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1

Recovering the geographic origin of early modern humans by realistic and spatially explicit simulations  

E-print Network

, an incomplete replacement of H. erectus individuals by modern humans, or the multiregional evolution model (MERecovering the geographic origin of early modern humans by realistic and spatially explicit and archeological evidence argue in favor of a recent and unique origin of modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa

Batzoglou, Serafim

2

Recovering the geographic origin of early modern humans by realistic and spatially explicit simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most genetic and archeological evidence argue in favor of a recent and unique origin of modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa, but no attempt has ever been made at quantifying the likelihood of this model, relative to alternative hypotheses of human evolution. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using multilocus genetic data to correctly infer the geographic origin of

Nicolas Ray; Mathias Currat; Pierre Berthier; Laurent Excoffier

2005-01-01

3

Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern

Philipp Gunz; Fred L. Bookstein; Philipp Mitteroecker; Andrea Stadlmayr; Horst Seidler; Gerhard W. Weber

2009-01-01

4

Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario  

PubMed Central

The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

2009-01-01

5

Late Pleistocene Neandertal-Early Modern Human Population Dynamics: The Dental Evidence  

E-print Network

Recent genetic studies have confirmed that there was admixture between African early modern humans and archaic populations throughout the Old World. In this dissertation, I examine European early modern human dental morphology to assess...

Springer, Victoria Suzanne

2013-04-11

6

Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human  

PubMed Central

We report here on the isotopic analysis of the diet of one of the oldest modern humans found in Eurasia, the Tianyuan 1 early modern human dating to ?40,000 calendar years ago from Tianyuan Cave (Tianyuandong) in the Zhoukoudian region of China. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of the human and associated faunal remains indicate a diet high in animal protein, and the high nitrogen isotope values suggest the consumption of freshwater fish. To confirm this inference, we measured the sulfur isotope values of terrestrial and freshwater animals around the Zhoukoudian area and of the Tianyuan 1 human, which also support the interpretation of a substantial portion of the diet from freshwater fish. This analysis provides the direct evidence for the consumption of aquatic resources by early modern humans in China and has implications for early modern human subsistence and demography. PMID:19581579

Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Nehlich, Olaf; Liu, Wu; Zhao, Chaohong; Yu, Jincheng; Wang, Changsui; Trinkaus, Erik; Richards, Michael P.

2009-01-01

7

European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consideration of the morphological aspects of the earliest modern humans in Europe (more than ?33,000 B.P.) and the subsequent Gravettian human remains indicates that they possess an anatomical pattern congruent with the autapomorphic (derived) morphology of the earliest (Middle Paleolithic) African modern humans. However, they exhibit a variable suite of features that are either distinctive Neandertal traits and\\/or plesiomorphic

Erik Trinkaus

2007-01-01

8

Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans  

PubMed Central

We report here on the direct isotopic evidence for Neanderthal and early modern human diets in Europe. Isotopic methods indicate the sources of dietary protein over many years of life, and show that Neanderthals had a similar diet through time (?120,000 to ?37,000 cal BP) and in different regions of Europe. The isotopic evidence indicates that in all cases Neanderthals were top-level carnivores and obtained all, or most, of their dietary protein from large herbivores. In contrast, early modern humans (?40,000 to ?27,000 cal BP) exhibited a wider range of isotopic values, and a number of individuals had evidence for the consumption of aquatic (marine and freshwater) resources. This pattern includes Oase 1, the oldest directly dated modern human in Europe (?40,000 cal BP) with the highest nitrogen isotope value of all of the humans studied, likely because of freshwater fish consumption. As Oase 1 was close in time to the last Neanderthals, these data may indicate a significant dietary shift associated with the changing population dynamics of modern human emergence in Europe. PMID:19706482

Richards, Michael P.; Trinkaus, Erik

2009-01-01

9

Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards  

PubMed Central

Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S.; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Muller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C.; Stringer, Chris B.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Muller, Ulrich C.; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jorg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

2012-01-01

10

Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards.  

PubMed

Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C; Stringer, Chris B; Tomlinson, Emma L; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C

2012-08-21

11

Thoracic morphology in Near Eastern Neandertals and early modern humans compared with recent modern humans from high and low altitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoanthropologists have long noted the unique “hyper-barrel-shaped” Neandertal thorax as inferred from fragmentary ribs, clavicles, and sterna. Yet scholars disagree whether the Neandertal thorax represents an adaptation to cold climates or elevated activity levels.Given the difficulties of reconstructing overall chest shape from isolated and fragmentary thoracic skeletal elements, it is worthwhile comparing Neandertals and contemporaneous early modern human fossils from

Karen J. Weinstein

2008-01-01

12

A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa ?150–200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant ?120–90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130–117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of—now buried—fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa. PMID:18936490

Osborne, Anne H.; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J.; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

2008-01-01

13

A critique of the evidence for scavenging by Neandertals and early modern humans: new data from Kobeh Cave (Zagros Mountains, Iran) and Die Kelders Cave 1 Layer 10 (South Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary mode of faunal exploitation by Neandertals and early modern humans remains a debated topic. Binford (1981, 1984, 1985, 1988) has argued for an obligate scavenging mode, Stiner (1991a, 1991b, 1991c, 1993, 1994) for a more opportunistic scavenging mode, while other researchers (Chase, 1986, 1988, 1989; Klein, 1989, 1994, 1995; Klein & Cruz-Uribe, 1996) deny the importance of scavenging

Curtis W. Marean

1998-01-01

14

Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus  

PubMed Central

Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins. PMID:21047863

Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

2011-01-01

15

Early Modern Migrations: Exiles, Expulsion, & Religious Refugees  

E-print Network

Early Modern Migrations: Exiles, Expulsion, & Religious Refugees 1400-1700 An international The early modern period witnessed a dramatic increase in the migration, expulsion and exile of social groups migrations that shaped both the contours of European colonialist expansion and the construction of regional

Toronto, University of

16

Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment.  

PubMed

The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages-demonstrably made by modern humans-are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

Nigst, Philip R; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2014-10-01

17

Sodomy and Heresy In Early Modern Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author compares records, form the early modern era, of sodomy trials in two parts of French Switzerland (Geneva, and Protestant city, and Fribourg, and Catholic pastoral area) and presents evidence that: (1) men charged with “sodomy” were prosecuted more often for homosexuality in cities and for bestiality in rural areas, (2) male homosexual subcultures were associated with the growth

E. William Monter

1981-01-01

18

A critique of the evidence for scavenging by Neanderthals and early modern humans: new data from Kobeh Cave (Zagros Mountains, Iran) and Die Kelders Cave 1 layer 10 (South Africa).  

PubMed

The primary mode of faunal exploitation by Neandertals and early modern humans remains a debated topic. Binford (1981, 1984, 1985, 1988) has argued for an obligate scavenging mode, Stiner (1991a, 1991b, 1991c, 1993, 1994) for a more opportunistic scavenging mode, while other researchers (Chase, 1986, 1988, 1989; Klein, 1989, 1994, 1995; Klein & Cruz-Uribe, 1996) deny the importance of scavenging as a faunal exploitation tactic. The scavenging interpretations rely primarily on several patterns in the faunal remains: the presence of a skeletal element pattern dominated by heads or head and foot parts, the presence of carnivore tooth marks on bone fragments, and infrequent cut marks that typically are not located on shaft regions of long bones or on fleshy bones. Five sites have been used to argue for scavenging: Klasies River Mouth, Combe Grenal, Grotta Guattari, Grotta dei Moscerini, and Grotte Vaufrey. The former four of the five sites are biased samples in that long bone shafts and other difficult to identify fragments were discarded at excavation. The analysis of Grotte Vaufrey included only those shafts identifiable to species or genus, thus excluding the vast majority of shaft specimens. This bias systematically shapes the skeletal element and surface modification patterning in ways that make the assemblages appear to fit a model of scavenging, when in fact the main determinant of the pattern is the bias in the flawed samples. This problem is illustrated with two unbiased faunal assemblages (Kobeh Cave and Die Kelders Layer 10). Skeletal element abundance is calculated in a way that mimics the bias in the sites listed above by excluding the shafts. Using this procedure, both Kobeh and Die Kelders have a head and foot skeletal element pattern and thus appear scavenged. Both assemblages are then analyzed in their entirety and a new pattern, consistent with hunting, is revealed. Taphonomic data on bone survival and destruction provide an explanation for this result. Excluding shaft fragments from the analysis also biases the surface modification patterning in such a way as to produce a pattern more consistent with scavenging. The conclusion is that there is no reliable evidence for scavenging by Neandertals or early modern humans. PMID:9719992

Marean, C W

1998-08-01

19

A review of "Bodily Extremities: Preoccupations with the Human Body in Early Modern European Culture." by Florike Egmond and Robert Zwijnenberg eds.  

E-print Network

introduction and explanation of the title; the editors state at the outset that the essays in their book will address the more extreme treatments of the human body, including execution, torture, and pain. In addition, the editors emphasize that in addressing..., identity and self-preservation, and pain? (9). REVIEWS 19 The first three essays principally concern art history; one of the more enlightening essays in the collection is Daniela Bohde?s ?Skin and the Search for the Interior: The Representation of Flaying...

Rebecca De Haas

2004-01-01

20

Infected texts: Plague and syphilis on the early modern stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of plague and syphilis on early modern playwrighting practices. I consider these diseases as traumatic events that shaped aspects of early modern culture, even as certain cultural frameworks of the period shaped the ways in which these traumas were perceived. I examine early modern medical treatises, pamphlet literature, published sermons and other religious literature, visual

Melissa Smith

2005-01-01

21

Early Modern Experimentation on Live Animals* DOMENICO BERTOLONI MELI  

E-print Network

Early Modern Experimentation on Live Animals* DOMENICO BERTOLONI MELI Indiana University to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters

Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

22

Marginalia, commonplaces, and correspondence: Scribal exchange in early modern science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, historians of science have increasingly turned their attention to the “print culture” of early modern science. These studies have revealed that printing, as both a technology and a social and economic system, structured the forms and meanings of natural knowledge. Yet in early modern Europe, naturalists, including John Aubrey, John Evelyn, and John Ray, whose work is

Elizabeth Yale

2011-01-01

23

Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.  

PubMed

This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends. PMID:12938716

Keiser, George R

2003-07-01

24

Ethnic and Religious Hostilities in Early Modern Port Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of ethnic and religious conflict in early modern port cities, such as Amsterdam, Genoa, and several Islamic cities in the Ottoman Empire including Constantinople. The essay reflects on the connection between maritime trade and the freedom of conscience that promotes tolerance, civility, and a lessening of violence toward outsiders. It examines ethnocentrism, anti-Semitism, and the institution of slavery

2001-01-01

25

Reformation and Revolution in Early Modern England History 418  

E-print Network

REF DA315 .T753 2001t Oxford Companion to Scottish History (Online) Oxford Companion to Irish History1 Reformation and Revolution in Early Modern England History 418 Consider Resources Primary articles (scholarly vs. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guide under: Research by Subject History

Abolmaesumi, Purang

26

One of the family: Domestic service in early modern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of domestic service upon social practice and asks if domestic service led to self-affirmation and individualistic behavior in early modern Japan. It begins by describing various employees classified as domestic servants. Next the role of the servant as a member of the employer's family shows fluid kinship relations that resulted in changes in the family

Mary Louise Nagata

2005-01-01

27

Wealth Inequalities and Population Dynamics in Early Modern Northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the wealth and population of early modern Ivreabased on the estimi, or property tax, records; the correzioni degli estimi, a continuous series of tax records rarely found elsewhere and hardly ever used before; the census of 1613, another unique and informative source; and other archival recordsfinds that the city's concentration and distribution of wealth was resilient even

Guido Alfani

2010-01-01

28

Methods of devotional reading in early modern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the question of how early modern devotional readers defined a text as spiritually efficacious. It considers two methods of reading that recent scholars have identified: the development and influence of the Erasmian, or humanistic method of reading based on the ideas of the Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus; and a Lutheran, or evangelical method of reading. Erasmus set

Mardy Philippian

2010-01-01

29

"Old Poems Have Heart": Teenage Students Reading Early Modern Poetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals for the revised National Curriculum in English suggest limiting the pre-twentieth century poetry that GCSE pupils read to "representative Romantic poetry" (Department for Education [DFE], 2013, p. 4). This paper argues that poetry of the early modern period is challenging and enriching study for adolescent pupils and that…

Naylor, Amanda

2013-01-01

30

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 02 February 2012 doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012 ,Vijeth Iyengar3 , MatthewThornburg4 , Jaap Weel5 , Mingkuan Lin2 , Ellen Clarke2 , Kevin McCabe5 Department of Neurosciences, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Inova Health System, Falls Church, VA, USA Edited by

Parasuraman, Raja

31

A review of "Autobiography in Early Modern England" by Adam Smyth  

E-print Network

will #14;nd much worth mining in his nuanced readings of earlier textual practices. Indeed, by grounding his discus- sion in archival artifacts, Smyth corrects many assumptions about early modern textuality made by even the most careful early modern... will #14;nd much worth mining in his nuanced readings of earlier textual practices. Indeed, by grounding his discus- sion in archival artifacts, Smyth corrects many assumptions about early modern textuality made by even the most careful early modern...

