine

    2013-05-01

    When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this 'treasury for health.' Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax 'family books,' this essay traces on the process through which early modern recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of early modern recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in early modern households. PMID:23926360

  9. The 'spiteful' origins of human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Gurven, Michael; Tracer, David

    2011-07-22

    We analyse generosity, second-party ('spiteful') punishment (2PP), and third-party ('altruistic') punishment (3PP) in a cross-cultural experimental economics project. We show that smaller societies are less generous in the Dictator Game but no less prone to 2PP in the Ultimatum Game. We might assume people everywhere would be more willing to punish someone who hurt them directly (2PP) than someone who hurt an anonymous third person (3PP). While this is true of small societies, people in large societies are actually more likely to engage in 3PP than 2PP. Strong reciprocity, including generous offers and 3PP, exists mostly in large, complex societies that face numerous challenging collective action problems. We argue that 'spiteful' 2PP, motivated by the basic emotion of anger, is more universal than 3PP and sufficient to explain the origins of human cooperation. PMID:21159680

  10. Primate origins, human origins, and the end of higher taxa.

    PubMed

    Cartmill, Matt

    2012-11-01

    When people learn that I study human evolution and we start talking about it, they sometimes ask me, "How long ago did the first humans live?" My answer is usually another question: "What do you mean by 'humans'?" That response seems as baffling and wrong-headed to them as their question seems to me, and it usually takes us a while to straighten things out. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280918

  11. BEAUTY in Middle English and Early Modern English: a Historical Study of a Lexical-Semantic Field 

    E-print Network

    Howlett, Brittany

    2012-11-28

    This dissertation describes and presents in detail the developments and changes in the lexical-semantic field of BEAUTY that occurred in the Middle English and Early Modern English periods. It uses data from the Penn-Helsinki ...

  12. A review of "Monstrous Bodies: Political Monstrosities in Early Modern Europe" by Laura Lunger Knoppers and Joan B. Landes, eds. 

    E-print Network

    Laura Feitzinger Brown

    2004-01-01

    dazzlingly elaborate survey of the early modern ?hard-core? canon, ranging from Pietro Aretino and the Florentine courtesan Tullia d?Aragona to the English libertine poet John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester and genteel porn consumer, Samuel Pepys. Erotic...

  13. A review of "Women, Madness and Sin in Early Modern England: The Autobiographical Writings of Dionys Fitzherbert" by Katherine Hodgkin 

    E-print Network

    Wells, Marion A.

    2011-01-01

    press. Katherine Hodgkin. Women, Madness and Sin in Early Modern England: ?e Autobiographical Writings of Dionys Fitzherbert. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2010. x + 290 pp. $114.95. Review by ?????? ?. ?????, ?????????? ????? ?. Katharine Hodgkin?s...

  14. A review of "Reading, Society and Politics in Early Modern England." by Kevin Sharpe and S. N. Zwicker eds. 

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Sharpe and Steven N. Zwicker, eds. Reading, Society and Politics in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ix + 363 pp. $70.00. Review by JEFFREY JOHNSON, NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY. This collection of essays takes...

  15. A review of "Sharpening Her Pen: Strategies of Rhetorical Violence by Early Modern English Women Writers." by Sidney L. Sondergard 

    E-print Network

    Jane Lytton Gooch

    2003-01-01

    by Early Modern English Women Writers. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 2002. 188 pp. $38.50. Review by JANE LYTTON GOOCH, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. In his Introduction, Sidney Sondergard makes...

  16. A review of "Common Prayer: The Language of Public Devotion in Early Modern England." by Ramie Targoff 

    E-print Network

    Joanne Van Der Woude

    2002-01-01

    - ject with extraordinary insight and affection. Ramie Targoff. Common Prayer: The Language of Public Devotion in Early Modern England. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, REVIEWS 209 2001. xiii + 162 pp. $40.00. Review by JOANNE VAN DER...

  17. A review of "Private and Domestic Devotion in Early Modern Britain" edited by Jessica Martin and Alec Ryrie 

    E-print Network

    Landrum, Robert

    2014-01-01

    apparent. Jessica Martin and Alec Ryrie, eds. Private and Domestic Devotion in Early Modern Britain, Farnham (Surrey): Ashgate, 2012. xii + 285 pp. $128.20. Review by robert landrum, university of south carolina beaufort. Private and Domestic Devotion..., two of the more than 100 monographs in the celebrated St Andrews Studies in Reformation History series. “This is a book” editors Jessica Martin and Alec Ryrie tell us “about how people in early modern England and Scotland prayed when they weren...

  18. A Review of "Quoting Death in Early Modern England: The Poetics of Epitaphs Beyond the Tomb" by Scott L. Newstok 

    E-print Network

    Bentley, Greg

    2010-01-01

    look at the enchanted artifacts that remain. Scott L. Newstok. Quoting Death in Early Modern England: The Poetics of Epitaphs Beyond the Tomb. New York: Palgrave, 2009. Xiv + 228 pp. + 13 illus. $80.00. Review by greg bentley, mississippi state... university. Individual and cultural responses to death were varied and numer- ous in early modern England, and the commentaries on death since then have been equally varied and numerous. So much so that the 174 seventeenth-century news topic itself seems...

  19. A review of "Jews in the Early Modern English Imagination: A Scattered Nation" by Eva Johanna Holmberg 

    E-print Network

    Engel, William E.

    2013-01-01

    .pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=windows-1252 28 seventeenth-century news Eva Johanna Holmberg. Jews in the Early Modern English Imagination: A Scattered Nation. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011. vi + 180 pp. $114.95/?52.00. Review... by ??????? ?. ?????, ???????: ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ?????. Eva Johanna Holmberg?s methodical treatment of what seems to have been thought about contemporary Jews in early modern England is a noteworthy addition to Ashgate?s series on ?Transculuralisms, 1400-1700.? ?e underlying assumption...

  20. A Review of "Writing the Forest in Early Modern England: A Sylvan Pastoral Nation" by Jeffrey Theis 

    E-print Network

    Sherman, Donovan

    2010-01-01

    sense of having absorbed something significant. Ernest Gilman. Plague Writing in Early Modern England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. xi + 256 pp. index. bibl. $35.00. Review by john gibbs. Bubonic plague?s endemicity in early modern... England placed London at perpetual risk of epidemic. In the seventeenth century, the plague appeared annually but with minimal impact in the City and its liberties. However, in 1603, 1625 and 1665, London?s Weekly Bill of Mortality did record...

  1. Genetic and Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Modern Humans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, C. B.; Andrews, P.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how genetic data on present human population relationships and data from the Pleistocene fossil hominid record are being used to compare two contrasting models for the origin of modern humans. (TW)

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia and mouse brain the experimental-wise false discovery rate. A human acute leukemia dataset corrected from 38 leukemia patients

  3. ‘To[o] much eating stifles the child’: fat bodies and reproduction in early modern England?*

    PubMed Central

    Toulalan, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article examines associations between fat bodies and reproductive dysfunction that were prevalent in medical, midwifery and other literature in early modern England. In a period when fertility and successful reproduction were regarded as hugely important for social, economic and political stability such associations further contributed to negative attitudes towards fat bodies that were fuelled by connection with the vices of sloth and gluttony. Fat bodies were categorized as inherently, constitutionally, less sexual and reproductively successful. Consequently they were perceived as unhealthy and unfit for their primary purpose once they had reached sexual maturity: marriage and the production of children. PMID:25960608

  4. A Review of "Desire and Dramatic Form in Early Modern England" by Judith Haber 

    E-print Network

    Oh, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info Elisa Oh.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 12118 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Elisa Oh.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 34 seventeenth-century news...-addled time, such untimely dis-orientations couldn?t be timelier? (194). Judith Haber. Desire and Dramatic Form in Early Modern England. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. xi + 212 pp. $90.00. Review by elisa oh, howard university...

  5. A Review of "Spectacle. Studies in Early Modern France" edited by Jeff Persels 

    E-print Network

    Duggan, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    stream_source_info Anne E Duggan.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9686 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Anne E Duggan.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 188 seventeenth... Modern France. 13. Charlottesville: Rookwood Press, 2010. xiv + 236 pp. $49.95. Review by anne e. duggan, wayne state university. Under the general editorship of Anne Birberick and Russell Ganim, the series Studies in Early Modern France has provided a...

  6. A review of "The Challenges of Orpheus: Lyric Poetry and Early Modern England" by Heather Dubrow 

    E-print Network

    Hedley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    stream_source_info Jane Hedley.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9778 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Jane Hedley.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 36 seventeenth-century news... and Early Modern England. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. x + 293 pp. $49.95. Review by jane hedley, bryn mawr college. Among scholars of the lyric, and especially of Renaissance lyric poetry, Heather Dubrow is surely...

  7. All that glitters: fool's gold in the early-modern era.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-12-01

    Natural philosophers of the early-modern period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the early Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones. PMID:19019438

  8. (See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.

    PubMed

    Kraye, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions. PMID:22702173

  9. A Review of "Poetry and Parental Bereavement in Early Modern Lutheran Germany" by Anna Linton 

    E-print Network

    Boettcher, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    stream_source_info Susan Boettcher.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9834 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Susan Boettcher.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 204 seventeenth...-century news Anna Linton. Poetry and Parental Bereavement in Early Modern Lutheran Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. xvi + 319 pp. $110.00. Review by susan r. boettcher, university of texas at austin. Anna Linton?s book, the revision of her...

  10. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    PubMed

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition. PMID:9333999

  11. Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

  12. ‘Nature Concocts & Expels’: The Agents and Processes of Recovery from Disease in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The ‘golden saying’ in early modern medicine was ‘Nature is the healer of disease’. This article uncovers the meaning and significance of this forgotten axiom by investigating perceptions of the agents and physiological processes of recovery from illness in England, c.1580–1720. Drawing on sources such as medical texts and diaries, it shows that doctors and laypeople attributed recovery to three agents—God, Nature and the practitioner. While scholars are familiar with the roles of providence and medicine, the vital agency of Nature has been overlooked. In theory, the agents operated in a hierarchy: Nature was ‘God's instrument’, and the physician, ‘Nature's servant’; but in practice the power balance was more ambivalent. Nature was depicted both as a housewife who cooked and cleaned the humours, and as a warrior who defeated the disease. Through exploring these complex dynamics, the article sheds fresh light on concepts of gender, disease and bodies. PMID:26217069

  13. The English Galileo: Thomas Harriot and the Force of Shared Knowledge in Early Modern Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemmel, Matthias

    2006-12-01

    I discuss the work of the English mathematician and philosopher Thomas Harriot (1560 1621), analyzing especially his work on projectile motion, and comparing it to that of his contemporary Galileo Galilei (1564 1642). I argue that although their work on projectile motion was carried out independently and displays both similarities and differences, it shows that they focused on common challenging objects of study that embodied what I term “points of contact” between preclassical and classical mechanics. I also argue that their shared knowledge defined the space of possible solutions to the problem of projectile motion, although the inferential pathways they followed through their shared knowledge proceeded in exactly opposite directions. I conclude that their work suggests that the lines of development in early modern mechanics converged in such a way that the long-term development of science was largely unaffected by the peculiarities in an individual scientist’s work.

  14. Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-ming

    2011-06-01

    Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism. PMID:21874692

  15. The First Humans -Origin and Early Evolution

    E-print Network

    Lieberman, Daniel E.

    metabolism. These capabilities, which have been reviewed in depth by Carrier (1984) and Bramble and Lieberman of a kilometer or two, most fit humans can outrun any dog over longer distances. As detailed by Bramble

  16. A review of "The Ends of Life: Roads to Fulfilment in Early Modern England" by Keith Thomas 

    E-print Network

    Patterson, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    science and art. This book highlights the important role of early modern thought in how we understand and express our psychic selves today. In a nearly transparent transla- tion by Jane Marie Todd... Keith Thomas. The Ends of Life: Roads to Fulfilment... in Early Modern England. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xvi + 393 pp. + 14 illus. $60.00. Review by catherine patterson, university of houston In this wide-ranging and engaging book, Keith Thomas brings to bear his deep knowledge...

  17. A review of "State Formation in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1700." by Michael J. Braddick 

    E-print Network

    Molly Mcclain

    2002-01-01

    - ganda than as anything else. Michael J. Braddick. State Formation in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. x + 447 pp. $28.00. Review by MOLLY MCCLAIN, UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO. What connects the study... of witchcraft trials to a book on the English navy? What links a history of the English civil wars with a study of the Society for the Preservation of Christian Knowl- edge (SPCK)? The answer, according to Michael Braddick, is the early modern state. Braddick...

  18. A review of "Inventing Polemic: Religion, Print, and Literary Culture in Early Modern England." by Jesse M. Lander 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Ira

    2007-01-01

    . Lander. Inventing Polemic: Religion, Print, and Literary Culture in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. x + 324 pp. + 20 illus. $85.00. Review by IRA CLARK, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. Jesse M. Lander begins Inventing... introduced a new polemical ele- ment into the literary culture of early modern England, and the invention of polemic in turn produced a reaction in the form of polite learning? (230-31), he summarizes. In outline, polemic was born with ?Foxe?s Books of Mar...

  19. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Brad

    # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delin- eated the two major fiber connections of the human Md in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy

  20. Chimpanzee locomotor energetics and the origin of human bipedalism

    E-print Network

    Pontzer, Herman

    Chimpanzee locomotor energetics and the origin of human bipedalism Michael D. Sockol*, David A- mechanics for adult chimpanzees and humans to investigate the long-standing hypothesis that bipedalism Phys Anthropol 52:103­106]. Consistent with previous work on juvenile chimpanzees [Taylor CR, Rowntree

  1. Human Communication Research ISSN 0360-3989 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Leonardi, Paul

    Human Communication Research ISSN 0360-3989 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Why Do People Reject New Technologies to communicate Corresponding author: Paul M. Leonardi; e-mail: Leonardi@northwestern.edu Human Communication that information technologies are often conceived of with specific organizational change agendas in mind (De

  2. Cells of origin in human gastric neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Chen, C K; Parsa, I

    1983-12-01

    The epithelium of the surface mucosa of the human stomach is demonstrated to share an antigen (HP-DU-1) with human pancreatic ductal cell surface epithelium detectable by a murine monoclonal IgG. This marker was found to be characteristic of the epithelium of gastric surface mucosa and serves to distinguish these cells from the epithelium of gastric glands, the generative cell zone, the parietal and mucous neck cells. The absence of HP-DU-1 was confirmed in the epithelium of the small and large intestines, gall bladder, tracheobronchial trees, urinary bladder, intrahepatic bile ducts, prostatic and salivary glands. This surface marker was used to examine the participation of the surface mucosal cell in hyperplastic, pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the human gastric mucosa. Gastric hyperplastic polyps and polypoid hypertrophic gastritis were mainly composed of epithelium bearing HP-DU-1 antigens. In contrast epithelial cells of atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach lacked this antigen. PMID:6360341

  3. On the origin of the human treponematoses

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, C. J.

    1963-01-01

    A close relationship between the four human treponematoses is suggested by their clinical and epidemiological characteristics and by such limited knowledge of the treponemes as there is at present. No treponeme of this group (except for that of the rabbit) is known other than in man, but the human treponemes probably arose long ago from an animal infection. The long period of infectiousness of pinta suggests that it may have been the earliest human treponematosis. It may have been spread throughout the world by about 15 000 B.C., being subsequently isolated in the Americas when the Bering Strait was flooded. About 10 000 B.C. in the Afro-Asian land mass environmental conditions might have favoured treponeme mutants leading to yaws; from these, about 7000 B.C., endemic syphilis perhaps developed, to give rise to venereal syphilis about 3000 B.C. in south-west Asia as big cities developed there. Towards the end of the fifteenth century A.D. a further mutation may have resulted in a more severe venereal syphilis in Europe which, with European exploration and geographical expansion, was subsequently carried throughout the then treponemally uncommitted world. These suggestions find some tentative support in climatic changes which might have influenced the selection of those treponemes which still survive in humid or arid climates. Venereal transmission would presumably remove the treponeme from the direct influence of climate. The author makes a plea for further investigation of many aspects of this subject while this is still possible. PMID:14043755

  4. The human mind: origin in geometry.

    PubMed

    Abler, William L

    2010-01-01

    Within 53 years after the public acceptance of Mendel's laws (in 1900), the genetic material was identified and described (by Watson and Crick). Today, 53 years after the modern era began in the scientific study of language (with Chomsky's Syntactic structures), there is no agreement as to whether universal grammar exists, or whether language as such exists at all, that is, there is no agreement as to which square is square-one. Under the circumstances, a new approach is justified. It is the goal of this paper to place the scientific study of mind, language and brain onto a theoretical basis, beginning with naturally-occurring human language. The human mind has two major components, one with its antecedents in biology and behaviour the other with its antecedents in geometry. It is the geometric component, consisting of language, tool-use, the mathematical sense, and the sense of truth and falsity, that distinguishes and defines the human being. Thus the constructions of language conform to the commutative, associative and distributive laws, and have their ultimate source in geometry. Equations have a symmetrical deep-structure based on the fact that one side is "equal" to the other: The "equals" symbol represents the axis of symmetry, and functions as a kind of main verb. The deep structure of the ordinary sentence is derived by moving the attachment for the "equals" to one of the branches, generating the asymmetrical Subject-Verb-Object relationship. Tool-use, with its Subject (the tool), Verb (movement of the tool), and Object (the workpiece), and manipulation of mental images, is an extension of the sentence. The sense of truth and falsity shares a common source with the right and wrong answers of arithmetic. PMID:21180345

  5. A review of "Staging Women and the Soul-Body Dynamic in Early Modern England" by Sarah E. Johnson 

    E-print Network

    Malay, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    . Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. xi + 185 pp. $60.00. Review by Jessica L. Malay, University of Huddersfield. Johnson opens her discussion of the soul-body dynamic in early modern England with a brief discussion of John Donne’s Why hath the common opinion...

  6. A review of "Argument and Authority in Early Modern England: The Presupposition of Oaths and Offices" by Conal Condren 

    E-print Network

    Josephson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    : Cambridge University Press, 2006. x + 399 pp. $95.00. Review by PETER JOSEPHSON, SAINT ANSELM COLLEGE. If Conal Condren?s claim in Argument and Authority in Early Modern En- gland is right, then almost everything political theorists think they know about...

  7. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part I--Preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2010-11-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21465995

  8. A review of "Old Worlds: Egypt, Southwest Asia, India, and Russia in Early Modern English Writing." by John Michael Archer 

    E-print Network

    Galina Yermolenko

    2002-01-01

    , and racial stereotypes, but does not show definitively that the play confirms the model of degeneration. The author argues that Egypt was reconstructed in early modern En- glish travel and geographical accounts as a land of monuments and a ?place where...

  9. Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos. PMID:24341260

  10. Origin of the Human Adaptive Pattern 24-450 Chapter 24. ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN ADAPTIVE

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    ) pattern of human behavior that is rather distinctively different from that of apes. Even the simplest using cultural adaptations (technology). The genetic resemblance between humans and the great apes adap- tations--evolved. A. Humans Closely Resemble Great Apes Using modern biochemical techniques

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A History of Human Impact on Moroccan Mountain

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE A History of Human Impact on Moroccan Mountain Landscapes Rachid Cheddadi1 & Majda and the Middle Atlas mountains, to show spatial and temporal variation in the onset and intensity of exploitation. In the Rif Mountains, increased influx of carbonates (Ca) in the sedimentary records indicates enhanced soil

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Chlorine isotopic composition of perchlorate in human urine

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Chlorine isotopic composition of perchlorate in human urine as a means chlorine isotopes of perchlorate extracted from composite urine samples from two distinct populations: one for the two sample populations, and that chlorine isotope ratios provide a robust tool for elucidating

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Humans, bees, and pollination services in the city

    E-print Network

    Minor, Emily

    ORIGINAL PAPER Humans, bees, and pollination services in the city: the case of Chicago, IL (USA or provisioning of ecosystem services in urban areas. Bee communities and the pollination services they provide (Echinacea purpurea) to estimate potential pollination services in each neighborhood. We documented 37 bee

  14. Original Research In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human

    E-print Network

    Gorassini, Monica

    Original Research In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Cervical Spinal Cord at 3 Tesla. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2002;16:21­27. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. HIGH-RESOLUTION MAGNETIC RESONANCE imaging Beaulieu, PhD1* Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining high- quality magnetic resonance (MR

  15. Origins of XMRV deciphered, undermining claims for role in humans

    Cancer.gov

    Delineation of the origin of the retrovirus known as XMRV from the genomes of laboratory mice indicates that the virus is unlikely to be responsible for either prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome in humans, as has been widely published. The virus arose because of genetic recombination of two mouse viruses.

  16. [Criminal responsibility and confinement of the insane from antiquity to early modern Japan].

    PubMed

    Hiruta, Genshiro

    2003-01-01

    ANTIQUITY: The third Japanese legal code, Youro Ritsuryo, was compiled in 718. The code classified the insane people as severely handicapped, exempted them from taxes and reduced their punishments when they committed a crime. MEDIEVAL: We cannot find any description on criminal responsibility of the insane in the legal documents of this age. EARLY MODERN: In 1742, the Tokugawa government enacted a criminal code named Osadamegaki-hyakkajyo, which contained a clause on the criminal responsibility of the people suffering from insanity or alcoholism. In principle, even if the criminal who committed homicide had been insane, he or she was sentenced to death. However, when the criminal had been obviously insane and the master or relatives of the victim appealed for mercy the judge could spare his/her life. The case of killing under the influence of simple alcohol intoxication was considered to be fully responsible. However, the case of pathological intoxication was treated in the same way as the case of insanity. There was a strict rule for confinement of the insane. When people thought that confinement was inevitable, a petition for confinement was submitted to the court under the joint signature of the family, the members of goningumi (a mutual responsibility unit), and the head of the town or village. In big cities like Edo (now Tokyo), a medical certificate of a doctor was attached to the petition. After receiving the petition, the court dispatched officials to inspect the case. When the court could confirm the necessity of confinement, they gave the permission and sealed the lock of a private cell where the insane was confined. People had to appeal to the court again when they wanted to free the insane from the cell. PMID:12708014

  17. 'Very sore nights and days': the child's experience of illness in early modern England, c.1580-1720.

    PubMed

    Newton, Hannah

    2011-04-01

    Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children's experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfillment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children's emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors' casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308

  18. ‘Very Sore Nights and Days’: The Child’s Experience of Illness in Early Modern England, c.1580–1720

    PubMed Central

    NEWTON, HANNAH

    2011-01-01

    Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children’s experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfilment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children’s emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors’ casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308

  19. The origin of human multi-modal communication

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Stephen C.; Holler, Judith

    2014-01-01

    One reason for the apparent gulf between animal and human communication systems is that the focus has been on the presence or the absence of language as a complex expressive system built on speech. But language normally occurs embedded within an interactional exchange of multi-modal signals. If this larger perspective takes central focus, then it becomes apparent that human communication has a layered structure, where the layers may be plausibly assigned different phylogenetic and evolutionary origins—especially in the light of recent thoughts on the emergence of voluntary breathing and spoken language. This perspective helps us to appreciate the different roles that the different modalities play in human communication, as well as how they function as one integrated system despite their different roles and origins. It also offers possibilities for reconciling the ‘gesture-first hypothesis’ with that of gesture and speech having evolved together, hand in hand—or hand in mouth, rather—as one system. PMID:25092670

  20. A review of "The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture." by Brendan Dooley 

    E-print Network

    Laura Cruz

    2002-01-01

    generous supply of dates throughout the text would be helpful. Nonethe- less, this volume, as it stands, is one for which we can be grateful? utterly useful in terms of an historical study and splendid literary fare as well. Brendan Dooley. The Social... History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. viii + 213 pp. $42.95. Review by LAURA CRUZ, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY. Brendan Dooley ends The Social...

  1. A review of "'Noyses, sounds, and sweet aires': Music in Early Modern England" by Jessie Ann Owens, ed. 

    E-print Network

    Youens, Laura

    2008-01-01

    of this trope throughout the period in question. Jessie Ann Owens, compiler and editor. ?Noyses, sounds, and sweet aires?: Music in Early Modern England. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006. 222 pp. + 51 illus. $34.95. Review by LAURA YOUENS...? consists of ?the sounds heard in a particular location, considered as a whole.? As such, it incorporates not just performances of documented music, but also such other aural experiences as bells and street vendors? cries. The library?s exhibit boasted a...

  2. Men on the road: beggars and vagrants in early modern drama (William Shakespeare, John Fletcher, and Richard Brome) 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Mi-Su

    2004-09-30

    approach Harman?s text as non-fictional evidence.4 Frank Aydelotte presents Harman?s Caveat as the most relevant historical document. ?For a description of their [Elizabethan beggars and vagabonds] methods and tricks,? Aydelotte asserts, ?there... the undeserving beggars? wicked tricks and thereby to help his countrymen not to be deceived by the dissembling beggars. The value of Harman?s text as a repository of historical facts, however, has been challenged and discredited by several early modern...

  3. A review of "Performing Maternity in Early Modern England" edited by Kathryn M. Moncrief and Kathryn R. McPherson 

    E-print Network

    Bunker, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    that paternity is always unknowable to the man. Illusions of twinning and doubling in The Winter?s Tale inform Michelle Ephraim?s argument for superfeta- tion, an early modern medical term for women being simultaneously pregnant with children by two different.... Part I: The Performance of Pregnancy concentrates on the staged pregnant female body; prescriptive literature of the time that included methods to determine fertility and conception as well as conduct expectations speak to and confront the ?cultural...

  4. Exploring early modern chemistry: the first twenty-five years of the Society for the Study of Alchemy & Early Modern Chemistry 1935-1960.

    PubMed

    Brock, W H

    2011-11-01

    The article uses the recently deposited archives of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry to explore the ideas, motives and disagreements of its founders and officers between 1935 and 1960. The origin of the title Ambix for the society's journal is also explained. An appendix identifies the initial membership of the society. PMID:22397154

  5. Origin of the styloglossus muscle in the human fetus

    PubMed Central

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; Rodríguez-Vazquez, J F; de la Cuadra Blanco, C; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2006-01-01

    The origin of the styloglossus muscle was histologically studied bilaterally in nine human fetuses (18 sides). In all cases, the muscle originated in Reichert's cartilage, which gives rise to the temporal styloid process. We identified three types of variation: type A, an accessory muscle fascicle originating from the mandibular angle, found in 7 cases (12 sides); type B, where the styloglossus muscle was attached to the mandibular angle by fibrous tracts, found in three cases (4 sides); and type C, where an accessory muscle fascicle arose from the fibrous tract connecting Reichert's cartilage to the mandibular angle; found in one case. In all cases (2 sides), the styloglossus muscle was innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. Relationships between the styloglossus muscle and vasculonervous elements of the prestyloid and retrostyloid spaces were analysed. PMID:16637887

  6. A review of "Unruly Women: Performance, Penitence, and Punishment in Early Modern Spain" by Margaret E. Boyle 

    E-print Network

    Wright, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    stream_source_info Wright review, SCN 73 3&4.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 14658 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Wright review, SCN 73 3&4.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 135.... She thus states: “the early-modern Spanish subject was constructed through a variety of competing discourses, which both enforced and critiqued expected social behavior” (4). Part 1 is comprised entirely of the first chapter, “Gendering Re...

  7. A Review of "Scripture and Scholarship in Early Modern England" edited by Ariel Hessayon and Nicholas Keene 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    in which Dugdale lived and which he so carefully documented in his own right. Ariel Hessayon and Nicholas Keene, ed. Scripture and Scholarship in Early Modern England.Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006. xi + 255 pp. + 1 illus. $120.00. Review by stephen taylor..., at the time it was hailed as one of the triumphs of English scholarship. It would be difficult to make the same claim for any modern volume of academic essays, but there is no doubt that Scripture and Scholar- ship is an impressive, and impressively...

  8. A review of "Romance for Sale in Early Modern England: The Rise of Prose Fiction" by Steve Mentz 

    E-print Network

    Evans, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Still, I must emphasize that for what it is?and it is a lot?this is a superb study of Foxe?s famous and influential work. Steve Mentz. Romance for Sale in Early Modern England: The Rise of Prose Fiction. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006. x + 261 pp. + 1... illus. $89.95. Review by ROBERT C. EVANS, AUBURN UNIVERSITY MONTGOMERY. In this clearly written, substantive, and well-researched book, Steve Mentz makes a strong case for the importance of prose fiction in the literary and social culture of late...

  9. A review of "The Navy and Government in Early Modern France 1572-1661." by Alan James 

    E-print Network

    Edward M. Furgol

    2005-01-01

    the work is grounded in a solid understanding of the century, the people, and the system. His argument is clear, as is his strident rejection of other interpretations (notably those found in the works of John Lynn, such as Giant of the Grand Si... understanding of Louis XIV and his reign. Alan James. The Navy and Government in Early Modern France 1572-1661. Rochester: Boydell & Brewster, 2004. ix + 198 pp. $70.00. Review by EDWARD M. FURGOL, NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER. Building upon his doctoral...

  10. A review of "Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage" by John Considine 

    E-print Network

    Hill, Eugene D.

    2010-01-01

    stream_source_info Eugene D. Hill.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7009 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Eugene D. Hill.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 reviews 1 John... Considine. Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. xiv + 393 pp. $99.00. Review by eugene d. hill, mount holyoke college. John Considine?s fine book tells an upbeat story...

  11. A review of "Religion, Allegory, and Literacy in Early Modern England,1560-1640" by John S. Pedergast 

    E-print Network

    Breen, Dan

    2008-01-01

    how to read but what to read, and how to interpret what they read. Using r e v I e w s 209 this observation as a point of departure, the book proceeds through an expansive account of early modern reading practices in order to advance two major... one through five, Pendergast advances his chief claims and traces the development of different philosophical and pedagogical models of reading in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This is done against the back- ground of an examination...

  12. A review of "Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same-Sex Literary Erotics." by Harriette Andreadis 

    E-print Network

    Madhavi Menon

    2002-01-01

    -CENTURY NEWS Harriette Andreadis. Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same- Sex Literary Erotics, 1550-1714. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. xiii + 254 pp. + 9 illus. $17.00 Paper. Review by MADHAVI MENON, ITHACA COLLEGE. In a book... rape and female same-sex desire. Tracing its representational history in art and in court masques, Andreadis comments on Queen Anne (who played Calisto as a young princess of eleven) and on her court, with its (in)famous emphasis on strong literary...

  13. Functional interactions of DNA topoisomerases with a human replication origin

    PubMed Central

    Abdurashidova, Gulnara; Radulescu, Sorina; Sandoval, Oscar; Zahariev, Sotir; Danailov, Miltcho B; Demidovich, Alexander; Santamaria, Laura; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Riva, Silvano; Falaschi, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    The human DNA replication origin, located in the lamin B2 gene, interacts with the DNA topoisomerases I and II in a cell cycle-modulated manner. The topoisomerases interact in vivo and in vitro with precise bonds ahead of the start sites of bidirectional replication, within the pre-replicative complex region; topoisomerase I is bound in M, early G1 and G1/S border and topoisomerase II in M and the middle of G1. The Orc2 protein competes for the same sites of the origin bound by either topoisomerase in different moments of the cell cycle; furthermore, it interacts on the DNA with topoisomerase II during the assembly of the pre-replicative complex and with DNA-bound topoisomerase I at the G1/S border. Inhibition of topoisomerase I activity abolishes origin firing. Thus, the two topoisomerases are closely associated with the replicative complexes, and DNA topology plays an essential functional role in origin activation. PMID:17290216

  14. The motor origins of human and avian song structure

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam T.; Russo, Frank A.; Patel, Aniruddh D.

    2011-01-01

    Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:69–80]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples. PMID:21876156

  15. 'He plays on the pillory'. The use of musical instruments for punishment in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era.

    PubMed

    Herzfeld-Schild, Marie Louise

    2013-01-01

    Illustrations by the Dutch renaissance artists Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Jan Wierix both show a man imprisoned on a pillory, a former place of enforcement of judicial sentences, and playing a musical instrument. Taken as legal iconographic sources, these illustrations of the old saying 'He plays on the pillory' can be understood as references to a specific kind of punishment used in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era. Specifically, delinquents had to wear wooden or iron 'neck violins' or 'neck flutes' while being pilloried or chased through the streets in order to be humiliated in public. As well as this historical fact, there also exists an interpretation that takes the illustrations by Bruegel and Wierix literally. It suggests that these punishment practices originally date back to a more ancient use of real instruments in a penal system that was applied and understood as a 'healing punishment' (poena medicinalis) to banish the ill and re-establish the good in the delinquent, the community and the world as a whole due to musical sounds. By means of legal iconographical and historical methods, this article explores the different nuances of punishment that employed real or symbolic musical instruments. Thus, it examines a historical aspect of 'music in detention' where the (symbolic) sounds do not emanate from the punisher but from the punished themselves. PMID:24480889

  16. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M.; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500–1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400–1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change. PMID:24403343

  17. Human origins and evolution: Cold Spring Harbor, deja vu.

    PubMed

    White, T D

    2009-01-01

    The Cold Spring Harbor Symposia of the 1950s were key to integrating human evolutionary studies into biology. That integration provided a solid foundation for systematic and functional interpretations of an expanding base of fossil and molecular evidence during the latter half of the 20th century. Today, the paleontological record of human evolution amassed during the last 150 years illuminates the human clade on life's tree. However, the rise of Hennegian parsimony cladistics and punctuationalism during the end of the last century witnessed the partial abandonment of classificatory conventions cemented by Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and others at Cold Spring Harbor. This has led to an artificial, postmillennial amplification of apparent species diversity in the hominid clade. Work on a stratigraphically thick and temporally deep sedimentary sequence in the Middle Awash study area of Ethiopia's Afar Depression reveals an assembly order of hominid anatomies and behaviors that was impossible for Darwin to discern. Large parts of that record appear to reflect phyletic evolution, consistent with the lessons and expectations of Cold Spring Harbor in 1950. Molecular biology cannot reveal the assembly sequences or contexts of human origins and evolution without reference to adequate geological, geochronological, paleobiological, and archaeological records. Today's consilience of these disparate data sets would have impressed Charles Darwin. PMID:19776166

  18. Evolutionary Origins of Human Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Joel O.; Smith, Martin D.; Smith, Davey M.; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus–host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

  19. Reexamining human origins in light of Ardipithecus ramidus.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, C Owen

    2009-10-01

    Referential models based on extant African apes have dominated reconstructions of early human evolution since Darwin's time. These models visualize fundamental human behaviors as intensifications of behaviors observed in living chimpanzees and/or gorillas (for instance, upright feeding, male dominance displays, tool use, culture, hunting, and warfare). Ardipithecus essentially falsifies such models, because extant apes are highly derived relative to our last common ancestors. Moreover, uniquely derived hominid characters, especially those of locomotion and canine reduction, appear to have emerged shortly after the hominid/chimpanzee divergence. Hence, Ardipithecus provides a new window through which to view our clade's earliest evolution and its ecological context. Early hominids and extant apes are remarkably divergent in many cardinal characters. We can no longer rely on homologies with African apes for accounts of our origins and must turn instead to general evolutionary theory. A proposed adaptive suite for the emergence of Ardipithecus from the last common ancestor that we shared with chimpanzees accounts for these principal ape/human differences, as well as the marked demographic success and cognitive efflorescence of later Plio-Pleistocene hominids. PMID:19810200

  20. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-08-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  1. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil’s swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009–2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  2. [Strategies of medical self-authorization in early modern medicine: the example of Volcher Coiter (1534-1576)].