Trettien, Whitney Anne

2011-01-01

32

Amazon Health / Human Origins Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 47-minute radio broadcast discusses a report by biologists that the types of trees in the inner Amazon rainforest are changing. Increasingly, they've found, larger, faster-growing tree species are crowding out smaller slower tree types - even in areas that have not yet been touched by logging or fires. The researchers suggest that increased carbon dioxide levels could be to blame. The second part of the show takes a look at current research into human origins. There is discussion about several recent research projects, including one which discovered six million-year-old fossils that may have come from one of the earliest known human ancestors and a new genetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA that researchers say shows that humans and Neanderthals did not interbreed. The show discusses the fossils of Ardipithecus kadabba; how temperature affects the extraction of DNA from fossils; how 5-7 million years ago the number of great ape species outnumbered that of monkeys; whether human ancestors had greater ability to form speech than Neanderthals; and how the gap in the fossil record of human ancestors is being filled.

33

Marginalia, commonplaces, and correspondence: scribal exchange in early modern science.  

PubMed

In recent years, historians of science have increasingly turned their attention to the "print culture" of early modern science. These studies have revealed that printing, as both a technology and a social and economic system, structured the forms and meanings of natural knowledge. Yet in early modern Europe, naturalists, including John Aubrey, John Evelyn, and John Ray, whose work is discussed in this paper, often shared and read scientific texts in manuscript either before or in lieu of printing. Scribal exchange, exemplified in the circulation of writings like commonplace books, marginalia, manuscript treatises, and correspondence, was the primary means by which communities of naturalists constructed scientific knowledge. Print and manuscript were necessary partners. Manuscript fostered close collaboration, and could be circulated relatively cheaply; but, unlike print, it could not reliably secure priority or survival for posterity. Naturalists approached scribal and print communication strategically, choosing the medium that best suited their goals at any given moment. As a result, print and scribal modes of disseminating information, constructing natural knowledge, and organizing communities developed in tandem. Practices typically associated with print culture manifested themselves in scribal texts and exchanges, and vice versa. "Print culture" cannot be hived off from "scribal culture." Rather, in their daily jottings and exchanges, naturalists inhabited, and produced, one common culture of communication. PMID:21486658

Yale, Elizabeth

2011-06-01

34

Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England  

PubMed Central

This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580–1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over ‘aggravating’ the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous ‘cures’ including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

Skuse, Alanna

2014-01-01

35

Metaphors and images of cancer in early modern Europe.  

PubMed

Drawing on learned medical writing about cancer and on nonmedical texts that used cancer as a metaphor for hateful cultural, social, religious, or political phenomena that warranted drastic measures, this article traces the metaphors and images that framed the perception and experience of cancer in the early modern period. It finds that cancer was closely associated with notions of impurity and a visible destruction of the body's surface and was diagnosed primarily in women, as breast and uterine cancer. Putrid, corrosive cancerous humor was thought not only to accumulate and eat its way into the surrounding flesh but also to spread, like the seeds of a plant, "infecting" the whole body. This infectious quality, the putrid secretions, and the often horrendous smell emanating from cancer victims raised fears, in turn, of contagion and were taken to justify a separation of cancer patients from the rest of society. PMID:24769802

Stolberg, Michael

2014-01-01

36

[The Prince's theriac. The marvellous early modern powers of garlic].  

PubMed

Garlic (Allium sativum) is depicted in the Early Modern Era as having a vast range of medical applicability. Based on herbals I collocate those ascribed medical effects between the 16th and 18th centuries to show that in this period--and up to the beginning of the 19th century--the powers of garlic in these descriptions slowly fade out until they eclipse totally, leaving it without medical value. Both the inital and the concluding findings are not correspondant with the modern empirical state of knowledge. This can be explained by three interwoven developments: the secularisation of the natural sciences in the wake of the Scientific Revolution, the altered asthetical perception of odours and new practices of social differentiation. PMID:21563379

Winnerling, Tobias

2010-01-01

37

Assessing an early modern Fenland population: Whittlesey (Cambridgeshire).  

PubMed

Improvement writers argued that drainage would bring prosperity and population growth to fenland communities; locals counter-argued that their communities were already thriving. The detailed surviving records from early modern Whittlesey, in the Isle of Ely, are analysed here to test the accuracy of these opposing claims. Using the returns of the 1523 Lay Subsidy, the 1563 ecclesiastical census, the Lady Day 1674 Hearth Tax records and the 1676 Compton Census, together with bishops' transcripts and probate inventories, this article finds that although the population did indeed increase after drainage, the pre-drainage population was also increasing. The Michaelmas 1664 Hearth Tax records are analysed to uncover something of the character of the inhabitants and the 1674 Lady Day returns are then used to test the relative wealth of the community compared with that of sub-regions throughout England identified by Tom Arkell. Finally, there is a discussion of Whittlesey's housing stock. PMID:25080616

Falvey, Heather

2014-01-01

38

A review of "The Politics of Commonwealth: Citizens and Freemen in Early Modern England." by Phil Withington  

E-print Network

paradoxical: both sites of commerce and of separateness between its members; epitomes of the modernity of urbanisation but also imbued with ?essentially retrospective? humanist ideologies (48). The first chapter in Part 2 discusses the ?cultural resource...? of ideology in the city commonwealth. Withington brings out the richness of ideological debates among early modern citizens and freemen. More and Bacon repre- sented two opposing tendencies in civic humanism?the commonwealth of virtue as opposed...

Kow, Simon

2006-01-01

39

A review of "Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature" by Bernadette Andrea  

E-print Network

. Bernadette Andrea. Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 185 pp. ?45.00. Review by jyotsna g. singh, michigan state university. Women and Islam in Early Modern Literature makes an important con...- tribution to a growing body of scholarship on Europe?s encounter with Muslim cultures in the early modern period. Andrea?s exploration of the ?significance of women?s agency in the inaugural Anglo-Ottoman encounter? from the sixteenth century...

Singh, Jyotsna G.

2010-01-01

40

A review of "Women and Race in Early Modern Texts." by Joyce Green MacDonald  

E-print Network

- fashioning of Katherine Philips and her circle. REVIEWS 53 All things considered, Women and Race in Early Modern England provides a thought-provoking look at race in texts and culture in the early modern period. MacDonald?s attention to historical...- fashioning of Katherine Philips and her circle. REVIEWS 53 All things considered, Women and Race in Early Modern England provides a thought-provoking look at race in texts and culture in the early modern period. MacDonald?s attention to historical...

Julie D. Campbell

2003-01-01

41

Susan Broomhall - Imagined Domesticities in Early Modern Dutch Dollhouses - Parergon 24:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early modern prescriptive literature about household spatial and social ordering primarily informs us of elite male views. Few contemporary sources exist to suggest women's notions about these issues. Early modern dollhouses could shed some light on the views of both sexes, as makers, patrons, and collectors of such objects. Such artefacts have rarely been considered a source for historic perceptions

Susan Broomhall

2007-01-01

42

A review of "Anamorphosis in Early Modern Literature: Mediation and Affect" by Jen E. Boyle  

E-print Network

in the conclusion of her study, recent developments in neuroscience, the discovery of mirror neurons, o#12;er ?ghosts? of the Lucretian form of perception enabled by early modern anamorphosis (147). ... in the conclusion of her study, recent developments in neuroscience, the discovery of mirror neurons, o#12;er ?ghosts? of the Lucretian form of perception enabled by early modern anamorphosis (147). ...

Dodds, Lara

2011-01-01

43

Very now: Temporal aspects of melancholy in early modern English literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

To recent critical formulations regarding the role of humoral theory in early modern concepts of embodiment and emotion, this dissertation offers that the volatility of the self propounded by this theory provided correspondingly volatile structures of narrative to early modern English literature. Examining the works of Philip Sidney, William Shakespeare, and John Milton across a range of genres, and in

David Houston Wood

2004-01-01

44

Dopamine and the Origins of Human Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general theory is proposed that attributes the origins of human intelligence to an expansion of dopaminergic systems in human cognition. Dopamine is postulated to be the key neurotransmitter regulating six predominantly left-hemispheric cognitive skills critical to human language and thought: motor planning, working memory, cognitive flexibility, abstract reasoning, temporal analysis\\/sequencing, and generativity. A dopaminergic expansion during early hominid evolution

Fred H. Previc

1999-01-01

45

Human evolution: Origins of modern humans still look recent  

Microsoft Academic Search

That modern humans have a relatively ancient origin has been suggested on the basis of fossil and genetic evidence. But DNA sequences from an extinct neanderthal, and phylogenetic analyses of hundreds of human and ape sequences, continue to support a recent origin for modern humans.

Todd R. Disotell

1999-01-01

46

Modern human origins: progress and prospects.  

PubMed Central

The question of the mode of origin of modern humans (Homo sapiens) has dominated palaeoanthropological debate over the last decade. This review discusses the main models proposed to explain modern human origins, and examines relevant fossil evidence from Eurasia, Africa and Australasia. Archaeological and genetic data are also discussed, as well as problems with the concept of 'modernity' itself. It is concluded that a recent African origin can be supported for H. sapiens, morphologically, behaviourally and genetically, but that more evidence will be needed, both from Africa and elsewhere, before an absolute African origin for our species and its behavioural characteristics can be established and explained. PMID:12028792

Stringer, Chris

2002-01-01

47

Origin of the Human Adaptive Pattern 24-450 Chapter 24. ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN ADAPTIVE  

E-print Network

using cultural adaptations (technology). The genetic resemblance between humans and the great apesOrigin of the Human Adaptive Pattern 24-450 Chapter 24. ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN ADAPTIVE PATTERN to be able to explain the hunting and gathering "revolution"--the emergence of a (presumably adaptive

Richerson, Peter J.

48

Renaissance Fare: Appetite and Authority on the Early Modern English Stage  

E-print Network

The politics of food are naturally central to many early modern plays in part because of unstable supply and means of distribution in London. Food is a type of property that can represent a great deal of power, especially ...

Behre, Keri Sanburn

2011-05-31

49

Fashioning the Early Modern: Innovation and Creativity in Europe, 1500-1800  

E-print Network

of Warwick) 14.40 The decline of floral patterns. The transition from floral and brocaded worsted and silk.00 Framing Early Modern Knitting Maj Ringgaard (National Museum of Denmark) 15.20 Refreshments Session Three

50

A review of "Reading, Desire, and the Eucharist in Early Modern Religious Poetry" by Ryan Netzley  

E-print Network

on Christian life and devo- tional verse, Netzley argues that early modern religious lyrics teach about the ?appropriate approach to an immanent divinity? and the ?manner and practice of desiring God? (3). Reading, Desire, and the Eucharist in Early Modern... in Richard Crashaw?s Religious Lyrics,? focuses on the mul- tiple relationships existing between God and his devotees. Refuting Crashaw?s detractors, Netzley makes clear that the poet?s belief in sacramental desire speaks to a divinity ?indistinguishably...

Bunker, Nancy Mohrlock

2012-01-01

51

A review of "The Challenges of Orpheus: Lyric Poetry and Early Modern England" by Heather Dubrow  

E-print Network

of early modern poetry studies but also vis-?-vis specialists in Romanticism and twentieth-century poetry, whose thinking about ?the? lyric has all too often been limited to, and hence distorted by, the perspective of a particular historical moment... of early modern poetry studies but also vis-?-vis specialists in Romanticism and twentieth-century poetry, whose thinking about ?the? lyric has all too often been limited to, and hence distorted by, the perspective of a particular historical moment...

Hedley, Jane

2009-01-01

52

A review of "Pamphlets and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain" by Joad Raymond.  

E-print Network

and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xviii + 403 pp. + 41 illus. + 6 figs. $70.00. Review by TIMOTHY RAYLOR, CARLETON COLLEGE. Over the last decade, Joad Raymond has emerged as one of our foremost analysts... and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. xviii + 403 pp. + 41 illus. + 6 figs. $70.00. Review by TIMOTHY RAYLOR, CARLETON COLLEGE. Over the last decade, Joad Raymond has emerged as one of our foremost analysts...

Timothy Raylor

2004-01-01

53

A review of "Framing ‘India’: The Colonial Imaginary in Early Modern Culture." by Shankar Raman  

E-print Network

with comprehensive collections in the areas of theology or German literature and recommended for comparative purposes in libraries with a focus on early modern matters. Shankar Raman. Framing ?India?: The Colonial Imaginary in Early Modern Culture. Stanford... literature. Looking at the title of the book one may infer that this work deals with the colonial powers in India. However, the author himself dispels this postulation. The work studies Luiz Vaz de Camoe?s ?Os Lusiadas,? John Fletcher?s ?The Island...