    PubMed

    Gross, Dominik; Steinmetzer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Based on the example of Volcher Coiter--a town physician at Nuremberg and one of the leading anatomists in early modern medicine--, this essay points out that the authoritative status of contemporary physicians mainly was predicated on an interplay of self-fashioning and outside perception. It provides ample evidence that Coiter made use of several characteristic rhetorical and discourse-related strategies of self-authorisation such as the participation in social networks, a highly convincing technique of self-fashioning by emphasizing particular erudition, the presentation of academic medicine as a science authorised by god and the concurrent devaluation of non-academic healers. Furthermore, graphic and visual strategies of self-authorisation could be ascertained: Coiter took care for a premium typography of his books. He also used his talent as a graphic artist in his books to visualise his medical concepts. Moreover, the so-called 'Nuremberg Portrait' of Coiter served to illustrate his outstanding authority. PMID:16382689

  3. Counting the dead and regulating the living: early modern statistics and the formation of the sociological imagination (1662-1897).

    PubMed

    Bayatrizi, Zohreh

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the contributions made by early modern statistical literature to the formation of the sociological imagination. Starting in the mid-seventeenth century, the fields of 'political arithmetic' and vital and moral statistics provided a discursive framework within which it became possible to identify and study aggregate dynamics and structures underlying seemingly random and episodic aspects of life (birth, death, divorce, health). Focusing primarily on developments in England, the paper identifies three significant watershed moments in the emergence of the sociological imagination: the discovery of the political and economic dimensions of life; the articulation of socio-statistical patterns underlying various life events and episodes; and the establishment of causal connections between social variables and individual choices. These developments did not amount to or directly result in the creation of the discipline of sociology, yet, they made it possible to make conceptual connections between the personal and the social. PMID:19703179

  4. A review of "Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England." by Nancy Cox and Karin Dannehl 

    E-print Network

    Hayworth, Gene

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Nancy Cox, et al.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9708 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Nancy Cox, et al.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 202 s e v e n t e e.... Nancy Cox and Karin Dannehl. Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2007. xv+214 pp. $99.95. Review by Ge n e ha y w o r t h , un i v e r s i t y o f co l o r a d o , Bo u l d e r...

  5. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-01-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. PMID:23908781

  6. Step-Dame Study's Purpose: Early Modern Literature and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Emily Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Given what seems a constant barrage of criticism aimed at the academy from politicians and the public--and the great concern for buzz words like accountability and transparency--it has become fairly routine to see a defense of the humanities in opinion pieces in "Inside Higher Education," "The Chronicle of Higher Education," "The New York Times,"…

  7. Short Faces, Big Tongues: Developmental Origin of the Human Chin

    PubMed Central

    Coquerelle, Michael; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Rojo, Rosa; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Bastir, Markus

    2013-01-01

    During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence) that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor – the space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies. PMID:24260566

  8. Original antigenic sin with human bocaviruses 1-4.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemeng; Kantola, Kalle; Hedman, Lea; Arku, Benedict; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) 1 is a widespread parvovirus causing acute respiratory disease in young children. In contrast, HBoV2 occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and is potentially associated with gastroenteritis, whilst HBoV3 and -4 infections are less frequent and have not yet been linked with human disease. Due to HBoV1 DNA persistence in the nasopharynx, serology has been advocated as a better alternative for diagnosing acute infections. In constitutionally healthy children, we previously noted that pre-existing HBoV2 immunity in a subsequent HBoV1 infection typically resulted in low or non-existent HBoV1-specific antibody responses. A phenomenon describing such immunological events among related viruses has been known since the 1950s as 'original antigenic sin' (OAS). The aim of this study was to characterize this putative OAS phenomenon in a more controlled setting. Follow-up sera of 10 rabbit pairs, inoculated twice with HBoV1-4 virus-like particles (VLPs) or control antigens, in various combinations, were analysed with HBoV1-4 IgG enzyme immunoassays with and without depletion of heterotypic HBoV antibodies. There were no significant IgG boosts after the second inoculation in either the heterologously or the homologously HBoV-inoculated rabbits, but a clear increase in cross-reactivity was seen with time. We could, however, distinguish a distinct OAS pattern from plain cross-reactivity: half of the heterologously inoculated rabbits showed IgG patterns representative of the OAS hypothesis, in line with our prior results with naturally infected children. HBoVs are the first parvoviruses to show the possible existence of OAS. Our findings provide new information on HBoV1-4 immunity and emphasize the complexity of human bocavirus diagnosis. PMID:26224569

  9. A Review of "The Poetry of Religious Sorrow in Early Modern England" by Gary Kuchar 

    E-print Network

    Stanwood, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    of communication between the human and the divine? (25). The first chapter discusses Robert Southwell and his influential St. Peters Complaint, with Shake- speare?s Richard II and Milton?s Satan as the principal beneficiaries. Kuchar writes particularly well... of ?the sighs and tears? that lead from Southwell?s Complaint to Richard and Satan, who provide a testament to the literary promise of the tradition that Southwell popularized. Subsequent chapters deal with Richard Crashaw?s ?The Weeper?; Andrew...

  10. AFRICAN GENETIC DIVERSITY: Implications for Human Demographic History, Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael C.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies of ethnically diverse human populations, particularly in Africa, are important for reconstructing human evolutionary history and for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation and complex disease. African populations are characterized by greater levels of genetic diversity, extensive population substructure, and less linkage disequilibrium (LD) among loci compared to non-African populations. Africans also possess a number of genetic adaptations that have evolved in response to diverse climates and diets, as well as exposure to infectious disease. This review summarizes patterns and the evolutionary origins of genetic diversity present in African populations, as well as their implications for the mapping of complex traits, including disease susceptibility. PMID:18593304

  11. A review of "Roman Triumphs and Early Modern English Culture." by Anthony Miller 

    E-print Network

    Michael Ullyot

    2004-01-01

    . It was England?s next reluctant warrior-king James who proved decisively how versatile triumphs could be. James used them to celebrate peace rather than war, and reunited rather than conquered kingdoms. His son Henry?s death led ultimately to a civil war whose... victors and losers used triumphs to celebrate, to console, to regroup, and ever to acknowledge the divine will in human affairs. During the Protectorate, Cromwell?s modesty and austerity contributed to the final realignment Miller identifies, in which ?the...

  12. A review of "Perfection. Studies in Early Modern France" by Anne L. Birberick 

    E-print Network

    Meere, Michael

    2010-01-01

    of doing philosophy, a new ideal of imperfectio hominis? (122-23). This is a clear and concise essay as well as a riveting piece of scholarship that astutely pinpoints an essential element (and problem) of both the Essais and Renaissance Humanism... Mersenne?s Harmonie universelle (1636-37), G?raud de Cordemoy?s Discours physique de la parole (1668), Charles Per- rault?s Essais de Physique (1680), and Bernard de Lamy?s La Rh?torique, ou l?art de parler (1675; 1712), Koch argues that Mersenne prepared...

  13. Genome-wide studies highlight indirect links between human replication origins and gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cadoret, Jean-Charles; Meisch, Françoise; Hassan-Zadeh, Vahideh; Luyten, Isabelle; Guillet, Claire; Duret, Laurent; Quesneville, Hadi; Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle

    2008-01-01

    To get insights into the regulation of replication initiation, we systematically mapped replication origins along 1% of the human genome in HeLa cells. We identified 283 origins, 10 times more than previously known. Origin density is strongly correlated with genomic landscapes, with clusters of closely spaced origins in GC-rich regions and no origins in large GC-poor regions. Origin sequences are evolutionarily conserved, and half of them map within or near CpG islands. Most of the origins overlap transcriptional regulatory elements, providing further evidence of a connection with gene regulation. Moreover, we identify c-JUN and c-FOS as important regulators of origin selection. Half of the identified replication initiation sites do not have an open chromatin configuration, showing the absence of a direct link with gene regulation. Replication timing analyses coupled with our origin mapping suggest that a relatively strict origin-timing program regulates the replication of the human genome. PMID:18838675

  14. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new. PMID:22702172

  15. Analysis of the origin of predictability in human communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yani; Wu, Ye; Xiao, Jinghua

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviors in daily life can be traced by their communications via electronic devices. E-mails, short messages and cell-phone calls can be used to investigate the predictability of communication partners’ patterns, because these three are the most representative and common behaviors in daily communications. In this paper, we show that all the three manners have apparent predictability in partners’ patterns, and moreover, the short message users’ sequences have the highest predictability among the three. We also reveal that people with fewer communication partners have higher predictability. Finally, we investigate the origin of predictability, which comes from two aspects: one is the intrinsic pattern in the partners sequence, that is, people have the preference of communicating with a fixed partner after another fixed one. The other aspect is the burst, which is communicating with the same partner several times in a row. The high burst in short message communication pattern is one of the main reasons for its high predictability, the intrinsic pattern in e-mail partners sequence is the main reason for its predictability, and the predictability of cell-phone call partners sequence comes from both aspects.

  16. A review of "The Single Woman in Medieval and Early Modern England: Her Life and Representation." by Laurel Amtower and Dorothea Kehler eds. 

    E-print Network

    Lissa Beauchamp

    2005-01-01

    performance for women. The emphasis in all these media is on ?Teaching women how to create a readable chaste body, rather than advising them how actually to remain chaste? (226). Just as Frances Howard and Beatrice-Joanna perform their chastity, early modern...

  17. Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant. PMID:25080643

  18. Origins and rates of aneuploidy in human blastomeres

    E-print Network

    Petrov, Dmitri

    (monosomy vs. trisomy; mitotic vs. meiotic) and parental origin (maternal vs. paternal). Result(s): The rate of maternal meiotic trisomy rose significantly with age, whereas other types of trisomy showed no correlation with age. Trisomies were mostly maternal in origin, whereas paternal and maternal monosomies were roughly

  19. ORIGINAL RESEARCH PCNA improves image analysis of human ovaries

    E-print Network

    St Andrews, University of

    in prepared ovarian tissue. Previous studies involving human tissue have used hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain the viability of large-scale studies of human ovarian reserve using a combination of immunohistochemistry the human workload involved in more accurate ovarian reserve studies. We report a combined process of tissue

  20. Interaction between arsenic trioxide and human primary cells: emphasis on human cells of myeloid origin.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Antoine, Francis; Girard, Denis

    2009-03-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3); ATO) is considered to be one of the most potent drugs in cancer chemotherapy and is highly effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It is well established that treatment of APL patients with ATO is associated with the disappearance of the PML-RARalpha fusion transcript, the characteristic APL gene product of the chromosomal translocation t(15;17). Although its mode of action is still not fully understood, ATO is known to induce cell apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspases. Several reports have indicated that ATO acts principally by inducing cell apoptosis not only in APL, but in a variety of non-APL cells including myeloma cells, chronic myeloid leukemia cells and cells of immune origin, including B or T lymphocytes, macrophages and, more recently, neutrophils. There is an increasing amount of data, including some from our laboratory, concerning the interaction between ATO and human primary cells. The focus of this review will be to cover the role of ATO in human immune primary cells with special emphasis on cells of myeloid origin. PMID:19275690

  1. DNA replication origin interference increases the spacing between initiation events in human cells.

    PubMed

    Lebofsky, Ronald; Heilig, Roland; Sonnleitner, Max; Weissenbach, Jean; Bensimon, Aaron

    2006-12-01

    Mammalian DNA replication origins localize to sites that range from base pairs to tens of kilobases. A regular distribution of initiations in individual cell cycles suggests that only a limited number of these numerous potential start sites are converted into activated origins. Origin interference can silence redundant origins; however, it is currently unknown whether interference participates in spacing functional human initiation events. By using a novel hybridization strategy, genomic Morse code, on single combed DNA molecules from primary keratinocytes, we report the initiation sites present on 1.5 Mb of human chromosome 14q11.2. We confirm that initiation zones are widespread in human cells, map to intergenic regions, and contain sequence motifs found at other mammalian initiation zones. Origins used per cell cycle are less abundant than the potential sites of initiation, and their limited use increases the spacing between initiation events. Between-zone interference decreases in proportion to the distance from the active origin, whereas within-zone interference is 100% efficient. These results identify a hierarchical organization of origin activity in human cells. Functional origins govern the probability that nearby origins will fire in the context of multiple potential start sites of DNA replication, and this is mediated by origin interference. PMID:17005913

  2. Original Articles The force of selection on the human life cycle

    E-print Network

    Jones, James Holland

    ; Keyfitz & Flieger, 1990). Even in hunter­gatherer populations, there is considerable variation in bothOriginal Articles The force of selection on the human life cycle James Holland Jones Department of selection on the human life cycle. The force of selection acts in remarkably invariant ways on human life

  3. Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human physical of these traits. In this study, we assessed the relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human received 16 June 2009 Abstract A number of traits have been proposed to be important in human mate choice

  4. The Multiscale Origins of Fracture Resistance in Human Bone and Its Biological Degradation

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    to increase the risk of fracture in the aging population.1,2 Indeed, human cortical bone is known to loseThe Multiscale Origins of Fracture Resistance in Human Bone and Its Biological Degradation E, CA, USA. 4.--e-mail: roritchie@lbl.gov Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Multi-region hemispheric specialization differentiates human

    E-print Network

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    to be a major contributing factor to such distinctive human characteristics as motor dominance, attentional control and language. Yet structural cerebral asymmetries, docu- mented in both humans and some nonhuman to the differential func- tions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres. One of the most pronounced behavioral

  6. Chapter 16: Origins of shared attention in human infants

    E-print Network

    scientists agree that a more complete account of human language must carefully consider infant's social language acquisition. Yet, this interdependency is incredibly complex. Social interaction in infancy, and computer simulations. Shared Attention in Human Social Cognition Shared attention is defined as redirecting

  7. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    PubMed

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

  8. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L.; Ruff, Christopher B.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

  9. A review of "Religion and the Early Modern State: Views From China, Russia, and the West." by James D. Tracy and Marguerite Ragnow eds. 

    E-print Network

    Yermolenko, Galina I.

    2006-01-01

    into war. James D. Tracy and Marguerite Ragnow, eds. Religion and the Early Modern State: Views From China, Russia, and the West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. x + 415 pp. $85.00. Review by GALINA I. YERMOLENKO, DESALES UNIVERSITY... Protestantisms, but also to seventeenth-century religious dissent in several non-western countries, such as China, Ukraine, and Russia. The essays in the first part of the volume, Lived Religion and Official Religion, closely study the relations between...

  10. A review of "Early Modern English Lives: Autobiography and Self-Representation 1500 - 1660" by Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly 

    E-print Network

    Oh, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly. Early Modern English Lives: Autobiography and Self-Representation 1500-1660. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2007. viii + 241 pp. + 5 illus. $99.95. Review by ELISA OH..., it contextualizes the lives lived by women religious in late sixteenth- and early seventeenth- century Spain. More specifically, it deepens the understanding of the life of one of the most famous figures of the period, Saint Teresa of ?vila, and the events...

  11. A review of "Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830" by Norma Landau and "Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England" by Garthine Walker 

    E-print Network

    Sherman, Donovan

    2010-01-01

    with the Mosaic distinction? in that he moves away from allegory that Spenser uses as his defense and is thus left exposed (316). Norma Landau, ed. Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 2002. xii + 264 pp. $60....00. Garthine Walker. Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 2003. xvi + 310 pp. $60.00. Review by donovan sherman, university of california, irvine. The tension between postmodern philosophy...

  12. A review of "Women, Property, and the Letters of the Law in Early Modern England." by Nancy E. Wright Margaret Ferguson A. R. Buck eds. 

    E-print Network

    Nancy M. Bunker

    2005-01-01

    . Wright, Margaret Ferguson, A. R. Buck, eds. Women, Property, and the Letters of the Law in Early Modern England. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004. ix +304 pp. $65.00. Review by NANCY M. BUNKER, MACON STATE COLLEGE. Women, Property... women whose actions ?shift? established parameters to ?indicate the letter of the law was neither 54 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS definitive nor irremediable? (4). Editors Nancy E. Wright, Margaret Ferguson, and A. R. Buck collected thirteen important...

  13. Origins of the Human Pointing Gesture: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Danielle; Behne, Tanya; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance in the development of children's skills of social cognition and communication, very little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the pointing gesture. We report a training study in which mothers gave children one month of extra daily experience with pointing as compared with a control group who had extra experience with…

  14. The origin of bursts and heavy tails in human dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabási, Albert-László

    2005-05-01

    The dynamics of many social, technological and economic phenomena are driven by individual human actions, turning the quantitative understanding of human behaviour into a central question of modern science. Current models of human dynamics, used from risk assessment to communications, assume that human actions are randomly distributed in time and thus well approximated by Poisson processes. In contrast, there is increasing evidence that the timing of many human activities, ranging from communication to entertainment and work patterns, follow non-Poisson statistics, characterized by bursts of rapidly occurring events separated by long periods of inactivity. Here I show that the bursty nature of human behaviour is a consequence of a decision-based queuing process: when individuals execute tasks based on some perceived priority, the timing of the tasks will be heavy tailed, with most tasks being rapidly executed, whereas a few experience very long waiting times. In contrast, random or priority blind execution is well approximated by uniform inter-event statistics. These finding have important implications, ranging from resource management to service allocation, in both communications and retail.

  15. The diverse origins of the human gene pool.

    PubMed

    Pääbo, Svante

    2015-06-01

    Analyses of the genomes of Neanderthals and Denisovans, the closest evolutionary relatives of present-day humans, suggest that our ancestors were part of a web of now-extinct populations linked by limited, but intermittent or sometimes perhaps even persistent, gene flow. PMID:25982166

  16. Influenza A of Human, Swine, Equine and Avian Origin: Comparison of Survival in Aerosol Form

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Chas. A.; Guerin, L. F.

    1972-01-01

    Strains of Influenza A representative of human, avian, swine and equine sources were examined for decay when in aerosol form. Strains having their origin in avian and equine hosts were considerably more resistant to decay. Strains derived from human and swine sources were less resistant and bore a similarity in this property. PMID:4258552

  17. Original Research Article Toward Quantifying the Usage Costs of Human Immunity: Altered Metabolic

    E-print Network

    Muehlenbein, Michael

    Original Research Article Toward Quantifying the Usage Costs of Human Immunity: Altered Metabolic Rates and Hormone Levels During Acute Immune Activation in Men MICHAEL P. MUEHLENBEIN,1* JANA L There is a paucity of data on the energetic demands of human immune functions, despite the fact that both clinical

  18. Universal mapping probes and the origin of human chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Okio Hino ); Testa, J.R.; Buetow, K.H.; Taguchi, Takahiro; Zhou, Jian-Yuan; Bremer, M.; Bruzel, A.; Yeung, R.; Levan, G.; Levan, K.K. ); Knudson, A.F.; Tartof, K.D. )

    1993-01-15

    Universal mapping probes (UMPs) are defined as short segments of human DNA that are useful for physical and genetic mapping in a wide variety of mammals. The most useful UMPs contain a conserved DNA sequence immediately adjoined to a highly polymorphic CA repeat. The conserved region determines physical gene location, whereas the CA repeat facilitates genetic mapping. Both the CA repeat and its neighboring sequence are highly conserved in evolution. This permits molecular, cytogenetic, and genetic mapping of UMPs throughout mammalia. UMPs are significant because they make genetic information cumulative among well-studied species and because they transfer such information from [open quotes]map poor[close quotes]. As a demonstration of the utility of UMPs, comparative maps between human chromosome 3 (HSA3) and the rat genome have been constructed. HSA3 is defined by at least 12 syntenic clusters located on seven different rat chromosomes. These data, together with previous comparative mapping information between human, mouse, and bovine genomes, allow us to propose a distinct evolutionary pathway that connects HSA3 with the chromosomes of rodents, artiodactyls, and primates. The model predicts a parsimonious phylogenetic tree, is readily testable, and will be of considerable use for determining the pathways of mammalian evolution. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Electrostatic origin of in vitro aggregation of human ?-crystallin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Benjamin G.; Dobson, Cassidy M.; Garman, Scott C.; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2013-09-01

    The proteins ?-, ?-, and ?-crystallins are the major components of the lens in the human eye. Using dynamic light scattering method, we have performed in vitro investigations of protein-protein interactions in dilute solutions of human ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin. We find that ?-crystallin spontaneously aggregates into finite-sized clusters in phosphate buffer solutions. There are two distinct populations of unaggregated and aggregated ?-crystallins in these solutions. On the other hand, ?-crystallin molecules are not aggregated into large clusters in solutions of ?-crystallin alone. When ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin are mixed in phosphate buffer solutions, we demonstrate that the clusters of ?-crystallin are prevented. By further investigating the roles of temperature, protein concentration, pH, salt concentration, and a reducing agent, we show that the aggregation of ?-crystallin under our in vitro conditions arises from non-covalent electrostatic interactions. In addition, we show that aggregation of ?-crystallin occurs under the dilute in vitro conditions even in the absence of oxidizing agents that can induce disulfide cross-links, long considered to be responsible for human cataracts. Aggregation of ?-crystallin when maintained under reducing conditions suggests that oxidation does not contribute to the aggregation in dilute solutions.

  20. The human socio-cognitive niche and its evolutionary origins

    PubMed Central

    Whiten, Andrew; Erdal, David

    2012-01-01

    Hominin evolution took a remarkable pathway, as the foraging strategy extended to large mammalian prey already hunted by a guild of specialist carnivores. How was this possible for a moderately sized ape lacking the formidable anatomical adaptations of these competing ‘professional hunters’? The long-standing answer that this was achieved through the elaboration of a new ‘cognitive niche’ reliant on intelligence and technology is compelling, yet insufficient. Here we present evidence from a diversity of sources supporting the hypothesis that a fuller answer lies in the evolution of a new socio-cognitive niche, the principal components of which include forms of cooperation, egalitarianism, mindreading (also known as ‘theory of mind’), language and cultural transmission, that go far beyond the most comparable phenomena in other primates. This cognitive and behavioural complex allows a human hunter–gatherer band to function as a unique and highly competitive predatory organism. Each of these core components of the socio-cognitive niche is distinctive to humans, but primate research has increasingly identified related capacities that permit inferences about significant ancestral cognitive foundations to the five pillars of the human social cognitive niche listed earlier. The principal focus of the present study was to review and integrate this range of recent comparative discoveries. PMID:22734055

  1. Rapid morphological change in living humans: implications for modern human origins.

    PubMed

    Bogin, Barry; Rios, Luis

    2003-09-01

    Human body size and body proportions are interpreted as markers of ethnicity, 'race,' adaptation to temperature, nutritional history and socioeconomic status. Some studies emphasize only one of these indicators and other studies consider combinations of indicators. To better understand the biocultural nature of human size and proportions a new study of the growth of Maya-American youngsters was undertaken in 1999 and 2000. One purpose of this research is to assess changes in body proportion between Maya growing up in the US and Maya growing up in Guatemala. Height and sitting height of 6-12-year-old boys and girls (n=360) were measured and the sitting height ratio [sitting height/height]x100, a measure of proportion, was calculated. These data are compared with a sample of Maya of the same ages living in Guatemala and measured in 1998 (n=1297). Maya-American children are currently 10.24 cm taller, on average, and have a significantly lower sitting height ratio, (i.e. relatively longer legs, averaging 7.02 cm longer) than the Guatemala Maya. Maya-American children have body proportions more like those of white children in the US than like Maya children in Guatemala. Improvements in the environment for growth, in terms of nutrition and health, seem to explain both the trends in greater stature and relatively longer legs for the Maya-Americans. These findings are applied to the problem of modern human origins as assessed from fossil skeletons. It has been proposed that heat adapted, relatively long-legged Homo sapiens from Africa replaced the cold adapted, relatively short-legged Homo neandertalensis of the Levant and Europe [J Hum Evol 32 (1997a) 423]. Skeletal samples of Maya adults from rural Guatemala have body proportions similar to adult Neandertals and to skeletal samples from Europe with evidence of nutritional and disease stress. Just as nutrition and health status explains the differences in the body proportions of living Maya children, these factors, along with adaptation to climate, may also explain much of the differences between the Neandertal and African hominid samples. PMID:14527631

  2. Ape parasite origins of human malaria virulence genes

    PubMed Central

    Larremore, Daniel B.; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Liu, Weimin; Proto, William R.; Clauset, Aaron; Loy, Dorothy E.; Speede, Sheri; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Rayner, Julian C.; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2015-01-01

    Antigens encoded by the var gene family are major virulence factors of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, exhibiting enormous intra- and interstrain diversity. Here we use network analysis to show that var architecture and mosaicism are conserved at multiple levels across the Laverania subgenus, based on var-like sequences from eight single-species and three multi-species Plasmodium infections of wild-living or sanctuary African apes. Using select whole-genome amplification, we also find evidence of multi-domain var structure and synteny in Plasmodium gaboni, one of the ape Laverania species most distantly related to P. falciparum, as well as a new class of Duffy-binding-like domains. These findings indicate that the modular genetic architecture and sequence diversity underlying var-mediated host-parasite interactions evolved before the radiation of the Laverania subgenus, long before the emergence of P. falciparum. PMID:26456841

  3. Ape parasite origins of human malaria virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Larremore, Daniel B; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Liu, Weimin; Proto, William R; Clauset, Aaron; Loy, Dorothy E; Speede, Sheri; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Sharp, Paul M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Rayner, Julian C; Buckee, Caroline O

    2015-01-01

    Antigens encoded by the var gene family are major virulence factors of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, exhibiting enormous intra- and interstrain diversity. Here we use network analysis to show that var architecture and mosaicism are conserved at multiple levels across the Laverania subgenus, based on var-like sequences from eight single-species and three multi-species Plasmodium infections of wild-living or sanctuary African apes. Using select whole-genome amplification, we also find evidence of multi-domain var structure and synteny in Plasmodium gaboni, one of the ape Laverania species most distantly related to P. falciparum, as well as a new class of Duffy-binding-like domains. These findings indicate that the modular genetic architecture and sequence diversity underlying var-mediated host-parasite interactions evolved before the radiation of the Laverania subgenus, long before the emergence of P. falciparum. PMID:26456841

  4. Human physiological reaction to geomagnetic disturbances of solar origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Sv.; Stoilova, I.

    2002-12-01

    During the last two decades publications about the influence of geomagnetic activity on human health increase but there are not still strong evidences for this relationship. We performed measurements and observations of 86 working volunteers during the period of autumn and spring equinox. We examined systolic, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate. We also collected data for some personal health condition complaints. Four-way analyses of variance (MANOVA method) were employed and the influence of factors geomagnetic activity level, sequence of the days of measurements with respect to the increased geomagnetic activity, medicaments and sex was investigated. We also performed three-way analyses of variance and investigated influence of atmospheric pressure, medicaments and sex on the physiological parameters under consideration. Our investigations indicate that most of the persons examined irrespectively to their health status could be sensitive to the geomagnetic changes, which influence directly self-confidence and working ability.

  5. A review of "Religious Diversity and Early Modern English Texts: Catholic, Judaic, Feminist, and Secular Dimensions" edited by Arthur F. Marotti and Chanita Goodblatt 

    E-print Network

    Bentley, Greg

    2014-01-01

    - land” Arthur F. Marotti closely examines a number of Marian verses that extend through the reigns of Queen Elizabeth, King James I, and King Charles I to claim that: “Through the Elizabethan period and beyond, during England’s slow religious... essays from Section III: Hebraism and the Bible one finds Chanita Goodblatt’s “Performance and Parshanut: The Historie of Jacob and Esau,” Anne Lake Prescott’s “Exploiting King Saul in Early Modern England: Good Uses for a Bad King,” Elliott M. Simon...

  6. A Review of "Living with Religious Diversity in Early-Modern Europe" edited by C. Scott Dixon, Dagmar Freist, and Mark Greengrass 

    E-print Network

    Swann, Adam

    2010-01-01

    stream_source_info Adam Swann.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9543 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Adam Swann.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 reviews 203 The volume... pp. + 20 illus. $114.95. Review by adam swann, university of glasgow. This volume challenges the tendency to view early modern reli- gious practice in terms of a neat dichotomy between state-promul- gated orthodoxy and small pockets of fervent...

  7. A review of "Green Thoughts, Green Shades: Essays by Contemporary Poets on the Early Modern Lyric." by Jonathan F.S. Post, ed. 

    E-print Network

    Sidney Gottlieb

    2003-01-01

    stream_source_info V61-I1-02-Gottlieb.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 18315 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name V61-I1-02-Gottlieb.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 REVIEWS 13... Jonathan F.S. Post, ed. Green Thoughts, Green Shades: Essays by Con- temporary Poets on the Early Modern Lyric. Berkeley and Los Ange- les: University of California Press, 2002. xiv + 300 pp. $18.95 paper. Review by SIDNEY GOTTLIEB, SACRED HEART...

  8. A review of "The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton’s Lives." by Mary Jo Kietzman 

    E-print Network

    Tim Reinke-Williams

    2005-01-01

    -1 144 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Mary Jo Kietzman. The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton?s Lives. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004. 350 pp. + 12 illus. $79.95. Review by TIM REINKE-WILLIAMS, UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK. Mary Jo... Kietzman?s book is an interdisciplinary study of Mary Carleton, the daughter of a Canterbury fiddler who appeared before the Old Bailey in 1663 charged both with bigamy and with claiming to be Maria von Wolway, a German aristocrat. Carleton?s trial...

  9. Human microRNAs originated from two periods at accelerated rates in mammalian evolution.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Hisakazu; Kato, Kiyohito; Imachi, Hitomi; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that modulate genes posttranscriptionally. Frequent gains and losses of miRNA genes have been reported to occur during evolution. However, little is known systematically about the periods of evolutionary origin of the present miRNA gene repertoire of an extant mammalian species. Thus, in this study, we estimated the evolutionary periods during which each of 1,433 present human miRNA genes originated within 15 periods, from human to platypus-human common ancestral branch and a class "conserved beyond theria," primarily using multiple genome alignments of 38 species, plus the pairwise genome alignments of five species. The results showed two peak periods in which the human miRNA genes originated at significantly accelerated rates. The most accelerated rate appeared in the period of the initial phase of hominoid lineage, and the second appeared shortly before Laurasiatherian divergence. Approximately 53% of the present human miRNA genes have originated within the simian lineage to human. In particular, approximately 28% originated within the hominoid lineage. The early phase of placental mammal radiation comprises approximately 28%, while no more than 15% of human miRNAs have been conserved beyond placental mammals. We also clearly showed a general trend, in which the miRNA expression level decreases as the miRNA becomes younger. Intriguingly, amid this decreasing trend of expression, we found one significant rise in the expression level that corresponded to the initial phase of the hominoid lineage, suggesting that increased functional acquisitions of miRNAs originated at this particular period. PMID:23171859

  10. Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins

    PubMed Central

    Adcock, Gregory J.; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Easteal, Simon; Huttley, Gavin A.; Jermiin, Lars S.; Peacock, W. James; Thorne, Alan

    2001-01-01

    DNA from ancient human remains provides perspectives on the origin of our species and the relationship between molecular and morphological variation. We report analysis of mtDNA from the remains of 10 ancient Australians. These include the morphologically gracile Lake Mungo 3 [?60 thousand years (ka) before present] and three other gracile individuals from Holocene deposits at Willandra Lakes (<10 ka), all within the skeletal range of living Australians, and six Pleistocene/early Holocene individuals (15 to <8 ka) from Kow Swamp with robust morphologies outside the skeletal range of contemporary indigenous Australians. Lake Mungo 3 is the oldest (Pleistocene) “anatomically modern” human from whom DNA has been recovered. His mtDNA belonged to a lineage that only survives as a segment inserted into chromosome 11 of the nuclear genome, which is now widespread among human populations. This lineage probably diverged before the most recent common ancestor of contemporary human mitochondrial genomes. This timing of divergence implies that the deepest known mtDNA lineage from an anatomically modern human occurred in Australia; analysis restricted to living humans places the deepest branches in East Africa. The other ancient Australian individuals we examined have mtDNA sequences descended from the most recent common ancestor of living humans. Our results indicate that anatomically modern humans were present in Australia before the complete fixation of the mtDNA lineage now found in all living people. Sequences from additional ancient humans may further challenge current concepts of modern human origins. PMID:11209053

  11. Human natural killer cells: origin, receptors, function, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Moretta, Lorenzo; Montaldo, Elisa; Vacca, Paola; Del Zotto, Genny; Moretta, Francesca; Merli, Pietro; Locatelli, Franco; Mingari, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important effectors playing a relevant role in innate immunity, primarily in tumor surveillance and in defenses against viruses. Human NK cells recognize HLA class I molecules through surface receptors (KIR and NKG2A) that inhibit NK cell function and kill target cells that have lost (or underexpress) HLA class I molecules as it occurs in tumors or virus-infected cells. NK cell activation is mediated by an array of activating receptors and co-receptors that recognize ligands expressed primarily on tumors or virus-infected cells. In vivo anti-tumor NK cell activity may be suppressed by tumor or tumor-associated cells. Alloreactive NK cells (i.e. those that are not inhibited by the HLA class I alleles of the patient) derived from HSC of haploidentical donors play a major role in the cure of high-risk leukemia, by killing leukemia blasts and patient's DC, thus preventing tumor relapses and graft-versus-host disease. The expression of the HLA-C2-specific activating KIR2DS1 may also contribute to NK alloreactivity in patients expressing C2 alleles. A clear correlation has been proven between the size of the alloreactive NK cell population and the clinical outcome. Recently, haplo-HSCT has been further improved with the direct infusion, together with HSC, of donor-derived, mature alloreactive NK cells and TCR??(+) T cells - both contributing to a prompt anti-leukemia effect together with an efficient defense against pathogens during the 6- to 8-week interval required for the generation of alloreactive NK cells from HSC. PMID:25323661

  12. On the origins of suboptimality in human probabilistic inference.

    PubMed

    Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2014-06-01

    Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors), in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal). Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the priors, and by variability in the decision process, which we represent as a noisy or stochastic posterior. PMID:24945142

  13. On the Origins of Suboptimality in Human Probabilistic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors), in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal). Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the priors, and by variability in the decision process, which we represent as a noisy or stochastic posterior. PMID:24945142

  14. Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  15. Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate

    PubMed Central

    Beyin, Amanuel

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus on African origin of early modern humans, there is disagreement about how and when they dispersed to Eurasia. This paper reviews genetic and Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic archaeological literature from northeast Africa, Arabia, and the Levant to assess the timing and geographic backgrounds of Upper Pleistocene human colonization of Eurasia. At the center of the discussion lies the question of whether eastern Africa alone was the source of Upper Pleistocene human dispersals into Eurasia or were there other loci of human expansions outside of Africa? The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: (i) from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5), (ii) from a rapid dispersal out of East Africa via the Southern Route (across the Red Sea basin), dating to ~74–60?kya. PMID:21716744

  16. The Renaissance. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.8. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.8 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and diffusion of the Renaissance," in terms of the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts affected a new interest in humanism; the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of…

  17. Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

  18. Course Title Credits Critical Benchmark(s) Strongly Recommended ANTH 120 Human Origins and Variation 3

    E-print Network

    Beveridge, Ross

    Course Title Credits Critical Benchmark(s) Strongly Recommended ANTH 120 Human Origins SOC 100 General Sociology 3 or SOC 105 Social Problems 3 Electives 3 Total Credits: 1516 Course Title Credits Critical Benchmark(s) Strongly Recommended HDFS 101 Individual and Family Development 3 HDFS 101

  19. Sensitivity to Differences in the Motor Origin of Drawings: From Human to Robot

    PubMed Central

    De Preester, Helena; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the idea that an observer is sensitive to differences in the static traces of drawings that are due to differences in motor origin. In particular, our aim was to test if an observer is able to discriminate between drawings made by a robot and by a human in the case where the drawings contain salient kinematic cues for discrimination and in the case where the drawings only contain more subtle kinematic cues. We hypothesized that participants would be able to correctly attribute the drawing to a human or a robot origin when salient kinematic cues are present. In addition, our study shows that observers are also able to detect the producer behind the drawings in the absence of these salient kinematic cues. The design was such that in the absence of salient kinematic cues, the drawings are visually very similar, i.e. only differing in subtle kinematic differences. Observers thus had to rely on these subtle kinematic differences in the line trajectories between drawings. However, not only motor origin (human versus robot) but also motor style (natural versus mechanic) plays a role in attributing a drawing to the correct producer, because participants scored less high when the human hand draws in a relatively mechanical way. Overall, this study suggests that observers are sensitive to subtle kinematic differences between visually similar marks in drawings that have a different motor origin. We offer some possible interpretations inspired by the idea of “motor resonance”. PMID:25014198

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b gene in brain

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b gene in brain tumor patients exposed interferon alpha-2b) in low- and high-grade brain tumor patients and correlate from hematological profiles. A molecular analysis was performed in which DNAs were extracted from brain biopsy samples of brain tumor

  1. Original Article Human readiness to throw: the sizeweight illusion is not an illusion when

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Original Article Human readiness to throw: the size­weight illusion is not an illusion when picking a size­weight relation similar to the size­weight illusion; greater weights were picked for larger objects and were thrown the farthest. The size­weight illusion is: lift two objects of equal mass

  2. A Review of "Early Modern Women and Transnational Communities of Letters" edited by Julie D. Campbell and Anne R. Larsen 

    E-print Network

    Kennedy, Colleen E.

    2011-01-01

    , is original and convincing. As Jonathan Nauman has pointed out, Louise Imogen Guiney?a pioneering student of Vaughan?wrote that ?Whenever [Vaughan] falls to translating, it is time for the sympathetic reader to prick up his ears? as Vaughan ?seeks often..., especially tracing out international epistolary circles; and the translations of multilingual texts circulating throughout Europe are some of the highlights of this erudite and much needed body of work. The words and works of women?from Italy, France...

  3. Using autonomous replication to physically and genetically define human origins of replication

    SciTech Connect

    Krysan, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The author previously developed a system for studying autonomous replication in human cells involving the use of sequences from the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome to provide extrachromosomal plasmids with a nuclear retention function. Using this system, it was demonstrated that large fragments of human genomic DNA could be isolated which replicate autonomously in human cells. In this study the DNA sequences which function as origins of replication in human cells are defined physically and genetically. These experiments demonstrated that replication initiates at multiple locations distributed throughout the plasmid. Another line of experiments addressed the DNA sequence requirements for autonomous replication in human cells. These experiments demonstrated that human DNA fragments have a higher replication activity than bacterial fragments do. It was also found, however, that the bacterial DNA sequence could support efficient replication if enough copies of it were present on the plasmid. These findings suggested that autonomous replication in human cells does not depend on extensive, specific DNA sequences. The autonomous replication system which the author has employed for these experiments utilizes a cis-acting sequence from the EBV origin and the trans-acting EBNA-1 protein to provide plasmids with a nuclear retention function. It was therefore relevant to verify that the autonomous replication of human DNA fragments did not depend on the replication activity associated with the EBV sequences utilized for nuclear retention. To accomplish this goal, the author demonstrated that plasmids carrying the EBV sequences and large fragments of human DNA could support long-term autonomous replication in hamster cells, which are not permissive for EBV replication.

  4. Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: the spread of modern humans in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoffecker, John F

    2009-09-22

    The earliest credible evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe is an archaeological proxy in the form of several artifact assemblages (Bohunician) found in South-Central and possibly Eastern Europe, dating to < or =48,000 calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal BP). They are similar to assemblages probably made by modern humans in the Levant (Emiran) at an earlier date and apparently represent a population movement into the Balkans during a warm climate interval [Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI 12)]. A second population movement may be represented by a diverse set of artifact assemblages (sometimes termed Proto-Aurignacian) found in the Balkans, parts of Southwest Europe, and probably in Eastern Europe, and dating to several brief interstadials (GI 11-GI 9) that preceded the beginning of cold Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) (approximately 40,000 cal BP). They are similar to contemporaneous assemblages made by modern humans in the Levant (Ahmarian). The earliest known human skeletal remains in Europe that may be unequivocally assigned to H. sapiens (Peçstera cu Oase, Romania) date to this time period (approximately 42,000 cal BP) but are not associated with artifacts. After the Campanian Ignimbrite volcanic eruption (40,000 cal BP) and the beginning of HE4, artifact assemblages assigned to the classic Aurignacian, an industry associated with modern human skeletal remains that seems to have developed in Europe, spread throughout the continent. PMID:19571003

  5. Preferential transformation of human neuronal cells by human adenoviruses and the origin of HEK 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gerry; Morse, Silas; Ararat, Miguel; Graham, Frank L

    2002-06-01

    The 293 cell line was derived by transformation of primary cultures of human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells with sheared adenovirus (Ad)5 DNA. A combination of immunostaining, immunoblot, and microarray analysis showed that 293 cells express the neurofilament (NF) subunits NF-L, NF-M, NF-H, and a-internexin as well as many other proteins typically found in neurons. Three other independently derived HEK lines, two transformed by Ad5 and one by Ad12, also expressed NFs, as did one human embryonic retinal cell line transformed with Ad5. Two rodent kidney lines transformed with Ad12 were also found to express NF proteins, although several rodent kidney cell lines transformed by Ad5 DNA and three HEK cell lines transformed by the SV40 early region did not express NFs. These results suggest that human Ads preferentially transform human neuronal lineage cells. We also demonstrate that the widely used HEK293 cells have an unexpected relationship to neurons, a finding that may require reinterpretation of many previous studies in which it was assumed that HEK293 cells resembled more typical kidney epithelial cells. PMID:11967234

  6. Antigenic relationships between type A influenzaviruses of human, porcine, equine, and avian origin

    PubMed Central

    Tumová, Bela; Schild, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    This paper summarizes the available information on the relationship of two envelope antigens (haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) of influenzaviruses isolated from different hosts. The relationship of the haemagglutinin antigens was based on the results of haemagglutination inhibition tests with postinfection sera and that of the neuraminidase antigens on the results of neuraminidase inhibition and gel precipitation tests with hyperimmune and monospecific sera. On the basis of the antigenic specificity of the haemagglutinin, the influenzaviruses of human origin are divided into several subtypes (H0, H1, H2); viruses of equine origin could be divided into two subtypes (Heq1, Heq2). Porcine influenza strains are regarded as belonging to a single subtype, all of them being related to the prototype swine influenzavirus A (swine/Iowa/15/30). Within the avian influenzaviruses, 6 antigenic subtypes were described in earlier studies. Antigenic relationships between the haemagglutinin of strains from different hosts were infrequent but were demonstrated and confirmed between human A/Hong Kong/68 and equine viruses and between A/Hong Kong/68 and swine/Taiwan/69. The swine/Taiwan/69 virus also shared the related neuraminidase with A/Hong Kong/68 virus, and represents the only isolation from nonhuman sources of an influenzavirus identical with a human pandemic strain. The studies on the antigenic specificity of the neuraminidases demonstrated 8 antigenic varieties of neuraminidase among avian influenzaviruses and also that the neuraminidase grouping did not correspond with the antigenic grouping with regard to haemagglutinin. The relationships between human and nonhuman influenzaviruses are emphasized because of their significance to studies on the origin of influenza pandemics in man. PMID:4540995

  7. Erythroid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells is independent of donor cell type of origin

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Isabel; Klich, Katharina; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Radstaak, Martina; Santourlidis, Simeon; Ghanjati, Foued; Radke, Teja F.; Psathaki, Olympia E.; Hargus, Gunnar; Kramer, Jan; Einhaus, Martin; Kim, Jeong Beom; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Schöler, Hans R.; Schlenke, Peter; Zaehres, Holm

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, which is related to the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, might lead to variations in the differentiation capacities of the pluripotent stem cells. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than the commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex vivo expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells into erythroid cells, we compared induced pluripotent stem cells from human neural stem cells and human cord blood-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and evaluated their potential for differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor and mature red blood cells. Although genome-wide DNA methylation profiling at all promoter regions demonstrates that the epigenetic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells is influenced by the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, we found a similar hematopoietic induction potential and erythroid differentiation pattern of induced pluripotent stem cells of different somatic cell origin. All human induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed terminal maturation into normoblasts and enucleated reticulocytes, producing predominantly fetal hemoglobin. Differences were only observed in the growth rate of erythroid cells, which was slightly higher in the induced pluripotent stem cells derived from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. More detailed methylation analysis of the hematopoietic and erythroid promoters identified similar CpG methylation levels in the induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from CD34+ cells and those derived from neural stem cells, which confirms their comparable erythroid differentiation potential. PMID:25326431

  8. [The unicorn and the pharmacists. Early modern views on the presumed anti-toxic effects of unicorn horn].

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, W P

    2007-01-01

    Around 1600, the age-old belief in the anti-toxic effect of unicorn horn began to be called into question. This is evidenced by the views of two well-known French pharmaceutic authorities whose publications are discussed in this paper: the surgeon Ambroise Paré (1510-1590), court physician to four French kings, and the Montpellier pharmacist Laurent Catelan (1568-1647), who owned a famous cabinet de curiosités. Although Paré had to accept, however reluctantly, the existence of the unicorn (since it is mentioned in the Bible), he vehemently denied the supposed medicinal effect of unicorn products. He defended his position by an appeal to ancient and contemporary authorities, by rational argumentation, and by experiment. Paré's arguments failed to convince Catelan, who adhered to an alternative, so-called spagyric, medical theory of neoplatonic inspiration, as propagated by Paracelsus and Ficino. Catelan remained convinced of the efficacity of unicorn horn, which in his view could drain the human body from any poisonous substance. The medical establishment being reluctant to give up a rewarding source of income,'unicorn' remained much in demand as a prescription. PMID:20681192

  9. Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Brenna M.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Jobin, Matthew; Granka, Julie M.; Macpherson, J. M.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Rodríguez-Botigué, Laura; Ramachandran, Sohini; Hon, Lawrence; Brisbin, Abra; Lin, Alice A.; Underhill, Peter A.; Comas, David; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    Africa is inferred to be the continent of origin for all modern human populations, but the details of human prehistory and evolution in Africa remain largely obscure owing to the complex histories of hundreds of distinct populations. We present data for more than 580,000 SNPs for several hunter-gatherer populations: the Hadza and Sandawe of Tanzania, and the ?Khomani Bushmen of South Africa, including speakers of the nearly extinct N|u language. We find that African hunter-gatherer populations today remain highly differentiated, encompassing major components of variation that are not found in other African populations. Hunter-gatherer populations also tend to have the lowest levels of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium among 27 African populations. We analyzed geographic patterns of linkage disequilibrium and population differentiation, as measured by FST, in Africa. The observed patterns are consistent with an origin of modern humans in southern Africa rather than eastern Africa, as is generally assumed. Additionally, genetic variation in African hunter-gatherer populations has been significantly affected by interaction with farmers and herders over the past 5,000 y, through both severe population bottlenecks and sex-biased migration. However, African hunter-gatherer populations continue to maintain the highest levels of genetic diversity in the world. PMID:21383195

  10. Uptake, accumulation, and egress of erythromycin by tissue culture cells of human origin.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J R; Johnson, P; Miller, M F

    1985-01-01

    The ability of erythromycin A base to penetrate and accumulate in tissue culture cells of human origin was investigated. The antibiotic was highly concentrated by early passage cells of normal bronchus, kidney, liver, lung, and skin and by cancer cells derived from breast, liver, and lung. Intracellular levels 4 to 12 times that of the extracellular milieu were obtained in both early-passage and transformed cells. The total quantity of erythromycin accumulated depended on the extracellular concentration of antibiotic, but the cellular/extracellular ratios were, for the most part, independent of the initial extracellular drug concentration. In all cell types tested, the accumulated antibiotic rapidly egressed when cells were incubated in antibiotic-free medium. Bioactivity assays demonstrated that the expelled drug was unmetabolized, fully active antibiotic. The concentration of erythromycin by a variety of human cell types probably accounts, in part, for the effectiveness of the antibiotic against intracellular parasites such as Legionella and Chlamydia spp. PMID:3994346

  11. Automatic Extraction of Destinations, Origins and Route Parts from Human Generated Route Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Mitra, Prasenjit; Klippel, Alexander; Maceachren, Alan

    Researchers from the cognitive and spatial sciences are studying text descriptions of movement patterns in order to examine how humans communicate and understand spatial information. In particular, route directions offer a rich source of information on how cognitive systems conceptualize movement patterns by segmenting them into meaningful parts. Route directions are composed using a plethora of cognitive spatial organization principles: changing levels of granularity, hierarchical organization, incorporation of cognitively and perceptually salient elements, and so forth. Identifying such information in text documents automatically is crucial for enabling machine-understanding of human spatial language. The benefits are: a) creating opportunities for large-scale studies of human linguistic behavior; b) extracting and georeferencing salient entities (landmarks) that are used by human route direction providers; c) developing methods to translate route directions to sketches and maps; and d) enabling queries on large corpora of crawled/analyzed movement data. In this paper, we introduce our approach and implementations that bring us closer to the goal of automatically processing linguistic route directions. We report on research directed at one part of the larger problem, that is, extracting the three most critical parts of route directions and movement patterns in general: origin, destination, and route parts. We use machine-learning based algorithms to extract these parts of routes, including, for example, destination names and types. We prove the effectiveness of our approach in several experiments using hand-tagged corpora.

  12. Determination of platinum originated from antitumoral drugs in human urine by atomic absorption spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Anilton Coelho; Vieira, Mariana Antunes; Luna, Aderval Severino; de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto

    2010-10-15

    Cisplatin and carboplatin are the most common platinum-based drugs used in cancer treatment. Pharmacokinetic investigations, the evaluation of the body burden during the treatment, as well as baseline levels of platinum in humans have attracted great interest. Thus, accurate analytical methods for fast and easy Pt monitoring in clinical samples become necessary. In the present study atomic absorption spectrometric methods for the determination of platinum in the forms of cisplatin and carboplatin in human urine were investigated. Platinum, in these different forms, could be determined in urine, after simple sample dilution. Regarding electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, the optimum parameters were defined by a central composite design optimization. Multiplicative matrix effects were overcome by using a mixture of HCl and NaCl as modifier. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.004 mgL(-1) of platinum in the original sample. For the analysis of more concentrated samples, high resolution continuous source flame atomic absorption spectrometry was also investigated. Flame conditions were optimized by a multivariate D-optimal design, using as response the sum of the analyte addition calibration slopes and their standard deviations. Matrix matched external calibration with PtCl(2) calibration solutions, was possible, and the LOD was 0.06 mgL(-1) in the original sample. The results obtained by the proposed procedures were also in good agreement with those obtained by an independent comparative procedure. PMID:20875558

  13. Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins

    PubMed Central

    Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S.; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G.; Owings, Amanda C.; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R.; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R. Spencer; Acosta, Oscar; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Hui; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Merchant, Nirav C.; Mitchell, John R.; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Sandoval, Jose Raul; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans’ place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700?km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000–130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50?km of their villages. GPS’s accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

  14. Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins.

    PubMed

    Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G; Gaieski, Jill B; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G; Owings, Amanda C; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R Spencer

    2014-01-01

    The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans' place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000-130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS's accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

  15. In vivo protein-DNA interactions at human DNA replication origin.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, D S; Giacca, M; Demarchi, F; Biamonti, G; Riva, S; Falaschi, A

    1996-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions were studied in vivo at the region containing a human DNA replication origin, located at the 3' end of the lamin B2 gene and partially overlapping the promoter of another gene, located downstream. DNase I treatment of nuclei isolated from both exponentially growing and nonproliferating HL-60 cells showed that this region has an altered, highly accessible, chromatin structure. High-resolution analysis of protein-DNA interactions in a 600-bp area encompassing the origin was carried out by the in vivo footprinting technique based on the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction. In growing HL-60 cells, footprints at sequences homologous to binding sites for known transcription factors (members of the basic-helix-loop-helix family, nuclear respiratory factor 1, transcription factor Sp1, and upstream binding factor) were detected in the region corresponding to the promoter of the downstream gene. Upon conversion of cells to a nonproliferative state, a reduction in the intensity of these footprints was observed that paralleled the diminished transcriptional activity of the genomic area. In addition to these protections, in close correspondence to the replication initiation site, a prominent footprint was detected that extended over 70 nucleotides on one strand only. This footprint was absent from nonproliferating HL-60 cells, indicating that this specific protein-DNA interaction might be involved in the process of origin activation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8643660

  16. Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Accelerated Protein Evolution and Origins of Human-Specific Features

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    -specific phenotypes may have been under altered selective pressures in human evolution and thus exhibit changesCopyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Accelerated Protein Evolution and Origins of Human-Specific Features: FOXP2 as an Example Jianzhi Zhang,1 David M. Webb and Ondrej Podlaha Department

  17. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  18. Competence and the Evolutionary Origins of Status and Power in Humans.

    PubMed

    Chapais, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    In this paper I propose an evolutionary model of human status that expands upon an earlier model proposed by Henrich and Gil-White Evolution and Human Behavior, 22,165-196 (2001). According to their model, there are two systems of status attainment in humans-"two ways to the top": the dominance route, which involves physical intimidation, a psychology of fear and hubristic pride, and provides coercive power, and the prestige route, which involves skills and knowledge (competence), a psychology of attraction to experts and authentic pride, and translates mainly into influence. The two systems would have evolved in response to different selective pressures, with attraction to experts serving a social learning function and coinciding with the evolution of cumulative culture. In this paper I argue that (1) the only one way to the top is competence because dominance itself involves competence and confers prestige, so there is no such thing as pure dominance status; (2) dominance in primates has two components: a competitive one involving physical coercion and a cooperative one involving competence-based attraction to high-ranking individuals (proto-prestige); (3) competence grants the same general type of power (dependence-based) in humans and other primates; (4) the attractiveness of high rank in primates is homologous with the admiration of experts in humans; (5) upon the evolution of cumulative culture, the attractiveness of high rank was co-opted to generate status differentials in a vast number of culturally generated domains of activity. I also discuss, in this perspective, the origins of hubristic pride, authentic pride, and nonauthoritarian leadership. PMID:25947621

  19. Relatedness of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis clinical isolates of human and porcine origins assessed by MLVA.

    PubMed

    Leão, Célia; Canto, Ana; Machado, Diana; Sanches, Ilda Santos; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João; Botelho, Ana

    2014-09-17

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an important opportunistic pathogen, infecting humans and animals, notably pigs. Several methods have been used to characterize MAH strains. RFLP and PFGE typing techniques have been used as standard methods but are technically demanding. In contrast, the analysis of VNTR loci is a simpler, affordable and highly reliable PCR-based technique, allowing a numerical and reproductive digitalization of typing data. In this study, the analysis of Mycobacterium avium tandem repeats (MATRs) loci was adapted to evaluate the genetic diversity of epidemiological unrelated MAH clinical strains of human (n=28) and porcine (n=69) origins, collected from diverse geographical regions across mainland Portugal. These MAH isolates were found to be genetically diverse and genotypes are randomly distributed across the country. Some of the human strains shared identical VNTR profiles with porcine isolates. Our study shows that the VNTR genotyping using selected MATR loci is a useful analysis technique for assessing the genetic diversity of MAH isolates from Portugal. This typing method could be successfully applied in other countries toward the implementation of a worldwide open-access database of MATR-VNTR profiles of MAH isolates, allowing a better assessment of the global epidemiology traits of this important pathogenic species. PMID:25085520

  20. Archaic human genomics.

    PubMed

    Disotell, Todd R

    2012-01-01

    For much of the 20th century, the predominant view of human evolutionary history was derived from the fossil record. Homo erectus was seen arising in Africa from an earlier member of the genus and then spreading throughout the Old World and into the Oceania. A regional continuity model of anagenetic change from H. erectus via various intermediate archaic species into the modern humans in each of the regions inhabited by H. erectus was labeled the multiregional model of human evolution (MRE). A contrasting model positing a single origin, in Africa, of anatomically modern H. sapiens with some populations later migrating out of Africa and replacing the local archaic populations throughout the world with complete replacement became known as the recent African origin (RAO) model. Proponents of both models used different interpretations of the fossil record to bolster their views for decades. In the 1980s, molecular genetic techniques began providing evidence from modern human variation that allowed not only the different models of modern human origins to be tested but also the exploration demographic history and the types of selection that different regions of the genome and even specific traits had undergone. The majority of researchers interpreted these data as strongly supporting the RAO model, especially analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Extrapolating backward from modern patterns of variation and using various calibration points and substitution rates, a consensus arose that saw modern humans evolving from an African population around 200,000 years ago. Much later, around 50,000 years ago, a subset of this population migrated out of Africa replacing Neanderthals in Europe and western Asia as well as archaics in eastern Asia and Oceania. mtDNA sequences from more than two-dozen Neanderthals and early modern humans re-enforced this consensus. In 2010, however, the complete draft genomes of Neanderthals and of heretofore unknown hominins from Siberia, called Denisovans, demonstrated gene flow between these archaic human species and modern Eurasians but not sub-Saharan Africans. Although the levels of gene flow may be very limited, this unexpected finding does not fit well with either the RAO model or MRE model. More thorough sampling of modern human diversity, additional fossil discoveries, and the sequencing of additional hominin fossils are necessary to throw light onto our origins and our history. PMID:23124308

  1. A review of "Healing, Performing, and Ceremony in the Writings of Three Early Modern Physicians: Hippolytus Guarinonius and the Brothers Felix and Thomas Platter" by M.A. Katrizky 

    E-print Network

    Chamberland, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    of cultural history, social anthropology, travel literature, and especially diaspora studies. M.A. Katritzky. Healing, Performance, and Ceremony in the Writings of ?ree Early Modern Physicians: Hippolytus Guarinonius and the Brothers Felix and ?omas... remind- ers of civic order and the rhythms of the Christian calendar. While the didactic and entertainment purposes served by such modes of performance have been well-documented by theater historians, M.A. Katritzky?s engaging monograph, Healing...

  2. Elucidating the origin of the esterase activity of human serum albumin using QM/MM calculations.

    PubMed

    Phuangsawai, Oraphan; Hannongbua, Supa; Gleeson, M Paul

    2014-10-16

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a critical transport plasma protein accounting for ?60% of the total protein content in blood. Remarkably, this protein is also found to display esterase activity. In this study, we apply theoretical studies to elucidate the origin of the esterase-like activity arising from the Sudlow site I. Using MD and QM/MM calculations, we investigate which active site residues are involved in the reaction, and the precise mechanistic sequence of events. Our results suggest Lys199, His242, and Arg257 help give rise to the esterase activity and that the most catalytically efficient active site configuration requires that both Lys199 and Aspirin are in their neutral forms. The abundance of HSA in the body suggests the protein might be a suitable target for the computational guided design of acetyl based pro-drugs of acidic molecules that often displayed limited oral exposure due to their unmasked ionizable substituent. PMID:25222879

  3. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment

    E-print Network

    Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-09-22

    for discussion of the radiocarbon dates. Author contributions P.R.N. and B.V. designed research and analyzed data; P.H. collected and analyzed lithostratigraphic and pedo-sedimentary data; F.D. analyzed charcoal; C.F.F. performed malacological analysis; C...

  4. On the Time of the Intellect: The Interpretation of De Anima 3.6 (43ob 7-20) in Renaissance and Early Modern Italian Philosophy.

    PubMed

    Dubouclez, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that an original debate over the relationship between time and the intellect took place in Northern Italy in the second half of the sixteenth century, which was part of a broader reflection on the temporality of human mental acts. While human intellectual activity was said to be 'above time' during the Middle Ages, Renaissance scholars such as Marcantonio Genua (1491-1563), Giulio Castellani (1528-1586), Antonio Montecatini (1537-1599) and Francesco Piccolomini (1520-1604), greatly influenced by the Simplician and Alexandrist interpretations of Aristotle's works, proposed alterna- tive conceptions based on the interpretation of De anima 3.6 (430b 7-20) according to which intellectual acts happen in a both 'undivided' and 'divisible time'. In order to explain Aristotle's puzzling claim, they were led to conceive of intellectual activity as a process similar to sensation, corresponding to a certain lapse of time (Castellani), an instant (Montecatini), or a mix of instantaneousness and concrete duration (Piccolomini), depending on their theoretical options. PMID:26415352

  5. Many private mutations originate from the first few divisions of a human colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Haeyoun; Salomon, Matthew P; Sottoriva, Andrea; Zhao, Junsong; Toy, Morgan; Press, Michael F; Curtis, Christina; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Shibata, Darryl

    2015-11-01

    Intratumoural mutational heterogeneity (ITH) or the presence of different private mutations in different parts of the same tumour is commonly observed in human tumours. The mechanisms generating such ITH are uncertain. Here we find that ITH can be remarkably well structured by measuring point mutations, chromosome copy numbers, and DNA passenger methylation from opposite sides and individual glands of a 6?cm human colorectal adenoma. ITH was present between tumour sides and individual glands, but the private mutations were side-specific and subdivided the adenoma into two major subclones. Furthermore, ITH disappeared within individual glands because the glands were clonal populations composed of cells with identical mutant genotypes. Despite mutation clonality, the glands were relatively old, diverse populations when their individual cells were compared for passenger methylation and by FISH. These observations can be organized into an expanding star-like ancestral tree with co-clonal expansion, where many private mutations and multiple related clones arise during the first few divisions. As a consequence, most detectable mutational ITH in the final tumour originates from the first few divisions. Much of the early history of a tumour, especially the first few divisions, may be embedded within the detectable ITH of tumour genomes. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26119426

  6. Biofilm formation by Mycobacterium avium isolates originating from humans, swine and birds

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium avium includes the subspecies avium, silvaticum, paratuberculosis and hominissuis, and M. avium subspecies has been isolated from various environments all over the world including from biofilms in water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to examine isolates of M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis of different origin for biofilm formation and to look for correlations between biofilm formation and RFLP-types, and to standardise the method to test for biofilm formation. In order to determine the best screening method, a panel of 14 isolates of M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis, were tested for their ability to form biofilm in microtiter plates under different conditions. Subsequently, 83 additional isolates from humans, swine and birds were tested for biofilm formation. The isolates were tested for the presence of selected genes involved in the synthesis of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) in the cell wall of M. avium, which is believed to be important for biofilm formation. Colony morphology and hsp65 sequvar were also determined. Results Nine isolates from swine produced biofilm. There was a significant higher frequency of porcine isolates forming biofilm compared to human isolates. All isolates were previously characterised by IS1311- and IS1245-RFLP typing. The ability to form biofilm did not correlate with the RFLP-type, hsp65 sequevar, colony morphology or the presence of gene sequences related to GPL synthesis. Conclusion The observed differences in biofilm forming abilities between porcine and human isolates raises questions regarding the importance of biofilm formation for infectious potential. The optimised method worked well for screening of multiple isolates. PMID:19660141

  7. Probiotic and cultural characteristic of strain Lactobacillus gasseri 4/13 of human origin

    PubMed Central

    Baltova, Kalinka; Dimitrov, Zhechko

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri within the Lactobacillus acidophilus group is a major species in the human microflora. The potential probiotic properties of a L. gasseri strain of human origin were evaluated. Out of 17 studied L. gasseri strains, L. gasseri 4/13 showed the highest immunomodulatory effect (induction of interferon gamma measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in Balb/c mouse splenocytes in vitro and the highest rate of adhesion to Caco-2 human epithelial cells. The strain also reduced the concentration of cholesterol in the growth medium by 65% as compared with the initial concentration (measured spectrophotometrically). These probiotic properties indicate that L. gasseri 4/13 could prove an attractive concentrated adjunct monoculture in the production of new functional foods. To obtain a freeze-dried bacterial concentrate from L. gasseri 4/13, the influence of different culture media, temperatures and pH values on the accumulation of cell biomass was studied. Yoghurt samples were produced using a classical fermentation technology. Freeze-dried concentrated monoculture of L. gasseri 4/13 with over 1 × 1010 CFU/g viable cells was added as an adjunct culture together with a starter. The viable L. gasseri 4/13 cells remained above the critical value of 106 CFU/g during storage at 5 °C for the entire 20-day period. Organoleptic tests did not reveal any adverse change in the product taste and aroma of yoghurt samples at the 20th day. In conclusion, L. gasseri 4/13 was selected as having suitable probiotic and cultural characteristics for production of fermented milk products with high nutritional and biological value.

  8. Excitation-emission matrices measurements of human cutaneous lesions: tool for fluorescence origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelyazkova, A.; Borisova, E.; Angelova, L.; Pavlova, E.; Keremedchiev, M.

    2013-11-01

    The light induced fluorescence (LIF) technique has the potential of providing real-time diagnosis of malignant and premalignant skin tissue; however, human skin is a multilayered and inhomogeneous organ with different optical properties that complicate the analysis of cutaneous fluorescence spectra. In spite of the difficulties related to the detection and analysis of fluorescent data from skin lesions, this technique is among the most widely applied techniques in laboratorial and pre-clinical investigations for early skin neoplasia diagnosis. The important point is to evaluate all sources of intrinsic fluorescence and find any significant alterations distinguishing the normal skin from a cancerous state of the tissue; this would make the autofluorescence signal obtained useful for the development of a non-invasive diagnostic tool for the dermatological practice. Our investigations presented here were based on ex vivo point-by-point measurements of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) from excised tumor lesions and the surrounding skin taken during the daily clinical practice of Queen Jiovanna- ISUL University Hospital, Sofia, the local Ethical Committee's approval having already been obtained. The fluorescence emission was measured between 300 nm and 800 nm using excitation in the 280-440 nm spectral range. In the process of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) measurements we could establish the origin of the autofluorescence and the compounds related by assigning the excitation and emission maxima obtained during the experiments. The EEM were compared for normal human skin, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, benign nevi and malignant melanoma lesions to obtain information for the most common skin malignancies and their precursors. The main spectral features and the applicability of the technique of autofluorescent spectroscopy of human skin in general as an initial diagnostic tool are discussed as well.

  9. Human origins and the transition from promiscuity to pair-bonding

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilets, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    A crucial step in recent theories of human origins is the emergence of strong pair-bonding between males and females accompanied by a dramatic reduction in the male-to-male conflict over mating and an increased investment in offspring. How such a transition from promiscuity to pair-bonding could be achieved is puzzling. Many species would, indeed, be much better off evolutionarily if the effort spent on male competition over mating was redirected to increasing female fertility or survivorship of offspring. Males, however, are locked in a “social dilemma,” where shifting one’s effort from “appropriation” to “production” would give an advantage to free-riding competitors and therefore, should not happen. Here, I first consider simple models for four prominent scenarios of the human transition to pair-bonding: communal care, mate guarding, food for mating, and mate provisioning. I show that the transition is not feasible under biologically relevant conditions in any of these models. Then, I show that the transition can happen if one accounts for male heterogeneity, assortative pair formation, and evolution of female choice and faithfulness. This process is started when low-ranked males begin using an alternative strategy of female provisioning. At the end, except for the top-ranked individuals, males invest exclusively in provisioning females who have evolved very high fidelity to their mates. My results point to the crucial importance of female choice and emphasize the need for incorporating between-individual variation in theoretical and empirical studies of social dilemmas and behaviors. PMID:22645330

  10. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  11. Antigenic relationship between influenza A viruses of human and animal origin

    PubMed Central

    T?mová, Bela; Pereira, H. G.

    1968-01-01

    Reciprocal antigenic relationships between 17 influenza A viruses of human, porcine, equine and avian origin were investigated by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and strain-specific complement-fixation (CF). Cross-reactions were observed between the following strains: (a) Equi/1/Prague/1/56, Fowl plague (Dutch strain) and Turkey/England/1/63 (Langham strain); (b) Equi/2/Miami/1/63, Quail/Italy/1117/65, Pheasant/Italy/647/66, Duck/England/1/62 and Turkey/Canada/1/63; (c) A2/Singapore/1/57 and Turkey/Massachussets/65; (d) Swine/S15/30 and Chicken/Scotland/1/59. The results of HI tests performed with post-infection sera showed on the whole narrower specificity than those of HI with hyperimmune sera or those of strain-specific CF. There is clearly no sharp demarcation of antigenic subtypes of influenza A viruses, and studies over a yet wider range of strains are likely to disclose a continuous spectrum of antigenic variation for the whole group. The authors suggest that, in practice, host specificity rather than antigenic specificity may have to be used as the main criterion in classifying influenza A viruses. PMID:5302333

  12. Meiotic Nondisjunction: Insights into the Origin and Significance of Aneuploidy in Human Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Dimitrios; Tempest, Helen G

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome aneuploidy refers to changes in the chromosome complement of a genome and can include gain or loss of genetic material. The human genome is delicately balanced, and for the most part perturbations in the chromosome complement are often incompatible with embryonic development. The importance and clinical relevance of paternally derived aneuploidy is often overshadowed by the large maternal contribution; as a result, the paternal contribution to pregnancy loss due to chromosome aneuploidy is rarely considered within the clinic. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest that certain men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy, which is mirrored by an increase in aneuploidy within their embryos and offspring. Therefore, the paternal contribution to aneuploidy at least for some individuals may have greater clinical significance than is currently perceived. Thus, the main focus of this chapter is to provide insights into the origin and clinical relevance of paternally derived aneuploidy. Furthermore, this section will review the general mechanisms through which aneuploidy arises during spermatogenesis and how numerical (whole chromosome) and structural chromosome aberrations (cytogenetically visible or submicroscopic) may lead to clinically relevant aneuploidy potentially resulting in pregnancy loss, congenital malformations, and cognitive impairment. PMID:26178843

  13. Original Contribution Confidence Intervals for Biomarker-based Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    E-print Network

    Cole, Stephen R.

    , acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; CI, confidence interval; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; STARHSOriginal Contribution Confidence Intervals for Biomarker-based Human Immunodeficiency Virus biologic specimens can be used to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence using a two

  14. Believe it or not: Moving non-biological stimuli believed to have human origin can be represented as human movement.

    PubMed

    Gowen, E; Bolton, E; Poliakoff, E

    2016-01-01

    Does our brain treat non-biological movements (e.g. moving abstract shapes or robots) in the same way as human movements? The current work tested whether the movement of a non-biological rectangular object, believed to be based on a human action is represented within the observer's motor system. A novel visuomotor priming task was designed to pit true imitative compatibility, due to human action representation against more general stimulus response compatibility that has confounded previous belief experiments. Stimulus response compatibility effects were found for the object. However, imitative compatibility was found when participants repeated the object task with the belief that the object was based on a human finger movement, and when they performed the task viewing a real human hand. These results provide the first demonstration that non-biological stimuli can be represented as a human movement if they are believed to have human agency and have implications for interactions with technology and robots. PMID:26550801

  15. Human Genetic Ancestral Composition Correlates with the Origin of Mycobacterium leprae Strains in a Leprosy Endemic Population

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Castro, Nora; Cortés, Edwin; Beltrán, Camilo; Romero, Marcela; Badel-Mogollón, Jaime E.; Bedoya, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that leprosy originated in Africa, extended to Asia and Europe, and arrived in the Americas during European colonization and the African slave trade. Due to colonization, the contemporary Colombian population is an admixture of Native-American, European and African ancestries. Because microorganisms are known to accompany humans during migrations, patterns of human migration can be traced by examining genomic changes in associated microbes. The current study analyzed 118 leprosy cases and 116 unrelated controls from two Colombian regions endemic for leprosy (Atlantic and Andean) in order to determine possible associations of leprosy with patient ancestral background (determined using 36 ancestry informative markers), Mycobacterium leprae genotype and/or patient geographical origin. We found significant differences between ancestral genetic composition. European components were predominant in Andean populations. In contrast, African components were higher in the Atlantic region. M. leprae genotypes were then analyzed for cluster associations and compared with the ancestral composition of leprosy patients. Two M. leprae principal clusters were found: haplotypes C54 and T45. Haplotype C54 associated with African origin and was more frequent in patients from the Atlantic region with a high African component. In contrast, haplotype T45 associated with European origin and was more frequent in Andean patients with a higher European component. These results suggest that the human and M. leprae genomes have co-existed since the African and European origins of the disease, with leprosy ultimately arriving in Colombia during colonization. Distinct M. leprae strains followed European and African settlement in the country and can be detected in contemporary Colombian populations. PMID:26360617

  16. Human Genetic Ancestral Composition Correlates with the Origin of Mycobacterium leprae Strains in a Leprosy Endemic Population.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Castro, Nora; Cortés, Edwin; Beltrán, Camilo; Romero, Marcela; Badel-Mogollón, Jaime E; Bedoya, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports have suggested that leprosy originated in Africa, extended to Asia and Europe, and arrived in the Americas during European colonization and the African slave trade. Due to colonization, the contemporary Colombian population is an admixture of Native-American, European and African ancestries. Because microorganisms are known to accompany humans during migrations, patterns of human migration can be traced by examining genomic changes in associated microbes. The current study analyzed 118 leprosy cases and 116 unrelated controls from two Colombian regions endemic for leprosy (Atlantic and Andean) in order to determine possible associations of leprosy with patient ancestral background (determined using 36 ancestry informative markers), Mycobacterium leprae genotype and/or patient geographical origin. We found significant differences between ancestral genetic composition. European components were predominant in Andean populations. In contrast, African components were higher in the Atlantic region. M. leprae genotypes were then analyzed for cluster associations and compared with the ancestral composition of leprosy patients. Two M. leprae principal clusters were found: haplotypes C54 and T45. Haplotype C54 associated with African origin and was more frequent in patients from the Atlantic region with a high African component. In contrast, haplotype T45 associated with European origin and was more frequent in Andean patients with a higher European component. These results suggest that the human and M. leprae genomes have co-existed since the African and European origins of the disease, with leprosy ultimately arriving in Colombia during colonization. Distinct M. leprae strains followed European and African settlement in the country and can be detected in contemporary Colombian populations. PMID:26360617

  17. extrastriate cortex Visual word processing and experiential origins of functional selectivity in human

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    selectively to human bodies and body parts (6­8). Each of these regions can be found in roughly the same 11, 2007 (sent for review March 13, 2007) How do category-selective regions arise in human regions. learning vision fMRI experience ventral visual pathway Human extrastriate cortex contains

  18. Human intestinal Vdelta1+ lymphocytes recognize tumor cells of epithelial origin

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    gammadelta T cells can be grouped into discrete subsets based upon their expression of T cell receptor (TCR) variable (V) region families, their tissue distribution, and their specificity. Vdelta2+ T cells constitute the majority of gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood whereas Vdelta1+T cells reside preferentially in skin epithelium and in the intestine. gammadelta T cells are envisioned as first line host defense mechanisms capable of providing a source of immune effector T cells and immunomodulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 4 or interferon (IFN) gamma. We describe here the fine specificity of three distinct gammadelta+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) obtained from patients with primary or metastatic colorectal cancer, that could be readily expanded in vitro in the presence of IL-1beta and IL-7. Irrespective of donor, these individual gammadelta T cells exhibited a similar pattern of reactivity defined by recognition of autologous and allogeneic colorectal cancer cells, renal cell cancer, pancreatic cancer, and a freshly isolated explant from human intestine as measured by cytolytic T cell responses and by IFN-gamma release. In contrast, tumors of alternate histologies were not lysed, including lung cancer, squamous cell cancer, as well as the natural/lymphocyte-activated killer cell-sensitive hematopoietic cell lines T2, C1R, or Daudi. The cell line K562 was only poorly lysed when compared with colorectal cancer targets. Target cell reactivity mediated by Vdelta1+ T cells was partially blocked with Abs directed against the TCR, the beta2 or beta7 integrin chains, or fibronectin receptor. Marker analysis using flow cytometry revealed that all three gammadelta T cell lines exhibit a similar phenotype. Analysis of the gammadelta TCR junctional suggested exclusive usage of the Vdelta1/Ddelta3/Jdelta1 TCR segments with extensive (< or = 29 bp) N/P region diversity. T cell recognition of target cells did not appear to be a major histocompatibility complex restricted or to be correlated with target cell expression of heat- shock proteins. Based on the ability of some epithelial tumors, including colorectal, pancreatic, and renal cell cancers to effectively cold target inhibit the lysis of colorectal cancer cell lines by these Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cells are capable of recognizing cell surface Ag(s) shared by tumors of epithelial origin. PMID:8666926

  19. Genetic relatedness between Japanese and European isolates of Clostridium difficile originating from piglets and their risk associated with human health

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Masaru; Nanbu, Yukie; Oka, Kentaro; Takahashi, Motomichi; Inamatsu, Takashi; Asai, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Shigeru; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile colonization in pig intestine has been a public health concern. We analyzed C. difficile prevalence among piglets in Japan to clarify their origin and extent of the associated risk by using molecular and microbiological methods for both swine and human clinical isolates and foreign isolates. C. difficile was isolated from 120 neonatal piglet fecal samples. Toxin gene profile, antimicrobial susceptibilities, PCR ribotype, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) type of swine isolates were determined and compared with those of human clinical and foreign isolates. One-hundred C. difficile strains were isolated from 69 (57.5%) samples, and 61 isolates (61%) were toxin gene-positive. Some isolates were resistant to antimicrobials, contributing to antibiotic-associated diarrhea by C. difficile. These results suggest that C. difficile, prevalent among Japanese pigs, is a potential risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Furthermore, PCR ribotype 078 (12 isolates), which has been linked to multiple outbreaks worldwide, was the third-most frequently isolated of the 14 PCR ribotypes identified. Moreover, MLVA revealed that all 12 PCR ribotype 078 isolates were genetically related to European PCR ribotype 078 strains found in both humans and pigs. To date, in Japan, many breeding pigs have been imported from European countries. The genetic relatedness of C. difficile isolates of Japanese swine origin to those of European origin suggests that they were introduced into Japan via imported pigs. PMID:25339943

  20. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with ?solates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Valeria; Buyukcangaz, Esra; Sherwood, Julie S.; Stepan, Ryan M.; Koslofsky, Ryan J.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2%) MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2%) isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain. PMID:26484768

  1. Mexican-Origin Interregional Migration from the Southwest: Human, Household, and Community Capital Hypotheses 

    E-print Network

    Siordia, Carlos

    2010-01-16

    This research addresses the question of what factors lead Mexican-origin individuals living in the U.S. to seek a new residence outside their Southwestern state of residence. The analysis examines three hypotheses: (1) the ...

  2. The parental origin correlates with the karyotype of human embryos developing from tripronuclear zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Stougaard, Magnus; Kolevraa, Steen; Bolund, Lars; Agerholm, Inge Errebo; Sunde, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Objective It has previously been suggested that embryos developing from intracytoplasmic sperm-injected (ICSI) zygotes with three pronuclei (3PN) are endowed with a mechanism for self-correction of triploidy to diploidy. 3PN are also observed in zygotes after conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). The parental origin, however, differs between the two fertilization methods. Whereas the vast majority of 3PN IVF zygotes are of dispermic origin and thus more likely to have two centrioles, the 3PN ICSI zygotes are digynic in origin and therefore, more likely to have one centriole. In the present study, we examine whether the parental origin of 3PN embryos correlates with the karyotype. Methods The karyotype of each nucleus was estimated using four sequential fluorescence in situ hybridizations-each with two probes-resulting in quantitative information of 8 different chromosomes. The karyotypes were then compared and correlated to the parental origin. Results 3PN ICSI embryos displayed a significantly larger and more coordinated reduction from the assumed initial 3 sets of chromosomes than 3PN IVF embryos. Conclusion The differences in the parental origin-and hence the number of centrioles-between the 3PN IVF and the 3PN ICSI zygotes are likely to be the cause of the differences in karyotypes. PMID:25874169

  3. Structure of the NS1 Protein N-Terminal Origin Recognition/Nickase Domain from the Emerging Human Bocavirus

    PubMed Central

    Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Shen, Weiran; Qiu, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    Human bocavirus is a newly identified, globally prevalent, parvovirus that is associated with respiratory infection in infants and young children. Parvoviruses encode a large nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) that is essential for replication of the viral single-stranded DNA genome and DNA packaging and may play versatile roles in virus-host interactions. Here, we report the structure of the human bocavirus NS1 N-terminal domain, the first for any autonomous parvovirus. The structure shows an overall fold that is canonical to the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, which integrates two distinct DNA-binding sites: (i) a positively charged region mediated by a surface hairpin (residues 190 to 198) that is responsible for recognition of the viral origin of replication of the double-stranded DNA nature and (ii) the nickase active site that binds to the single-stranded DNA substrate for site-specific cleavage. The structure reveals an acidic-residue-rich subdomain that is present in bocavirus NS1 proteins but not in the NS1 orthologs in erythrovirus or dependovirus, which may mediate bocavirus-specific interaction with DNA or potential host factors. These results provide insights into recognition of the origin of replication and nicking of DNA during bocavirus genome replication. Mapping of variable amino acid residues of NS1s from four human bocavirus species onto the structure shows a scattered pattern, but the origin recognition site and the nuclease active site are invariable, suggesting potential targets for antivirals against this clade of highly diverse human viruses. PMID:23966383

  4. What Is the Origin of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 398 Isolates from Humans without Livestock Contact? An Epidemiological and Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Wamel, W. J. B.; Snijders, S. V.; Willems, R. J.; van Duijkeren, E.; Broens, E. M.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Lindsay, J. A.; Vos, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen percent of all methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) human carriers detected in The Netherlands had not been in direct contact with pigs or veal calves. To ensure low MRSA prevalence, it is important to investigate the likely origin of this MRSA of unknown origin (MUO). Recently, it was shown that CC398 strains originating from humans and animals differ in the presence of specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs). We hypothesized that determining these specific MGEs in MUO isolates and comparing them with a set of CC398 isolates of various known origin might provide clues to their origin. MUO CC398 isolates were compared to MRSA CC398 isolates obtained from humans with known risk factors, a MRSA CC398 outbreak isolate, livestock associated (LA) MRSA CC398 isolates from pigs, horses, chickens, and veal calves, and five methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) CC398 isolates of known human origin. All strains were spa typed, and the presence or absence of, scn, chp, ?3 int, ?6 int, ?7 int, rep7, rep27, and cadDX was determined by PCRs. The MRSA CC398 in humans, MUO, or MRSA of known origin (MKO) resembled MRSA CC398 as found in pigs and not MSSA CC398 as found in humans. The distinct human MSSA CC398 spa type, t571, was not present among our MRSA CC398 strains; MRSA CC398 was tetracycline resistant and carried no ?3 bacteriophage with scn and chp. We showed by simple PCR means that human MUO CC398 carriers carried MRSA from livestock origin, suggestive of indirect transmission. Although the exact transmission route remains unknown, direct human-to-human transmission remains a possibility as well. PMID:25809975

  5. Skeletal Variation Among Early Holocene North American Humans: Implications for Origins and

    E-print Network

    Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    of human morphology at the earliest observable time period. Stature, body mass, body breadth, and limb, Knoxville, TN 37996 KEY WORDS limb proportions; bi-iliac breadth; stature; Paleoindian; Beringian Standstill Hypothesis ABSTRACT The movement of humans into the Ameri- cas remains a major topic of debate among

  6. ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

  7. Origin of human chromosome 2: An ancestral telomere-telomere fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ijdo, J.W.; Baldini, A.; Ward, D.C.; Reeders, S.T.; Wells, R.A. )

    1991-10-15

    The authors identified two allelic genomic cosmids from human chromosome 2, c8.1 and c29B, each containing two inverted arrays of the vertebrate telomeric repeat in a head-to-head arrangement, 5{prime}(TTAGGG){sub n}-(CCCTAA){sub m}3{prime}. Sequences flanking this telomeric repeat are characteristic of present-day human pretelomeres. BAL-31 nuclease experiments with yeast artificial chromosome clones of human telomeres and fluorescence in situ hybridization reveal that sequences flanking these inverted repeats hybridize both to band 2q13 and to different, but overlapping, subsets of human chromosome ends. They conclude that the locus cloned in cosmids c8.1 and c29B is the relic of an ancient telomere-telomere fusion and marks the point at which two ancestral ape chromosomes fused to give rise to human chromosome 2.

  8. Cumulative impacts of human activities on urban garden soils: origin and accumulation of metals.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Zs; Farsang, A; Puskás, I

    2013-06-01

    The concentration of heavy metals and soil properties in fifty urban garden soils of Szeged (SE Hungary) were determined to evaluate the cumulative impacts of urbanization and cultivation on these soils. Using two enrichment factors (EFs) (based on reference horizon; Ti as reference element) and multivariate statistical analysis (PCA), the origin of the studied elements was defined. According to statistical coincidence of EFs confirmed by t-test, anthropogenic enrichment of Cu (EF = 4), Zn (EF = 2.7) and Pb (EF = 2.5) was significant in topsoils. Moreover, PCA also revealed the geogenic origin of Ni, Co, Cr and As and differentiated two groups of the anthropogenic metals [Pb, Zn] [Cu]. Spatial distribution of the metals visualized by GIS reflected the traffic origin of Pb; while based on ANOVA, the anthropogenic source of Cu is relevant (mainly pesticides) and there is a statistically significant difference in its concentration depending on land use. PMID:23500047

  9. Characterization of the cellular origin of a tissue-engineered human phalanx model by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Chubinskaya, Susan; Jacquet, Robin; Isogai, Noritaka; Asamura, Shinichi; Landis, William J

    2004-01-01

    Tissue-engineered models of human phalanges have previously been fabricated from a combination of bovine periosteum, cartilage, tendon, and biodegradable polyglycolic acid and poly-L-lactic acid scaffolds. Resulting constructs implanted in athymic mice for more than 40 weeks developed new bone, cartilage, and tendon and became vascularized, but cell types comprising the constructs were unidentified. The origin of cells in middle phalanx models implanted for 20 weeks in nude mice has been studied by in situ hybridization analyzing species-specific gene expression. Oligonucleotide probes homologous to species-specific gene sequences of bovine type II and X collagen, aggrecan, bone sialoprotein, biglycan, and osteopontin, and mouse decorin were labeled with (35)S and hybridized to respective serial sections of bovine tissue, mouse tissue, and phalanx constructs. In situ hybridization showed positive message and tissue-specific localization for all bovine-specific probes examined within cartilaginous and midshaft portions of constructs and negative message for the mouse-specific decorin probe. These data show that osteoblasts and chondrocytes comprising constructs are derived exclusively from their original bovine sources over 20 weeks of implantation. Defining the cellular origin of the models lends insight into their biological, chemical, and physical nature and their growth and development. Maintenance of their initial genotype is crucial for future application of the models in augmenting impaired human phalanges and related tissues. PMID:15363176

  10. Understanding Human Original Actions Directed at Real-World Goals: The Role of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Rosen, Bruce R.; Lord, Louis-David; West, W. Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive, original actions, which can succeed in multiple contextual situations, require understanding of what is relevant to a goal. Recognizing what is relevant may also help in predicting kinematics of observed, original actions. During action observation, comparisons between sensory input and expected action kinematics have been argued critical to accurate goal inference. Experimental studies with laboratory tasks, both in humans and nonhuman primates, demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) can learn, hierarchically organize, and use goal-relevant information. To determine whether this LPFC capacity is generalizable to real-world cognition, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the human brain during comprehension of original and usual object-directed actions embedded in video-depictions of real-life behaviors. We hypothesized that LPFC will contribute to forming goal-relevant representations necessary for kinematic predictions of original actions. Additionally, resting-state fMRI was employed to examine functional connectivity between the brain regions delineated in the video fMRI experiment. According to behavioral data, original videos could be understood by identifying elements relevant to real-life goals at different levels of abstraction. Patterns of enhanced activity in four regions in the left LPFC, evoked by original, relative to usual, video scenes, were consistent with previous neuroimaging findings on representing abstract and concrete stimuli dimensions relevant to laboratory goals. In the anterior left LPFC, the activity increased selectively when representations of broad classes of objects and actions, which could achieve the perceived overall behavioral goal, were likely to bias kinematic predictions of original actions. In contrast, in the more posterior regions, the activity increased even when concrete properties of the target object were more likely to bias the kinematic prediction. Functional connectivity was observed between contiguous regions along the rostro-caudal LPFC axis, but not between the regions that were not immediately adjacent. These findings generalize the representational hierarchy account of LPFC function to diverse core principles that can govern both production and comprehension of flexible real-life behavior. PMID:25224997

  11. The relationship between the human state and external perturbations of atmospheric, geomagnetic and solar origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavryuseva, E.; Kroussanova, N.

    2002-12-01

    The relationship between the state of human body and the external factors such as the different phenomena of solar activity, geomagnetic perturbations and local atmospheric characteristics is studied. The monitoring of blood pressure and electro-conductivity of human body in acupuncture points for a group fo 28 people over the period of 1.5 year has been performed daily from February 2001 to August 2002 in Capodimonte Observatory in Naples, Italy. The modified Voll method of electropuncture diagnostics was used. The strong correlation between the human body state and meteo conditions is found and the probable correlation with geomagnetic perturbations is discussed.

  12. Short Tandem-Repeat Polymorphism/Alu Haplotype Variation at the PLAT Locus: Implications for Modern Human Origins

    PubMed Central

    Tishkoff, S. A.; Pakstis, A. J.; Stoneking, M.; Kidd, J. R.; Destro-Bisol, G.; Sanjantila, A.; Lu, R.-b.; Deinard, A. S.; Sirugo, G.; Jenkins, T.; Kidd, K. K.; Clark, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    Two dinucleotide short tandem-repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and a polymorphic Alu element spanning a 22-kb region of the PLAT locus on chromosome 8p12-q11.2 were typed in 1,287–1,420 individuals originating from 30 geographically diverse human populations, as well as in 29 great apes. These data were analyzed as haplotypes consisting of each of the dinucleotide repeats and the flanking Alu insertion/deletion polymorphism. The global pattern of STRP/Alu haplotype variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is informative for the reconstruction of human evolutionary history. Sub-Saharan African populations have high levels of haplotype diversity within and between populations, relative to non-Africans, and have highly divergent patterns of LD. Non-African populations have both a subset of the haplotype diversity present in Africa and a distinct pattern of LD. The pattern of haplotype variation and LD observed at the PLAT locus suggests a recent common ancestry of non-African populations, from a small population originating in eastern Africa. These data indicate that, throughout much of modern human history, sub-Saharan Africa has maintained both a large effective population size and a high level of population substructure. Additionally, Papua New Guinean and Micronesian populations have rare haplotypes observed otherwise only in African populations, suggesting ancient gene flow from Africa into Papua New Guinea, as well as gene flow between Melanesian and Micronesian populations. PMID:10986042

  13. An enhanced role and expanded developmental origins for gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons in the human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Clowry, Gavin J

    2015-10-01

    Human beings have considerably expanded cognitive abilities compared with all other species and they also have a relatively larger cerebral cortex compared with their body size. But is a bigger brain the only reason for higher cognition or have other features evolved in parallel? Humans have more and different types of GABAergic interneurons, found in different places, than our model species. Studies are beginning to show differences in function. Is this expanded repertoire of functional types matched by an evolution of their developmental origins? Recent studies support the idea that generation of interneurons in the ventral telencephalon may be more complicated in primates, which have evolved a large and complex outer subventricular zone in the ganglionic eminences. In addition, proportionally more interneurons appear to be produced in the caudal ganglionic eminence, the majority of which populate the superficial layers of the cortex. Whether or not the cortical proliferative zones are a source of interneurogenesis, and to what extent and of what significance, is a contentious issue. As there is growing evidence that conditions such as autism, schizophrenia and congenital epilepsy may have developmental origins in the failure of interneuron production and migration, it is important we understand fully the similarities and differences between human development and our animal models. PMID:24839870

  14. Original Article Cognitive adaptations for gathering-related navigation in humans

    E-print Network

    Cosmides, Leda

    selection has built specialized cognitive adaptations to support efficient gath- ering of plant foods. 1 on ethnographically known hunter-gatherers, Evolution and Human Behavior 32 (2011) 1­12 Corresponding author. Tel

  15. Tracking the evolutionary origins of dog-human cooperation: the “Canine Cooperation Hypothesis”

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    At present, beyond the fact that dogs can be easier socialized with humans than wolves, we know little about the motivational and cognitive effects of domestication. Despite this, it has been suggested that during domestication dogs have become socially more tolerant and attentive than wolves. These two characteristics are crucial for cooperation, and it has been argued that these changes allowed dogs to successfully live and work with humans. However, these domestication hypotheses have been put forward mainly based on dog-wolf differences reported in regard to their interactions with humans. Thus, it is possible that these differences reflect only an improved capability of dogs to accept humans as social partners instead of an increase of their general tolerance, attentiveness and cooperativeness. At the Wolf Science Center, in order to detangle these two explanations, we raise and keep dogs and wolves similarly socializing them with conspecifics and humans and then test them in interactions not just with humans but also conspecifics. When investigating attentiveness toward human and conspecific partners using different paradigms, we found that the wolves were at least as attentive as the dogs to their social partners and their actions. Based on these findings and the social ecology of wolves, we propose the Canine Cooperation Hypothesis suggesting that wolves are characterized with high social attentiveness and tolerance and are highly cooperative. This is in contrast with the implications of most domestication hypotheses about wolves. We argue, however, that these characteristics of wolves likely provided a good basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation. PMID:25642203

  16. A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; Yu, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2007-07-01

    Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named "Melaka virus") isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family members developed similar symptoms approximately 1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus. Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house approximately 1 week before the onset of the father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans. PMID:17592121

  17. A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; Yu, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named “Melaka virus”) isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family members developed similar symptoms ?1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus. Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house ?1 week before the onset of the father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans. PMID:17592121

  18. The origin and evolution of the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, 1970-90.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1960s William E. Cornatzer, MD, PhD suggested the need for increased USDA research concerning human nutrition and creation of the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Laboratory (later the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center). He shared ideas with Senator Milton R. Young of North Dakota who requested that the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) prepare a proposal for such a program. In 1963 Senator Young submitted the proposal that included construction of regional centers to the U.S. Senate. The Grand Forks Human Nutrition Laboratory began operation in 1970. The attentions of Senator Young, Representative/Senator Mark Andrews, and Senator Quentin Burdick concerning the budgetary and construction needs facilitated development of the Center from its inception through 1990. Success of the enterprise rests on the creativity, industry, and other qualities of the Center's scientists and support staff, and collaborators at cooperating institutions. Their work resulted in a greater understanding of trace element nutrition and it role in human health. PMID:19056635

  19. Unusual feeding behavior in wild great apes, a window to understand origins of self-medication in humans: Role of sociality and physiology on learning process

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    Unusual feeding behavior in wild great apes, a window to understand origins of self-medication Medicinal plants Gut detoxication abilities Observational learning Self-medication Chimpanzees Western with pharmacological prop- erties. Providing insight on the origins of human self-medication, this study investigates

  20. Defined Conditions for the Isolation and Expansion of Basal Prostate Progenitor Cells of Mouse and Human Origin

    PubMed Central

    Höfner, Thomas; Eisen, Christian; Klein, Corinna; Rigo-Watermeier, Teresa; Goeppinger, Stephan M.; Jauch, Anna; Schoell, Brigitte; Vogel, Vanessa; Noll, Elisa; Weichert, Wilko; Baccelli, Irène; Schillert, Anja; Wagner, Steve; Pahernik, Sascha; Sprick, Martin R.; Trumpp, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Methods to isolate and culture primary prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells (PESCs) have proven difficult and ineffective. Here, we present a method to grow and expand both murine and human basal PESCs long term in serum- and feeder-free conditions. The method enriches for adherent mouse basal PESCs with a Lin?SCA-1+CD49f+TROP2high phenotype. Progesterone and sodium selenite are additionally required for the growth of human Lin?CD49f+TROP2high PESCs. The gene-expression profiles of expanded basal PESCs show similarities to ESCs, and NF-kB function is critical for epithelial differentiation of sphere-cultured PESCs. When transplanted in combination with urogenital sinus mesenchyme, expanded mouse and human PESCs generate ectopic prostatic tubules, demonstrating their stem cell activity in vivo. This novel method will facilitate the molecular, genomic, and functional characterization of normal and pathologic prostate glands of mouse and human origin. PMID:25702639

  1. Evolution of human longevity, population pressure and the origins of warfare.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Robin

    2005-01-01

    In a protected environment, humans have the longest lifespan of all primates. However, during the emergence of Homo sapiens from pre-hominids, the expectation of life at birth would have been quite low. On the basis of reasonable assumptions, an average expectation of life of less than 20 years is sufficient to maintain a population of hunter-gatherers. As individuals became better adapted to their environment, the mortality rate would gradually decrease, and this would result in the survival of more offspring to adulthood. Thus, the population will increase, and one of the consequences in human evolution is the migration of human communities to many new habitats. The development of agriculture provided a more reliable source of food, and stimulated further the increase in population size. Villages became towns, and then cities, states and empires arose which had very large populations, and competed for land and other resources. Armies were raised and were often at war. All this was due to population pressure, as Malthus had realised more than 200 years ago. However, neither he, nor any of the others who discussed warfare, understood that the demographic changes that produced large human populations was a steady increase in the expectation of life at birth. This inevitably occurred at the same time as man gradually gained more control over his environment, and achieved far more reproductive success than is seen in hunter-gatherers living in a harsh, stressful environment. PMID:16463113

  2. The Origins of Sex Differences in Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions versus Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    Explores whether evolved disposition that differs by sex or social structure explains sex differences in human behavior. Illustrates the explanatory power of each theory, and reviews a study (D. Buss, 1989) that supports the social structural theory with respect to mate preference. (SLD)

  3. Built for Speed: Pleistocene Climate Variation and the Origin of Human Culture

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    to local environments that happens to have resulted in our current ecological dominance by accident breakthrough rather than a conventional adaptation to a particular ecological niche. Neither hypothesis Introduction The evolution of humans is a major event in the Earth's biotic history. Never before has a single

  4. Diverse Genetic Markers Concordantly Identify Bovine Origin Escherichia coli O157 Genotypes Underrepresented in Human Disease? †

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Joshua; Zhang, Yubei; Bono, James; Pleydell, Eve; French, Nigel; Besser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Genetic markers previously reported to occur at significantly different frequencies in isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 obtained from cattle and from clinically affected humans concordantly delineate at least five genetic groups. Isolates in three of these groups consistently carry one or more markers rarely found among clinical isolates. PMID:19880648

  5. An ancestry informative marker set for determining continental origin: validation and extension using human genome diversity panels

    PubMed Central

    Nassir, Rami; Kosoy, Roman; Tian, Chao; White, Phoebe A; Butler, Lesley M; Silva, Gabriel; Kittles, Rick; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Gregersen, Peter K; Belmont, John W; De La Vega, Francisco M; Seldin, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Background Case-control genetic studies of complex human diseases can be confounded by population stratification. This issue can be addressed using panels of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) that can provide substantial population substructure information. Previously, we described a panel of 128 SNP AIMs that were designed as a tool for ascertaining the origins of subjects from Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Americas, and East Asia. Results In this study, genotypes from Human Genome Diversity Panel populations were used to further evaluate a 93 SNP AIM panel, a subset of the 128 AIMS set, for distinguishing continental origins. Using both model-based and relatively model-independent methods, we here confirm the ability of this AIM set to distinguish diverse population groups that were not previously evaluated. This study included multiple population groups from Oceana, South Asia, East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North and South America, and Europe. In addition, the 93 AIM set provides population substructure information that can, for example, distinguish Arab and Ashkenazi from Northern European population groups and Pygmy from other Sub-Saharan African population groups. Conclusion These data provide additional support for using the 93 AIM set to efficiently identify continental subject groups for genetic studies, to identify study population outliers, and to control for admixture in association studies. PMID:19630973

  6. Homeotic Evolution in the Mammalia: Diversification of Therian Axial Seriation and the Morphogenetic Basis of Human Origins

    PubMed Central

    Filler, Aaron G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the rising interest in homeotic genes, little has been known about the course and pattern of evolution of homeotic traits across the mammalian radiation. An array of emerging and diversifying homeotic gradients revealed by this study appear to generate new body plans and drive evolution at a large scale. Methodology/Principal Findings This study identifies and evaluates a set of homeotic gradients across 250 extant and fossil mammalian species and their antecedents over a period of 220 million years. These traits are generally expressed as co-linear gradients along the body axis rather than as distinct segmental identities. Relative position or occurrence sequence vary independently and are subject to polarity reversal and mirroring. Five major gradient modification sets are identified: (1)–quantitative changes of primary segmental identity pattern that appeared at the origin of the tetrapods ; (2)–frame shift relation of costal and vertebral identity which diversifies from the time of amniote origins; (3)–duplication, mirroring, splitting and diversification of the neomorphic laminar process first commencing at the dawn of mammals; (4)–emergence of homologically variable lumbar lateral processes upon commencement of the radiation of therian mammals and ; (5)–inflexions and transpositions of the relative position of the horizontal septum of the body and the neuraxis at the emergence of various orders of therian mammals. Convergent functional changes under homeotic control include laminar articular engagement with septo-neural transposition and ventrally arrayed lumbar transverse process support systems. Conclusion/Significance Clusters of homeotic transformations mark the emergence point of mammals in the Triassic and the radiation of therians in the Cretaceous. A cluster of homeotic changes in the Miocene hominoid Morotopithecus that are still seen in humans supports establishment of a new “hominiform” clade and suggests a homeotic origin for the human upright body plan. PMID:17925867

  7. First Ancient Mitochondrial Human Genome from a Prepastoralist Southern African

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew B.; Hayes, Vanessa M.

    2014-01-01

    The oldest contemporary human mitochondrial lineages arose in Africa. The earliest divergent extant maternal offshoot, namely haplogroup L0d, is represented by click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa. Broadly defined as Khoesan, contemporary Khoesan are today largely restricted to the semidesert regions of Namibia and Botswana, whereas archeological, historical, and genetic evidence promotes a once broader southerly dispersal of click-speaking peoples including southward migrating pastoralists and indigenous marine-foragers. No genetic data have been recovered from the indigenous peoples that once sustained life along the southern coastal waters of Africa prepastoral arrival. In this study we generate a complete mitochondrial genome from a 2,330-year-old male skeleton, confirmed through osteological and archeological analysis as practicing a marine-based forager existence. The ancient mtDNA represents a new L0d2c lineage (L0d2c1c) that is today, unlike its Khoe-language based sister-clades (L0d2c1a and L0d2c1b) most closely related to contemporary indigenous San-speakers (specifically Ju). Providing the first genomic evidence that prepastoral Southern African marine foragers carried the earliest diverged maternal modern human lineages, this study emphasizes the significance of Southern African archeological remains in defining early modern human origins. PMID:25212860

  8. On the origin of burstiness in human behavior: The wikipedia edits case

    E-print Network

    Gandica, Yerali; Aidos, Fernando Sampaio Dos; Lambiotte, Renaud; Carletti, and Timoteo

    2016-01-01

    A number of human activities exhibit a bursty pattern, namely periods of very high activity that are followed by rest periods. Records of this process generate time series of events whose inter-event times follow a probability distribution that displays a fat tail. The grounds for such phenomenon are not yet clearly understood. In the present work we use the freely available Wikipedia's editing records to tackle this question by measuring the level of burstiness, as well as the memory effect of the editing tasks performed by different editors in different pages. Our main finding is that, even though the editing activity is conditioned by the circadian 24 hour cycle, the conditional probability of an activity of a given duration at a given time of the day is independent from the latter. This suggests that the human activity seems to be related to the high "cost" of starting an action as opposed to the much lower "cost" of continuing that action.

  9. Evolution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157: eight major lineages of human and cattle origin strain signature genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are a major reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) and harbor genetic subtypes that do not all associate with human disease. STEC O157 evolved from an E. coli O55:H7 progenitor, however, depauperate nucleotide polymorphism discovery from cattle and human origin...

  10. Origin and propagation of human gastric slow-wave activity defined by high-resolution mapping

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peng; Cheng, Leo K.; Egbuji, John U.; Lammers, Wim J. E. P.; Windsor, John A.; Pullan, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Slow waves coordinate gastric motility, and abnormal slow-wave activity is thought to contribute to motility disorders. The current understanding of normal human gastric slow-wave activity is based on extrapolation from data derived from sparse electrode recordings and is therefore potentially incomplete. This study employed high-resolution (HR) mapping to reevaluate human gastric slow-wave activity. HR mapping was performed in 12 patients with normal stomachs undergoing upper abdominal surgery, using flexible printed circuit board (PCB) arrays (interelectrode distance 7.6 mm). Up to six PCBs (192 electrodes; 93 cm2) were used simultaneously. Slow-wave activity was characterized by spatiotemporal mapping, and regional frequencies, amplitudes, and velocities were defined and compared. Slow-wave activity in the pacemaker region (mid to upper corpus, greater curvature) was of greater amplitude (mean 0.57 mV) and higher velocity (8.0 mm/s) than the corpus (0.25 mV, 3.0 mm/s) (P < 0.001) and displayed isotropic propagation. A marked transition to higher amplitude and velocity activity occurred in the antrum (0.52 mV, 5.9 mm/s) (P < 0.001). Multiple (3–4) wavefronts were found to propagate simultaneously in the organoaxial direction. Frequencies were consistent between regions (2.83 ± 0.35 cycles per min). HR mapping has provided a more complete understanding of normal human gastric slow-wave activity. The pacemaker region is associated with high-amplitude, high-velocity activity, and multiple wavefronts propagate simultaneously. These data provide a baseline for future HR mapping studies in disease states and will inform noninvasive diagnostic strategies. PMID:20595620

  11. The origins of polarimetric image contrast between healthy and cancerous human colon tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, T.; Pierangelo, A.; Manhas, S.; Benali, A.; Validire, P.; Gayet, B.; De Martino, A.

    2013-06-01

    Experimentally measured spectral Mueller matrix images of ex vivo human colon tissue revealed the contrast enhancement between healthy and cancerous zones of colon specimen compared to unpolarized intensity images. Cancer development starts with abnormal changes which being not yet visible macroscopically may alter the polarization of reflected light. We have shown with experiments and modeling that light scattering by small (sub wavelength) scatterers and light absorption (mainly due to blood hemoglobin) are the key factors for observed polarimetric image contrast. These findings can pave the way for the alternative optical technique for the monitoring and early detection of cancer.

  12. Human genes involved in copy number variation: mechanisms of origin, functional effects and implications for disease

    PubMed Central

    de Smith, A.J.; Walters, R.G.; Froguel, P.; Blakemore, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) overlap over 7000 genes, many of which are pivotal in biological pathways. The implications of this are profound, with consequences for evolutionary studies, population genetics, gene function and human phenotype, including elucidation of genetic susceptibility to major common diseases, the heritability of which has thus far defied full explanation. Even though this research is still in its infancy, CNVs have already been associated with a number of monogenic, syndromic and complex diseases: the development of high throughput and high resolution techniques for CNV screening is likely to bring further new insights into the contribution of copy number variation to common diseases. Amongst genes overlapped by CNVs, significant enrichments for certain gene ontology categories have been identified, including those related to immune responses and interactions with the environment. Genes in both of these categories are thought to be important in evolutionary adaptation and to be particular targets of natural selection. Thus, a full appreciation of copy number variation may be important for our understanding of human evolution. PMID:19287135

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial squids from different geographical origins: levels and risks for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Filipa; Oliveira, Marta; Ramalhosa, Maria João; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in five commercially valuable squid species from different geographical origins (Atlantic, Indic and Pacific Oceans). Out of the 18 quantified PAHs (the 16 PAHs considered by US EPA as priority pollutants, dibenzo(a,l)pyrene and benzo(j)fluoranthene) only dibenz(a,h)anthracene was not detected. The total concentrations of PAHs varied by a factor of more than 100-fold, from 0.22 (Loligo gahi) to 60.9 ?g/kg ww (Loligo reynaudii). Intra- and inter-specific variability of PAH levels was statistically assessed. Nine carcinogenic (probable/possible) PAHs accounted for 1% (L. reynaudii) to 26% (Loligo opalescens) of the total PAHs content being the main contributors naphthalene (in Loligo duvaucelii, L. reynaudii and Loligo vulgaris species), chrysene (in L. opalescens) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (in L. gahi). PAHs source analysis indicated that four of the five zones of capture of the different squid species are significantly affected by both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources. Assessment of the target carcinogenic risks, established by the US EPA, suggested that L. gahi (Atlantic Ocean) and L. opalescens (from Pacific Ocean) may pose additional risks for consumers, if not eaten in moderation, derived from benzo(a)pyrene ingestion. PMID:23727335

  14. On the multiscale origins of fracture resistance in human bone and its biological degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Barth, Holly D.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2012-03-09

    Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length-scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone?s strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length-scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation and disease. Indeed aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length-scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to the initiation and growth of cracks.