Nagendra Rao

2003-01-01

54

A review of "Reading History in Early Modern England." by D. R. Woolf  

E-print Network

. Woolf. Reading History in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. xvi + 360 pp. + 11 figures + 4 maps + 22 illus. $70.00. Review by MICHAEL MENDLE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA. Anyone interested in the ?history of history books...), in the commercial underpinnings of scholarly publishing, and in the sociocultural milieu of ?history.? Indeed, while the matter of Reading History in Early Modern England coheres, the title seriously understates the volume?s scope. Even as the professed subject...

Michael Mendle

2004-01-01

55

Terrorists and witches: popular ideas of evil in the early modern period  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early modern period (16–18th centuries), churches and state administrations alike strove to eradicate Evil. Neither they nor society at large accepted a conceptual differentiation between crime and sin.The two worst kinds of Evil early modern societies could imagine were organized arson and witchcraft. Although both of them were delusions, they nevertheless promoted state building. Networks of itinerant street

Johannes Dillinger

2004-01-01

56

Published as: Jeffrey K. McDonough, "The Heyday of Teleology and Early Modern Philosophy," in John Carriero, ed. Early Modern Philosophy Reconsidered, Midwest Studies in  

E-print Network

A standard accounting of the friends and foes of traditional teleology in the early modern period casts of teleological modes of explanation (Ethics 1, Appendix/Geb 2:80). Finally, Leibniz's repeated assurances 126; A.II.i.501/AG 242). All in all, on this familiar accounting one is left with a broad

McDonough, Jeffrey

57

ORIGINAL PAPER Why Humans Have Sex  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Why Humans Have Sex Cindy M. Meston Ã? David M. Buss Received: 20 December 2005 the context of an ongoing romantic relationship or long-term mateship. Sexual strategies theory (Buss. Buss Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, 108 E. Dean Keeton, Austin, TX 78712, USA

Meston, Cindy

58

Law and the Economy in Early Modern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the origins and effects of modern laws of property and contract in India. There are two available models of juridical history useful for this purpose. One of these emphasizes import of European ideas and the other the weight of Indian custom. The paper suggests that integrating the two models produces a more complete narrative. The process of

Tirthankar Roy

59

Constitutionalism, warfare, and political change in early modern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barrington Moore Jr.'s classic work, Social Origins, ~ is doubtless one of the most important works df social science in the last twenty-five years. It delivered a serious blow to unilinear models of social change, reintroduced moral vision into the social sciences, and inspired a generation of historically grounded, macrohistorical studies - no mean feat for a single volume. Though

Brian M. Downing

1988-01-01

60

A review of "Reading Early Modern Women’s Writing" by Paul Salzman  

E-print Network

in the political, religious or social history of Britain in the second half of the seventeenth century will find something of interest in this collection. Paul Salzman. Reading Early Modern Women?s Writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 247pp. $110....00. Review by Ju l i e D Ca m p b e l l , ea s t e r n il l i n o i s un i v e r s i t y . Salzman?s study of the history of reading early modern English women?s writing has two key features: it provides a general overview of the women writers who...

Campbell, Julie D.

2008-01-01

61

Early Modern Japanese Art History: An Overview of the State of the Field  

E-print Network

: Addiss. Tall Mountains and Flowing Waters, the Art of Uragami Gyokudo; Joshua S. Mostow. Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), 1996; Kendall H Brown. The Politics of Reclusion: Paint- ing... will focus on “Blood in Early Modern Japanese Culture.” If readers would like to organize future panels, please contact Philip Brown at Department of History, 230 West 17th Avenue, Columbus OH 43210 or at brown.113@osu.edu. Early Modern Japanese Art...

Graham, Patricia J.

2002-09-01

62

Between Charity and Education: Orphans and Orphanages in Early Modern Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early modern times orphans have been children who could not expect sufficient support from their family because of lack of at least one parent, in most cases the father. This article will clarify of whom we are talking if we talk about orphans and what have been the conditions of living in a society which was organised by a high variety of…

Jacobi, Juliane

2009-01-01

63

Trading secrets: Jews and the early modern quest for clandestine knowledge.  

PubMed

This essay explores the significance and function of secrecy and secret sciences in Jewish-Christian relations and in Jewish culture in the early modern period. It shows how the trade in clandestine knowledge and the practice of secret sciences became a complex, sometimes hazardous space for contact between Jews and Christians. By examining this trade, the essay clarifies the role of secrecy in the early modern marketplace of knowledge. The attribution of secretiveness to Jews was a widespread topos in early modern European thought. However, relatively little is known about the implications of such beliefs in science or in daily life. The essay pays special attention to the fact that trade in secret knowledge frequently offered Jews a path to the center of power, especially at court. Furthermore, it becomes clear that the practice of secret sciences, the trade in clandestine knowledge, and a mercantile agenda were often inextricably interwoven. Special attention is paid to the Italian-Jewish alchemist, engineer, and entrepreneur Abramo Colorni (ca. 1544-1599), whose career illustrates the opportunities provided by the marketplace of secrets at that time. Much scholarly (and less scholarly) attention has been devoted to whether and what Jews "contributed" to what is commonly called the "Scientific Revolution." This essay argues that the question is misdirected and that, instead, we should pay more attention to the distinctive opportunities offered by the early modern economy of secrecy. PMID:23488236

Jütte, Daniel

2012-12-01

64

The etiquette of social violence: Hunting and the nobility in early modern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

My dissertation examines the noble prerogative of hunting as a social and cultural act in early modern France. Using a wide variety of evidence types, especially visual images (paintings, woodcuts, tapestries, and sculptures for example) I examine the changing emphasis the French nobility placed on hunting as a social boundary between themselves and the rest of society. Nouveau riche families

Michael S Aradas

2001-01-01

65

A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…

Maffioli, Cesare S.

2013-01-01

66

Shakespeare’s Domestic Economies: Gender and Property in Early Modern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shakespeare's Domestic Economies explores representations of female subjectivity in Shakespearean drama from a refreshingly new perspective, situating The Taming of the Shrew, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Othello, and Measure for Measure in relation to early modern England's nascent consumer culture and competing conceptions of property. Drawing evidence from legal documents, economic treatises, domestic manuals, marriage sermons, household inventories, and

Natasha Korda

2002-01-01

67

UCD Mchel Clirigh Institute `Printing in the Southern Netherlands in the early modern period'  

E-print Network

Academy `Ogham in 3D' Dr. Nora White, Dublin Institute for Advance Studies 4.00pm, Room K114, UCD School20 January UCD Mícheál � Cléirigh Institute `Printing in the Southern Netherlands in the early modern period' Professor Pierre Delsaerdt, University of Antwerp. 4.00pm, Room K114, UCD School

68

A Step towards Clerical Preferment: Secondary School Teachers' Careers in Early Modern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in early modern Sweden. The study is restricted to the eighty?nine teachers serving at Piteå Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from 1650 to 1849. The investigation pays considerable attention to the impact of the system

Daniel Lindmark

2004-01-01

69

Turning the hourglass: Gender relations at the deathbed in early modern Canterbury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the gender relations and tensions that surrounded and informed deathbed practices in early modern Canterbury. Based on a detailed analysis of church court materials it argues that gender was a significant factor in the organization and management of dying. The care and attendance of the sick and dying were commonly associated with women's work and duty. As

Elizabeth A. Hallam

1996-01-01

70

The Commerce of Utility: Teaching Mathematical Geography in Early Modern England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching and learning of geographical and mathematical knowledge in early modern England was a complex interaction among scholars, practitioners, merchants, and gentry. Each group had different values and goals associated with geographical knowledge and therefore different educational venues and different topics to be investigated. This paper…

Cormack, Lesley B.

2006-01-01

71

FROM PRINT TO PATENTS: LIVING ON INSTRUMENTS IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE  

E-print Network

FROM PRINT TO PATENTS: LIVING ON INSTRUMENTS IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE Mario Biagioli Harvard University Surprisingly, patents are nowhere as central to the history of scientific instruments a comparison of printed patent rolls up to 1800 (which I am making available electronically) and other tactics

72

From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

Chamberland, Celeste

2013-01-01

73

The origin recognition complex in human diseases.  

PubMed

ORC (origin recognition complex) serves as the initiator for the assembly of the pre-RC (pre-replication complex) and the subsequent DNA replication. Together with many of its non-replication functions, ORC is a pivotal regulator of various cellular processes. Notably, a number of reports connect ORC to numerous human diseases, including MGS (Meier-Gorlin syndrome), EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-infected diseases, American trypanosomiasis and African trypanosomiasis. However, much of the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In those genetic diseases, mutations in ORC alter its function and lead to the dysregulated phenotypes; whereas in some pathogen-induced symptoms, host ORC and archaeal-like ORC are exploited by these organisms to maintain their own genomes. In this review, I provide detailed examples of ORC-related human diseases, and summarize the current findings on how ORC is involved and/or dysregulated. I further discuss how these discoveries can be generalized as model systems, which can then be applied to elucidating other related diseases and revealing potential targets for developing effective therapies. PMID:23662735

Shen, Zhen

2013-01-01

74

The origin recognition complex in human diseases  

PubMed Central

ORC (origin recognition complex) serves as the initiator for the assembly of the pre-RC (pre-replication complex) and the subsequent DNA replication. Together with many of its non-replication functions, ORC is a pivotal regulator of various cellular processes. Notably, a number of reports connect ORC to numerous human diseases, including MGS (Meier–Gorlin syndrome), EBV (Epstein–Barr virus)-infected diseases, American trypanosomiasis and African trypanosomiasis. However, much of the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In those genetic diseases, mutations in ORC alter its function and lead to the dysregulated phenotypes; whereas in some pathogen-induced symptoms, host ORC and archaeal-like ORC are exploited by these organisms to maintain their own genomes. In this review, I provide detailed examples of ORC-related human diseases, and summarize the current findings on how ORC is involved and/or dysregulated. I further discuss how these discoveries can be generalized as model systems, which can then be applied to elucidating other related diseases and revealing potential targets for developing effective therapies. PMID:23662735

Shen, Zhen

2013-01-01

75

A review of "Courtly Encounters: Translating Courtliness and Violence in Early Modern Eurasia" by Sanjay Subrahmanyam  

E-print Network

on the murder of women and children seems to suggest to him that it was a modern concern perhaps needs revisiting: concerns for the death of those considered innocents or ?weaker vessels? are very much grounded in seventeenth-century world views, rather than... in ours. Sanjay Subrahmanyam. Courtly Encounters: Translating Courtliness and Violence in Early Modern Eurasia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, #18;#17;#16;#18;. xvi + #30;#16;#18; pp. $#18;#12;.#12;#14;. Review by #25; #11...

Nechtman, Tillman W.

2013-01-01

76

Jewish Immigration, Anti-Semitism and the Diversity of Early Modern London  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of early modern Londoners to Jewish immigrants unfolded in a context of ethnic and religious diversity. Jews arriving in London from the 1650s on found their reception coloured by prior reactions to both French and Dutch Protestants and Spanish Catholics. Such attitudes towards previous migrants from the Continent were at least as important as anti-semitism or philo-semitism. These

JACOB SELWOOD

2008-01-01

77

A review of "Subordination and Authorship in Early Modern England:" by Betty S. Travitsky  

E-print Network

REVIEWS 287 purposes and of their impact upon the European intellectual and political scene. Betty S. Travitsky. Subordination and Authorship in Early Modern England: The Case of Elizabeth Cavendish Egerton and Her ?Loose Papers.? Tempe: Arizona... the nature of literature and the empowerment of the literary canon? (xvii). Almost 20 years later, Travitsky asks those same questions of the manuscript pa- pers of Elizabeth Egerton. As the title of this recent volume implies, Travitsky has pro- duced...

Lisa J. Schnell

2002-01-01

78

A review of "English Ethnicity and Race in Early Modern Drama." by Mary Floyd-Wilson  

E-print Network

of early modern texts, sixteenth- and seventeenth century theories of humoral medicine can appear esoteric, convoluted, or downright nonsensical. Given the genre?s characteristic contradictions, reading a second or third text in the hope of corroborating... neutral and are in fact ideologically malleable, Gail Kern Paster?s The Body Embarassed (1993) spearheaded a body of scholarship seeking to untangle, or at least explain, these contradictions. Paster?s work illuminates the gender and class valences...

Jonathan Burton

2003-01-01

79

A Review of "Poetry and Parental Bereavement in Early Modern Lutheran Germany" by Anna Linton  

E-print Network

chapters of the book; Linton is particularly concerned with the classical background, and notes the repeated scheme of praise, mourning, and comfort (in that order) in reviews 205 the poems she analyzes, a structure that she relates to the aims early... modern authors assigned to their poetry. As she notes, biblical conso- lation that drew on the New Testament and Hellenizing portions of the Old Testament was closely related to the mood in the works of many authors of classical antiquity. Lutheran...