  15. DNA curvature in front of the human mitochondrial L-strand replication origin with specific protein binding.

    PubMed Central

    Welter, C; Dooley, S; Zang, K D; Blin, N

    1989-01-01

    DNA bending has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of gene expression, initiation of DNA-replication, site specific recombination, and DNA packaging. In the human mitochondrial DNA we have found a DNA curvature structure within the 3'-region of ther URF2 sequence in front of the L-strand origin of replication. This structure interacts specifically with a protein factor isolated from mitochondria. Based on the localization of this DNA curvature structure and the known function of such structures the data suggest a model in which this DNA signal sequence and its specific protein binding is involved in the regulatory initiation event of L-strand replication. Images PMID:2475854

  16. Analysis of transcribed human endogenous retrovirus W env loci clarifies the origin of multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus env sequences

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Georg; Mayer, Jens; Mueller, Benedikt F; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus; Ruprecht, Klemens

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) RNA sequences have been detected in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and are related to the multi-copy human endogenous retrovirus family type W (HERV-W). Only one HERV-W locus (ERVWE1) codes for a complete HERV-W Env protein (Syncytin-1). Syncytin-1 and the putative MSRV Env protein have been involved in the pathogenesis of MS. The origin of MSRV and its precise relation to HERV-W were hitherto unknown. Results By mapping HERV-W env cDNA sequences (n = 332) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with MS and healthy controls onto individual genomic HERV-W env elements, we identified seven transcribed HERV-W env loci in these cells, including ERVWE1. Transcriptional activity of individual HERV-W env elements did not significantly differ between patients with MS and controls. Remarkably, almost 30% of HERV-W env cDNAs were recombined sequences that most likely arose in vitro between transcripts from different HERV-W env elements. Re-analysis of published MSRV env sequences revealed that all of them can be explained as originating from genomic HERV-W env loci or recombinations among them. In particular, a MSRV env clone previously used for the generation of monoclonal antibody 6A2B2, detecting an antigen in MS brain lesions, appears to be derived from a HERV-W env locus on chromosome Xq22.3. This locus harbors a long open reading frame for an N-terminally truncated HERV-W Env protein. Conclusion Our data clarify the origin of MSRV env sequences, have important implications for the status of MSRV, and open the possibility that a protein encoded by a HERV-W env element on chromosome Xq22.3 may be expressed in MS brain lesions. PMID:19368703

  17. Revising the embryonic origin of thyroid C cells in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ellen; Andersson, Louise; Örnros, Jessica; Carlsson, Therese; Ingeson-Carlsson, Camilla; Liang, Shawn; Dahlberg, Jakob; Jansson, Svante; Parrillo, Luca; Zoppoli, Pietro; Barila, Guillermo O.; Altschuler, Daniel L.; Padula, Daniela; Lickert, Heiko; Fagman, Henrik; Nilsson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Current understanding infers a neural crest origin of thyroid C cells, the major source of calcitonin in mammals and ancestors to neuroendocrine thyroid tumors. The concept is primarily based on investigations in quail–chick chimeras involving fate mapping of neural crest cells to the ultimobranchial glands that regulate Ca2+ homeostasis in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes, but whether mammalian C cell development involves a homologous ontogenetic trajectory has not been experimentally verified. With lineage tracing, we now provide direct evidence that Sox17+ anterior endoderm is the only source of differentiated C cells and their progenitors in mice. Like many gut endoderm derivatives, embryonic C cells were found to coexpress pioneer factors forkhead box (Fox) a1 and Foxa2 before neuroendocrine differentiation takes place. In the ultimobranchial body epithelium emerging from pharyngeal pouch endoderm in early organogenesis, differential Foxa1/Foxa2 expression distinguished two spatially separated pools of C cell precursors with different growth properties. A similar expression pattern was recapitulated in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells in vivo, consistent with a growth-promoting role of Foxa1. In contrast to embryonic precursor cells, C cell-derived tumor cells invading the stromal compartment downregulated Foxa2, foregoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition designated by loss of E-cadherin; both Foxa2 and E-cadherin were re-expressed at metastatic sites. These findings revise mammalian C cell ontogeny, expand the neuroendocrine repertoire of endoderm and redefine the boundaries of neural crest diversification. The data further underpin distinct functions of Foxa1 and Foxa2 in both embryonic and tumor development. PMID:26395490

  18. Revising the embryonic origin of thyroid C cells in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ellen; Andersson, Louise; Örnros, Jessica; Carlsson, Therese; Ingeson-Carlsson, Camilla; Liang, Shawn; Dahlberg, Jakob; Jansson, Svante; Parrillo, Luca; Zoppoli, Pietro; Barila, Guillermo O; Altschuler, Daniel L; Padula, Daniela; Lickert, Heiko; Fagman, Henrik; Nilsson, Mikael

    2015-10-15

    Current understanding infers a neural crest origin of thyroid C cells, the major source of calcitonin in mammals and ancestors to neuroendocrine thyroid tumors. The concept is primarily based on investigations in quail-chick chimeras involving fate mapping of neural crest cells to the ultimobranchial glands that regulate Ca(2+) homeostasis in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes, but whether mammalian C cell development involves a homologous ontogenetic trajectory has not been experimentally verified. With lineage tracing, we now provide direct evidence that Sox17+ anterior endoderm is the only source of differentiated C cells and their progenitors in mice. Like many gut endoderm derivatives, embryonic C cells were found to coexpress pioneer factors forkhead box (Fox) a1 and Foxa2 before neuroendocrine differentiation takes place. In the ultimobranchial body epithelium emerging from pharyngeal pouch endoderm in early organogenesis, differential Foxa1/Foxa2 expression distinguished two spatially separated pools of C cell precursors with different growth properties. A similar expression pattern was recapitulated in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells in vivo, consistent with a growth-promoting role of Foxa1. In contrast to embryonic precursor cells, C cell-derived tumor cells invading the stromal compartment downregulated Foxa2, foregoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition designated by loss of E-cadherin; both Foxa2 and E-cadherin were re-expressed at metastatic sites. These findings revise mammalian C cell ontogeny, expand the neuroendocrine repertoire of endoderm and redefine the boundaries of neural crest diversification. The data further underpin distinct functions of Foxa1 and Foxa2 in both embryonic and tumor development. PMID:26395490

  19. Origin of microcells in the human sarcoma cell line HT-1080.

    PubMed

    Bui?is, I; Harju, L; Freivalds, T

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of microcells in the human sarcoma cell line HT-1080 after interference with thiophosphamidum. We found that damaged interphase macrocells located at the projection of the nucleolus may form one or several microcells. The micronuclei of the microcells intensively incorporate the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and strongly express argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region proteins. At an early phase of the development, the micronuclei contain fragmented DNA, but in subsequent phases, the micronuclei accumulate polymeric DNA, simultaneously with an increase in their size. After desintegration of the damaged macrocell, the microcells appear in the intercellular space. The microcells can enter mitosis and they strongly express the lung resistance protein. Electron microscopic observations suggest that coiled bodies are involved in the development of the microcells. Since the observed path of microcell formation differs from apoptotic cell fragmentation into apoptotic bodies, we propose a new term for this microcell development: sporosis. We suggest that self-renewal of the tumour stem cells is likely based on sporosis. PMID:10468404

  20. African origins and chronic kidney disease susceptibility in the human immunodeficiency virus era

    PubMed Central

    Kasembeli, Alex N; Duarte, Raquel; Ramsay, Michèle; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide with the estimated incidence growing by approximately 6% annually. There are striking ethnic differences in the prevalence of CKD such that, in the United States, African Americans have the highest prevalence of CKD, four times the incidence of end stage renal disease when compared to Americans of European ancestry suggestive of genetic predisposition. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are the major causes of CKD. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an irreversible form of CKD with considerable morbidity and mortality and is present predominantly in people of African ancestry. The APOL1 G1 and G2 alleles were more strongly associated with the risk for CKD than the previously examined MYH9 E1 risk haplotype in individuals of African ancestry. A strong association was reported in HIVAN, suggesting that 50% of African Americans with two APOL1 risk alleles, if untreated, would develop HIVAN. However these two variants are not enough to cause disease. The prevailing belief is that modifying factors or second hits (including genetic hits) underlie the pathogenesis of kidney disease. This work reviews the history of genetic susceptibility of CKD and outlines current theories regarding the role for APOL1 in CKD in the HIV era. PMID:25949944

  1. Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Emerging Enteric Picobirnaviruses of Animal Origin and Their Relationship to Human Strains

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Yashpal S.; Kumar, Naveen; Sharma, Kuldeep; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Banyai, Krisztian

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae.” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior. Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated. Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses. Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach. Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains. PMID:25136620

  2. Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Zalloua, Pierre; Benammar Elgaaied, Amel; Comas, David

    2013-01-01

    The geostrategic location of North Africa as a crossroad between three continents and as a stepping-stone outside Africa has evoked anthropological and genetic interest in this region. Numerous studies have described the genetic landscape of the human population in North Africa employing paternal, maternal, and biparental molecular markers. However, information from these markers which have different inheritance patterns has been mostly assessed independently, resulting in an incomplete description of the region. In this study, we analyze uniparental and genome-wide markers examining similarities or contrasts in the results and consequently provide a comprehensive description of the evolutionary history of North Africa populations. Our results show that both males and females in North Africa underwent a similar admixture history with slight differences in the proportions of admixture components. Consequently, genome-wide diversity show similar patterns with admixture tests suggesting North Africans are a mixture of ancestral populations related to current Africans and Eurasians with more affinity towards the out-of-Africa populations than to sub-Saharan Africans. We estimate from the paternal lineages that most North Africans emerged ?15,000 years ago during the last glacial warming and that population splits started after the desiccation of the Sahara. Although most North Africans share a common admixture history, the Tunisian Berbers show long periods of genetic isolation and appear to have diverged from surrounding populations without subsequent mixture. On the other hand, continuous gene flow from the Middle East made Egyptians genetically closer to Eurasians than to other North Africans. We show that genetic diversity of today's North Africans mostly captures patterns from migrations post Last Glacial Maximum and therefore may be insufficient to inform on the initial population of the region during the Middle Paleolithic period. PMID:24312208

  3. BROADER UTILIZATION OF ORIGINS OF DNA REPLICATION IN CANCER CELL LINES ALONG A 78 KB REGION OF HUMAN CHROMOSOME 2q34

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Manuel S.; Hu, Lan; Lueders, John; Walker, Robert; Meltzer, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Human DNA replication depends on the activation of thousands of origins distributed within the genome. The actual distribution of origins is not known, nor whether this distribution is unique to a cell type, or if it changes with the proliferative state of the cell. In this study we have employed a real time PCR-based nascent strand DNA abundance assay, to determine the location of origins along a 78 kb region on Ch2q34. Preliminary studies using nascent DNA strands isolated from either HeLa and normal skin fibroblast cells showed that in both cell lines peaks of high origin activity mapped in similar locations. However, the overall origin profile in HeLa cells corresponded to broad origin activation zones, whereas in fibroblasts a more punctuated profile of origin activation was observed. To investigate the relevance of this differential origin profile, we compared the origin distribution profiles in breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, BT-474, and MCF-7, to their normal counterpart MCF-10A. In addition, the CRL7250 cell line was also used as a normal control. Our results validated our earlier observation and showed that the origin profile in normal cell lines exhibited a punctuated pattern, in contrast to broader zone profiles observed in the cancer cell lines. A quantitative analysis of origin peaks revealed that the number of activated origins in cancer cells is statistically larger than that obtained in normal cells, suggesting that the flexibility of origin usage is significantly increased in cancer cells compared to their normal counterparts. PMID:21898540

  4. Ancient origin and molecular features of the novel human T-lymphotropic virus type 3 revealed by complete genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Qari, Shoukat H; Wolfe, Nathan D; Burke, Donald S; Folks, Thomas M; Heneine, Walid

    2006-08-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 3 (HTLV-3) is a new virus recently identified in two primate hunters in Central Africa. Limited sequence analysis shows that HTLV-3 is distinct from HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 but is genetically similar to simian T-lymphotropic virus type 3 (STLV-3). We report here the first complete HTLV-3 sequence obtained by PCR-based genome walking using uncultured peripheral blood lymphocytes from an HTLV-3-infected person. The HTLV-3(2026ND) genome is 8,917 bp long and is genetically equidistant from HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, sharing about 62% identity. Phylogenetic analysis of all gene regions confirms this relationship and shows that HTLV-3 falls within the diversity of STLV-3, suggesting a primate origin. However, HTLV-3(2026ND) is unique, sharing only 87% to 92% sequence identity with STLV-3. SimPlot and phylogenetic analysis did not reveal any evidence of genetic recombination with either HTLV-1, HTLV-2, or STLV-3. Molecular dating estimates that the ancestor of HTLV-3 is as old as HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, with an inferred divergence time of 36,087 to 54,067 years ago. HTLV-3 has a prototypic genomic structure, with all enzymatic, regulatory, and structural proteins preserved. Like STLV-3, HTLV-3 is missing a third 21-bp transcription element found in the long terminal repeats of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 but instead contains a unique activator protein-1 transcription factor upstream of the 21-bp repeat elements. A PDZ motif, like that in HTLV-1, which is important for cellular signal transduction and transformation, is present in the C terminus of the HTLV-3 Tax protein. A basic leucine zipper region located in the antisense strand of HTLV-1, believed to play a role in viral replication and oncogenesis, was also found in the complementary strand of HTLV-3. The ancient origin of HTLV-3, the broad distribution of STLV-3 in Africa, and the propensity of STLVs to cross species into humans all suggest that HTLV-3 may be prevalent and support the need for expanded surveillance for this virus. PMID:16840323

  5. Adhesion of Human and Animal Escherichia coli Strains in Association with Their Virulence-Associated Genes and Phylogenetic Origins

    PubMed Central

    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

  6. “The city of Hepar”: Rituals, gastronomy, and politics at the origins of the modern names for the liver

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Riva, Enrica; Spicci, Mauro; Strazzabosco, Mario; Giovannini, Marcello; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Medical etymology sometimes provides unexpected information about health concepts and medical practice in different times and cultures. We conducted an etymological analysis of the terms used to indicate “liver” in Germanic and Romance languages. The Greek word “hèpar” was originally connected to the concept of “pleasure”, showing that in antiquity the liver was considered to be the seat of soul and human feelings. In Romance languages, the Latin term “ficatum” was linked to the ancient practice of fattening geese with figs (ficus in Latin) to make their livers more delicious. This relationship between the liver, fat, and carbohydrates seems to indicate that ancient gourmets had clear knowledge of the nutritional mechanisms underlying “fatty liver” in animals. On the other hand, the Germanic term “lifere” was initially connected to “life”, underscoring the relation of the liver to health and existence. In the Early Modern Age, the liver became a recurring image in political reflection, especially within the Elizabethan tradition of the body politic, where the king was frequently described as the “liver” of his country. Finally, the liver was used to indicate courage, or the lack of it: some modern French and English idiomatic expressions derive from the ancient belief that people who had no blood in their liver (“lily-livered”) would thus be cowards or betrayers. PMID:21718666

  7. "The city of Hepar": rituals, gastronomy, and politics at the origins of the modern names for the liver.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Riva, Enrica; Spicci, Mauro; Strazzabosco, Mario; Giovannini, Marcello; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2011-11-01

    Medical etymology sometimes provides unexpected information about health concepts and medical practice in different times and cultures. We conducted an etymological analysis of the terms used to indicate "liver" in Germanic and Romance languages. The Greek word "hèpar" was originally connected to the concept of "pleasure", showing that in antiquity the liver was considered to be the seat of soul and human feelings. In Romance languages, the Latin term "ficatum" was linked to the ancient practice of fattening geese with figs (ficus in Latin) to make their livers more delicious. This relationship between the liver, fat, and carbohydrates seems to indicate that ancient gourmets had clear knowledge of the nutritional mechanisms underlying "fatty liver" in animals. On the other hand, the Germanic term "lifere" was initially connected to "life", underscoring the relation of the liver to health and existence. In the Early Modern Age, the liver became a recurring image in political reflection, especially within the Elizabethan tradition of the body politic, where the king was frequently described as the "liver" of his country. Finally, the liver was used to indicate courage, or the lack of it: some modern French and English idiomatic expressions derive from the ancient belief that people who had no blood in their liver ("lily-livered") would thus be cowards or betrayers. PMID:21718666

  8. Osteogenic Potential of Human Oral-Periosteal Cells (PCs) Isolated From Different Oral Origin: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Graziano, Antonio; Benedetti, Laura; Imbriani, Marcello; Romano, Federica; Ferrarotti, Francesco; Aimetti, Mario; Cusella De Angelis, Gabriella M

    2016-03-01

    The periosteum is a specialized connective tissue containing multipotent stem cells capable of bone formation. In this study, we aimed at demonstrating that human oral periosteal cells derived from three different oral sites (upper vestibule, lower vestibule, and hard palate) represent an innovative cell source for maxillo-facial tissue engineering applications in terms of accessibility and self-commitment towards osteogenic lineage. Periosteal cells (PCs) were isolated from patients with different ages (20-30 yy, 40-50 yy, 50-60 yy); we then analyzed the in vitro proliferation capacity and the bone self-commitment of cell clones culturing them without any osteogenic supplement to support their differentiation. We found that oral PCs, independently of their origin and age of patients, are mesenchymal stem cells with stem cell characteristics (clonogenical and proliferative activity) and that, even in absence of any osteogenic induction, they undertake the osteoblast lineage after 45 days of culture. These results suggest that oral periosteal cells could replace mesenchymal cells from bone marrow in oral tissue-engineering applications. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 607-612, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26206324

  9. Evolution of influenza A virus nucleoprotein genes: implications for the origins of H1N1 human and classical swine viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, O T; Bean, W J; Kawaoka, Y; Donatelli, I; Guo, Y J; Webster, R G

    1991-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of 52 published and 37 new nucleoprotein (NP) gene sequences addressed the evolution and origin of human and swine influenza A viruses. H1N1 human and classical swine viruses (i.e., those related to Swine/Iowa/15/30) share a single common ancestor, which was estimated to have occurred in 1912 to 1913. From this common ancestor, human and classical swine virus NP genes have evolved at similar rates that are higher than in avian virus NP genes (3.31 to 3.41 versus 1.90 nucleotide changes per year). At the protein level, human virus NPs have evolved twice as fast as classical swine virus NPs (0.66 versus 0.34 amino acid change per year). Despite evidence of frequent interspecies transmission of human and classical swine viruses, our analysis indicates that these viruses have evolved independently since well before the first isolates in the early 1930s. Although our analysis cannot reveal the original host, the ancestor virus was avianlike, showing only five amino acid differences from the root of the avian virus NP lineage. The common pattern of relationship and origin for the NP and other genes of H1N1 human and classical swine viruses suggests that the common ancestor was an avian virus and not a reassortant derived from previous human or swine influenza A viruses. The new avianlike H1N1 swine viruses in Europe may provide a model for the evolution of newly introduced avian viruses into the swine host reservoir. The NPs of these viruses are evolving more rapidly than those of human or classical swine viruses (4.50 nucleotide changes and 0.74 amino acid change per year), and when these rates are applied to pre-1930s human and classical swine virus NPs, the predicted date of a common ancestor is 1918 rather than 1912 to 1913. Thus, our NP phylogeny is consistent with historical records and the proposal that a short time before 1918, a new H1N1 avianlike virus entered human or swine hosts (O. T. Gorman, R. O. Donis, Y. Kawaoka, and R. G. Webster, J. Virol. 64:4893-4902, 1990). This virus provided the ancestors of all known human influenza A virus genes, except for HA, NA, and PB1, which have since been reassorted from avian viruses. We propose that during 1918 a virulent strain of this new avianlike virus caused a severe human influenza pandemic and that the pandemic virus was introduced into North American swine populations, constituting the origin of classical swine virus. PMID:2041090

  10. Eukaryotic origins

    PubMed Central

    Lake, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the eukaryotes is a fundamental scientific question that for over 30 years has generated a spirited debate between the competing Archaea (or three domains) tree and the eocyte tree. As eukaryotes ourselves, humans have a personal interest in our origins. Eukaryotes contain their defining organelle, the nucleus, after which they are named. They have a complex evolutionary history, over time acquiring multiple organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula, and other organelles all of which may hint at their origins. It is the evolutionary history of the nucleus and their other organelles that have intrigued molecular evolutionists, myself included, for the past 30 years and which continues to hold our interest as increasingly compelling evidence favours the eocyte tree. As with any orthodoxy, it takes time to embrace new concepts and techniques. PMID:26323753

  11. Time and Place of Human Origins, the African Eve Hypothesis Examined through Modelling: Can High Schools Contribute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnard, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Studies of mitochondrial DNA imply that modern humans arose in Africa 150,000 years ago and spread throughout the world, replacing all prior human groups. But many paleontologists see continuity in human fossils on each continent and over a much longer time. Modeling may help test these alternatives. (Author/MKR)

  12. Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (? 90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case-control studies can be enhanced by incorporating source attribution data and vice versa. PMID:24503703

  13. Religion: Origins and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John K.

    2004-01-01

    We present the purpose of study of the origins and development of affect-relevant and religion-relevant hypotheses, and conjectured prediction of proto-religious sequences in pre-human anthropoids and primitive human cultures. We anticipate more comprehensive study of modern cultural outcomes of these origins and developments.

  14. CROSS-SPECIES TRANSMISSION OF GIARDIA: INOCULATION OF BEAVERS AND MUSKRATS WITH CYSTS OF HUMAN, BEAVER, MOUSE, AND MUSKRAT ORIGIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia cysts isolated from humans, beavers, mice and muskrats were tested in cross-species transmission experiments for their ability to infect either beavers or muskrats. iardia cysts, derived from multiple symptomatic human donors and used for inoculation of beavers ormuskrats...

  15. Differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro of islets from human, nonhuman primate and porcine origin

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Kate R; Balamurugan, A.N.; Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Hooper, Rebecca L; Weegman, Bradley P; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Taylor, Michael J; Graham, Melanie L; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine islet xenotransplantation is considered a potential cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes. It is currently being evaluated in diabetic nonhuman primates (NHP) to assess safety and efficacy of the islet product. However, due to a variety of distinct differences between the respective species, including the insulin secretory characteristics of islets, the suitability and predictive value of the preclinical model in the extrapolation to the clinical setting remains a critical issue. Methods Islets isolated from human (n=3), NHP (n=2), adult pig (AP, n=3) and juvenile pig (JP, n=3) pancreata were perifused with medium at basal glucose (2.5mM) followed by high glucose (16.7mM) concentrations. The total glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was calculated from generated insulin secretion profiles. Results NHP islets exhibited GSIS 3-fold higher than human islets, while AP and JP islets exhibited GSIS 1/3 and 1/16 of human islets, respectively. The insulin content of NHP and AP islets was similar to that of human islets, whereas that of JP islets was 1/3 of human islets. Conclusion Despite the fact that human, NHP, and AP islets contain similar amounts of insulin, the much higher GSIS for NHP islets than for human, AP and JP islets suggests the need for increased dosing of islets from JP and AP in pig-to-NHP transplantation which may be substantially higher than that required for humans. Finally, porcine islet xenotransplantation to humans may require significantly higher dosing given the lower GSIS of AP islets compared to human islets. PMID:23384163

  16. Differential Induction of Type I and Type III Interferons by Swine and Human Origin H1N1 Influenza A Viruses in Porcine Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Venkatramana D.; Roach, Erin; Zaidman, Nathan A.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Rotschafer, Jessica H.; O’Grady, Scott M.; Cheeran, Maxim C-J.

    2015-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) have been shown to inhibit influenza A virus (IAV) replication and play an essential role in controlling viral infection. Here we studied the kinetics and magnitude of induction of type I and type III IFN transcripts by primary porcine airway epithelial cells (pAECs) in response to swine and human origin IAV. We observed that swine influenza viruses (SIV) replicate more efficiently than the human pandemic influenza A/California/2009 (pH1N1 CA/09) in pAECs. Interestingly, we also found significant difference in kinetics of IFN-?, IFN-?1 and IFN-?3 gene expression by these viruses. While there was delay of up to 12 hours post infection (h p.i.) in induction of IFN genes in pAECs infected with swine IAV A/Sw/Illinois/2008 (H1N1 IL/08), human pH1N1 CA/09 rapidly induced IFN-?, IFN-?1 and IFN-?3 gene expression as early as 4 h p.i. However, the magnitude of IFN-? and IFN-?3 induction at 24 h p.i. was not significantly different between the viral strains tested. Additionally, we found that swine H1N1 IL/08 was less sensitive to dsRNA induced antiviral response compared to human pH1N1 CA/09. Our data suggest that the human and swine IAVs differ in their ability to induce and respond to type I and type III interferons in swine cells. Swine origin IAV may have adapted to the pig host by subverting innate antiviral responses to viral infection. PMID:26384331

  17. Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Attaches to Epithelium in Both Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract of Humans

    PubMed Central

    van Riel, Debby; Leijten, Lonneke M.E.; de Graaf, Miranda; Siegers, Jurre Y.; Short, Kirsty R.; Spronken, Monique I.J.; Schrauwen, Eefje J.A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses from animal reservoirs have the capacity to adapt to humans and cause influenza pandemics. The occurrence of an influenza pandemic requires efficient virus transmission among humans, which is associated with virus attachment to the upper respiratory tract. Pandemic severity depends on virus ability to cause pneumonia, which is associated with virus attachment to the lower respiratory tract. Recently, a novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus with unknown pandemic potential emerged in humans. We determined the pattern of attachment of two genetically engineered viruses containing the hemagglutinin of either influenza virus A/Shanghai/1/13 or A/Anhui/1/13 to formalin-fixed human respiratory tract tissues using histochemical analysis. Our results show that the emerging H7N9 virus attached moderately or abundantly to both upper and lower respiratory tract, a pattern not seen before for avian influenza A viruses. With the caveat that virus attachment is only the first step in the virus replication cycle, these results suggest that the emerging H7N9 virus has the potential both to transmit efficiently among humans and to cause severe pneumonia. PMID:24029490

  18. The origins of human gene mapping. With particular reference to the contributions of J. B. S. Haldane.

    PubMed

    Dronamraju, K R

    1987-11-01

    Methods in human gene mapping, including those developed by Bell and Haldane, Morton, and the more recent ones using somatic cell fusion, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and multipoint linkage, are briefly reviewed. PMID:3328738

  19. Structure of the NS1 Protein N-Terminal Origin Recognition/Nickase Domain from the Emerging Human Bocavirus

    E-print Network

    Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Zhao, Haiyan; Shen, Weiran; Qiu, Jianming; Tang, Liang

    2013-08-21

    Human bocavirus is a newly identified, globally prevalent, parvovirus that is associated with respiratory infection in infants and young children. Parvoviruses encode a large nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) that is essential for replication...

  20. Molecular identification by RNA-RNA hybridization of a human rotavirus that is closely related to rotaviruses of feline and canine origin.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagomi, O; Ohshima, A; Aboudy, Y; Shif, I; Mochizuki, M; Nakagomi, T; Gotlieb-Stematsky, T

    1990-01-01

    With a few exceptions subgroup I group A human rotavirus strains have short RNA patterns, whereas most animal rotavirus strains belong to subgroup I and have long RNA patterns. Thus, new isolates of subgroup I human rotaviruses with long RNA patterns are considered to have a high likelihood of being animal rotaviruses. A group of human rotaviruses represented by the AU-1 strain has recently been shown to be genetically related to a feline rotavirus (FRV-1) isolated in Japan. A human rotavirus, strain Ro1845, which is similar to the AU-1 strain in its subgroup (I), serotype (3), and electropherotype (long), was compared with various human and animal strains by RNA-RNA hybridization to determine its genogroup, a term proposed to classify rotaviruses based on their gene homology. The Ro1845 strain did not show a significant level of homology with AU-1, FRV-1, or other human strains, indicating that the Ro1845 strain is different in its genogroup not only from the AU-1 strain but also from other human strains. However, the Ro1845 strain showed a high degree of homology with another feline rotavirus (Cat97) isolated previously in Australia, suggesting that the Ro1845 strain might originate from a feline rotavirus that is genetically distinct from the Japanese FRV-1 strain. Furthermore, the Ro1845 strain as well as the Cat97 strain were related genetically to the canine rotavirus RS15 strain. Taken together, these results indicate that at least two genogroups are present in feline rotaviruses, one resembling the AU-1 strain and the other resembling the Ro1845 strain as well as canine rotaviruses. Images PMID:2166076

  1. Suitability of human and mammalian cells of different origin for the assessment of genotoxicity of metal and polymeric engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Hilary; Magdolenova, Zuzana; Saunders, Margaret; Drlickova, Martina; Correia Carreira, Sara; Halamoda Kenzaoi, Blanka; Gombau, Lourdes; Guadagnini, Rina; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Walker, Laura; Fjellsbø, Lise Marie; Huk, Anna; Rinna, Alessandra; Tran, Lang; Volkovova, Katarina; Boland, Sonja; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Marano, Francelyne; Collins, Andrew R; Dusinska, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Nanogenotoxicity is a crucial endpoint in safety testing of nanomaterials as it addresses potential mutagenicity, which has implications for risks of both genetic disease and carcinogenesis. Within the NanoTEST project, we investigated the genotoxic potential of well-characterised nanoparticles (NPs): titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs of nominal size 20?nm, iron oxide (8?nm) both uncoated (U-Fe3O4) and oleic acid coated (OC-Fe3O4), rhodamine-labelled amorphous silica 25 (Fl-25 SiO2) and 50?nm (Fl-50 SiO) and polylactic glycolic acid polyethylene oxide polymeric NPs - as well as Endorem® as a negative control for detection of strand breaks and oxidised DNA lesions with the alkaline comet assay. Using primary cells and cell lines derived from blood (human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid TK6 cells), vascular/central nervous system (human endothelial human cerebral endothelial cells), liver (rat hepatocytes and Kupffer cells), kidney (monkey Cos-1 and human HEK293 cells), lung (human bronchial 16HBE14o cells) and placenta (human BeWo b30), we were interested in which in vitro cell model is sufficient to detect positive (genotoxic) and negative (non-genotoxic) responses. All in vitro studies were harmonized, i.e. NPs from the same batch, and identical dispersion protocols (for TiO2 NPs, two dispersions were used), exposure time, concentration range, culture conditions and time-courses were used. The results from the statistical evaluation show that OC-Fe3O4 and TiO2 NPs are genotoxic in the experimental conditions used. When all NPs were included in the analysis, no differences were seen among cell lines - demonstrating the usefulness of the assay in all cells to identify genotoxic and non-genotoxic NPs. The TK6 cells, human lymphocytes, BeWo b30 and kidney cells seem to be the most reliable for detecting a dose-response. PMID:25923348

  2. Small valley bottom deposits in the sandy districts of the Sarthe basin (France): climatic and/or human origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larue, Jean Pierre

    2002-06-01

    The study of the small valley bottom deposits in a sandy district where several recent erosional events have occurred makes it possible to distinguish deposits, which are caused by climatic oscillations from those induced by both climate and human activities. The coarse alluvium with flints, which reached the main valleys prior to the Subboreal, was transported by greater flows than those which resulted from later human-induced flood discharges, where flints were not evacuated from the small valleys. Radiocarbon dates of peat set those deposits in the Iron Age, in the transition from Antiquity to the Medieval period, at the end of the "optimum climatique de l'an Mil" and during the Little Ice Age. At the present time, human-induced flood discharges reach again the main valleys.

  3. A glimpse into the early origins of medieval anatomy through the oldest conserved human dissection (Western Europe, 13th c. A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Poupon, Joël; Lancelot, Eloïse; Campos, Paula F.; Favier, Dominique; Jeannel, Gaël-François; Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Medieval autopsy practice is very poorly known in Western Europe, due to a lack of both descriptive medico-surgical texts and conserved dissected human remains. This period is currently considered the dark ages according to a common belief of systematic opposition of Christian religious authorities to the opening of human cadavers. Material and methods The identification in a private collection of an autopsied human individual dated from the 13th century A.D. is an opportunity for better knowledge of such practice in this chrono-cultural context, i.e. the early origins of occidental dissections. A complete forensic anthropological procedure was carried out, completed by radiological and elemental analyses. Results The complete procedure of this body opening and internal organs exploration is explained, and compared with historical data about forensic and anatomical autopsies from this period. During the analysis, a red substance filling all arterial cavities, made of mercury sulfide (cinnabar) mixed with vegetal oil (oleic and palmitic acids) was identified; it was presumably used to highlight vascularization by coloring in red such vessels, and help in the preservation of the body. Conclusions Of particular interest for the description of early medical and anatomical knowledge, this “human preparation” is the oldest known yet, and is particularly important for the fields of history of medicine, surgery and anatomical practice. PMID:24904674

  4. Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenqing; O'Connor, Timothy D; Jun, Goo; Kang, Hyun Min; Abecasis, Goncalo; Leal, Suzanne M; Gabriel, Stacey; Rieder, Mark J; Altshuler, David; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Akey, Joshua M

    2013-01-10

    Establishing the age of each mutation segregating in contemporary human populations is important to fully understand our evolutionary history and will help to facilitate the development of new approaches for disease-gene discovery. Large-scale surveys of human genetic variation have reported signatures of recent explosive population growth, notable for an excess of rare genetic variants, suggesting that many mutations arose recently. To more quantitatively assess the distribution of mutation ages, we resequenced 15,336 genes in 6,515 individuals of European American and African American ancestry and inferred the age of 1,146,401 autosomal single nucleotide variants (SNVs). We estimate that approximately 73% of all protein-coding SNVs and approximately 86% of SNVs predicted to be deleterious arose in the past 5,000-10,000?years. The average age of deleterious SNVs varied significantly across molecular pathways, and disease genes contained a significantly higher proportion of recently arisen deleterious SNVs than other genes. Furthermore, European Americans had an excess of deleterious variants in essential and Mendelian disease genes compared to African Americans, consistent with weaker purifying selection due to the Out-of-Africa dispersal. Our results better delimit the historical details of human protein-coding variation, show the profound effect of recent human history on the burden of deleterious SNVs segregating in contemporary populations, and provide important practical information that can be used to prioritize variants in disease-gene discovery. PMID:23201682

  5. A human Na /H antiporter sharing evolutionary origins with bacterial NhaA may be a candidate

    E-print Network

    Rao, Rajini

    a previously unknown clade of genes in metazoan genomes, including two previously uncharacterized human iso for cations (Na or K ). In bacteria, an array of Na /H antiporters convert the proton motive force programs have identified 550 sequence entries as putative Na /H exchangers. In an effort to understand

  6. Evolutionary origin and methylation status of human intronic CpG islands that are not present in mouse.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Katrin; Schröder, Christopher; Kanber, Deniz; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Wallner, Stefan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Horsthemke, Bernhard

    2014-07-01

    Imprinting of the human RB1 gene is due to the presence of a differentially methylated CpG island (CGI) in intron 2, which is part of a retrocopy derived from the PPP1R26 gene on chromosome 9. The murine Rb1 gene does not have this retrocopy and is not imprinted. We have investigated whether the RB1/Rb1 locus is unique with respect to these differences. For this, we have compared the CGIs from human and mouse by in silico analyses. We have found that the human genome does not only contain more CGIs than the mouse, but the proportion of intronic CGIs is also higher (7.7% vs. 3.5%). At least 2,033 human intronic CGIs are not present in the mouse. Among these CGIs, 104 show sequence similarities elsewhere in the human genome, which suggests that they arose from retrotransposition. We could narrow down the time points when most of these CGIs appeared during evolution. Their methylation status was analyzed in two monocyte methylome data sets from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and in 18 published methylomes. Four CGIs, which are located in the RB1, ASRGL1, PARP11, and PDXDC1 genes, occur as methylated and unmethylated copies. In contrast to imprinted methylation at the RB1 locus, differential methylation of the ASRGL1 and PDXDC1 CGIs appears to be sequence dependent. Our study supports the notion that the epigenetic fate of the retrotransposed DNA depends on its sequence and selective forces at the integration site. PMID:24923327

  7. Evolutionary Origin and Methylation Status of Human Intronic CpG Islands that Are Not Present in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Katrin; Schröder, Christopher; Kanber, Deniz; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Wallner, Stefan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Horsthemke, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Imprinting of the human RB1 gene is due to the presence of a differentially methylated CpG island (CGI) in intron 2, which is part of a retrocopy derived from the PPP1R26 gene on chromosome 9. The murine Rb1 gene does not have this retrocopy and is not imprinted. We have investigated whether the RB1/Rb1 locus is unique with respect to these differences. For this, we have compared the CGIs from human and mouse by in silico analyses. We have found that the human genome does not only contain more CGIs than the mouse, but the proportion of intronic CGIs is also higher (7.7% vs. 3.5%). At least 2,033 human intronic CGIs are not present in the mouse. Among these CGIs, 104 show sequence similarities elsewhere in the human genome, which suggests that they arose from retrotransposition. We could narrow down the time points when most of these CGIs appeared during evolution. Their methylation status was analyzed in two monocyte methylome data sets from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and in 18 published methylomes. Four CGIs, which are located in the RB1, ASRGL1, PARP11, and PDXDC1 genes, occur as methylated and unmethylated copies. In contrast to imprinted methylation at the RB1 locus, differential methylation of the ASRGL1 and PDXDC1 CGIs appears to be sequence dependent. Our study supports the notion that the epigenetic fate of the retrotransposed DNA depends on its sequence and selective forces at the integration site. PMID:24923327

  8. Genome-wide parent-of-origin DNA methylation analysis reveals the intricacies of human imprinting and suggests a germline methylation-independent mechanism of establishment

    PubMed Central

    Court, Franck; Tayama, Chiharu; Romanelli, Valeria; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Okamura, Kohji; Sugahara, Naoko; Simón, Carlos; Moore, Harry; Harness, Julie V.; Keirstead, Hans; Sanchez-Mut, Jose Vicente; Kaneki, Eisuke; Lapunzina, Pablo; Soejima, Hidenobu; Wake, Norio; Esteller, Manel; Ogata, Tsutomu; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Monk, David

    2014-01-01

    Differential methylation between the two alleles of a gene has been observed in imprinted regions, where the methylation of one allele occurs on a parent-of-origin basis, the inactive X-chromosome in females, and at those loci whose methylation is driven by genetic variants. We have extensively characterized imprinted methylation in a substantial range of normal human tissues, reciprocal genome-wide uniparental disomies, and hydatidiform moles, using a combination of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density methylation microarrays. This approach allowed us to define methylation profiles at known imprinted domains at base-pair resolution, as well as to identify 21 novel loci harboring parent-of-origin methylation, 15 of which are restricted to the placenta. We observe that the extent of imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) is extremely similar between tissues, with the exception of the placenta. This extra-embryonic tissue often adopts a different methylation profile compared to somatic tissues. Further, we profiled all imprinted DMRs in sperm and embryonic stem cells derived from parthenogenetically activated oocytes, individual blastomeres, and blastocysts, in order to identify primary DMRs and reveal the extent of reprogramming during preimplantation development. Intriguingly, we find that in contrast to ubiquitous imprints, the majority of placenta-specific imprinted DMRs are unmethylated in sperm and all human embryonic stem cells. Therefore, placental-specific imprinting provides evidence for an inheritable epigenetic state that is independent of DNA methylation and the existence of a novel imprinting mechanism at these loci. PMID:24402520

  9. Do human extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins originate from food-producing animals? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Benjamin; Paterson, David L; Mollinger, Joanne L; Rogers, Benjamin A

    2015-02-01

    To find out whether food-producing animals (FPAs) are a source of extraintestinal expanded-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESCR-EC) infections in humans, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically reviewed. Thirty-four original, peer-reviewed publications were identified for inclusion. Six molecular epidemiology studies supported the transfer of resistance via whole bacterium transmission (WBT), which was best characterized among poultry in the Netherlands. Thirteen molecular epidemiology studies supported transmission of resistance via mobile genetic elements, which demonstrated greater diversity of geography and host FPA. Seventeen molecular epidemiology studies did not support WBT and two did not support mobile genetic element-mediated transmission. Four observational epidemiology studies were consistent with zoonotic transmission. Overall, there is evidence that a proportion of human extraintestinal ESCR-EC infections originate from FPAs. Poultry, in particular, is probably a source, but the quantitative and geographical extent of the problem is unclear and requires further investigation. PMID:25301206

  10. Widespread detection of human- and ruminant-origin Bacteroidales markers in subtidal waters of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Oyafuso, Zack S; Baxter, Anne E; Hall, Jason E; Naman, Sean M; Greene, Correigh M; Rhodes, Linda D

    2015-09-01

    Rising populations around coastal systems are increasing the threats to marine water quality. To assess anthropogenic fecal influence, subtidal waters were examined monthly for human- and ruminant-sourced Bacteroidales markers at 80 sites across six oceanographic basins of the Salish Sea (Washington State) from April through October, 2011. In the basins containing cities with individual populations>190,000, >50% of sites were positive for the human marker, while in the basins with high densities of dairy and cattle operations, ?30% of sites were positive for the ruminant marker. Marker prevalence was elevated in spring (April and May) and fall (October) and reduced during summer (June through September), corresponding with seasonal precipitation. By logistic regression, the odds of human marker detection increased with percentage of adjacent catchment impervious surface, dissolved nitrate concentration, and abundance of low nucleic acid bacteria, but decreased with salinity and chlorophyll fluorescence. The odds of ruminant marker detection increased with dissolved ammonium concentration, mean flow rate for the nearest river, and adjacent shoreline length. These relationships are consistent with terrestrial to marine water flow as a transport mechanism. Thus, Bacteroidales markers traditionally used for identifying nearby sources can be used for assessing anthropogenic fecal inputs to regional marine ecosystems. PMID:26322768

  11. Extensive Evolutionary Changes in Regulatory Element Activity during Human Origins Are Associated with Altered Gene Expression and Positive Selection

    PubMed Central

    Fedrigo, Olivier; Babbitt, Courtney C.; Wortham, Matthew; Tewari, Alok K.; London, Darin; Song, Lingyun; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Margulies, Elliott H.; Wray, Gregory A.; Furey, Terrence S.; Crawford, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS) sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species. PMID:22761590

  12. Origin and expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (coleoptera: scolytinae): a mixture of historical natural expansion and contemporary human-mediated relocation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jun; Hu, Shao-ji; Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats. PMID:25372458

  13. The Origin of Behavior

    E-print Network

    Brennan, Thomas J.

    We propose a single evolutionary explanation for the origin of several behaviors that have been observed in organisms ranging from ants to human subjects, including risk-sensitive foraging, risk aversion, loss aversion, ...

  14. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

  15. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): Understanding the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic context of human origins through continental drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Campisano, Christopher; Asrat, Asfawossen; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Deino, Alan; Feibel, Craig; Hill, Andrew; Kingston, John; Lamb, Henry; Lowenstein, Tim; Olago, Daniel; Bernhart Owen, R.; Renaut, Robin; Schabitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The influence of climate and environmental history on human evolution is an existential question that continues to be hotly debated, in part because of the paucity of high resolution records collected in close proximity to the key fossil and archaeological evidence. To address this issue and transform the scientific debate, the HSPDP was developed to collect lacustrine sediment drill cores from basins in Kenya and Ethiopia that collectively encompass critical time intervals and locations for Plio-Quaternary human evolution in East Africa. After a 17 month campaign, drilling was completed in November, 2014, with over 1750m of core collected from 11 boreholes from five areas (1930m total drilling length, avg. 91% recovery). The sites, from oldest to youngest, include 1) N. Awash, Ethiopia (~3.5-2.9Ma core interval); 2) Baringo-Tugen Hills, Kenya (~3.3-2.5Ma); 3) West Turkana, Kenya (~1.9-1.4Ma); L. Magadi, Kenya (0.8-0Ma) and the Chew Bahir Basin, Ethiopia (~0.5-0Ma). Initial core description (ICD) and sampling for geochronology, geochemistry and paleoecology studies had been completed by mid2014, with the two remaining sites (Magadi and Chew Bahir) scheduled for ICD work in early 2015. Whereas the primary scientific targets were the lacustrine deposits from the hominin-bearing basin depocenters, many intervals of paleosols (representative of low lake stands and probable arid periods) were also encountered in drill cores. Preliminary analyses of drill core sedimentology and geochemistry show both long-term lake level changes and cyclic variability in lake levels, both of which may be indicative of climatic forcing events of interest to paleoanthropologists. Authors of this abstract also include the entire HSPDP field team.

  16. KRAS2 Mutations in Human Pancreatic Acinar-Ductal Metaplastic Lesions are Limited to those with PanIN: Implications for the Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell of Origin

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chanjuan; Hong, Seung-Mo; Lim, Phillip; Kamiyama, Hirohiko; Khan, Mehtab; Anders, Robert A.; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) is a precursor to invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Observations made in genetically engineered mouse models suggest that the acinar/centroacinar compartment can give rise to ductal neoplasia. In order to integrate findings in mice and men, we examined human acinar cells, acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM) lesions and PanINs for KRAS2 gene mutations. Methods Surgically resected pancreata were screened for foci of ADM with or without an associated PanIN lesion. Stromal cells, acinar cells, ADMs, and PanINs, were separately isolated using laser capture microdissection. KRAS2 status was analyzed using genomic DNA isolated from the microdissected tissue. Results Twelve of these 31 foci of ADM occurred in isolation, while 19 were in the same lobules as a PanIN lesion. All 31 microdissected foci of acinar cells were KRAS2 gene wild-type, as were all 12 isolated ADM lesions lacking an associated PanIN. KRAS2 gene mutations were present in 14 of 19 (74%) PanIN lesions, and in 12 of the 19 (63%) foci of ADM associated with these PanINs. All ADM lesions with a KRAS2 gene mutation harbored the identical KRAS2 gene mutation found in their associated PanIN lesions. Conclusions Ductal neoplasms of the human pancreas, as defined by KRAS2 gene mutations, do not appear to arise from acinar cells. Isolated AMD lesions are genetically distinct from those associated with PanINs, and the latter may represent retrograde extension of the neoplastic PanIN cells, or less likely are PanIN precursor lesions. PMID:19208745

  17. A New Algorithm to Diagnose Atrial Ectopic Origin from Multi Lead ECG Systems - Insights from 3D Virtual Human Atria and Torso

    PubMed Central

    Alday, Erick A. Perez; Colman, Michael A.; Langley, Philip; Butters, Timothy D.; Higham, Jonathan; Workman, Antony J.; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Rapid atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) predispose to ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and stroke. Identifying the origin of atrial ectopic activity from the electrocardiogram (ECG) can help to diagnose the early onset of AF in a cost-effective manner. The complex and rapid atrial electrical activity during AF makes it difficult to obtain detailed information on atrial activation using the standard 12-lead ECG alone. Compared to conventional 12-lead ECG, more detailed ECG lead configurations may provide further information about spatio-temporal dynamics of the body surface potential (BSP) during atrial excitation. We apply a recently developed 3D human atrial model to simulate electrical activity during normal sinus rhythm and ectopic pacing. The atrial model is placed into a newly developed torso model which considers the presence of the lungs, liver and spinal cord. A boundary element method is used to compute the BSP resulting from atrial excitation. Elements of the torso mesh corresponding to the locations of the placement of the electrodes in the standard 12-lead and a more detailed 64-lead ECG configuration were selected. The ectopic focal activity was simulated at various origins across all the different regions of the atria. Simulated BSP maps during normal atrial excitation (i.e. sinoatrial node excitation) were compared to those observed experimentally (obtained from the 64-lead ECG system), showing a strong agreement between the evolution in time of the simulated and experimental data in the P-wave morphology of the ECG and dipole evolution. An algorithm to obtain the location of the stimulus from a 64-lead ECG system was developed. The algorithm presented had a success rate of 93%, meaning that it correctly identified the origin of atrial focus in 75/80 simulations, and involved a general approach relevant to any multi-lead ECG system. This represents a significant improvement over previously developed algorithms. PMID:25611350

  18. Inference of human continental origin and admixture proportions using a highly discriminative ancestry informative 41-SNP panel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate determination of genetic ancestry is of high interest for many areas such as biomedical research, personal genomics and forensics. It remains an important topic in genetic association studies, as it has been shown that population stratification, if not appropriately considered, can lead to false-positive and -negative results. While large association studies typically extract ancestry information from available genome-wide SNP genotypes, many important clinical data sets on rare phenotypes and historical collections assembled before the GWAS area are in need of a feasible method (i.e., ease of genotyping, small number of markers) to infer the geographic origin and potential admixture of the study subjects. Here we report on the development, application and limitations of a small, multiplexable ancestry informative marker (AIM) panel of SNPs (or AISNP) developed specifically for this purpose. Results Based on worldwide populations from the HGDP, a 41-AIM AISNP panel for multiplex application with the ABI SNPlex and a subset with 31 AIMs for the Sequenome iPLEX system were selected and found to be highly informative for inferring ancestry among the seven continental regions Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Central/South Asia, East Asia, the Americas and Oceania. The panel was found to be least informative for Eurasian populations, and additional AIMs for a higher resolution are suggested. A large reference set including over 4,000 subjects collected from 120 global populations was assembled to facilitate accurate ancestry determination. We show practical applications of this AIM panel, discuss its limitations for admixed individuals and suggest ways to incorporate ancestry information into genetic association studies. Conclusion We demonstrated the utility of a small AISNP panel specifically developed to discern global ancestry. We believe that it will find wide application because of its feasibility and potential for a wide range of applications. PMID:23815888

  19. ORIGIN AND PREVALENCE OF HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TYPE 1 (HTLV-1) AND TYPE 2 (HTLV-2) AMONG INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS IN THE AMERICAS

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events. PMID:25651320

  20. Origin and prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) among indigenous populations in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events. PMID:25651320

  1. Detection of Intracellular Gene Expression in Live Cells of Murine, Human and Porcine Origin Using Fluorescence-labeled Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dreßen, Martina; Adamczyk, Klaudia; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Ulrich, Hanna; Schiemann, Matthias; Lange, Rüdiger; Krane, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) has successfully been performed in different mammalian species including mouse, rat, human, pig and others. The verification of iPS clones mainly relies on the detection of the endogenous expression of different pluripotency genes. These genes mostly represent transcription factors which are located in the cell nucleus. Traditionally, the proof of their endogenous expression is supplied by immunohistochemical staining after fixation of the cells. This approach requires replicate cultures of each clone at this early stage to preserve validated clones for further experiments. The present protocol describes an approach with gene-specific nanoparticles which allows the evaluation of intracellular gene expression directly in live cells by fluorescence. The nanoparticles consist of a central gold particle coupled to a capture strand carrying a sequence complementary to the target mRNA as well as a quenched reporter strand. These nanoparticles are actively endocytosed and the target mRNA displaces the reporter strand which then start to fluoresce. Therefore, specific target gene expression can be detected directly under the microscope. In addition, the emitted fluorescence allows the identification, isolation and enrichment of cells expressing a specific gene by flow cytometry. This method can be applied directly to live cells in culture without any manipulation of the target cells. PMID:26650934

  2. Landmarks in the Evolution of (t)-RNAs from the Origin of Life up to Their Present Role in Human Cognition.

    PubMed

    Balke, Darko; Kuss, Andreas; Müller, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    How could modern life have evolved? The answer to that question still remains unclear. However, evidence is growing that, since the origin of life, RNA could have played an important role throughout evolution, right up to the development of complex organisms and even highly sophisticated features such as human cognition. RNA mediated RNA-aminoacylation can be seen as a first landmark on the path from the RNA world to modern DNA- and protein-based life. Likewise, the generation of the RNA modifications that can be found in various RNA species today may already have started in the RNA world, where such modifications most likely entailed functional advantages. This association of modification patterns with functional features was apparently maintained throughout the further course of evolution, and particularly tRNAs can now be seen as paradigms for the developing interdependence between structure, modification and function. It is in this spirit that this review highlights important stepping stones of the development of (t)RNAs and their modifications (including aminoacylation) from the ancient RNA world up until their present role in the development and maintenance of human cognition. The latter can be seen as a high point of evolution at its present stage, and the susceptibility of cognitive features to even small alterations in the proper structure and functioning of tRNAs underscores the evolutionary relevance of this RNA species. PMID:26703740

  3. The essentiality of alpha-2-macroglobulin in human salivary innate immunity against new H1N1 swine origin influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Hsuan; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Lo, Chih-Wei; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Gallo, Richard L; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Schooley, Robert T; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2010-06-01

    A novel strain of influenza A H1N1 emerged in the spring of 2009 and has spread rapidly throughout the world. Although vaccines have recently been developed that are expected to be protective, their availability was delayed until well into the influenza season. Although anti-influenza drugs such as neuraminidase inhibitors can be effective, resistance to these drugs has already been reported. Although human saliva was known to inhibit viral infection and may thus prevent viral transmission, the components responsible for this activity on influenza virus, in particular, influenza A swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV), have not yet been defined. By using a proteomic approach in conjunction with beads that bind alpha-2,6-sialylated glycoprotein, we determined that an alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) and an A2M-like protein are essential components in salivary innate immunity against hemagglutination mediated by a clinical isolate of S-OIV (San Diego/01/09 S-OIV). A model of an A2M-based "double-edged sword" on competition of alpha-2,6-sialylated glycoprotein receptors and inactivation of host proteases is proposed. We emphasize that endogenous A2M in human innate immunity functions as a natural inhibitor against S-OIV. PMID:20391540

  4. Orc1 Binding to Mitotic Chromosomes Precedes Spatial Patterning during G1 Phase and Assembly of the Origin Recognition Complex in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Kara, Nihan; Hossain, Manzar; Prasanth, Supriya G; Stillman, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Replication of eukaryotic chromosomes occurs once every cell division cycle in normal cells and is a tightly controlled process that ensures complete genome duplication. The origin recognition complex (ORC) plays a key role during the initiation of DNA replication. In human cells, the level of Orc1, the largest subunit of ORC, is regulated during the cell division cycle, and thus ORC is a dynamic complex. Upon S phase entry, Orc1 is ubiquitinated and targeted for destruction, with subsequent dissociation of ORC from chromosomes. Time lapse and live cell images of human cells expressing fluorescently tagged Orc1 show that Orc1 re-localizes to condensing chromatin during early mitosis and then displays different nuclear localization patterns at different times during G1 phase, remaining associated with late replicating regions of the genome in late G1 phase. The initial binding of Orc1 to mitotic chromosomes requires C-terminal amino acid sequences that are similar to mitotic chromosome-binding sequences in the transcriptional pioneer protein FOXA1. Depletion of Orc1 causes concomitant loss of the mini-chromosome maintenance (Mcm2-7) helicase proteins on chromatin. The data suggest that Orc1 acts as a nucleating center for ORC assembly and then pre-replication complex assembly by binding to mitotic chromosomes, followed by gradual removal from chromatin during the G1 phase. PMID:25784553

  5. Irish Cepaea nemoralis Land Snails Have a Cryptic Franco-Iberian Origin That Is Most Easily Explained by the Movements of Mesolithic Humans

    PubMed Central

    Grindon, Adele J.; Davison, Angus

    2013-01-01

    The origins of flora and fauna that are only found in Ireland and Iberia, but which are absent from intervening countries, is one of the enduring questions of biogeography. As Southern French, Iberian and Irish populations of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis sometimes have a similar shell character, we used mitochondrial phylogenies to begin to understand if there is a shared “Lusitanian” history. Although much of Europe contains snails with A and D lineages, by far the majority of Irish individuals have a lineage, C, that in mainland Europe was only found in a restricted region of the Eastern Pyrenees. A past extinction of lineage C in the rest of Europe cannot be ruled out, but as there is a more than 8000 year continuous record of Cepaea fossils in Ireland, the species has long been a food source in the Pyrenees, and the Garonne river that flanks the Pyrenees is an ancient human route to the Atlantic, then we suggest that the unusual distribution of the C lineage is most easily explained by the movements of Mesolithic humans. If other Irish species have a similarly cryptic Lusitanian element, then this raises the possibility of a more widespread and significant pattern. PMID:23840368

  6. Influence of Oxygen Tension on Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Fetal Stem Cells of Midbrain and Forebrain Origin

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, Christina; Bak, Sara Thornby; Jensen, Pia; von Linstow, Christian; Martínez Serrano, Alberto; Hansen, Claus; Meyer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease (PD), but protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation are not yet available. Here we investigated the influence of oxygen on dopaminergic differentiation of human fetal NSCs derived from the midbrain and forebrain. Cells were differentiated for 10 days in vitro at low, physiological (3%) versus high, atmospheric (20%) oxygen tension. Low oxygen resulted in upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and increased the proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in both types of cultures (midbrain: 9.1±0.5 and 17.1±0.4 (P<0.001); forebrain: 1.9±0.4 and 3.9±0.6 (P<0.01) percent of total cells). Regardless of oxygen levels, the content of TH-ir cells with mature neuronal morphologies was higher for midbrain as compared to forebrain cultures. Proliferative Ki67-ir cells were found in both types of cultures, but the relative proportion of these cells was significantly higher for forebrain NSCs cultured at low, as compared to high, oxygen tension. No such difference was detected for midbrain-derived cells. Western blot analysis revealed that low oxygen enhanced ?-tubulin III and GFAP expression in both cultures. Up-regulation of ?-tubulin III was most pronounced for midbrain cells, whereas GFAP expression was higher in forebrain as compared to midbrain cells. NSCs from both brain regions displayed less cell death when cultured at low oxygen tension. Following mictrotransplantation into mouse striatal slice cultures predifferentiated midbrain NSCs were found to proliferate and differentiate into substantial numbers of TH-ir neurons with mature neuronal morphologies, particularly at low oxygen. In contrast, predifferentiated forebrain NSCs microtransplanted using identical conditions displayed little proliferation and contained few TH-ir cells, all of which had an immature appearance. Our data may reflect differences in dopaminergic differentiation capacity and region-specific requirements of NSCs, with the dopamine-depleted striatum cultured at low oxygen offering an attractive micro-environment for midbrain NSCs. PMID:24788190

  7. The Origin of Malignant Malaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malignant malaria, which is among the most severe human infectious diseases. Despite its overwhelming significance to human health, the parasite’s origins remain unclear. The favored origin hypothesis holds that P. falciparum and its closest known rel...

  8. Professional and Consultative Work is defined in Sections 2 and 3.2 of the University Policy on Professional and Consultative Work. Please send original of the form to Human Resources and place a copy on file in work area.

    E-print Network

    Tobar, Michael

    SECTION 1 Professional and Consultative Work is defined in Sections 2 and 3.2 of the University Policy on Professional and Consultative Work. Please send original of the form to Human Resources and place a copy on file in work area. Name of Staff Member School or Section Note 1: A separate application

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Fetal (Wharton's Jelly) and Adult (Adipose Tissue) Origin during Prolonged In Vitro Expansion: Considerations for Cytotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, I.; Kolisis, F. N.; Papaevangeliou, D.; Zoumpourlis, V.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are somatic cells with a dual capacity for self-renewal and differentiation, and diverse therapeutic applicability, both experimentally and in the clinic. These cells can be isolated from various human tissues that may differ anatomically or developmentally with relative ease. Heterogeneity due to biological origin or in vitro manipulation is, nevertheless, considerable and may equate to differences in qualitative and quantitative characteristics which can prove crucial for successful therapeutic use. With this in mind, in the present study we have evaluated the proliferation kinetics and phenotypic characteristics of MSCs derived from two abundant sources, that is, fetal umbilical cord matrix (Wharton's jelly) and adult adipose tissue (termed WJSC and ADSC, resp.) during prolonged in vitro expansion, a process necessary for obtaining cell numbers sufficient for clinical application. Our results show that WJSC are derived with relatively high efficiency and bear a substantially increased proliferation capacity whilst largely sustaining the expression of typical immunophenotypic markers, whereas ADSC exhibit a reduced proliferation potential showing typical signs of senescence at an early stage. By combining kinetic with phenotypic data we identify culture thresholds up to which both cell types maintain their stem properties, and we discuss the practical implications of their differences. PMID:23533440

  10. Mutation profile of all 49 exons of the human myosin VIIA gene, and haplotype analysis, in Usher 1B families from diverse origins.

    PubMed Central

    Adato, A; Weil, D; Kalinski, H; Pel-Or, Y; Ayadi, H; Petit, C; Korostishevsky, M; Bonne-Tamir, B

    1997-01-01

    Usher syndrome types I (USH1A-USH1E) are a group of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by profound congenital hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. The human myosin VIIA gene, located on 11q14, has been shown to be responsible for Usher syndrome type 1B (USH1B). Haplotypes were constructed in 28 USH1 families by use of the following polymorphic markers spanning the USH1B locus: D11S787, D11S527, D11S1789, D11S906, D11S4186, and OMP. Affected individuals and members of their families from 12 different ethnic origins were screened for the presence of mutations in all 49 exons of the myosin VIIA gene. In 15 families myosin VIIA mutations were detected, verifying their classification as USH1B. All these mutations are novel, including three missense mutations, one premature stop codon, two splicing mutations, one frameshift, and one deletion of >2 kb comprising exons 47 and 48, a part of exon 49, and the introns between them. Three mutations were shared by more than one family, consistent with haplotype similarities. Altogether, 16 USH1B haplotypes were observed in the 15 families; most haplotypes were population specific. Several exonic and intronic polymorphisms were also detected. None of the 20 known USH1B mutations reported so far in other world populations were identified in our families. Images Figure 1 PMID:9382091

  11. Requirement of T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase for TRAIL resistance of human HeLa cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hyeok-Ran; Lee, Ki Won; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Kyung Bok; Oh, Sang-Muk

    2010-01-01

    T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) appears to be highly expressed in various cancer cells and to play an important role in maintaining proliferation of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism by which TOPK regulates growth of cancer cells remains elusive. Here we report that upregulated endogenous TOPK augments resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Stable knocking down of TOPK markedly increased TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of human HeLa cervical cancer cells, as compared with control cells. Caspase 8 or caspase 3 activities in response to TRAIL were greatly incremented in TOPK-depleted cells. Ablation of TOPK negatively regulated TRAIL-mediated NF-{kappa}B activity. Furthermore, expression of NF-{kappa}B-dependent genes, FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1), or X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was reduced in TOPK-depleted cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that TOPK contributed to TRAIL resistance of cancer cells via NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that TOPK might be a potential molecular target for successful cancer therapy using TRAIL.

  12. Ubiquitous human ‘master’ origins of replication are encoded in the DNA sequence via a local enrichment in nucleosome excluding energy barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drillon, Guénola; Audit, Benjamin; Argoul, Françoise; Arneodo, Alain

    2015-02-01

    As the elementary building block of eukaryotic chromatin, the nucleosome is at the heart of the compromise between the necessity of compacting DNA in the cell nucleus and the required accessibility to regulatory proteins. The recent availability of genome-wide experimental maps of nucleosome positions for many different organisms and cell types has provided an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate to what extent the DNA sequence conditions the primary structure of chromatin and in turn participates in the chromatin-mediated regulation of nuclear functions, such as gene expression and DNA replication. In this study, we use in vivo and in vitro genome-wide nucleosome occupancy data together with the set of nucleosome-free regions (NFRs) predicted by a physical model of nucleosome formation based on sequence-dependent bending properties of the DNA double-helix, to investigate the role of intrinsic nucleosome occupancy in the regulation of the replication spatio-temporal programme in human. We focus our analysis on the so-called replication U/N-domains that were shown to cover about half of the human genome in the germline (skew-N domains) as well as in embryonic stem cells, somatic and HeLa cells (mean replication timing U-domains). The ‘master’ origins of replication (MaOris) that border these megabase-sized U/N-domains were found to be specified by a few hundred kb wide regions that are hyper-sensitive to DNase I cleavage, hypomethylated, and enriched in epigenetic marks involved in transcription regulation, the hallmarks of localized open chromatin structures. Here we show that replication U/N-domain borders that are conserved in all considered cell lines have an environment highly enriched in nucleosome-excluding-energy barriers, suggesting that these ubiquitous MaOris have been selected during evolution. In contrast, MaOris that are cell-type-specific are mainly regulated epigenetically and are no longer favoured by a local abundance of intrinsic NFRs encoded in the DNA sequence. At the smaller few hundred bp scale of gene promoters, CpG-rich promoters of housekeeping genes found nearby ubiquitous MaOris as well as CpG-poor promoters of tissue-specific genes found nearby cell-type-specific MaOris, both correspond to in vivo NFRs that are not coded as nucleosome-excluding-energy barriers. Whereas the former promoters are likely to correspond to high occupancy transcription factor binding regions, the latter are an illustration that gene regulation in human is typically cell-type-specific.

  13. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    .00694 Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers Grace E. Giles caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring-habitual (Experi- ment 1; N = 36, M = 42.5 ± 28.7 mg/day caffeine) and habitual (Experiment 2; N = 34, M = 579

  14. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    , in the nineteenth century, Hermann von Helmholtz developed further this idea and argued that perception involves unconscious infer- ences from the incomplete information we get from the different senses (von Helmholtz,1866

  15. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    McCloskey, Michael

    is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes musical sequences for music performance. Keywords: music performance, learning, memory, hippocampus, brain.00694 New learning of music after bilateral medial temporal lobe damage: evidence from an amnesic patient

  16. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Malfait, Nicole

    neglect patients attend more to their affected side. Keywords: neglect, stroke, rehabilitation, music of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 2 Division of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London, Goldsmiths University of London, London, UK Edited by: Eckart Altenmüller, University of Music and Drama

  17. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) alters behavioral and brain measures of negative and positive self-views. Methods: Fifty- six adult patients with generalized SAD were randomly assigned to MBSR or a comparison adjectives were self-descriptive or in upper case font. Results: Behaviorally, compared to AE, MBSR produced

  18. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    .00038 Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks Wendy Hasenkamp to examine the effect of meditation experience on brain networks under- lying cognitive actions employed fluctuations that occur during the practice of focused attention meditation.This model specifies four intervals

  19. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Gaser, Christian

    -sectional nature of this study, further research is necessary to determine the relative contribution of nature and nurture to links between cortical gyrification and meditation. Keywords: brain, cortical complexity

  20. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Penny, Will

    . Keywords: priming, self-esteem, rule task, cognitive control, Bayesian, normative model, computational model 1. INTRODUCTION High self-esteem is characterized by thinking well of oneself, whether it is a true or distorted appreciation. Low self-esteem denotes a less consistent and more uncertain regard

  1. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    at recognizing sung than spoken lyrics. Better retention of sung lyrics rather than spoken lyrics was found., 2014). We proposed that dual coding of lyrics and melody lead to a stronger memory trace, which

  2. The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B.; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0’s sister clade, L1’6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by “mitochondrial Eve”) possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African “megadroughts” of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135–75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution. PMID:24236171

  3. Anal human papillomavirus genotype distribution in HIV-infected men who have sex with men by geographical origin, age, and cytological status in a Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia; Ortiz, Marta

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23966501

  4. Anal Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men by Geographical Origin, Age, and Cytological Status in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23966501

  5. Long-term human immune system reconstitution in non-obese diabetic (NOD)-Rag (–)-? chain (–) (NRG) mice is similar but not identical to the original stem cell donor

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D T; Badowski, M; Balamurugan, A; Yang, O O

    2013-01-01

    The murine immune system is not necessarily identical to it human counterpart, which has led to the construction of humanized mice. The current study analysed whether or not a human immune system contained within the non-obese diabetic (NOD)-Rag1null-? chainnull (NRG) mouse model was an accurate representation of the original stem cell donor and if multiple mice constructed from the same donor were similar to one another. To that end, lightly irradiated NRG mice were injected intrahepatically on day 1 of life with purified cord blood-derived CD34+ stem and progenitor cells. Multiple mice were constructed from each cord blood donor. Mice were analysed quarterly for changes in the immune system, and followed for periods up to 12 months post-transplant. Mice from the same donor were compared directly with each other as well as with the original donor. Analyses were performed for immune reconstitution, including flow cytometry, T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) spectratyping. It was observed that NRG mice could be ‘humanized’ long-term using cord blood stem cells, and that animals constructed from the same cord blood donor were nearly identical to one another, but quite different from the original stem cell donor immune system. PMID:24032450

  6. Holocene landscape and land-use change under human impact. Examples from Central Europe (Lower Rhine Embayment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Protze, Jens; Gerlach, Renate

    2015-04-01

    In the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), as in other parts of Central Europe, several main periods of colluvial deposition (mainly Metal Ages, Roman time, Medieval time) and four main periods of alluvial and overbank deposition in the floodplains (Early Holocene, Metal Ages, partially Roman time, Medieval, Early Modern time) can be divided. The summary of colluvial sedimentation can be shown by using interdisciplinary methods, consisting of sedimentological, geochemical and archaeological methods. This allowed reconstructing a detailed land-use history. To clarify the origin of the colluvial deposits loess-sequences also have been studied geochemically and were compared to loess- and loess-like deposits from adjacent areas, such as the Northern Eifel Mountains or the Middle Rhine. The results clearly show that only the combination of methods of natural sciences and the humanities allow optimal processing of these complex findings. To sum up these results the following cycles cause by human activities can be found in the LRE: 8 periods with soil formation (P = pedogenesis), followed by a phase with mainly stable land surfaces but some rill / gully erosion (R) and succeeded by intensive erosion and colluviation (E) caused by mainly sheet floods in an more open landscape. Especially during the Metal Ages and High Middle Ages erosion is clearly detectable. In the woodlands strong deforestation took place especially due to the production of charcoal and firewood as well as grazing activities. In addition, the development of mining and related industries in the 15th to 16th centuries and further increase in 19th century produced a strong contamination of floodplain deposits. Different periods of an increasing grassland since Medieval time cause by socio-economic effects that results in a reduction of soil erosion can be distinguished.

  7. Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia. PMID:20974952

  8. The interplanetary superhighway and the Origins Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    The origin of the universe and of life itself have been central to human inquiries since the dawn of consciousness. To develop and use the technologies to answer these timeless and profound questions is the mission of NASA's Origins Program.

  9. Poetry or pathology? Jesuit hypochondria in early modern Naples.

    PubMed

    Haskell, Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    In their didactic poems on fishing and chocolate, both published in 1689, two Neapolitan Jesuits digressed to record and lament a devastating 'plague' of 'hypochondria'. The poetic plagues of Niccolò Giannettasio and Tommaso Strozzi have literary precedents in Lucretius, Vergil, and Fracastoro, but it will be argued that they also have a real, contemporary significance. Hypochondria was considered to be a serious (and epidemic) illness in the seventeenth century, with symptoms ranging from depression to delusions. Not only did our Jesuit poets claim to have suffered from it, but so did prominent members of the 'Accademia degl'Investiganti', a scientific society in Naples that was at odds with both the religious and medical establishments. PMID:18173170

  10. Reading and Hearing The Womans Booke in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Summary This essay takes seriously Thomas Raynalde’s advice in The Womans Booke that women might read this work aloud. The evidence I use to sketch the scene of reading includes Raynalde’s advice to readers in his long prologue, and also the kind of reading practice that his own writing represents. But I also go outside the text, considering what we know about the experience of listening to a book, and emphasizing the link between this practice and rhetorical education. I also examine the evidence left behind by two male readers: William Ward, who marked his copy of the 1565 edition privately, and Edward Poeton of Petworth, who represented instead a semipublic or shared reading: the evaluation of The Womans Booke and other books of generation by a Midwife and her Deputy in a fictional dialogue “The Midwives Deputie” (ca. 1630s). PMID:26521668

  11. Reformation and Revolution in Early Modern England History 418

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    as an author (or subject). Great Britain. Public Record Office #12;3 2. Use Government Documents Publications generated by a government body, public records, reports and statistics are excellent sources of primary Resources: diaries, letters, speeches, sermons, government documents Secondary Resources: books, journal

  12. Galileo in early modern Denmark, 1600-1650

    E-print Network

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-01-01

    The scientific revolution in the first half of the seventeenth century, pioneered by figures such as Harvey, Galileo, Gassendi, Kepler and Descartes, was disseminated to the northernmost countries in Europe with considerable delay. In this essay I examine how and when Galileo's new ideas in physics and astronomy became known in Denmark, and I compare the reception with the one in Sweden. It turns out that Galileo was almost exclusively known for his sensational use of the telescope to unravel the secrets of the heavens, meaning that he was predominantly seen as an astronomical innovator and advocate of the Copernican world system. Danish astronomy at the time was however based on Tycho Brahe's view of the universe and therefore hostile to Copernican and, by implication, Galilean cosmology. Although Galileo's telescope attracted much attention, it took about thirty years until a Danish astronomer actually used the instrument for observations. By the 1640s Galileo was generally admired for his astronomical disc...