Boettcher, Susan R.

2009-01-01

80

A review of "The Duel in Early Modern England: Civility, Politeness and Honour." by Markku Peltonen  

E-print Network

198 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS available in such a handy format. Markku Peltonen. The Duel in Early Modern England: Civility, Politeness and Honour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ix + 355 pp. $60.00. Review by BRETT F. PARKER... Renaissance notion of civility and increasingly served to legitimate native political and social values. By tracing the arguments underlying the duel, Peltonen demonstrates the considerable flexibility of the ideology of civility and its attendant notion...

Brett F. Parker

2005-01-01

81

A review of "The Culture of Equity in Early Modern England" By Mark Fortier  

E-print Network

shows how Heliodorus affected their particular works but also helped contribute to the rise of a new kind of writing in England?a kind of writing which (he contends) contrib- uted in turn to the eventual development of the English novel. Mentz believes.... The Culture of Equity in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. viii + 217 pp. Review by RICHARD C. TAYLOR, EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY. It is a truism that the some of most extraordinary discoveries seem obvi- ous after...

Taylor, Richard C.

2007-01-01

82

A review of "Carnival and Literature in Early Modern England" by Jennifer C. Vaught  

E-print Network

, as they point out, require a reconsideration of the Restoration clergy. On the whole, this is a very useful collection which introduces some of the new trends in the examination of the English Revolu- tion. The essays are well researched and a number will have...). In Chapter Three, Vaught examines how Dekker, Shakespeare, and Jonson enlisted carnival materials to comment on the new com- mercial realities of early modern England, where emerging market economies opened up increased avenues for social advancement...

Laam, Kevin

2014-01-01

83

A review of "Visual Rhetoric and Early Modern English Literature" by Katherine Acheson  

E-print Network

”—Acheson proceeds to interpret these visual genres in relation to canonical texts by Marvell, Milton, and Behn. The main contribution of Visual Rhetoric and Early Modern English Literature lies in its illuminating corrective to the common critical neglect...), while naturalistic representation follows artistic convention and aspires to realism. Acheson cites examples of horticultural and tactical manuals that blend the two orientations, and in the poetry of Andrew Marvell locates a corollary not only...

Palmer, Philip S.

2014-01-01

84

A review of "Roman Triumphs and Early Modern English Culture." by Anthony Miller  

E-print Network

102 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS any essay on servants, despite McBride?s relatively thorough discussion of the changing role and gender makeup of household servants in her introduction. Yet the book provides so much worthy food for thought... that it would be merely ill-mannered to quibble over minor ingredients in the recipe. Anthony Miller. Roman Triumphs and Early Modern English Culture. Houndmills and New York: Palgrave, 2001. vii + 223 pp. + 7 illus. $45.00. Review by MICHAEL ULLYOT...

Michael Ullyot

2004-01-01

85

A Review of "Milton’s Angels:The Early Modern Imagination" by Joad Raymond  

E-print Network

Raymond notes that ?angelology, a systematic examination of angel-doctrine (written in isolation from a full theological system) is a rare genre? (45), the first section of his book can certainly be considered as a contribution to this field. He draws... on a wealth of sources to trace the development of angelology from the oldest church fathers to contemporary seventeenth-century polemicists, constructing a comprehensive account of the perception of angels in early modern thought. Of course...

Swann, Adam

2011-01-01

86

A review of "Comedy, Youth, Manhood in Early Modern England." by Ira Clark  

E-print Network

: University of Delaware Press; London: Associated University Presses, 2003. 170 pp. $39.50. Review by BYRON NELSON, WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY. Ira Clark is probably right in arguing that the entry of young men into marriage, as depicted in early modern... comedies, has not received as much attention as it deserves. (By implication, has there been an overabundance of feminist studies of the travails of young women in the marriage market?) He offers an attractive ?cluster of inquiries? into five topics...

Byron Nelson

2004-01-01

87

Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the Early Modern English Household  

PubMed Central

When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this ‘treasury for health.’ Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax ‘family books,’ this essay traces on the process through which early modern recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of early modern recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in early modern households. PMID:23926360

Leong, Elaine

2013-01-01

88

Genetic and Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Modern Humans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how genetic data on present human population relationships and data from the Pleistocene fossil hominid record are being used to compare two contrasting models for the origin of modern humans. (TW)

Stringer, C. B.; Andrews, P.

1988-01-01

89

Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents the two theories about the origin of modern humans: 1) they arose in one place -- Africa and and 2) pre-modern humans migrated from Africa to become modern humans in other parts of the world. Most evidence points to the first theory because: fossils of modern-like humans are found in Africa, stone tools and other artifacts support African origin, and DNA studies suggest a founding population in Africa.

Donald Johanson (Arizona State University;)

2001-05-01

90

Dante, Sanudo and Polo. From the Crusades to the Perpetuation of Early Modern Descriptions of the East as  

E-print Network

of the first half of the fourteenth century, such as those by Marco Polo and Odorico of Pordenone, which opened1 Dante, Sanudo and Polo. From the Crusades to the Perpetuation of Early Modern Descriptions

Qian, Ning

91

A review of "The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture." by Brendan Dooley  

E-print Network

. Brendan Dooley. The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. viii + 213 pp. $42.95. Review by LAURA CRUZ, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY. Brendan.... Brendan Dooley. The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. viii + 213 pp. $42.95. Review by LAURA CRUZ, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY. Brendan...

Laura Cruz

2002-01-01

92

A review of "Horrid Spectacle: Violation in the Theater of Early Modern England." by Deborah G. Burks  

E-print Network

24 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS admit, as I do, that she has opened the way to what should be continuing and fruitful dialogue. Deborah G. Burks. Horrid Spectacle: Violation in the Theater of Early Modern England. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University...24 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS admit, as I do, that she has opened the way to what should be continuing and fruitful dialogue. Deborah G. Burks. Horrid Spectacle: Violation in the Theater of Early Modern England. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University...

Christopher J. Wheatley

2005-01-01

93

A review of "Conscience on Stage: The Comedia as Casuistry in Early Modern Spain" by Hillaire Kallendorf  

E-print Network

, social and cultural historians? (20). Hilaire Kallendorf. Conscience on Stage: The Comedia as Casuistry in Early Modern Spain. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007. x + 299 pp. $65. Review by elizabeth r. wright, university of georgia. Spain..., social and cultural historians? (20). Hilaire Kallendorf. Conscience on Stage: The Comedia as Casuistry in Early Modern Spain. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007. x + 299 pp. $65. Review by elizabeth r. wright, university of georgia. Spain...

Wright, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

94

A review of "Radical Religion from Shakespeare to Milton: Figures of Nonconformity in Early Modern England." by Kristen Poole  

E-print Network

REVIEWS 39 Kristen Poole. Radical Religion from Shakespeare to Milton: Figures of Nonconformity in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. xiii + 272 pp. $59.95. Review by ELIZABETH SAUER, BROCK UNIVERSITY. While...REVIEWS 39 Kristen Poole. Radical Religion from Shakespeare to Milton: Figures of Nonconformity in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. xiii + 272 pp. $59.95. Review by ELIZABETH SAUER, BROCK UNIVERSITY. While...

Elizabeth Sauer

2002-01-01

95

A review of "Monstrous Bodies: Political Monstrosities in Early Modern Europe" by Laura Lunger Knoppers and Joan B. Landes, eds.  

E-print Network

-century scholarship. Laura Lunger Knoppers and Joan B. Landes, eds. Monstrous Bodies: Political Monstrosities in Early Modern Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004. xi + 304 pp. + 40 illus. $59.95. Review by LAURA FEITZINGER BROWN, CONVERSE COLLEGE.... Laura Lunger Knoppers and Joan B. Landes have assembled a fascinating interdisciplinary anthology of essays about interac- tions between the concept of monstrosity and ideas of the body politic in early modern Europe. Using eight essays by well...

Laura Feitzinger Brown

2004-01-01

96

A review of "Godly Reformers and their Opponents in Early Modern England: Religion in Norwich." by Matthew Reynolds  

E-print Network

-1643. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2005. xvi + 310 pp. + 9 illus. $85.00. Review by GEOFF BAKER, KEELE UNIVERSITY. Matthew Reynolds? study of early modern Norwich is an ambitious project that engages with a number of historical controversies. Reynolds maintains...-1643. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2005. xvi + 310 pp. + 9 illus. $85.00. Review by GEOFF BAKER, KEELE UNIVERSITY. Matthew Reynolds? study of early modern Norwich is an ambitious project that engages with a number of historical controversies. Reynolds maintains...

Baker, Geoff

2006-01-01

97

A review of "Autobiography and Gender in Early Modern Literature: Reading Women's Lives, 1600-1680" by Sharon Cadman Seelig  

E-print Network

REVIEWS 161 Sharon Cadman Seelig. Autobiography and Gender in Early Modern Literature: Reading Women?s Lives, 1600-1680. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 214pp. 75.00 cloth; Review by JULIE D. CAMPBELL, EASTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY...REVIEWS 161 Sharon Cadman Seelig. Autobiography and Gender in Early Modern Literature: Reading Women?s Lives, 1600-1680. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 214pp. 75.00 cloth; Review by JULIE D. CAMPBELL, EASTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY...

Campbell, Julie D.

2007-01-01

98

A review of "Literary Circles and Gender in Early Modern Europe: A Cross-Cultural Approach" by Julie Campbell  

E-print Network

with compelling historical context and astute literary analysis. Julie Campbell. Literary Circles and Gender in Early Modern Europe: A Cross- Cultural Approach. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2006. viii + 221 pp. $89.95. Review by LISSA BEAUCHAMP DESROCHES..., UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK, FREDERICTON. Julie Campbell?s study of how gender operates in the literary circles and salons of early modern Europe relies on a balance between genders as a matter of fact and gender as a matter for discourse. In other words...

Desroches, Lissa Beauchamp

2007-01-01

99

A review of "Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same-Sex Literary Erotics." by Harriette Andreadis  

E-print Network

52 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Harriette Andreadis. Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same- Sex Literary Erotics, 1550-1714. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. xiii + 254 pp. + 9 illus. $17.00 Paper. Review by MADHAVI MENON, ITHACA... COLLEGE. In a book that claims to be about erotic ellipses, Sappho in Early Modern England is also dependent on one: its evident debt to Foucauldian theory goes both unnamed and unpaid. In general, scholars of Renaissance sexuality draw on Foucault...

Madhavi Menon

2002-01-01

100

A review of "Catullan Consciousness and the Early Modern Lyric in England from Wyatt to Donne." by Jacob Blevins  

E-print Network

74 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS nars discussing various social and political processes changing the face of Europe in the 16 th and 17 th centuries. Jacob Blevins. Catullan Consciousness and the Early Modern Lyric in England from Wyatt to Donne...74 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS nars discussing various social and political processes changing the face of Europe in the 16 th and 17 th centuries. Jacob Blevins. Catullan Consciousness and the Early Modern Lyric in England from Wyatt to Donne...

Hill, Eugene D.

2006-01-01

101

A review of "Marian Moments in Early Modern English Drama" by Regina Buccola and Lisa Hopkins, ed.  

E-print Network

. Marian Moments in Early Modern British Drama. Hampshire, England: Ashgate, 2007. ix +173 pp. $99.95. Review by NANCY M. BUNKER, MACON STATE COLLEGE. In this meticulously argued, nine-essay collection, Marian Moments in Early Modern British Drama... and as ?mediatrix? with the God the Father and his Son found new limits although Virgin motherhood remained within Reformed doctrine (2). The range of possible interpretations, direct and indirect dramatic Marian mo- ments, and the culturally inflected theatrical...

Bunker, Nancy M.

2008-01-01

102

A review of "Reading, Society and Politics in Early Modern England." by Kevin Sharpe and S. N. Zwicker eds.  

E-print Network

, that inscribed the ?trivialization of women?s reading? and that ?surely discouraged women from marking in their books? (110). Kevin Sharpe?s ?Reading revelations: prophecy, hermeneutics and politics in early modern Britain,? the second essay of Part II, opens..., that inscribed the ?trivialization of women?s reading? and that ?surely discouraged women from marking in their books? (110). Kevin Sharpe?s ?Reading revelations: prophecy, hermeneutics and politics in early modern Britain,? the second essay of Part II, opens...

Jeffrey Johnson

2004-01-01

103

A review of "Books and Readers in Early Modern England: Material Studies." by J. Anderson and E. Sauer eds.  