  13. Transmuting Sericon: Alchemy as "Practical Exegesis" in Early Modern England.

    PubMed

    Rampling, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    An influential strand of English alchemy was the pursuit of the "vegetable stone," a medicinal elixir popularized by George Ripley (d. ca. 1490), made from a metallic substance, "sericon." Yet the identity of sericon was not fixed, undergoing radical reinterpretation between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries as Ripley's lead-based practice was eclipsed by new methods, notably the antimonial approach of George Starkey (1628-65). Tracing "sericonian" alchemy over 250 years, I show how alchemists fed their practical findings back into textual accounts, creating a "feedback loop" in which the authority of past adepts was maintained by exegetical manipulations--a process that I term "practical exegesis." PMID:26103745

  14. Two E2 binding sites (E2BS) alone or one E2BS plus an A/T-rich region are minimal requirements for the replication of the human papillomavirus type 11 origin.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, J Z; Sun, Y N; Rose, R C; Bonnez, W; McCance, D J

    1993-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cannot be propagated in vitro, but the DNA can be replicated transiently in an assay in the presence of two trans-acting viral proteins, E1 and E2. Using this assay, we have defined the minimal cis-acting elements of the origin of replication of HPV type 11. Most HPV genomes are conserved at the origin of replication, and the core contains three E2 binding sites (E2BS) surrounding an A/T-rich spacer region. The present results show that the minimal requirement for replication is either two E2BS alone or the A/T-rich region plus one E2BS; in the latter case the relative position of the E2BS is important. In all the studies, the presence of both E1 and E2 proteins was essential for replication, yet only the E2BS was required at the origin. We have shown that E1, E2, and the origin of replication containing an E2BS from a complex in vitro, and our data are consistent with a model in which E2 acts to target E1 to the HPV type 11 replication origin. Images PMID:8230435

  15. The Missouri Human Rights Act makes it illegal to discriminate in any aspect of employment because of an individual's race, color, religion, national origin, ancestry,

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    of an individual's race, color, religion, national origin, ancestry, sex, disability or age (40 through 69, or disability leave, or other terms and conditions of employment · Harassment on the basis of race, color

  16. Original Version

    Cancer.gov

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families. The curricula is available as an online Self-Study Section and as a CD-ROM you can order.

  17. Modern Humans Did Not Admix with Neanderthals during Their Range Expansion into Europe

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The process by which the Neanderthals were replaced by modern humans between 42,000 and 30,000 before present is still intriguing. Although no Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineage is found to date among several thousands of Europeans and in seven early modern Europeans, interbreeding rates as high as 25% could not be excluded between the two subspecies. In this study, we introduce a realistic model of the range expansion of early modern humans into Europe, and of their competition and potential admixture with local Neanderthals. Under this scenario, which explicitly models the dynamics of Neanderthals' replacement, we estimate that maximum interbreeding rates between the two populations should have been smaller than 0.1%. We indeed show that the absence of Neanderthal mtDNA sequences in Europe is compatible with at most 120 admixture events between the two populations despite a likely cohabitation time of more than 12,000 y. This extremely low number strongly suggests an almost complete sterility between Neanderthal females and modern human males, implying that the two populations were probably distinct biological species. PMID:15562317

  18. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Streptococcus canis Confirms the Zoonotic Origin of Human Infections and Reveals Genetic Exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, M. D.; Matos, S. C.; Pomba, C.; Lübke-Becker, A.; Wieler, L. H.; Preziuso, S.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection. PMID:23345291

  19. Comparative yield of blood culture for fungi and mycobacteria, liver biopsy, and bone marrow biopsy in the diagnosis of fever of undetermined origin in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Prego, V; Glatt, A E; Roy, V; Thelmo, W; Dincsoy, H; Raufman, J P

    1990-02-01

    The diagnostic yield of mycobacterial blood cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and liver biopsy for determining the cause of unexplained fever was compared prospectively in eight men and four women with serologic evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection and fever of undetermined origin. Mycobacterial infection was found in 8 of the 12 patients (Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 3 and Mycobacterium avium in 5). Mycobacteria were isolated from the blood of 6 of these 8 patients. The mean interval from blood culture inoculation to growth was 28 days. Acid-fast organisms or granulomas were seen in four bone marrow and six liver specimens. Liver biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli in a higher percentage of cases (75%) than did bone marrow biopsy (25%). Mycobacterial blood culture is a relatively slow method that occasionally fails to diagnose mycobacterial infection. In febrile patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, liver biopsy is the most rapid method of diagnosing mycobacterial infection. PMID:2302009

  20. Human melanoma cell lines of primary and metastatic origin express the genes encoding the chains of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and produce a PDGF-like growth factor.

    PubMed

    Westermark, B; Johnsson, A; Paulsson, Y; Betsholtz, C; Heldin, C H; Herlyn, M; Rodeck, U; Koprowski, H

    1986-10-01

    Normal human melanocytes and five human melanoma cell lines were analyzed for production of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-like activity. Three of the melanoma cell lines released an activity that inhibited binding of 125I-labeled PDGF to human foreskin fibroblasts and stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation in such cells. These activities were inhibited by the addition of anti-PDGF antibodies. All three factor-producing cell lines were derived from the same patient--one originated from the primary tumor (WM 115), and two were from individual lymph-node metastases (WM 239A and WM 266-4). The factor produced by WM 266-4 cells was characterized biochemically in detail. Immunoprecipitated, the metabolically labeled factor migrated in NaDod-SO4/gel electrophoresis as a homogeneous Mr 31,000 species, which under reducing conditions was resolved into two species of Mr 16,500 and Mr 17,000, implying a dimeric structure of the molecule. The factor was purified to homogeneity. Analysis by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography of reduced and alkylated factor revealed an elution pattern identical to that of PDGF A chains. Thus, the native molecule appears to be a homodimer of PDGF A chains. Blot-hybridization analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from the cell lines with 32P-labeled PDGF A chain and B chain (SIS product) cDNA probes revealed a relative abundance of B chain transcripts in the cell line originating from the primary tumor tissue only but expression of A chain in all three cell lines. We conclude that the two structural genes encoding each of the subunit chains of PDGF can be expressed in human melanoma cells and that the two genes can be independently expressed in such cells. PMID:3020539

  1. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolá?, Jan; Hajnalová, Mária; Abraham, Vojt?ch; Macek, Martin; Tká?, Peter; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-01

    The post-glacial fate of central European grasslands has stimulated palaeoecological debates for a century. Some argued for the continuous survival of open land, while others claimed that closed forest had developed during the Middle Holocene. The reasons behind stability or changes in the proportion of open land are also unclear. We aim to reconstruct regional vegetation openness and test the effects of climate and human impact on vegetation change throughout the Holocene. We present a newly dated pollen record from north-western fringes of the Pannonian Plain, east-central Europe, and reconstruct Holocene regional vegetation development by the REVEALS model for 27 pollen-equivalent taxa. Estimated vegetation is correlated in the same area with a human activity model based on all available archaeological information and a macrophysical climate model. The palaeovegetation record indicates the continuous presence of open land throughout the Holocene. Grasslands and open woodlands were probably maintained by local arid climatic conditions during the early Holocene delaying the spread of deciduous (oak) forests. Significantly detectable human-made landscape transformation started only after 2000 BC. Our analyses suggest that Neolithic people spread into a landscape that was already open. Humans probably contributed to the spread of oak, and influenced the dynamics of hazel and hornbeam.

  2. Dissemination of plasmid-encoded AmpC ?-lactamases in antimicrobial resistant Salmonella serotypes originating from humans, pigs and the swine environment.

    PubMed

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the inter-serovar exchange of AmpC ?-lactamase conferring plasmids isolated from humans, pigs and the swine environment. Plasmids isolated from a total of 21 antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Salmonella isolates representing human clinical cases (n=6), pigs (n=6) and the swine farm environment (n=9) were characterized by replicon typing and restriction digestion, inter-serovar transferability by conjugation, and presence of AmpC ?-lactamase enzyme encoding gene blaCMY-2 by southern hybridization. Based on replicon typing, the majority (17/21, 81%) of the plasmids belonged to the I1-I? Inc group and were between 70 and 103kb. The potential for inter-serovar plasmid transfer was further confirmed by the PCR detection of AMR genes on the plasmids isolated from trans-conjugants. Plasmids from Salmonella serovars Anatum, Ouakam, Johannesburg and Typhimurium isolated from the same cohort of pigs and their environment and S. Heidelberg from a single human clinical isolate had identical plasmids based on digestion with multiple restriction enzymes (EcoRI, HindIII and PstI) and southern blotting. We demonstrated likely horizontal inter-serovar exchange of plasmid-encoding AmpC ?-lactamases resistance among MDR Salmonella serotypes isolated from pigs, swine farm environment and clinical human cases. This study provides valuable information on the role of the swine farm environment and by extension other livestock farm environments, as a potential reservoir of resistant bacterial strains that potentially transmit resistance determinants to livestock, in this case, swine, humans and possibly other hosts by horizontal exchange of plasmids. PMID:25115786

  3. Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

    2014-01-01

    One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual “Neandertal” features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

  4. Human Infections Attributable to the d-Tartrate-Fermenting Variant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi B in Germany Originate in Reptiles and, on Rare Occasions, Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Toboldt, Anne; Tietze, Erhard; Helmuth, Reiner; Fruth, Angelika; Junker, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the population structure, incidence, and potential sources of human infection caused by the d-tartrate-fermenting variant of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B [S. Paratyphi B (dT+)] was investigated. In Germany, the serovar is frequently isolated from broilers. Therefore, a selection of 108 epidemiologically unrelated S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (dT+) strains isolated in Germany between 2002 and 2010 especially from humans, poultry/poultry meat, and reptiles was investigated by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Strains isolated from poultry and products thereof were strongly associated with multilocus sequence type ST28 and showed antimicrobial multiresistance profiles. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis XbaI profiles were highly homogeneous, with only a few minor XbaI profile variants. All strains isolated from reptiles, except one, were strongly associated with ST88, another distantly related type. Most of the strains were susceptible to antimicrobial agents, and XbaI profiles were heterogeneous. Strains isolated from humans yielded seven sequence types (STs) clustering in three distantly related lineages. The first lineage, comprising five STs, represented mainly strains belonging to ST43 and ST149. The other two lineages were represented only by one ST each, ST28 and ST88. The relatedness of strains based on the pathogenicity gene repertoire (102 markers tested) was mostly in agreement with the multilocus sequence type. Because ST28 was frequently isolated from poultry but rarely in humans over the 9-year period investigated, overall, this study indicates that in Germany S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (dT+) poses a health risk preferentially by contact with reptiles and, to a less extent, by exposure to poultry or poultry meat. PMID:22885742

  5. Human infections attributable to the D-tartrate-fermenting variant of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B in Germany originate in reptiles and, on rare occasions, poultry.

    PubMed

    Toboldt, Anne; Tietze, Erhard; Helmuth, Reiner; Fruth, Angelika; Junker, Ernst; Malorny, Burkhard

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the population structure, incidence, and potential sources of human infection caused by the d-tartrate-fermenting variant of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B [S. Paratyphi B (dT+)] was investigated. In Germany, the serovar is frequently isolated from broilers. Therefore, a selection of 108 epidemiologically unrelated S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (dT+) strains isolated in Germany between 2002 and 2010 especially from humans, poultry/poultry meat, and reptiles was investigated by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Strains isolated from poultry and products thereof were strongly associated with multilocus sequence type ST28 and showed antimicrobial multiresistance profiles. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis XbaI profiles were highly homogeneous, with only a few minor XbaI profile variants. All strains isolated from reptiles, except one, were strongly associated with ST88, another distantly related type. Most of the strains were susceptible to antimicrobial agents, and XbaI profiles were heterogeneous. Strains isolated from humans yielded seven sequence types (STs) clustering in three distantly related lineages. The first lineage, comprising five STs, represented mainly strains belonging to ST43 and ST149. The other two lineages were represented only by one ST each, ST28 and ST88. The relatedness of strains based on the pathogenicity gene repertoire (102 markers tested) was mostly in agreement with the multilocus sequence type. Because ST28 was frequently isolated from poultry but rarely in humans over the 9-year period investigated, overall, this study indicates that in Germany S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (dT+) poses a health risk preferentially by contact with reptiles and, to a less extent, by exposure to poultry or poultry meat. PMID:22885742

  6. Molecular typing and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains from human, animal and food origins isolated between 1968 and 2000 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Juliana P; Falcão, Deise P; Pitondo-Silva, André; Malaspina, Ana Carolina; Brocchi, Marcelo

    2006-11-01

    Molecular typing and virulence markers were used to evaluate the genetic profiles and virulence potential of 106 Yersinia enterocolitica strains. Of these strains, 71 were bio-serotype 4/O : 3, isolated from human and animal clinical material, and 35 were of biotype 1A or 2 and of diverse serotypes, isolated from food in Brazil between 1968 and 2000. Drug resistance was also investigated. All the strains were resistant to three or more drugs. The isolates showed a virulence-related phenotype in the aesculin, pyrazinamidase and salicin tests, except for the food isolates, only two of which were positive for these tests. For the other phenotypic virulence determinants (autoagglutination, Ca(++) dependence and Congo red absorption), the strains showed a diverse behaviour. The inv, ail and ystA genes were detected in all human and animal strains, while all the food isolates were positive for inv, and 3 % of them positive for ail and ystA. The presence of virF was variable in the three groups of strains. The strains were better discriminated by PFGE than by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). A higher genomic similarity was observed among the 4/O : 3 strains, isolated from human and animal isolates, than among the food strains, with the exception of two food strains possessing the virulence genes and grouped close to the 4/O : 3 strains by ERIC-PCR. Unusually, the results revealed the virulence potential of a bio-serotype 1A/O : 10 strain, suggesting that food contaminated with Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A may cause infection. This also suggests that ERIC-PCR may be used as a tool to reveal clues about the virulence potential of Y. enterocolitica strains. Furthermore, the results also support the hypothesis that animals may act as reservoirs of Y. enterocolitica for human infections in Brazil, an epidemiological aspect that has not been investigated in this country, confirming data from other parts of the world. PMID:17030914

  7. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25–10?kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  8. Humans and Ferrets with Prior H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections Do Not Exhibit Evidence of Original Antigenic Sin after Infection or Vaccination with the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Wright, Amber; Vogel, Leatrice; Boonnak, Kobporn; Treanor, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of original antigenic sin (OAS) states that the imprint established by an individual's first influenza virus infection governs the antibody response thereafter. Subsequent influenza virus infection results in an antibody response against the original infecting virus and an impaired immune response against the newer influenza virus. The purpose of our study was to seek evidence of OAS after infection or vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009 pH1N1) virus in ferrets and humans previously infected with H1N1 viruses with various antigenic distances from the 2009 pH1N1 virus, including viruses from 1935 through 1999. In ferrets, seasonal H1N1 priming did not diminish the antibody response to infection or vaccination with the 2009 pH1N1 virus, nor did it diminish the T-cell response, indicating the absence of OAS in seasonal H1N1 virus-primed ferrets. Analysis of paired samples of human serum taken before and after vaccination with a monovalent inactivated 2009 pH1N1 vaccine showed a significantly greater-fold rise in the titer of antibody against the 2009 pH1N1 virus than against H1N1 viruses that circulated during the childhood of each subject. Thus, prior experience with H1N1 viruses did not result in an impairment of the antibody response against the 2009 pH1N1 vaccine. Our data from ferrets and humans suggest that prior exposure to H1N1 viruses did not impair the immune response against the 2009 pH1N1 virus. PMID:24648486

  9. Is there any Association Between Human Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I) Infection and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? An Original Research and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Shirdel, Abbas; Hashemzadeh, Kamila; Sahebari, Maryam; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Hatef, MohammadReza; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Mirfeizi, Zahra; FaridHosseini, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology. Some environmental factors can induce SLE in genetically susceptible individuals; for example, sun exposure and some viral infections may emerge the disease manifestations. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) can dysregulate the human immune system, and the role of this virus in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is under investigation. There are conflicting data about the role of HTLV-I in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases such as SLE. In this study, we have focused on the correlation between HTLV-I infection and SLE in the northeast of Iran, an endemic area for the virus. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty women with SLE and 915 healthy controls were screened for HTLV-I by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot method was used for confirmation of the positive results done by ELISA in the patients and the control group. Results: Two (1.5%) of the patients and 23 (2.5%) of the healthy controls were HTLV-I seropositive. There was not a statistical difference between patients and controls in the number of HTLV-I seropositive samples (P=0.49). Conclusion: This cross-sectional case-control study did not find any association between HTLV-I and SLE. With regard to the previous studies, these controversies may stem from differences in ethnic background. Geographical and environmental factors should also be taken into account. PMID:24470872

  10. Multiple Ethnic Origins of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages for the Population of Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Calaon, Diego; ?aval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa. PMID:24676463

  11. Multiple ethnic origins of mitochondrial DNA lineages for the population of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; Seetah, Krish; Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M; ?aval, Diego; Caval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa. PMID:24676463

  12. Reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat elements are efficient promoters in cells of various species and tissue origin, including human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, A A

    1992-11-16

    Promiscuous transcriptional activity of the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) was detected in transient expression assays using LTR-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-encoding gene chimeras, and cells of diverse species and tissue type; levels of expression from two different REV LTRs correlate with reports of pathogenicity of the respective viruses in vivo. REVs do not encode a transactivator targeted to the viral LTR, and cells infected with Marek's disease virus, a herpesvirus with an overlapping host range, do not express factors that preferentially enhance expression from REV or avian sarcoma/leukemia virus LTRs. REV LTRs work efficiently in human lymphoid cells, and are viable alternatives to promoters commonly used for expression of cloned genes. They may also prove useful in the identification of new, ubiquitous cellular transcription factors. PMID:1332912

  13. Disturbances of Ligand Potency and Enhanced Degradation of the Human Glycine Receptor at Affected Positions G160 and T162 Originally Identified in Patients Suffering from Hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Atak, Sinem; Langlhofer, Georg; Schaefer, Natascha; Kessler, Denise; Meiselbach, Heike; Delto, Carolyn; Schindelin, Hermann; Villmann, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-binding of Cys-loop receptors is determined by N-terminal extracellular loop structures from the plus as well as from the minus side of two adjacent subunits in the pentameric receptor complex. An aromatic residue in loop B of the glycine receptor (GlyR) undergoes direct interaction with the incoming ligand via a cation-? interaction. Recently, we showed that mutated residues in loop B identified from human patients suffering from hyperekplexia disturb ligand-binding. Here, we exchanged the affected human residues by amino acids found in related members of the Cys-loop receptor family to determine the effects of side chain volume for ion channel properties. GlyR variants were characterized in vitro following transfection into cell lines in order to analyze protein expression, trafficking, degradation and ion channel function. GlyR ?1 G160 mutations significantly decrease glycine potency arguing for a positional effect on neighboring aromatic residues and consequently glycine-binding within the ligand-binding pocket. Disturbed glycinergic inhibition due to T162 ?1 mutations is an additive effect of affected biogenesis and structural changes within the ligand-binding site. Protein trafficking from the ER toward the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, the secretory Golgi pathways and finally the cell surface is largely diminished, but still sufficient to deliver ion channels that are functional at least at high glycine concentrations. The majority of T162 mutant protein accumulates in the ER and is delivered to ER-associated proteasomal degradation. Hence, G160 is an important determinant during glycine binding. In contrast, T162 affects primarily receptor biogenesis whereas exchanges in functionality are secondary effects thereof.

  14. Bioenergetics in human evolution and disease: implications for the origins of biological complexity and the missing genetic variation of common diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Two major inconsistencies exist in the current neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory that random chromosomal mutations acted on by natural selection generate new species. First, natural selection does not require the evolution of ever increasing complexity, yet this is the hallmark of biology. Second, human chromosomal DNA sequence variation is predominantly either neutral or deleterious and is insufficient to provide the variation required for speciation or for predilection to common diseases. Complexity is explained by the continuous flow of energy through the biosphere that drives the accumulation of nucleic acids and information. Information then encodes complex forms. In animals, energy flow is primarily mediated by mitochondria whose maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) codes for key genes for energy metabolism. In mammals, the mtDNA has a very high mutation rate, but the deleterious mutations are removed by an ovarian selection system. Hence, new mutations that subtly alter energy metabolism are continuously introduced into the species, permitting adaptation to regional differences in energy environments. Therefore, the most phenotypically significant gene variants arise in the mtDNA, are regional, and permit animals to occupy peripheral energy environments where rarer nuclear DNA (nDNA) variants can accumulate, leading to speciation. The neutralist–selectionist debate is then a consequence of mammals having two different evolutionary strategies: a fast mtDNA strategy for intra-specific radiation and a slow nDNA strategy for speciation. Furthermore, the missing genetic variation for common human diseases is primarily mtDNA variation plus regional nDNA variants, both of which have been missed by large, inter-population association studies. PMID:23754818

  15. Structural Basis for the Binding Specificity of Human Recepteur d'Origine Nantais (RON) Receptor Tyrosine Kinase to Macrophage-stimulating Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Kinlin L.; Gorlatova, Natalia V.; Eisenstein, Edward; Herzberg, Osnat

    2014-01-01

    Recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, serum macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), play important roles in inflammation, cell growth, migration, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition during tumor development. The binding of mature MSP?? (disulfide-linked ?- and ?-chains) to RON ectodomain modulates receptor dimerization, followed by autophosphorylation of tyrosines in the cytoplasmic receptor kinase domains. Receptor recognition is mediated by binding of MSP ?-chain (MSP?) to the RON Sema. Here we report the structure of RON Sema-PSI-IPT1 (SPI1) domains in complex with MSP? at 3.0 ? resolution. The MSP? serine protease-like ?-barrel uses the degenerate serine protease active site to recognize blades 2, 3, and 4 of the ?-propeller fold of RON Sema. Despite the sequence homology between RON and MET receptor tyrosine kinase and between MSP and hepatocyte growth factor, it is well established that there is no cross-reactivity between the two receptor-ligand systems. Comparison of the structure of RON SPI1 in complex with MSP? and that of MET receptor tyrosine kinase Sema-PSI in complex with hepatocyte growth factor ?-chain reveals the receptor-ligand selectivity determinants. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies of the SPI1-MSP? interaction confirm the formation of a 1:1 complex. SPI1 and MSP?? also associate primarily as a 1:1 complex with a binding affinity similar to that of SPI1-MSP?. In addition, the SPI1-MSP?? ultracentrifuge studies reveal a low abundance 2:2 complex with ?10-fold lower binding affinity compared with the 1:1 species. These results support the hypothesis that the ?-chain of MSP?? mediates RON dimerization. PMID:25193665

  16. Structure and Sequence of the Human Fast Skeletal Troponin T (TNNT3) Gene: Insight Into the Evolution of the Gene and the Origin of the Developmentally Regulated Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Stefancsik, Raymund; Randall, Jeffrey D.; Mao, Chengjian

    2003-01-01

    We describe the cloning, sequencing and structure of the human fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5. The single-copy gene encodes 19 exons and 18 introns. Eleven of these exons, 1–3, 9–15 and 18, are constitutively spliced, whereas exons 4–8 are alternatively spliced. The gene contains an additional subset of developmentally regulated and alternatively spliced exons, including a foetal exon located between exon 8 and 9 and exon 16 or ? (adult) and 17 or ? (foetal and neonatal). Exon phasing suggests that the majority of the alternatively spliced exons located at the 5? end of the gene may have evolved as a result of exon shuffling, because they are of the same phase class. In contrast, the 3? exons encoding an evolutionarily conserved heptad repeat domain, shared by both TnT and troponin I (TnI), may be remnants of an ancient ancestral gene. The sequence of the 5? flanking region shows that the putative promoter contains motifs including binding sites for MyoD, MEF-2 and several transcription factors which may play a role in transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of TnT. The coding region of TNNT3 exhibits strong similarity to the corresponding rat sequence. However, unlike the rat TnT gene, TNNT3 possesses two repeat regions of CCA and TC. The exclusive presence of these repetitive elements in the human gene indicates divergence in the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian TnT genes. Homologous muscle-specific splicing enhancer motifs are present in the introns upstream and downstream of the foetal exon, and may play a role in the developmental pattern of alternative splicing of the gene. The genomic correlates of TNNT3 are relevant to our understanding of the evolution and regulation of expression of the gene, as well as the structure and function of the protein isoforms. The nucleotide sequence of TNNT3 has been submitted to EMBL/GenBank under Accession No. AF026276. PMID:18629027

  17. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  18. Characterization and comparison of telomere length, telomerase and reverse transcriptase activity and gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells and cancer cells of various origins.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Byeong-Gyun; Kumar, Basavarajappa Mohana; Kang, Eun-Ju; Ock, Sun-A; Lee, Sung-Lim; Kwack, Dae-Oh; Byun, June-Ho; Park, Bong-Wook; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2011-07-01

    We have characterized and compared the telomere length, telomerase, reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and expression of genes implicated in cancer and in pluripotency, in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from dental papilla tissue, umbilical cord matrix and adipose tissue and in cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, U-87 MG, and MCF-7). MRC-5 fetal fibroblasts and adult muscle cells were used as somatic cell controls. Telomere length was significantly (P<0.05) higher in MSCs and somatic cells (7.2-9.3 kb) than in cancer cell lines (3.9-6 kb). However, the relative telomerase activity (RTA) in the cancer cell lines was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of MSCs and somatic cells. RTA tended to be slightly higher in MSCs but no significant differences were observed between some cancer cells and MSCs. However, RTA was not detected in somatic cells. Although differentially displayed, the expression of genes related to cancer (BCL-2, p53, NF-?B, TGF-?, VEGF) and transcription and pluripotency (OCT4, NANOG, STAT3, REX1) were commonly observed in MSCs and cancer cells. Thus, endogenous non-telomerase RTA might be a potential biological marker or regulator among MSCs and cancer cells. Further, by sharing the biological and molecular markers of self-renewal and proliferation with cancer cells, MSCs might play a contributory role as tissue resident stem cells in tumor development. PMID:21638208

  19. In Silico Docking to Explicate Interface between Plant-Originated Inhibitors and E6 Oncogenic Protein of Highly Threatening Human Papillomavirus 18

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Lingaraja; Sahoo, Maheswata; Kakde, Mrunmayi; Daf, Sangeeta; Varma, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    The leading cause of cancer mortality globally amongst the women is due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. There is need to explore anti-cancerous drugs against this life-threatening infection. Traditionally, different natural compounds such as withaferin A, artemisinin, ursolic acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, berberin, resveratrol, jaceosidin, curcumin, gingerol, indol-3-carbinol, and silymarin have been used as hopeful source of cancer treatment. These natural inhibitors have been shown to block HPV infection by different researchers. In the present study, we explored these natural compounds against E6 oncoprotein of high risk HPV18, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor p53 protein. E6, a high throughput protein model of HPV18, was predicted to anticipate the interaction mechanism of E6 oncoprotein with these natural inhibitors using structure-based drug designing approach. Docking analysis showed the interaction of these natural inhibitors with p53 binding site of E6 protein residues 108-117 (CQKPLNPAEK) and help reinstatement of normal p53 functioning. Further, docking analysis besides helping in silico validations of natural compounds also helped elucidating the molecular mechanism of inhibition of HPV oncoproteins. PMID:26175664

  20. "Eurocode International Blood Labeling System" enables unique identification of all biological products from human origin in accordance with the European Directive 2004/23/EC.

    PubMed

    Knels, Ralf; Mönig, Hans-Joachim; Wittmann, Georg; von Versen, Rüdiger; Pruss, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Due to their limited availability and compatibility, biological products must be exchanged between medical institutions. In addition to a number of national systems and agreements which strive to implement a unique identification and classification of blood products, the ISBT 128 was developed in 1994, followed by the Eurocode in 1998. In contrast to other coding systems, these both make use of primary identifiers as stipulated by the document ISO/IEC 15418 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and thus provide a unique international code. Due to their flexible data structures, which make use of secondary identifiers, both systems are able to integrate additional biological products and their producers. Tissue and cells also constitute a comparable risk to the recipient as that of blood products in terms of false labeling and the danger of infection. However, in contrast to blood products, the exchange of tissue and cells is much more intensively pursued at the international level. This fact is recognised by Directives 2004/23/EC and 2006/86/EC of the European Union (EU), which demand a standardized coding system for cells and tissue throughout the EU. The 2008 workshop agreement of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) was unique identification by means of a Key Code consisting of country code corresponding to ISO 3166-1, as well as competent authority and tissue establishment. As agreed at the meeting of the Working Group on the European Coding System for Human Tissues and Cells of the Health and Consumers Directorate-General of the European Commission (DG SANCO) held on 19 May 2010 in Brussels, this Key Code could also be used with existing coding systems to provide unique identification and allow EU traceability of all materials from one donation event. Today Eurocode already uses country codes according to ISO 3166-1, and thus the proposed Key Code can be integrated into the current Eurocode data structure and does not need to be introduced separately. The Eurocode product classification for all products is based on its own unique coding system, which can be accessed over the internet by all users who are not themselves members of Eurocode. In summary, it can be said that the standardized single coding system for tissues and cells requires only unique sections in the data structure such the Key Code to fulfil the requirements of the EU Directive. Thus, various systems currently in place in different EU member states can continue to operate if the Key Code as suggested by the EU is integrated into them. The classification and description of each product characteristic is currently being discussed by the DG SANCO Working Group on the European Coding System for Human Tissues and Cells. Following intensive scrutiny in light of the stipulations laid out in EU Directives 2004/23/EC and 2006/86/EC as well as the CEN/ISSS workshop agreements, the Germany Federal Ministry for Health and organisations representing German tissue establishments under the responsibility of the German Society of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology, Working Party "Tissue preparations" proposed in 2009 that Eurocode be adopted for the donor identification and product coding of tissue and cells in Germany. The technical details for implementation have already been completed and are presented in the current article. PMID:20563859

  1. A Detailed Epidemiological and Clinical Description of 6 Human Cases of Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Infection in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yunwen; He, Yanchao; Huang, Qihui; Leng, Beizheng; He, Wei; Sheng, Ying; Li, Fangming; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue; Gu, Yong; Jie, Zhijun

    2013-01-01

    Background The world’s first reported patient infected with avian influenza H7N9 was treated at the Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai. Shortly thereafter, several other cases emerged in the local area. Here, we describe the detailed epidemiological and clinical data of 6 cases of avian influenza H7N9. Methods and Findings We analyzed the epidemiologic and clinical data from clustered patients infected with H7N9 in the Minhang District of Shanghai during a 2-week period. Of the 6 patients, 2 were from a single family. In addition, 3 patients had a history of contact with poultry; however, all 6 patients lived in the proximity of 2 food markets where the H7N9 virus was detected in chickens and pigeons. The main symptoms were fever, cough, and hemoptysis. At onset, a decreased lymphocyte count and elevated creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein levels were observed. As the disease progressed, most patients developed dyspnea and hypoxemia. Imaging studies revealed lung consolidation and multiple ground-glass opacities in the early stage, rapidly extending bilaterally. All patients were treated with oseltamivir tablets beginning on days 3–8 after onset. The main complications were as follows: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; 83.3%), secondary bacterial infection (66.7%), pleural effusion (50%), left ventricular failure (33.3%), neuropsychiatric symptoms (33.3%), and rhabdomyolysis (16.7%). Of the 6 patients, 4 died of ARDS, with 2 patients recovering from the infection. Conclusions An outbreak of H7N9 infection occurred in the Minhang District of Shanghai that easily progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Two cases showed family aggregation, which led us to identify the H7N9 virus and indicated that human transmission may be involved in the spread of this infection. PMID:24143251

  2. An Origin of Cooperative Oxygen Binding of Human Adult Hemoglobin: Different Roles of the ? and ? Subunits in the ?2?2 Tetramer

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hiroshi; Imai, Kiyohiro; Mizusawa, Naoki; Ogura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Human hemoglobin (Hb), which is an ?2?2 tetramer and binds four O2 molecules, changes its O2-affinity from low to high as an increase of bound O2, that is characterized by ‘cooperativity’. This property is indispensable for its function of O2 transfer from a lung to tissues and is accounted for in terms of T/R quaternary structure change, assuming the presence of a strain on the Fe-histidine (His) bond in the T state caused by the formation of hydrogen bonds at the subunit interfaces. However, the difference between the ? and ? subunits has been neglected. To investigate the different roles of the Fe-His(F8) bonds in the ? and ? subunits, we investigated cavity mutant Hbs in which the Fe-His(F8) in either ? or ? subunits was replaced by Fe-imidazole and F8-glycine. Thus, in cavity mutant Hbs, the movement of Fe upon O2-binding is detached from the movement of the F-helix, which is supposed to play a role of communication. Recombinant Hb (rHb)(?H87G), in which only the Fe-His in the ? subunits is replaced by Fe-imidazole, showed a biphasic O2-binding with no cooperativity, indicating the coexistence of two independent hemes with different O2-affinities. In contrast, rHb(?H92G), in which only the Fe-His in the ? subunits is replaced by Fe-imidazole, gave a simple high-affinity O2-binding curve with no cooperativity. Resonance Raman, 1H NMR, and near-UV circular dichroism measurements revealed that the quaternary structure change did not occur upon O2-binding to rHb(?H87G), but it did partially occur with O2-binding to rHb(?H92G). The quaternary structure of rHb(?H87G) appears to be frozen in T while its tertiary structure is changeable. Thus, the absence of the Fe-His bond in the ? subunit inhibits the T to R quaternary structure change upon O2-binding, but its absence in the ? subunit simply enhances the O2-affinity of ? subunit. PMID:26244770

  3. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51–46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ?63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic–modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ?50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. PMID:22908291

  4. 21 CFR 814.104 - Original applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Original applications. 814.104 Section 814.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.104 Original applications. (a) United States applicant...

  5. Evolutionary origin of ?-defensins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shunyi; Gao, Bin

    2013-01-01

    ?-Defensins are a group of vertebrate-specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with microbicidal and immune regulatory functions. In spite of their conservation across the vertebrate lineage ranging from bony fish to human, the evolutionary origin of these molecules remains unsolved. We addressed this issue by comparing three-dimensional (3D) structure and genomic organization of ?-defensins with those of big defensins, a family of invertebrate-derived ?-defensin-related peptides with two distinct structural and functional domains. ?-Defensins and the carboxyl-terminal domain of big defensins adopt a conserved ?-sheet topology stabilized by three identical disulfide bridges. Genomic organization analysis revealed that the defensin domain of these two classes of molecules is encoded by a single exon with a positionally conserved phase-1 intron in its upstream. The genomic and 3D structural conservation provides convincing evidence for their evolutionary relationship, in which ?-defensins emerged from an ancestral big defensin through exon shuffling or intronization of exonic sequences. The phylogenetic distribution of big defensins in Arthropoda, Mollusca and Cephalochordata suggests an early origin of the ?-defensin domain, which can be traced to the common ancestor of bilateral metazoans. PMID:22369779

  6. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G.?glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G.?glabra. PMID:25779384

  7. De novo der(X)t(X;10)(q26;q21) with features of distal trisomy 10q: case report of paternal origin identified by late replication with BrdU and the human androgen receptor assay (HAR).