E-print Network

in Early Modern European Culture. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2003. ix + 235 pp. + 27 illus. $79.95. Review by REBECCA DE HAAS, UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. Florike Egmond and Robert Zwijnenberg?s collection of essays, Bodily Extremities... in Early Modern European Culture. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2003. ix + 235 pp. + 27 illus. $79.95. Review by REBECCA DE HAAS, UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. Florike Egmond and Robert Zwijnenberg?s collection of essays, Bodily Extremities...

Gary Kuchar

2004-01-01

104

A review of "Patterned Lives: The Lutheran Funeral Biography in Early Modern Germany" by Cornelia Niekus Moore  

E-print Network

. As Maurice Aymard concludes: ?[Venice] suddenly draws nearer to us, more alive, less exceptional, but also more European, without, however, ceasing to surprise us.? Cornelia Niekus Moore. Patterned Lives: The Lutheran Funeral Biography in Early Modern... part of these publications might seem rather morbid. That is certainly not the case with Cornelia Moore?s study. Instead, her book is a lively overview of a major genre of early modern German literature. It is all the more welcome because...

Burnett, Amy Nelson

2007-01-01

105

The four faces of Eve: hypothesis compatibility and human origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several different sources of evidence have been used to support a recent African origin for our species. It is commonly assumed that these sources of evidence support the same recent African origin. However, a close examination of the evidence available from four sources, including paleontology, archaeology, the level of human genetic variation, and the geographic structure of human genetic variation,

John D. Hawks; Milford H. Wolpoff

2001-01-01

106

A review of "Devising, Dying and Dispute: Probate Litigation in Early Modern England" by Lloyd Bonfield  

E-print Network

of early modern law is shadowy corners. Lloyd Bon#23; eld?s Devising, Dying and Dispute is just such a monograph. Bon#23; eld takes as his object of study nearly two hundred causes (or cases) related to wills probated (that is, proved valid or deemed... of mental disease (important for judging the competence of testators and witnesses), and lastly?given 151 #2;#3;#4;#3;#5;#6;#3;#3;#5;#6;#7;-#8;#3;#5;#6; #11; #5;#3;#12;#2; that the 1677 Statute of Frauds was adopted roughly in the middle of this episode...

Kneidel, Greg

2012-01-01

107

A word of the Empirics: the ancient concept of observation and its recovery in early modern medicine.  

PubMed

The genealogy of observation as a philosophical term goes back to the ancient Greek astronomical and medical traditions, and the revival of the concept in the Renaissance also happened in the astronomical and medical context. This essay focuses primarily on the medical genealogy of the concept of observation. In ancient Greek culture, an elaboration of the concept of observation (t?r?sis) first emerged in the Hellenistic age with the medical sect of the Empirics, to be further developed by the ancient Sceptics. Basically unknown in the Middle Ages, the Empirics' conceptualisation of t?r?sis trickled back into Western medicine in the fourteenth century, but its meaning seems to have been fully recovered by European scholars only in the 1560s, concomitantly with the first Latin translation of the works of Sextus Empiricus. As a category originally associated with medical Scepticism, observatio was a new entry in early modern philosophy. Although the term gained wide currency in general scholarly usage in the seventeenth century, its assimilation into standard philosophical language was very slow. In fact, observatio does not even appear as an entry in the philosophical dictionaries until the eighteenth century--with one significant exception, the medical lexica, which featured the lemma, reporting its ancient Empiric definition, as early as 1564. PMID:21466002

Pomata, Gianna

2011-01-01

108

["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].  

PubMed

In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition. PMID:9333999

Freller, T

1997-01-01

109

Genetics and the Origin of Human “Races”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decades, the concept of human races was considered scientifically unfounded as it was not confirmed by genetic evidence. None of the racial classifications, which strongly differ in the number of races and their composition, reflects actual genetic similarity and genealogy of human populations inferred from variability of classical markers and DNA regions. Moreover, intercontinental (“interracial”) variability was

E. Ya. Tetushkin

2001-01-01

110

Origins of major human infectious diseases Nathan D. Wolfe1  

E-print Network

REVIEWS Origins of major human infectious diseases Nathan D. Wolfe1 , Claire Panosian Dunavan2 & Jared Diamond3 Many of the major human infectious diseases, including some now confined to humans were the sources of our major infectious diseases, including these `new' ones? Why do so many animal

Boudouresque, Charles F.

111

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... each case of human infection with a swine influenza virus should be fully investigated to be sure that ...

112

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation  

E-print Network

# Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delin- eated the two major fiber connections of the human Md in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy

Dickerson, Brad

113

Original article Characterization and differentiation of human first  

E-print Network

Original article Characterization and differentiation of human first trimester placenta the rejection of the fetus by the mother (Wild, 1983). Moreover, the placenta is an endocrine or- gan, secreting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Prophecy, patriarchy, and violence in the early modern household: the revelations of Anne Wentworth.  

PubMed

In 1676 the apostate Baptist prophet Anne Wentworth (1629/30-1693?) published "A True Account of Anne Wentworths Being Cruelly, Unjustly, and Unchristianly Dealt with by Some of Those People called Anabaptists," the first in a series of pamphlets that would continue to the end of the decade. Orignially a member of a London Baptist church, Wentworth left the congregation and eventually her own home after her husband used physical force to stop her writing and prophesying. Yet Wentworth persisted in her "revelations." These prophecies increasingly focused on her response to those who were trying to stop her efforts, especially within her own household. This article examines Wentworth's writings as an effort by an early modern woman, using arguments of spiritual agency, to assert ideas about proper gender roles and household responsibilities to denounce her husband and rebut those who criticized and attempted to suppress her. PMID:19999636

Johnston, Warren

2009-10-01

115

"Secrets of the female sex": Jane Sharp, the reproductive female body, and early modern midwifery manuals.  

PubMed

Early modern midwifery manuals in Britain were usually the work of men. These books were a significant source of information about the body to the wider reading public: many sold well, and their prefatory materials include injunctions to readers not to make improper use of them. What is particularly interesting about Jane Sharp's Midwives Book (1671) is that it both provides a compendium of current beliefs concerning reproduction, and indicates the author's ironic perception of the misogyny that underpinned accepted ideas about the female reproductive body. This article gives key examples of Sharp's interventions, and also refers to Thomas Bartholin, Bartholinus Anatomy (1688); Richard Bunworth, The Doctresse (1656); Hugh Chamberlen, The Accomplisht Midwife (1673); The Compleat Midwifes Practice (1656); Helkiah Crooke, Microcosmographia (1615); Nicholas Culpeper, A Directory for Midwives (1651); Jacques Guillemeau, Childbirth (1612); Jean Riolan, A Sure Guide (1657); Daniel Sennert, Practical Physick (1664); William Sermon, The Ladies Companion (1671); and Percival Willughby, Observations in Midwifery (c. 1675). PMID:20196248

Hobby, E

2001-01-01

116

Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.  

PubMed

Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear. PMID:25080642

Anstey, Peter R

2014-01-01

117

The human mind: origin in geometry.  

PubMed

Within 53 years after the public acceptance of Mendel's laws (in 1900), the genetic material was identified and described (by Watson and Crick). Today, 53 years after the modern era began in the scientific study of language (with Chomsky's Syntactic structures), there is no agreement as to whether universal grammar exists, or whether language as such exists at all, that is, there is no agreement as to which square is square-one. Under the circumstances, a new approach is justified. It is the goal of this paper to place the scientific study of mind, language and brain onto a theoretical basis, beginning with naturally-occurring human language. The human mind has two major components, one with its antecedents in biology and behaviour the other with its antecedents in geometry. It is the geometric component, consisting of language, tool-use, the mathematical sense, and the sense of truth and falsity, that distinguishes and defines the human being. Thus the constructions of language conform to the commutative, associative and distributive laws, and have their ultimate source in geometry. Equations have a symmetrical deep-structure based on the fact that one side is "equal" to the other: The "equals" symbol represents the axis of symmetry, and functions as a kind of main verb. The deep structure of the ordinary sentence is derived by moving the attachment for the "equals" to one of the branches, generating the asymmetrical Subject-Verb-Object relationship. Tool-use, with its Subject (the tool), Verb (movement of the tool), and Object (the workpiece), and manipulation of mental images, is an extension of the sentence. The sense of truth and falsity shares a common source with the right and wrong answers of arithmetic. PMID:21180345

Abler, William L

2010-01-01

118

Genomics refutes an exclusively African origin of humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten years ago, evidence from genetics gave strong support to the “recent African origin” view of the evolution of modern humans, which posits that Homo sapiens arose as a new species in Africa and subsequently spread, leading to the extinction of other archaic human species. Subsequent data from the nuclear genome not only fail to support this model, they do

Vinayak Eswaran; Henry Harpending; Alan R. Rogers

2005-01-01

119

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical  

E-print Network

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 1 Introduction Since the 1990s, biomechanical modelling of the human upper properties of the upper airway (geometry, rheology). This makes them of interest to improve the qualityORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical simulations using

Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

120

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical  

E-print Network

, biomechanical modelling of the human upper airway has received a growing interest since it allows a better of the biomechanical properties of the upper airway (geometry, rheology). This makes them of interest to improveORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical simulations using

Payan, Yohan

121

ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia and mouse brain the experimental-wise false discovery rate. A human acute leukemia dataset corrected from 38 leukemia patients, a mouse brain dataset collected from six brain regions of two inbred strains (two- treatment factors

Gu, Xun

122

Understanding Human Trafficking Origin: A Cross-Country Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist work on global human trafficking has highlighted the conceptual difficulty of differentiating between trafficking and migration. This contribution uses a cross-country United Nations Office on Crime and Drugs dataset on human trafficking from 2006 to empirically evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of high-trafficking origin countries and compare them with patterns that have emerged in the literature on migration. In particular,

Smriti Rao; Christina Presenti

2012-01-01

123

A review of "The Navy and Government in Early Modern France 1572-1661." by Alan James  

E-print Network

, and political his- tory, making an important contribution to our understanding of Louis XIV and his reign. Alan James. The Navy and Government in Early Modern France 1572-1661. Rochester: Boydell & Brewster, 2004. ix + 198 pp. $70.00. Review by EDWARD M..., and political his- tory, making an important contribution to our understanding of Louis XIV and his reign. Alan James. The Navy and Government in Early Modern France 1572-1661. Rochester: Boydell & Brewster, 2004. ix + 198 pp. $70.00. Review by EDWARD M...

Edward M. Furgol

2005-01-01

124

A review of "Reading Material in Early Modern England: Print, Gender, and Literacy." by Heidi Brayman Hackel  

E-print Network

? and ?vulgar? readers are ad- dressed as such in prefatory material, and each are given direction as to what to do with the book in hand: ?early modern readers need both reliable guides and sound judgment to escape the reading process unscathed? (78), because...? and ?vulgar? readers are ad- dressed as such in prefatory material, and each are given direction as to what to do with the book in hand: ?early modern readers need both reliable guides and sound judgment to escape the reading process unscathed? (78), because...

Lissa Beauchamp

2006-01-01

125

A review of "State Formation in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1700." by Michael J. Braddick  

E-print Network

of French government propa- ganda than as anything else. Michael J. Braddick. State Formation in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. x + 447 pp. $28.00. Review by MOLLY MCCLAIN, UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO. What... of French government propa- ganda than as anything else. Michael J. Braddick. State Formation in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. x + 447 pp. $28.00. Review by MOLLY MCCLAIN, UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO. What...

Molly Mcclain

2002-01-01

126

A review of "Early Modern English Lives: Autobiography and Self-Representation 1500 - 1660" by Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly  

E-print Network

64 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly. Early Modern English Lives: Autobiography and Self-Representation 1500-1660. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2007. viii + 241 pp. + 5 illus. $99.95. Review... by ELISA OH. Contributing to the conversation on the early modern subject, Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly?s Early Modern English Lives: Autobi- ography and Self-Representation 1500-1660 examines a welcome variety of six- teenth...