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Heras, J; Martin, J A; Witchel, S F; Scacheri, P

    1997-01-01

    We describe an 11 year old girl with a de novo unbalanced t(X;10) that resulted in a deletion of Xq26-->Xqter and a trisomy of 10q21-->10qter. Her clinical features were of distal trisomy 10q, but she lacked the cardiovascular and renal malformations observed in duplications of 10q24-->10qter and had only moderate mental retardation. X inactivation was assessed on peripheral blood lymphocytes by late replication with BrdU (LR) and the human androgen receptor assay (HAR). By LR the der(X) was inactive without spreading to 10q21-->10qter in all cells. The HAR assay showed skewed methylation of the paternal allele (90%). The correlation of HAR and LR suggests that the der(X) was paternally inherited and is consistent with data from other de novo balanced and unbalanced X;autosome translocations detected in females. This is the first report of parental origin of a de novo trisomy 10q. Images PMID:9132498

  8. Patenting Stem Cells of Human Origin 

    E-print Network

    Laurie, Graeme

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses the impact of the European Union's Directive for the legal protection of biotechnological inventions (Directive 98/44/EC of 6 July 1998. Specific attention is given to the absence from provisions of ...

  9. Human ageing and the origins of religion.

    PubMed

    Holliday, R

    2001-01-01

    During the evolution of hominids, the population could be sustained even with an expectation of life at birth of less than 20 years. Under these circumstances very few individuals reached old age. In these hunter-gatherer communities, altruistic behaviour was encouraged because it increased the likelihood of survival, whereas self-interest did not. An early moral code benefited the community as a whole. As social evolution progressed, the chances of survival increased, and for the first time very elderly individuals appeared. However, the reward for survival to old age was merely decrepitude and death. Under these circumstances, new incentives became a social necessity, and these took the form of a belief in an eternal afterlife. Religion then became the basis for the moral code, and it provided an assurance of continual survival after death. PMID:11708620

  10. Origins of Handedness in Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, George; Hopkins, Brian

    This paper reviews the literature on handedness in infants and reaching behavior in neonates and speculates on evolutionary reasons for the development of handedness. Modern studies have reliably detected handedness from the second half of the first year of life. One study found a preference for the right hand in unimanual tasks at 6.7 months.…

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Why Humans Have Sex

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    and simple in nature­to reproduce, to experience pleasure, or to relieve sexual tension. Several theoretical and psychologically complex in nature. Study 1 used a nomination procedure that identified 237 expressed reasons valued by a partner, expressing value for a partner, obtaining relief from stress, nurturing one

  12. Transcriptomic Characterization of the Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus: Specific Host Response and Responses Intermediate between Avian (H5N1 and H7N7) and Human (H3N2) Viruses and Implications for Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Josset, Laurence; Zeng, Hui; Kelly, Sara M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Katze, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus (IAV) emerged in China in 2013, causing mild to lethal human respiratory infections. H7N9 originated with multiple reassortment events between avian viruses and carries genetic markers of human adaptation. Determining whether H7N9 induces a host response closer to that with human or avian IAV is important in order to better characterize this emerging virus. Here we compared the human lung epithelial cell response to infection with A/Anhui/01/13 (H7N9) or highly pathogenic avian-origin H5N1, H7N7, or human seasonal H3N2 IAV. The transcriptomic response to H7N9 was highly specific to this strain but was more similar to the response to human H3N2 than to that to other avian IAVs. H7N9 and H3N2 both elicited responses related to eicosanoid signaling and chromatin modification, whereas H7N9 specifically induced genes regulating the cell cycle and transcription. Among avian IAVs, the response to H7N9 was closest to that elicited by H5N1 virus. Host responses common to H7N9 and the other avian viruses included the lack of induction of the antigen presentation pathway and reduced proinflammatory cytokine induction compared to that with H3N2. Repression of these responses could have an important impact on the immunogenicity and virulence of H7N9 in humans. Finally, using a genome-based drug repurposing approach, we identified several drugs predicted to regulate the host response to H7N9 that may act as potential antivirals, including several kinase inhibitors, as well as FDA-approved drugs, such as troglitazone and minocycline. Importantly, we validated that minocycline inhibited H7N9 replication in vitro, suggesting that our computational approach holds promise for identifying novel antivirals. PMID:24496798

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II), subtype B, from a healthy Pygmy living in a remote area of Cameroon: an ancient origin for HTLV-II in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Gessain, A; Mauclère, P; Froment, A; Biglione, M; Le Hesran, J Y; Tekaia, F; Millan, J; de Thé, G

    1995-01-01

    We report characterization of a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) isolated from an interleukin 2-dependent CD8 T-cell line derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy, HTLV-II-seropositive female Bakola Pygmy, aged 59, living in a remote equatorial forest area in south Cameroon. This HTLLV-II isolate, designated PYGCAM-1, reacted in an indirect immunofluorescence assay with HTLV-II and HTLV-I polyclonal antibodies and with an HTLV-I/II gp46 monoclonal antibody but not with HTLV-I gag p19 or p24 monoclonal antibodies. The cell line produced HTLV-I/II p24 core antigen and retroviral particles. The entire env gene (1462 bp) and most of the long terminal repeat (715 bp) of the PYGCAM-1 provirus were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using HTLV-II-specific primers. Comparison with the long terminal repeat and envelope sequences of prototype HTLV-II strains indicated that PYGCAM-1 belongs to the subtype B group, as it has only 0.5-2% nucleotide divergence from HTLV-II B strains. The finding of antibodies to HTLV-II in sera taken from the father of the woman in 1984 and from three unrelated members of the same population strongly suggests that PYGCAM-1 is a genuine HTLV-II that has been present in this isolated population for a long time. The low genetic divergence of this African isolate from American isolates raises questions about the genetic variability over time and the origin and dissemination of HTLV-II, hitherto considered to be predominantly a New World virus. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7732027

  14. Investigating Human Impacts on Past Irish Landscapes through Multiple Prospection Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, R.; Thurston, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    Since the environmental consequences of human activity are large-scale in nature, archaeologists must employ landscape-scale methods to adequately monitor and catalog them. We present a synthesis of regional prospection methods to identify changing landuse patterns and socionatural 'throughlines' from the Late Iron Age, to Medieval, to Early Modern eras in the former Kingdom of Ulster, now comprising most of modern Northern Ireland. Primary among these is an exploratory analysis of VNIR hyperspectral data for detecting elevated phosphate signatures in vegetation that are associated with archaeological sites. This is combined with geochemical survey for phosphate, IFSAR-derived DEMs, and historic maps to identify archaeological sites from multiple time periods. Each of these methods focuses on different phenomena, which may be combined to create a synthetic model of socially and environmentally influenced landscape and landuse change.

  15. The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, James H.; Locker, Alison M.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2004-01-01

    The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

  16. Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health

    E-print Network

    Davis, Jesse

    Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Division of Epidemiology, Statistics & Prevention Research) at the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development. The Division's mission is to conduct original

  17. Research Report Human memory

    E-print Network

    Curran, Tim

    Research Report Human memory Event-related potential (ERP) Associative recognition Familiarity). The dissociability of associative and item mind details about the original study experience has led dual- recognition

  18. The Origins of Ethnolinguistic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the determinants of ethnolinguistic diversity within as well as across countries shedding light on its geographic origins. The empirical analysis conducted across countries, virtual countries and pairs of contiguous regions establishes that geographic variability, captured by variation in regional land quality and elevation, is a fundamental determinant of contemporary linguistic diversity. The findings are consistent with the proposed hypothesis that differences in land endowments gave rise to location-specific human capital, leading to the formation of localized ethnicities. PMID:25258434

  19. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  20. [ Home | Blogs | Events | Robots | Humans | Projects | Podcasts | About | Account ] All content copyright by author. Unless otherwise noted, original content is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution, Share-Alike v3.0 license. See the about page for

    E-print Network

    Stryk, Oskar von

    [ Home | Blogs | Events | Robots | Humans | Projects | Podcasts | About | Account ] All content: Team IHMC, Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola, Fla. (52 points) 1. WPI Robotics Giant Dallas Robot Cited as Best Public Art There's More Than One Way to Skin a Robot Day

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER The interdisciplinary engineering knowledge genome

    E-print Network

    Shai, Offer

    and its impact on biology and other disciplines, we revealed a similar concept in engineering sciencesORIGINAL PAPER The interdisciplinary engineering knowledge genome Yoram Reich · Offer Shai Received February 2012 Ó Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012 Abstract Parallel to the concept of the human genome

  2. Original Article Gastrointestinal Stem Cells and Cancer--

    E-print Network

    Dove, William

    Original Article Gastrointestinal Stem Cells and Cancer-- Bridging the Molecular Gap S.J. Leedham Cancer is believed to be a disease involving stem cells. The digestive tract has a very high cancer in both the mouse and human has shown that crypts are clonal units and mutated stem cells may develop

  3. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 29 July 2014

    E-print Network

    Filzmoser, Peter

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 29 July 2014 doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014 and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria 5 Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Germany Reviewed by: Philip Dickinson, Mc

  4. The Origin of Language: Retrospective and Prospective

    E-print Network

    Ruhlen, Merritt

    --all discussion of which was banned by the Soci´et´e de Linguistique de Paris in 1866--has always been one biological relatives would be ludicrous. Yet for most linguists a common origin of all human languages is very much in doubt, and the belief that Indo-European has no known linguistic relatives is not only

  5. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed.

  6. The Moon's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadogan, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Presents findings and conclusions about the origin of the moon, favoring the capture hypothesis of lunar origin. Advantage of the hypothesis is that it allows the moon to have been formed elsewhere, specifically in a hotter part of the solar nebula, accounting for chemical differences between earth and moon. (JN)

  7. Storytelling: The Original Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry L.

    Original stories can provide a wealth of opportunity for forensics competitors. Original storytelling requires the sharing of a personal experience or family narrative that is adaptable to audiences differing in age and education. Community organizations and groups are invited to participate as audience members and vary from round to round.…

  8. The "Original 86"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) has been tracking changes in 86 Philadelphia schools that were originally identified as "low-performing" and targeted for intervention following the state takeover of the School District of Philadelphia in 2001. This document outlines some of the numerous changes that have occurred in these "Original 86" schools,…

  9. Originalism in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a detailed legal history of originalism and investigates whether, and to what extent, originalism is a part of law school teaching on the Constitution. He shares the results of an examination of the leading constitutional law textbooks used in the top fifty law schools and a selection of responses gathered from…

  10. The Growth of Originalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    The latest episode in the long-running struggle for control of the Constitution, and the political power that goes with it, is playing out in the federal courts in California. The contending philosophies are originalism, which holds that the Constitution should be read as it was originally understood by the framers and ratifiers, and the congeries…

  11. Tuberculosis origin: The Neolithic scenario.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, Israel; Donoghue, Helen D; Minnikin, David E; May, Hila; Lee, Oona Y-C; Feldman, Michal; Galili, Ehud; Spigelman, Mark; Rothschild, Bruce M; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2015-06-01

    This paper follows the dramatic changes in scientific research during the last 20 years regarding the relationship between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and its hosts - bovids and/or humans. Once the M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis genomes were sequenced, it became obvious that the old story of M. bovis evolving into the human pathogen should be reversed, as M. tuberculosis is more ancestral than M. bovis. Nevertheless, the timescale and geographical origin remained an enigma. In the current study human and cattle bone samples were examined for evidence of tuberculosis from the site of Atlit-Yam in the Eastern Mediterranean, dating from 9250 to 8160 (calibrated) years ago. Strict precautions were used to prevent contamination in the DNA analysis, and independent centers used to confirm authenticity of findings. DNA from five M. tuberculosis genetic loci was detected and had characteristics consistent with extant genetic lineages. High performance liquid chromatography was used as an independent method of verification and it directly detected mycolic acid lipid biomarkers, specific for the M. tuberculosis complex. These, together with pathological changes detected in some of the bones, confirm the presence of the disease in the Levantine populations during the Pre-pottery Neolithic C period, more than 8000 years ago. PMID:25726364

  12. Size and Origination: Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, A.; Smith, S.; Binn, J.; Jost, A.; Payne, J.; Foraminifera: Origination

    2010-12-01

    Foraminifera have been present from the beginning of the Cambrian to the present-day Holocene. These foraminifera have originated at many different sizes. The maximum size of over 36,000 foraminifera was estimated in the Catalog of Foraminifera by Ellis and Messina. Assuming foraminifera are ellipsoidal, the maximum length, width, and height of each measured foraminifera was used to calculate the volume. All of this data, along with measurements of oxygen levels throughout history, was analyzed in R. After various forms of analysis are conducted, multiple graphs can be generated which relate to size of foraminifera along with their stage of origination. Results indicated that during the Lower Cretaceous period, foraminifera originated at very small sizes. During the Bashkirian stage of the Carboniferous period, foraminifera originated at large sizes.

  13. Ancient Voyaging and Polynesian Origins

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Pedro; Rito, Teresa; Trejaut, Jean; Mormina, Maru; Hill, Catherine; Tinkler-Hundal, Emma; Braid, Michelle; Clarke, Douglas J.; Loo, Jun-Hun; Thomson, Noel; Denham, Tim; Donohue, Mark; Macaulay, Vincent; Lin, Marie; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    The “Polynesian motif” defines a lineage of human mtDNA that is restricted to Austronesian-speaking populations and is almost fixed in Polynesians. It is widely thought to support a rapid dispersal of maternal lineages from Taiwan ?4000 years ago (4 ka), but the chronological resolution of existing control-region data is poor, and an East Indonesian origin has also been proposed. By analyzing 157 complete mtDNA genomes, we show that the motif itself most likely originated >6 ka in the vicinity of the Bismarck Archipelago, and its immediate ancestor is >8 ka old and virtually restricted to Near Oceania. This indicates that Polynesian maternal lineages from Island Southeast Asia gained a foothold in Near Oceania much earlier than dispersal from either Taiwan or Indonesia 3–4 ka would predict. However, we find evidence in minor lineages for more recent two-way maternal gene flow between Island Southeast Asia and Near Oceania, likely reflecting movements along a “voyaging corridor” between them, as previously proposed on archaeological grounds. Small-scale mid-Holocene movements from Island Southeast Asia likely transmitted Austronesian languages to the long-established Southeast Asian colonies in the Bismarcks carrying the Polynesian motif, perhaps also providing the impetus for the expansion into Polynesia. PMID:21295281

  14. Current Biology 17, 16631668, October 9, 2007 2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2007.08.033 The Evolutionary Origins of Human

    E-print Network

    Stevens, Jeffrey

    (Pan troglodytes) exhibit a degree of patience not seen in other animals tested thus far. Second and future benefits. Non- human animals must also make time-sensitive decisions about mating or foraging exhibit patience, forgoing immediate benefits to acquire more valuable future rewards [1­3]. Although

  15. Contradictory or Complementary? Creationist and Evolutionist Explanations of the Origin(s) of Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E. Margaret; Lane, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Almost half of the US public rejects the idea that humans originated via evolution rather than by supernatural design. Moreover, studies demonstrate that even biology teachers have difficulty teaching their students about evolution, often including creationist explanations as well. A typical response to such findings is the argument that greater…

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A novel method for automated classification of epileptiform

    E-print Network

    Dayan, Peter

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE A novel method for automated classification of epileptiform activity in the human classification Á Epileptiform events Á Eye-blinks artefacts 1 Introduction 1.1 Background The human was 65 ± 22% at a specificity of 86 ± 7% (mean ± SD). With feature extraction by PCA or classification

  17. Adenoviruses of canine and human origins in stool samples from free-living pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) in São Francisco de Paula, Rio dos Sinos basin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, G S; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Rech, N K; Soliman, M C; Staggemeier, R; Rodrigues, M T; Barros, M P; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The spread of enteric viruses of domestic animals and human beings to wild species can be facilitated by the resistance of these viruses on the environment and their ability to be transmitted by water and contaminated food. The health status of the populations of pampas foxes Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) is largely unknown and the landscapes occupied by these animals in southern Brazil have been threatened by human occupation and expansion of agriculture. In this work, the search of genomes of human and canine adenoviruses in feces from these wild carnivores was used to track the dissemination of domestic animals and human pathogens to the free-living populations in a wildlife reserve located in southern Brazil. This was performed by virus-specific differential real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) on stool specimens, avoiding capture and additional stress to the animals. Genus-specific conventional reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was complementarily performed aiming the detection of enteroviruses (EV) and rotaviruses (RV) on these same samples. HAdV genomes were found on 14 out of the 17 (82.35%) stool samples analysed, whereas CAV was found co-infecting 5 of these samples. RV genomes were detected on 7 of the 17 samples (41.18%) and all samples were negative for EV. The results point to the dispersion of HAdV and RV at a high rate to these species of South American wild carnivores, which can be an effect of growing anthropisation of the habitat of these animals. PMID:26270208

  18. Human language reveals a universal positivity bias

    E-print Network

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    Using human evaluation of 100,000 words spread across 24 corpora in 10 languages diverse in origin and culture, we present evidence of a deep imprint of human sociality in language, observing that (i) the words of natural ...

  19. Human Evolution "Most scientists believe that science generally

    E-print Network

    Human Evolution "Most scientists believe that science generally approaches ever nearer, G relationship Human Origins & Evolution: Molecular Evidence - mtDNA tree Fig. 19.4 Bonobo #12;Human and extant wrist bones - -comparative study (G ancestral, C & H derived) Human Origins & Evolution: Key

  20. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  1. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S.; Learn, Gerald H.; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Malenke, Jordan A.; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Ramirez, Miguel A.; Crystal, Patricia A.; Smith, Andrew G.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J.; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A.; Hart, Terese B.; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Schneider, Bradley S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L.; Shaw, George M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sharp, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa. PMID:24557500

  2. A review of "The Culture of Equity in Early Modern England" By Mark Fortier 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    . Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. viii + 217 pp. Review by RICHARD C. TAYLOR, EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY. It is a truism that the some of most extraordinary discoveries seem obvi- ous after they have been revealed, and the prevalence of the idea...

  3. A review of "Courtly Encounters: Translating Courtliness and Violence in Early Modern Eurasia" by Sanjay Subrahmanyam 

    E-print Network

    Nechtman, Tillman W.

    2013-01-01

    Coutinho?s refusal to convert and his willing submission to a brutal martyrdom by cannon? In answering this question (and the many others that he asks of his case studies), Subrahmanyam deftly draws in examples and connec- tions from around the early...

  4. A review of "Foxe's Book of Martyrs and Early Modern Print Culture" by John N. King 

    E-print Network

    Blevins, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    stream_source_info John King.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9904 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name John King.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 REVIEWS 169 Chapter 4... female identity is constituted? (183). As with the discussions in earlier chapters, numerous plays are surveyed. Here, analyses of Elizabeth Polwhele?s The Frolicks, Susannah Centlivre?s The Basset-Table, and Aphra Behn?s The Rover and Sir Patient...

  5. Famine relief and imperial policy in early modern Morocco: the political functions of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, A R

    1981-01-01

    There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7027811

  6. A review of "The Welsh and the Shaping of Early Modern Ireland" by Rhys Morgan 

    E-print Network

    Langley, Chris R.

    2015-01-01

    stream_source_info Langley review, SCN 73 3&4.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11902 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Langley review, SCN 73 3&4.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 143...

  7. Prophets, saints, and matriarchs: portraits of old women in early modern Italy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Erin J

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines portraits of old women that were produced for the households of the professional and elite classes in Emilia-Romagna, Lombardy, and the Veneto during the second half of the sixteenth century, when, as a result of religious and social reform, women's lives came under increasing scrutiny. By interpreting the portraits within the context of prescriptive texts on the stages of women's lives, this study argues that the portraits provide evidence for the pivotal role of old women within the moral and symbolic order of the family, as well as in the wider community beyond the home. PMID:21032938

  8. A review of "Fallen Nature, Fallen Selves: Early Modern French Thought II" by Michael Moriarty 

    E-print Network

    Janke, Todd

    2007-01-01

    in the works of La Fontaine, Pierre Charron, Jacques-B?nigne Bossuet, Pierre Nicole, Fran?ois Lamy, Antoine Arnauld, Pierre Corneille, Moliere, Jean Racine, Madame de Lafayette, and La Rochefoucauld. There are forays along the way into philosophy, theology...-CENTURY NEWS Divins ?lancements are seen as poetic expressions of an inner reality of religious experience.. Part IV situates all that preceded in a historical perspective. Twentieth- century and earlier criticism, notably that of Jean-Pierre Camus (1584...

  9. A review of "Subordination and Authorship in Early Modern England:" by Betty S. Travitsky 

    E-print Network

    Lisa J. Schnell

    2002-01-01

    , make this volume as 290 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS important a contribution to seventeenth-century studies as was The Paradise of Women. Mark Charles Fissel. English Warfare 1511-1642. London and New York: Routledge, 2001. xviii + 382 pp. + 38 illus..., but that they refused to become a military cul- ture. He thus effectively challenges the argument of David Eltis and others that England was militarily backward and inexperi- enced during this period. English Warfare is grounded in a breathtakingly impressive quantity...

  10. Banquets Against Boredom: Towards Understanding (Samurai) Cuisine in Early Modern Japan

    E-print Network

    Rath, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    rice (yuzuke) Pickles Fish flavored in sake (sakabite) Fermented intestines of sea cucumber (konowata) Salt for flavoring (teshio) Looking at the contents of the tray, several of the dishes recall warrior traditions dating to the Muromachi... sauce [Rice] Second Tray Grey-headed lapwing (keri) grilled with salt, Japanese pepper (sansh?), and “small greens” (kona) Fish-paste loaf (kamaboko) Pickles Additional Tray [ohikimono] Grilled sweet-fish Soup (oatsumono) of sea bream roe...

  11. Writing Their Way In: The Dedicatory Epistles of Early Modern English Women Authors 

    E-print Network

    Parker, Meghan Lee

    2013-04-30

    This project explores how 17th-century English women writers used dedicatory epistles. The three case studies here represent different modes in which women writers interacted with readers: manuscript, print, and commercial ...

  12. A parcel of muddling muckworms’: revisiting Habermas and the Early Modern English coffee-houses 

    E-print Network

    Laurier, Eric; Philo, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a research project concerned with contemporary cafés, one in which coffee-shops have loomed large, it has been appropriate to revisit Habermas’s famous 1962/1989 work on the transformation of the ‘public ...

  13. ‘Nature Concocts & Expels’: The Agents and Processes of Recovery from Disease in Early Modern England

    E-print Network

    Newton, Hannah

    2015-03-26

    Trust, 1996), xxxi. 16On vernacular medical texts, see Mary Fissell, ‘The Marketplace of Print’, in Mark Jenner and Patrick Wallis, eds, Medicine and the Market in England and its Colonies, c.1450–1850 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), 108–52. 17... of Nature as an entity, and instead attributes recovery to the divinely framed mechanical structures of the body. See the introduction to Michael Hunter and Edward Davis, eds, Robert Boyle: A Free Enquiry into the Vulgarly Received Notion of Nature...

  14. A review of "The Renaissance of Lesbianism in Early Modern England." by Valerie Traub 

    E-print Network

    Mario Digangi

    2003-01-01

    ? friend represented the ?chaste? and ?unexceptional? love between (English) women (19), the ?mas- culine? tribade was usually depicted as a foreign woman who pen- etrated another woman with an enlarged clitoris or dildo. Yet as images of female sexuality...

  15. Risky Business: The Discourse of Credit and Early Modern Female Playwrights Before Defoe 

    E-print Network

    Beggs, Courtney Beth

    2011-10-21

    , and economic motivation. By looking at how their plays appropriated and responded to financial language present in popular forms of publications such as pamphlets, ballads, and accounting guidebooks, we find that female playwrights understood the discourse...

  16. A review of "Women and Race in Early Modern Texts." by Joyce Green MacDonald 

    E-print Network

    Lisa J. Schnell

    2003-01-01

    , the think- ing is often careless and at best provisional. For example, introducing the Restoration texts of the second half of the book MacDonald says, ?Instead of the relational bond between Rome and Egypt, Mariam and Salome, Octavia and Cleopatra, Dido... women?s raced bodies?narra- tives of Rome?s founding and its progress toward Empire, and narratives of Britain?s establishment of colonial authority in the New World?might reasonably lead one to expect a careful, nu- anced discussion of the ways in which...

  17. A review of "Women and Race in Early Modern Texts." by Joyce Green MacDonald 

    E-print Network

    Julie D. Campbell

    2003-01-01

    that the book has six chapters (18), but it actually has seven, excluding the introduction and conclusion. The first three chapters focus on Rome and Egypt. First, MacDonald looks at how the figure of Cleopatra ?may figure in contemporary and Renaissance... from stories of Rome?s encounters with Egypt.? Third, she explores how images of Dido figure ?in narrations of empire?s relations to race and sexuality? (18-19). The discussions in Part One espe- cially illustrate the complexities inherent...

  18. A review of "Excess and the Mean in Early Modern English Literature." by Joshua Scodel 

    E-print Network

    Ira Clark

    2003-01-01

    to look at adaptations of Virgil that celebrated England?s emulation of Rome and proposed various visions of rural labor as moderate balance between or contention with extremes, with di- vergent visions of the incipient nation. Then he describes the ad... to Virgil as one in which the homoerotic associated with the pristine landscape of the past be- comes increasingly irrecoverable as it is overridden by political and military Rome. In chapter two, he describes the epic as teach- ing the Renaissance reader...

  19. Memories of violence and New English identities in early modern Ireland

    E-print Network

    Redmond, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    .23 The Supplication particularly stressed the additional horror that it was the settlers’ neighbours, tenants, and servants who were committing these acts of savagery, a phenomenon also picked up by Saxey.24 The intimacy of the violence was what...

  20. A review of "Sublime Worlds: Early Modern French Literature" by Emma Gilby 

    E-print Network

    Sedley, David

    2008-01-01

    engagement with the Essais, starting with ?Sur des vers de Virgile?). Ton Harmsen and Alicia Montoya, for their part, examine less known and dis- cussed Dutch readers of Montaigne: Jan de Brune the Younger, who cre- atively imitated Montaigne?s colloquial... style in his Whetsone of the Minds, and Maria Heyns, who deployed a double strategy of literary appreciation and appropriation in her translation of Montaigne. Next, Pieter van Veen?s illustra- tions to the Essais are addressed from an art...

  1. A review of "Domestic Arrangements in Early Modern England." by Kari McBride ed. 

    E-print Network

    Karen L. Raber

    2004-01-01

    , the loss of self feared by both Antipholuses might have been taken directly out of the marriage manuals digested by Ray. Finally, Katharine Capshaw Smith?s essay on Margaret Cavendish?s poetry makes sense of some of its odd and disturbing uses...

  2. A review of "Church, Censorship and Culture in Early Modern Italy." by Gigliola Fragnito, ed. 

    E-print Network

    Erminia Ardissino

    2002-01-01

    was manipulated by his advisors, principally the earl of Sunderland who played a decisive role in wrecking the reign. Finally, William III comes across as a ?natural autocrat? who dreaded the ceremo- nies of monarchy and adopted a business-like approach to gov...

  3. A review of "Education and Women in the Early Modern Hispanic World" by Elizabeth Teresa Howe 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Hillaire

    2008-01-01

    and the Amazons,? ?The Spanish Zenobia,? ?The New Judith,? etc. Her decision to lump Spain together with its New World colo- nies is not uncontroversial. Although there is a growing effort (and not just by comparatists) to look at the big picture of the Iberian...

  4. A review of "English Ethnicity and Race in Early Modern Drama." by Mary Floyd-Wilson 

    E-print Network

    Jonathan Burton

    2003-01-01

    , sixteenth- and seventeenth century theories of humoral medicine can appear esoteric, convoluted, or downright nonsensical. Given the genre?s characteristic contradictions, reading a second or third text in the hope of corroborating one?s knowledge often... of Englishness. Thus, after examining the language of blackness and blanching in Jonson?s masque, she concludes that the ?real point? of the spectacle may be ?the presen- tation of a genealogy of people who transmitted southern wisdom and culture to a region...

  5. Lecture I: ‘Then and Now’ - Recent views of mapping in the early modern period

    E-print Network

    Tyacke, Sarah

    2008-02-19

    Skelton 8 March 1961 by Laurence Witten bookseller New Haven Connecticut. Memorial University, St John’s Newfoundland, listed in Professional papers etc of Raleigh Ashlin (Peter) Skelton (1906-1970). Compiled by Alberta Auringer Wood (1989) Slide 12... Christian Jacob: The sovereign map (2006) pl.7 ‘Building the visual coherence of the world’ Slide 15 Ibid, pl.6 ‘Visual dynamics of a symbolic conquest’ Slide 16 Helen Wallis with the facsimile of the Rotz atlas, 1542...

  6. A review of "Playing Spaces in Early Modern Women's Drama" by Alison Findlay 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Fane, Margaret Cavendish, Aphra Behn, and many others. Informing Findlay?s study are the social and spatial theories of Henri Lefebvre and Michel De Certeau. (See, for instance, Lefebvre?s The Production of Space and De Certeau?s The Practice... of Elizabeth Cary?s The Tragedy of Mariam, Lady Jane Cavendish?s and Elizabeth Brackley?s The Concealed Fancies, and Mar- garet Cavendish?s Plays, investigations revealing further how the dramas were used by their authors to imagine the possibility of a home...

  7. A review of "Literature and Domestic Travel in Early Modern England" by Andrew McRae 

    E-print Network

    Aune, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Miller and a two-page discussion of Cicero. ?is approach leaves a very complex intellectual problem of the period, one that directly impinges on Mohamed?s argument, largely unexplored. Additionally, while Mohamed?s juxtaposition of Milton?s texts... with recent theorists and critics does produce a book that largely avoids the pitfalls of both new historicism and presentism, his methodology also generates a perhaps unacknowledged question. For Mohamed, writers in all ages (or at least these two ages...

  8. Class, Authority, and the Querelle des Femmes: A Women's Community of Resistance in Early Modern Europe 

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Dana Eatman

    2010-10-12

    and unjustified praise to Meun?s book?one which could better be called plain idleness than useful work, in my judgment? (Baird and Kane 47).1 Christine?s challenge was met by a number of prominent men,2 including Pierre Col, who dismisses the ?weak? (93...

  9. NEW TERMS OF ACCOMMODATION: BENJAMIN ELMANS ON THEIR OWN TERMS AND EARLY MODERN GLOBAL

    E-print Network

    Elman, Benjamin

    and character. The so-called ,,scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th century, they unwaveringly declare The Scientific Revolution, are "European Civilization at the beginning of the sixteenth century was isolated"3. 2 Westfall, "The Scientific Revolution," In S. Goldberg (ed.), Teaching in the History of Science

  10. Domesticating the Reformation: Material Culture, Memory and Confessional Identity in Early Modern England

    E-print Network

    Walsham, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    of wood or bark, possibly from the Boscobel Oak itself.76 The outbreak of anti-Catholic hysteria that was the Popish Plot in 1679-80 also left its imprint on delftware tiles and plates, as well as a series of playing cards. One example (sold by Christie...

  11. A review of "Gender and Heroism in Early Modern English Literature." by Mary Beth Rose 

    E-print Network

    M. J. Vecchio

    2002-01-01

    , ultimately, that of heroism (37-40). A key element in Rose?s argument is that, prior to this period, the heroic portrait was an active, public one, which omitted the private sphere. By definition it excluded women, whose strength and influence were personal...). Therefore, it is not Oroonoko?s conventional heroism that interests Behn, but rather the ?paralyzed, grieved and oppressed? aspects of his heroism in slavery (102). Similarly, Mary Astell?s case for women?s heroism in Some Reflections upon Marriage...

  12. A review of "Framing ‘India’: The Colonial Imaginary in Early Modern Culture." by Shankar Raman 

    E-print Network

    Nagendra Rao

    2003-01-01

    stream_source_info V61-I3-29-Rao.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 8816 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name V61-I3-29-Rao.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 292 SEVENTEENTH... pp. + 12 illus. $60.00. Review by NAGENDRA RAO, GOA UNIVERSITY. Shankar Raman in this book has attempted an absorbing and fascinating study of portrayal of colonial ideology and percep- tions in contemporary literature. Looking at the title...

  13. A comparative study of women in early modern England and their contemporaries in the Ottoman Empire 

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Emily Anne

    2013-02-22

    . Instead, it attempts to juxtapose the lives of women in two contrasting cultures, and look at the information available from and about the period to discover what these "pre-feminist" women shared, and how they were different. During this period, English...

  14. A review of "Reading Early Modern Women’s Writing" by Paul Salzman 

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Julie D.

    2008-01-01

    Goldberg in Desiring Women Writing. He concurs mainly with the work of Ezell and elaborates on her observations about women?s writing during 196 s e v e n t e e n t h -C e n t u r y n e w s this period throughout his study. This book is essentially a... There is much in these writings to interest social historians too. Anne records details of domestic affairs, including references to beauty, clothes, pregnancy and childbirth, and the management of her servants, but also of her engagements within her local...

  15. The Politics of the Palate: Taste and Knowledge in Early Modern England

    E-print Network

    Mandelkern, India

    2015-01-01

    mouth, while others lost their senses of taste and smellthe smells swept into the nasal chamber via the mouth inand smell, flavor perception is also informed by the somatosensory receptors in our mouths

  16. A review of "Moral Identity in Early Modern English Literature." by Paul Cefalu 

    E-print Network

    Kuchar, Gary

    2006-01-01

    moral theory and soteriology. Stephen A. McKnight. The Religious Foundations of Francis Bacon?s Thought. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2006. xi + 193 pp + 2 illus. $37.50. Review by STEVEN MATTHEWS, THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, DULUTH.... The title of Stephen McKnight?s most recent book, The Religious Founda- tions of Francis Bacon?s Thought, may seem odd to those acquainted with the many books and articles which insist that there are no genuine religious foun- dations to Bacon?s...

  17. A review of "Martyrdom and Literature in Early Modern England." by Susannah Brietz Monta 

    E-print Network

    Lissa Beauchamp

    2005-01-01

    by studies of the various editions of Foxe?s Acts and Monuments, also called the Book of Martyrs, due to recent and ongoing digital editions published by Oxford University Press (1583 edition, 2001) and Ohio State University Libraries (1563 edition, 2003... cause depends on a common adherence of belief, which echoes the religious motif of interpenetrating or circular logic of faith to begin with: ?He must be in Christes body that must receive Christes body? (38, qtg. Foxe?s Acts and Monuments, 1620...

  18. A review of "Reading, Desire, and the Eucharist in Early Modern Religious Poetry" by Ryan Netzley 

    E-print Network

    Bunker, Nancy Mohrlock

    2012-01-01

    of documents written not by Russell, but by those with whom she was in correspondence, adds new dimensions to the usual character of a ?collected works? edition. Indeed, since Russell made writing epitaphs and creating monuments to her family a kind of genre...

  19. A review of "Psalm Culture and Early Modern English Literature" by Hannibal Hamlin. 

    E-print Network

    Alan Rudrum

    2004-01-01

    citation of A Defence of Poetry and of Paradise Regained 4:331-49 serve to re- mind us. Enthusiasts of metrics will enjoy the section on the quan- titative movement; others may want to fast-forward to the more general discussion of the relationship...

  20. A Review of "Memory's Library: Medieval Books in Early Modern England" by Jennifer Summit 

    E-print Network

    Engel, William E.

    2009-01-01

    -century news Berryman, and Robert Lowell during the twentieth century. And it is this very aspect of Stanwood?s monograph that readers will most appreciate. After the explosion of theory and the rise of the culture wars, the new critics are largely...