Oh, Elisa

2008-01-01

127

Trapping DNA Replication Origins from the Human Genome  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of chromosomal DNA is initiated from multiple origins of replication in higher eukaryotes; however, little is known about these origins’ structures. We isolated the origin-derived nascent DNAs from a human repair-deficient cell line by blocking the replication forks near the origins using two different origin-trapping methods (i.e., UV- or chemical crosslinker-treatment and cell synchronization in early S phase using DNA replication inhibitors). Single-stranded DNAs (of 0.5–3 kb) that accumulated after such treatments were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU-labeled DNA was immunopurified after fractionation by alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cloned by complementary-strand synthesis and PCR amplification. Competitive PCR revealed an increased abundance of DNA derived from known replication origins (c-myc and lamin B2 genes) in the nascent DNA fractions from the UV-treated or crosslinked cells. Nucleotide sequences of 85 and 208 kb were obtained from the two libraries (I and II) prepared from the UV-treated log-phase cells and early S phase arrested cells, respectively. The libraries differed from each other in their G+C composition and replication-related motif contents, suggesting that differences existed between the origin fragments isolated by the two different origin-trapping methods. The replication activities for seven out of 12 putative origin loci from the early-S phase cells were shown by competitive PCR. We mapped 117 (library I) and 172 (library II) putative origin loci to the human genome; approximately 60% and 50% of these loci were assigned to the G-band and intragenic regions, respectively. Analyses of the flanking sequences of the mapped loci suggested that the putative origin loci tended to associate with genes (including conserved sites) and DNase I hypersensitive sites; however, poor correlations were found between such loci and the CpG islands, transcription start sites, and K27-acetylated histone H3 peaks. PMID:24705160

Eki, Toshihiko; Murakami, Yasufumi; Hanaoka, Fumio

2013-01-01

128

Labour, land, and capital markets in early modern Southeast Asia from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factor markets of sorts did exist in the more highly developed areas of early modern Southeast Asia, and they became more efficient in the course of time (although not in a linear process). However, in other more remote areas land was hardly ever sold, labour could not be hired and money was rare. Neither was the institutional framework conducive to

PETER BOOMGAARD

2009-01-01

129

The Veiled Ladies of the Early Modern Spanish World: Seduction and Scandal in Seville, Madrid, and Lima  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the controversial fashion of veiling in the early modern Spanish world. Working across the media of art, literature, and the law, it explores the intersecting ways in which moralists, legislators, playwrights, painters, and poets constructed the figure of the veiled lady (tapada) as a social type at once alluring and deeply unsettling. We provide an explanation of

Laura R. Bass

2009-01-01

130

Captain John Smith and the Campaign for New England: A Study in Early Modern Identity and Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In print, on maps, and in person, Captain John Smith tirelessly promoted English-controlled northeast North America as a new England. His creative, multi-pronged campaign reveals the difficulties of raising venture capital for English Atlantic world colonization and offers an important example of early modern place branding and regional identity creation.

Walter W. Woodward

2008-01-01

131

Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.  

PubMed

Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos. PMID:24341260

Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

2013-09-01

132

The origin and distribution of human lice in the world.  

PubMed

Two genera of lice parasitize humans: Pthirus and Pediculus. The latter is of significant public health importance and comprises two ecotypes: the body louse and the head louse. These ecotypes are morphologically and genetically notably similar; the body louse is responsible for three infectious diseases: Louse-borne epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown that there are three obviously divergent clades of head lice (A, B and C), and only one clade of body lice is shared with head lice (clade A). Each clade has a unique geographic distribution. Lice have been parasitizing humans for millions of years and likely dispersed throughout the World with the human migrations out of Africa, so they can be good markers for studying human evolution. Here, we present an overview of the origin of human lice and their role in vector pathogenic bacteria that caused epidemics, and we review the association between lice clades and human migrations. PMID:24524985

Boutellis, Amina; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Raoult, Didier

2014-04-01

133

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Biodistribution and dosimetry in humans of two inverse  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Biodistribution and dosimetry in humans of two inverse agonists to image F-FMPEP-d2. Here we describe the biodistribution and dosimetry estimates for these two radioligands-MePPEP. 18 F-FMPEP-d2 . Dosimetry. PET Introduction The cannabinoid subtype 1 (CB1) receptor is coupled to G

Shen, Jun

134

Body proportions in Late Pleistocene Europe and modern human origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body proportions covary with climate, apparently as the result of climatic selection. Ontogenetic research and migrant studies have demonstrated that body proportions are largely genetically controlled and are under low selective rates; thus studies of body form can provide evidence for evolutionarily short-term dispersals and\\/or gene flow. Following these observations, competing models of modern human origins yield different predictions concerning

Trenton W. Holliday

1997-01-01

135

Chapter 16: Origins of shared attention in human infants  

E-print Network

reflects a complex and nuanced interplay between infants' neural learning processes, their perceptual-motor by considering evidence from typically developing infants, infants with disabilities, juvenile nonhuman animals331 Chapter 16: Origins of shared attention in human infants Gedeon O. Deák and Jochen Triesch From

136

Middle Cranial Fossa Anatomy and the Origin of Modern Humans  

E-print Network

#12;Middle Cranial Fossa Anatomy and the Origin of Modern Humans MARKUS BASTIR,1 * ANTONIO ROSAS,1 cranial fossa (MCF) interacts during growth and development with the temporal lobes, the midface, and the mandible. It has been proposed that evolution- ary transformations of the MCF (perhaps from modification

Lieberman, Daniel E.

137

Original article Effects of light on human circadian rhythms  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of light on human circadian rhythms Debra J. Skene Steven W. Lockley system. The circadian rhythms (melatonin, cortisol, timing of sleep/wake) of individuals with different perception (LP) mainly have normally entrained circadian rhythms, whereas subjects with no conscious light

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

[Mutagenicity of natural-origin agents carcinogenic to humans].  

PubMed

The current literature data on mutagenicity of human carcinogens of natural origin are reviewed. The high correlation is established between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of this group of agents, all 10 agents are active in the Ames assay or in the cytogenetic tests, 7 of them are mutagenic in the Ames test and 8 in cytogenetic assays. PMID:2404738

Nersesian, A K

1990-01-01

139

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain activation during-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 Abstract Rationale Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) polydrug ecstasy use with semantic memory per- formance and brain activation in ecstasy polydrug users. Methods

Park, Sohee

140

The origin of human multi-modal communication.  

PubMed

One reason for the apparent gulf between animal and human communication systems is that the focus has been on the presence or the absence of language as a complex expressive system built on speech. But language normally occurs embedded within an interactional exchange of multi-modal signals. If this larger perspective takes central focus, then it becomes apparent that human communication has a layered structure, where the layers may be plausibly assigned different phylogenetic and evolutionary origins--especially in the light of recent thoughts on the emergence of voluntary breathing and spoken language. This perspective helps us to appreciate the different roles that the different modalities play in human communication, as well as how they function as one integrated system despite their different roles and origins. It also offers possibilities for reconciling the 'gesture-first hypothesis' with that of gesture and speech having evolved together, hand in hand--or hand in mouth, rather--as one system. PMID:25092670

Levinson, Stephen C; Holler, Judith

2014-09-19

141

The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation.  

PubMed

Proactive, that is, unsolicited, prosociality is a key component of our hyper-cooperation, which in turn has enabled the emergence of various uniquely human traits, including complex cognition, morality and cumulative culture and technology. However, the evolutionary foundation of the human prosocial sentiment remains poorly understood, largely because primate data from numerous, often incommensurable testing paradigms do not provide an adequate basis for formal tests of the various functional hypotheses. We therefore present the results of standardized prosociality experiments in 24 groups of 15 primate species, including humans. Extensive allomaternal care is by far the best predictor of interspecific variation in proactive prosociality. Proactive prosocial motivations therefore systematically arise whenever selection favours the evolution of cooperative breeding. Because the human data fit this general primate pattern, the adoption of cooperative breeding by our hominin ancestors also provides the most parsimonious explanation for the origin of human hyper-cooperation. PMID:25158760

Burkart, J M; Allon, O; Amici, F; Fichtel, C; Finkenwirth, C; Heschl, A; Huber, J; Isler, K; Kosonen, Z K; Martins, E; Meulman, E J; Richiger, R; Rueth, K; Spillmann, B; Wiesendanger, S; van Schaik, C P

2014-01-01

142

A review of "Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England." by Nancy Cox and Karin Dannehl  

E-print Network

of Luther in 1521. Nancy Cox and Karin Dannehl. Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2007. xv+214 pp. $99.95. Review by Ge n e ha y w o r t h , un i v e r s i t y o f co l o r a d o , Bo u... of Luther in 1521. Nancy Cox and Karin Dannehl. Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2007. xv+214 pp. $99.95. Review by Ge n e ha y w o r t h , un i v e r s i t y o f co l o r a d o , Bo u...

Hayworth, Gene

2008-01-01

143

'Very sore nights and days': the child's experience of illness in early modern England, c.1580-1720.  

PubMed

Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children's experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfillment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children's emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors' casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308

Newton, Hannah

2011-04-01

144

'Very Sore Nights and Days': The Child's Experience of Illness in Early Modern England, c.1580-1720  

PubMed Central

Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children’s experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfilment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children’s emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors’ casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308

NEWTON, HANNAH

2011-01-01

145

A review of "The Culture of Capital: Property, Cities, and Knowledge in Early Modern England." by Henry S. Turner ed.  

E-print Network

. Turner, ed. The Culture of Capital: Property, Cities, and Knowledge in Early Modern England. New York: Routledge, 2002. 304 pp. + 14 illus. $30.00. Review by NICOLE GREENSPAN, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. ?Is there a new subject for criticism?? John... Guillory queries in his chapter of Henry S. Turner?s edited collection, The Culture of Capital (223). What useful theoretical models and methodologies can scholars from different disciplines borrow from the new economic criticism and material culture...

Nicole Greenspan

2004-01-01

146

A review of "Inventing Polemic: Religion, Print, and Literary Culture in Early Modern England." by Jesse M. Lander  

E-print Network

REVIEWS 65 Jesse M. Lander. Inventing Polemic: Religion, Print, and Literary Culture in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. x + 324 pp. + 20 illus. $85.00. Review by IRA CLARK, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. Jesse M...?s authorship as a Puritan polemicist and exalts a new commit- ment to a universalized and aestheticized ?polite learning? as the sphere all came to regard as literature. Jesse M. Lander makes a learned and significant contribution to an emerging history...

Clark, Ira

2007-01-01

147

A review of "The Reformation of the Landscape: Religion, Identity, & Memory in Early Modern Britain and Ireland" by Alexandra Walsham  

E-print Network

once more the varied nature of religious reform. Not only were such acts often punished, but they were also loaded with multiplicitous meanings; they could not necessarily be seen as vigi- lantism given that they often mimicked state... from random acts of violence, such initiatives were symptomatic of the manner in which the religious and cultural con#24; icts of the era continued to be played out on the contested face of the landscapes of early modern Britain? (142...

Jordan, Nicolle

2012-01-01

148

University of Southampton: Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Southampton, this website presents the Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins (CAHO). The CAHO website contains information about research projects, publications, and staff. The Research section links to basic information about research projects in the UK, Africa, and Europe. Publication lists, background information, and contacts are provided for CAHO academic staff and research students. The site also contains sections for News & Events, and related Links.

149

Functional interactions of DNA topoisomerases with a human replication origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human DNA replication origin, located in the lamin B2 gene, interacts with the DNA topoisomerases I and II in a cell cycle-modulated manner. The topoisomerases inter- act in vivo and in vitro with precise bonds ahead of the start sites of bidirectional replication, within the pre- replicative complex region; topoisomerase I is bound in M, early G1 and G1\\/S

Gulnara Abdurashidova; Sorina Radulescu; Oscar Sandoval; Sotir Zahariev; Miltcho B Danailov; Alexander Demidovich; Laura Santamaria; Giuseppe Biamonti; Silvano Riva; Arturo Falaschi

2007-01-01

150

Developmental origins of variation in human hand preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though right-handedness is a prominant characteristic within all human societies, a substantial and stable proportion of individuals\\u000a are left-handed. Any comprehensive approach to the origin of variation in handedness must account for substantial evidence\\u000a that left-handedness is associated with reduced fitness, neurodevelopmental disorders, and reduced neuroanatomical asymmetry.\\u000a In this paper we investigate the hypothesis that developmental instability in early fetal

Ronald A. Yeo; Steven W. Gangestad

1993-01-01

151

The origin recognition complex marks a replication origin in the human TOP1 gene promoter.  

PubMed

The locations of the origin recognition complex (ORC) in mammalian genomes have been elusive. We have therefore analyzed the DNA sequences associated with human ORC via in vivo cross-linking and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Antibodies specific for hOrc2 protein precipitate chromatin fragments that also contain other ORC proteins, suggesting that the proteins form multisubunit complexes on chromatin in vivo. A binding region for ORC was identified at the CpG island upstream of the human TOP1 gene. Nascent strand abundance assays show that the ORC binding region coincides with an origin of bidirectional replication. The TOP1 gene includes two well characterized matrix attachment regions. The matrix attachment region elements analyzed contain no ORC and constitute no sites for replication initiation. In initial attempts to use the chromatin immunoprecipitation technique for the identification of additional ORC sites in the human genome, we isolated a sequence close to another actively transcribed gene (TOM1) and an alphoid satellite sequence that underlies centromeric heterochromatin. Nascent strand abundance assays gave no indication that the heterochromatin sequence serves as a replication initiation site, suggesting that an ORC on this site may perform functions other than replication initiation. PMID:12004060

Keller, Christian; Ladenburger, Eva-Maria; Kremer, Marcel; Knippers, Rolf

2002-08-30

152

Timing the origin of human malarias: the lemur puzzle  

PubMed Central

Background Timing the origin of human malarias has been a focus of great interest. Previous studies on the mitochondrial genome concluded that Plasmodium in primates, including those parasitic to humans, radiated relatively recently during a process where host switches were common. Those investigations, however, assumed constant rate of evolution and tightly bound (fixed) calibration points based on host fossils or host distribution. We investigate the effect of such assumptions using different molecular dating methods. We include parasites from Lemuroidea since their distribution provides an external validation to time estimates allowing us to disregard scenarios that cannot explain their introduction in Madagascar. Results We reject the assumption that the Plasmodium mitochondrial genome, as a unit or each gene separately, evolves at a constant rate. Our analyses show that Lemuroidea parasites are a monophyletic group that shares a common ancestor with all Catarrhini malarias except those related to P. falciparum. However, we found no evidence that this group of parasites branched with their hosts early in the evolution of primates. We applied relaxed clock methods and different calibrations points to explore the origin of primate malarias including those found in African apes. We showed that previous studies likely underestimated the origin of malarial parasites in primates. Conclusions The use of fossils from the host as absolute calibration and the assumption of a strict clock likely underestimate time when performing molecular dating analyses on malarial parasites. Indeed, by exploring different calibration points, we found that the time for the radiation of primate parasites may have taken place in the Eocene, a time consistent with the radiation of African anthropoids. The radiation of the four human parasite lineages was part of such events. The time frame estimated in this investigation, together with our phylogenetic analyses, made plausible a scenario where gorillas and humans acquired malaria from a Pan lineage. PMID:21992100

2011-01-01

153

Functional interactions of DNA topoisomerases with a human replication origin  

PubMed Central

The human DNA replication origin, located in the lamin B2 gene, interacts with the DNA topoisomerases I and II in a cell cycle-modulated manner. The topoisomerases interact in vivo and in vitro with precise bonds ahead of the start sites of bidirectional replication, within the pre-replicative complex region; topoisomerase I is bound in M, early G1 and G1/S border and topoisomerase II in M and the middle of G1. The Orc2 protein competes for the same sites of the origin bound by either topoisomerase in different moments of the cell cycle; furthermore, it interacts on the DNA with topoisomerase II during the assembly of the pre-replicative complex and with DNA-bound topoisomerase I at the G1/S border. Inhibition of topoisomerase I activity abolishes origin firing. Thus, the two topoisomerases are closely associated with the replicative complexes, and DNA topology plays an essential functional role in origin activation. PMID:17290216

Abdurashidova, Gulnara; Radulescu, Sorina; Sandoval, Oscar; Zahariev, Sotir; Danailov, Miltcho B; Demidovich, Alexander; Santamaria, Laura; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Riva, Silvano; Falaschi, Arturo

2007-01-01

154

Fleshly Embodiments: Early Modern Monsters, Victorian Freaks, and Twentieth-Century Affective Spectatorship  

E-print Network

of the Human Body, an influential anatomy book published inbook tells us, it is about the very fabric of the human body –book, he includes 68 plates visually representing various parts and functions of the human body.

Orning, Sara Elisabeth Sellevold

2012-01-01

155

The motor origins of human and avian song structure.  

PubMed

Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:69-80]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples. PMID:21876156

Tierney, Adam T; Russo, Frank A; Patel, Aniruddh D

2011-09-13

156

The motor origins of human and avian song structure  

PubMed Central

Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:69–80]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples. PMID:21876156

Tierney, Adam T.; Russo, Frank A.; Patel, Aniruddh D.

2011-01-01

157

A review of "Religion and the Early Modern State: Views From China, Russia, and the West." by James D. Tracy and Marguerite Ragnow eds.  

E-print Network

-CENTURY NEWS will be of much interest for students of early modern history, anthropology, and religion. Anthony Milton, ed. The British Delegation and the Synod of Dort (1618-1619). Church of England Record Society, Volume 13. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press...-CENTURY NEWS will be of much interest for students of early modern history, anthropology, and religion. Anthony Milton, ed. The British Delegation and the Synod of Dort (1618-1619). Church of England Record Society, Volume 13. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press...

Yermolenko, Galina I.

2006-01-01

158

A review of "The Arts of Remembrance in Early Modern England: Memorial Cultures of the Post Reformation" by Andrew Gordon and Thomas Rist  

E-print Network

reviews 31 Andrew Gordon and Thomas Rist. The Arts of Remembrance in Early Modern England: Memorial Cultures of the Post Reformation. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013. xi +259 + 23 illus. $114.95. Review by william e. engel, sewanee: the university... structures and social history in early modern Britain, are singularly well suited to undertake this project on the cultural enactments of remembrance—both as editors and contributors. Andrew Gordon, for example, offers a triumphant final essay...

Engel, William E.

2014-01-01

159

Fossils and human origins, Mark StonekingSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Mark Stoneking DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>migrations Geneticist Mark Stoneking, co-author of an early mitochondrial DNA paper, talks about the competing theories of human origins.

2008-10-06

160

A review of "Jews in the Early Modern English Imagination: A Scattered Nation" by Eva Johanna Holmberg  

E-print Network

, and institutions of the ancient Hebrews, Jews in the Early Modern English Imagination contends that accounts of Jews abroad and in the Holy Land formed a rich cache of information about their customs, beliefs, and physical presence that could not be scrutinized... with a journey into alien lands as it did with providing ?a venue for writing a traveler?s life? (8). Implicit in this literary activity was the desire to attract new patrons and new readers through one?s nar- rative project, thus fashioning...

Engel, William E.

2013-01-01

161

A review of "Old Worlds: Egypt, Southwest Asia, India, and Russia in Early Modern English Writing." by John Michael Archer  

E-print Network

?a veritable Renaissance traveler and explorer (86)? the poem criticizes the new imperial drive of the Restoration En- gland, with its commercial ambition and hunger for territory (99). The portrayal of Russia as ?other??in terms of race, sexuality... by women, and sodomy, to name a few?that the author?s claims about their literary represen- tations become at times overwhelming. When Archer stresses early modern English associations of Russia with sodomy, are we to assume that Sidney?s comparing...

Galina Yermolenko

2002-01-01

162

Tracing sexual identities in "old age": gender and seniority in advice literature of the early-modern and modern periods.  

PubMed

Thus far, historians have interpreted representations of elderly women with reference to women's roles or to women's positions in society. This article proposes a different approach toward gender: to relate representations of the aged to the sexual identities of both men and women. This article analyzes representations of old age in conduct books of the early-modern period and the nineteenth century. By drawing a comparison, the eighteenth-century change of "identity regime" in European culture is brought to the fore. The article points to the influence of sexual identities on the representations of senior persons in advice literature both in Dutch and translated into Dutch. PMID:19999638

van Tilburg, Marja

2009-10-01

163

The Complexity and Origins of the Human Eye: A Brief Study on the Anatomy, Physiology, and Origin of the Eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human eye has been the cause of much controversy in regards to its complexity and how the human eye came to be. Through following and discussing the anatomical and physiological functions of the eye, a better understanding of the argument of origins can be seen. The anatomy of the human eye and its many functions are clearly seen, through

Evan T Sebastian

2010-01-01

164

Fleshly Embodiments: Early Modern Monsters, Victorian Freaks, and Twentieth-Century Affective Spectatorship  

E-print Network

hermaphrodite presents us with an instance where the boundaries between human andhermaphrodites offer an understanding of how the male and female body combined threatened boundaries between human andHermaphrodites constitute a paradigmatic example of the link between the monster and the gendered human

Orning, Sara Elisabeth Sellevold

2012-01-01

165

'He plays on the pillory'. The use of musical instruments for punishment in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era.  

PubMed

Illustrations by the Dutch renaissance artists Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Jan Wierix both show a man imprisoned on a pillory, a former place of enforcement of judicial sentences, and playing a musical instrument. Taken as legal iconographic sources, these illustrations of the old saying 'He plays on the pillory' can be understood as references to a specific kind of punishment used in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era. Specifically, delinquents had to wear wooden or iron 'neck violins' or 'neck flutes' while being pilloried or chased through the streets in order to be humiliated in public. As well as this historical fact, there also exists an interpretation that takes the illustrations by Bruegel and Wierix literally. It suggests that these punishment practices originally date back to a more ancient use of real instruments in a penal system that was applied and understood as a 'healing punishment' (poena medicinalis) to banish the ill and re-establish the good in the delinquent, the community and the world as a whole due to musical sounds. By means of legal iconographical and historical methods, this article explores the different nuances of punishment that employed real or symbolic musical instruments. Thus, it examines a historical aspect of 'music in detention' where the (symbolic) sounds do not emanate from the punisher but from the punished themselves. PMID:24480889

Herzfeld-Schild, Marie Louise

2013-01-01

166

Reexamining human origins in light of Ardipithecus ramidus.  

PubMed

Referential models based on extant African apes have dominated reconstructions of early human evolution since Darwin's time. These models visualize fundamental human behaviors as intensifications of behaviors observed in living chimpanzees and/or gorillas (for instance, upright feeding, male dominance displays, tool use, culture, hunting, and warfare). Ardipithecus essentially falsifies such models, because extant apes are highly derived relative to our last common ancestors. Moreover, uniquely derived hominid characters, especially those of locomotion and canine reduction, appear to have emerged shortly after the hominid/chimpanzee divergence. Hence, Ardipithecus provides a new window through which to view our clade's earliest evolution and its ecological context. Early hominids and extant apes are remarkably divergent in many cardinal characters. We can no longer rely on homologies with African apes for accounts of our origins and must turn instead to general evolutionary theory. A proposed adaptive suite for the emergence of Ardipithecus from the last common ancestor that we shared with chimpanzees accounts for these principal ape/human differences, as well as the marked demographic success and cognitive efflorescence of later Plio-Pleistocene hominids. PMID:19810200

Lovejoy, C Owen

2009-10-01

167

Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?  

PubMed Central

The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. PMID:23908781

Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

2010-01-01

168

A review of "Domestic Arrangements in Early Modern England." by Kari McBride ed.  

E-print Network

, Cavendish?s poems do not make domesticity seem an analog for creation, and so a suitable channel for female creativity, but render creation merely a meaningless chore, thus exposing domestic ?arts? as trivial and confining to women?s ?artistic and human..., Cavendish?s poems do not make domesticity seem an analog for creation, and so a suitable channel for female creativity, but render creation merely a meaningless chore, thus exposing domestic ?arts? as trivial and confining to women?s ?artistic and human...

Karen L. Raber

2004-01-01

169

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community-  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community- associated for a Human Pandemic Clone of2013. Laura E. Spoor, Paul R. McAdam, Lucy A. Weinert, et al. aureus StaphylococcusMethicillin-Resistant Community-Associated Pandemic Clone of Livestock Origin for a Human http

Millar, Andrew J.

170

Analysis of the origin of predictability in human communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human behaviors in daily life can be traced by their communications via electronic devices. E-mails, short messages and cell-phone calls can be used to investigate the predictability of communication partners’ patterns, because these three are the most representative and common behaviors in daily communications. In this paper, we show that all the three manners have apparent predictability in partners’ patterns, and moreover, the short message users’ sequences have the highest predictability among the three. We also reveal that people with fewer communication partners have higher predictability. Finally, we investigate the origin of predictability, which comes from two aspects: one is the intrinsic pattern in the partners sequence, that is, people have the preference of communicating with a fixed partner after another fixed one. The other aspect is the burst, which is communicating with the same partner several times in a row. The high burst in short message communication pattern is one of the main reasons for its high predictability, the intrinsic pattern in e-mail partners sequence is the main reason for its predictability, and the predictability of cell-phone call partners sequence comes from both aspects.

Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yani; Wu, Ye; Xiao, Jinghua

2014-01-01

171

AFRICAN GENETIC DIVERSITY: Implications for Human Demographic History, Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of ethnically diverse human populations, particularly in Africa, are important for reconstructing human evolutionary history and for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation and complex disease. African populations are characterized by greater levels of genetic diversity, extensive population substructure, and less linkage disequilibrium (LD) among loci compared to non-African populations. Africans also possess a number of genetic adaptations that have evolved in response to diverse climates and diets, as well as exposure to infectious disease. This review summarizes patterns and the evolutionary origins of genetic diversity present in African populations, as well as their implications for the mapping of complex traits, including disease susceptibility. PMID:18593304

Campbell, Michael C.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

2010-01-01

172

A review of "The Disciplinary Revolution: Calvinism and the Rise of the State in Early Modern Europe." by Philip S. Gorski  

E-print Network

and the Early Modern Lyric in England from Wyatt to Donne. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004. viii + 138 pp. $79.95. Review by EUGENE D. HILL, MOUNT HOLYOKE COLLEGE. ?Catullan consciousness? could mean very different things. For readers of Celia and Louis Zukofsky... and the Early Modern Lyric in England from Wyatt to Donne. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004. viii + 138 pp. $79.95. Review by EUGENE D. HILL, MOUNT HOLYOKE COLLEGE. ?Catullan consciousness? could mean very different things. For readers of Celia and Louis Zukofsky...

Jakub Basista

2006-01-01

173

A Review of "Memory's Library: Medieval Books in Early Modern England" by Jennifer Summit  

E-print Network

, the new critics are largely remembered for their scholarship, not their poetry. Stanwood, however, gently refocuses our attention, reminding us of a story that is often no longer told, let alone heard. Jennifer Summit. Memory?s Library: Medieval Books... of the academic humanities, particularly that of literary history? (5). Therefore the remaining quotations from Memory?s Library all contain uses of this suffix that turns nouns and adjectives 136 seventeenth-century news into verbs?and in Summit?s case...

Engel, William E.

2009-01-01

174

Class, Authority, and the Querelle des Femmes: A Women's Community of Resistance in Early Modern Europe  

E-print Network

, revises the Passion narrative to emphasize women?s positive roles in human salvation. Praising the Virgin Mary, the ?most beauteous Queene of Woman-kind? (1039), Lanyer asserts that, ?as a Virgin pure? (1064), Mary is subject only to God: ?Farre from... that they were inherently subordinate to men because, according to patriarchal authorities, this gender hierarchy was established when God created the first man and woman and was reinforced when Eve partook of the Tree of Knowledge. The Book of Genesis was...

Lawrence, Dana Eatman

2010-10-12

175

A review of "Sublime Worlds: Early Modern French Literature" by Emma Gilby  

E-print Network

?rather than beyond?the human, cognitive efforts to make sense of the world. In Gilby?s view, therefore, sublime ecstasy (as opposed to Plato?s furor poeticus) pushes its subjects not so much toward the absolute, simple, and divine as toward the contingent... the sublime from its senses of ecstasy, grandeur, divinity, and so on that critics have not entirely imposed on Longinus. I for one would find her reading of Pascal more convincing if it took into account his concepts (e.g., ?disproportion...

Sedley, David

2008-01-01

176

Anthropogenic soil formation and agricultural history of the open fields of Valthe (Drenthe, the Netherlands) in mediaeval and early modern times  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interdisciplinary study on anthropogenic arable soils in the Dutch Province of Drenthe resulted in valuable information on reclamation history, soil formation and arable farming in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times. This paper describes a genetic typology of Drenthe plaggen soils, based on the occurrence of fossil plough layers. Five stages of open-field reclamation could be reconstructed and

Smeerdijk van D. G; T. Spek; M. J. Kooistra

177

Recombination of Influenza A Viruses of Human and Animal Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous infection of the allantoic sac of the chick embryo with influenza A\\/equine 1\\/56 and any of three recombinants derived from human influenza viruses produced stable hybrids with antigens from each parent strain. These hybrids contain the hemagglutinin protein of the equine virus and the neuraminidase of the human strains. The experiments demonstrate genetic homology of human and equine influenza

Edwin D. Kilbourne

1968-01-01

178

Activation of a human chromosomal replication origin by protein tethering  

PubMed Central

The specification of mammalian chromosomal replication origins is incompletely understood. To analyze the assembly and activation of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs), we tested the effects of tethered binding of chromatin acetyltransferases and replication proteins on chromosomal c-myc origin deletion mutants containing a GAL4-binding cassette. GAL4DBD (DNA binding domain) fusions with Orc2, Cdt1, E2F1 or HBO1 coordinated the recruitment of the Mcm7 helicase subunit, the DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein DUE-B and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase activator Cdc45 to the replicator, and restored origin activity. In contrast, replication protein binding and origin activity were not stimulated by fusion protein binding in the absence of flanking c-myc DNA. Substitution of the GAL4-binding site for the c-myc replicator DUE allowed Orc2 and Mcm7 binding, but eliminated origin activity, indicating that the DUE is essential for pre-RC activation. Additionally, tethering of DUE-B was not sufficient to recruit Cdc45 or activate pre-RCs formed in the absence of a DUE. These results show directly in a chromosomal background that chromatin acetylation, Orc2 or Cdt1 suffice to recruit all downstream replication initiation activities to a prospective origin, and that chromosomal origin activity requires singular DNA sequences. PMID:23658226

Chen, Xiaomi; Liu, Guoqi; Leffak, Michael

2013-01-01

179

www.swansea.ac.uk/artsandhumanities Arts and Humanities  

E-print Network

www.swansea.ac.uk/artsandhumanities Arts and Humanities MA in Early Modern History This MA offers Vesuvius to Snowdon: The Evolution of Travel, Curiosity and Aesthetics. · Inventing Traditions: The Modern University's early modern historians allows students to study British, European, American, or Asian History

Martin, Ralph R.

180

On the origin, use and destination of human embryos.  

PubMed

The moral acceptability or non-acceptability of the use of human embryos in research raises questions on several philosophical levels. The mixing-up of these levels results in strongly defended and endless debates. In this contribution, arguments on three levels will be discussed, the ontological, the practical and instrumental and the level of human relationships. It is concluded that, on the latter level, the moral problems of the other two are significant, but not conclusive. The decision to allow or to ban research with human embryos is charged with full human responsibility. PMID:15554882

van Leeuwen, Evert

2004-11-01

181

Aurignacian lithic economy and early modern human mobility: new perspectives from classic sites in the Vézère valley of France  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade the chronology and hominin attributions of the Aurignacian have been revised or called into question. These controversies have coincided with an increased appreciation for the social complexity of Aurignacian culture in the realms of organic technologies and mobiliary and parietal manifestations of symbolic behavior. Lithic raw material procurement and reduction intensity evidence from Aurignacian occupations at

Brooke S. Blades

1999-01-01

182

DNA Replication Origin Interference Increases the Spacing between Initiation Events in Human Cells  

PubMed Central

Mammalian DNA replication origins localize to sites that range from base pairs to tens of kilobases. A regular distribution of initiations in individual cell cycles suggests that only a limited number of these numerous potential start sites are converted into activated origins. Origin interference can silence redundant origins; however, it is currently unknown whether interference participates in spacing functional human initiation events. By using a novel hybridization strategy, genomic Morse code, on single combed DNA molecules from primary keratinocytes, we report the initiation sites present on 1.5 Mb of human chromosome 14q11.2. We confirm that initiation zones are widespread in human cells, map to intergenic regions, and contain sequence motifs found at other mammalian initiation zones. Origins used per cell cycle are less abundant than the potential sites of initiation, and their limited use increases the spacing between initiation events. Between-zone interference decreases in proportion to the distance from the active origin, whereas within-zone interference is 100% efficient. These results identify a hierarchical organization of origin activity in human cells. Functional origins govern the probability that nearby origins will fire in the context of multiple potential start sites of DNA replication, and this is mediated by origin interference. PMID:17005913

Lebofsky, Ronald; Heilig, Roland; Sonnleitner, Max; Weissenbach, Jean

2006-01-01

183

Inference of human geographic origins using Alu insertion polymorphisms  

E-print Network

the geographic origin of the Louisiana serial killer in 2003 (www.dnaprint.com). Although emerging SNP 60608, USA d Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, Lawrence Livermore National, Laboratory, PO Box to genotype using a variety of approaches. Herein, we present results of a blind study using 100 Alu insertion

Ray, David

184

Original Article The human anger face evolved to enhance cues of strength  

E-print Network

Original Article The human anger face evolved to enhance cues of strength Aaron Sell a,b, , Leda face evolved to enhance cues of strength. � 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. The human anger, piloerection, dewlap inflation). Recent research has shown that humans assess others' fighting ability

Cosmides, Leda

185

ORIGINAL PAPER A computational screen for C/D box snoRNAs in the human  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER A computational screen for C/D box snoRNAs in the human genomic region associated) and Angelman Syndrome (AS), which are genomic disorders resulting from deletions in the human chromosomal complementary to, and form stable complexes with, human ribosomal RNAs. Our screen also identifies 8 other sno

Schlick, Tamar

186

Astronomy/IB C13: Origins: From the Big Bang to the Emergence of Humans Fall 2013 Aug 29 1) The Science of Origins  

E-print Network

Astronomy/IB C13: Origins: From the Big Bang to the Emergence of Humans Fall 2013 1 Syllabus Aug 29) The Emergence of Humans Nov 12 22) How Modern Humans Colonized the Planet SECTION 11: Human Migration(s) out & Human Induced Extinctions SECTION 12: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Nov 21 25) Extreme

Wurtele, Jonathan

187

Socio-cultural factors in dental diseases in the Medieval and early Modern Age of northern Spain.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to present, discuss and compare the results of pathological conditions in teeth from skeletal remains found in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) in four Medieval cemeteries (late 15th century) and three cemeteries from the Modern Age (late 18th century). The final objective was to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic and cultural changes that took place during the early Modern Age in Spain, on oral health. Dental caries and antemortem tooth loss were considered as indicators of dental disease. A significant increase of both dental caries and antemortem tooth loss occurred in Modern Age individuals when compared to Medieval values, as reported for other regions. Increased trade with other continents may explain this deterioration of dental health, as food exchanges (mainly with America) contributed to diet changes for the overall population, including higher carbohydrate consumption (introduction of potatoes) at the expense of other vegetables. A sex-specific increase of dental disease with age, and a significantly higher prevalence of carious lesions in Modern Age females than in males, were also found. These changes can be explained by women having had limited access to dental care after the Middle-Modern Age transition, as a consequence of socio-cultural and political changes. In these changes, an increasing influence of the Catholic Church in Spanish society has to be noted, as it can contribute to the explanation of the unequal dental health of men and women. Women were socially excluded from dental care by regulations inspired by religious precepts. PMID:22265008

Lopez, Belen; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Dopico, Eduardo

2012-02-01

188

ORIGINAL ARTICLE A metabolomic view of how the human gut  

E-print Network

Subject Category: Microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions Keywords: metabolomics; humanized mice-resident microbes beyond microbial species or genes, to link microbial community structures with microbial functions messengers that mediate microbe­microbe and microbe­host interactions. Ultra performance liquid

Cai, Long

189

Origins of techniques in human and animal embryology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly innovative and imaginative techniques are being developed to investigate the development of animal and human embryos. Among the types of techniques that have been developed are ones that deal with oocyte maturation and culture, the isolation and utilization of stem cells, cryopreservation of reproductive cells and tissues, and various procedures to manipulate early embryos. To appreciate the derivation of

S. P. Leibo

2007-01-01

190

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Latitudinal patterns in human stature and sexual stature  

E-print Network

conditions (Steckel 1983; Eveleth and Tanner 1990). Differences in mean stature between men and women observed to vary between different human populations (Wolfe and Gray 1982a, Gustafs relationships between latitude and stature, building on the idea that variation in climate can influence body

Lindenfors, Patrik

191

Neandertal DNA Sequences and the Origin of Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA was extracted from the Neandertal-type specimen found in 1856 in western Germany. By sequencing clones from short overlapping PCR products, a hitherto unknown mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence was determined. Multiple controls indicate that this sequence is endogenous to the fossil. Sequence comparisons with human mtDNA sequences, as well as phylogenetic analyses, show that the Neandertal sequence falls outside the

Matthias Krings; Anne Stone; Ralf W. Schmitz; Heike Krainitzki; Mark Stoneking; Svante Pääbo

1997-01-01

192

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Altered activityrest patterns in mice with a human  

E-print Network

Studies, Molecular Neurobiology Lab, La Jolla, CA, USA and 3 Division of Biology, California Institute, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; 2 The Salk Institute for Biological). In this study, we introduced one such human missense mutation into the mouse genome to generate a knock

Contractor, Anis

193

Mitochondrial DNA and the origin of humans, Douglas WallaceSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Douglas Wallace DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>migrations>Videos Mitochondrial DNA research pioneer Douglas Wallace speaks about mitochondrial DNA and theories of human evolution.

2008-10-06

194

Mexican-Origin Interregional Migration from the Southwest: Human, Household, and Community Capital Hypotheses  

E-print Network

This research addresses the question of what factors lead Mexican-origin individuals living in the U.S. to seek a new residence outside their Southwestern state of residence. The analysis examines three hypotheses: (1) the human capital hypothesis...

Siordia, Carlos

2010-01-16

195

A review of "The Single Woman in Medieval and Early Modern England: Her Life and Representation." by Laurel Amtower and Dorothea Kehler eds.  

E-print Network

of marital status, women had a number of viable economic choices to support themselves in single life, and furthermore, that this economic versatil- ity was in fact exercised?by single and married women alike. Vanhoutte?s examination of Elizabeth?s... ?exceptional? status as a single woman suffers somewhat from an insistence on a literal interpretation of the single state of the queen, and so mistakes the complications of ?early modern society?s rigid system of categorization? (102). That Elizabeth...

Lissa Beauchamp

2005-01-01

196

Warfare, Economic Performance And The Struggle For World Hegemony In The Early Modern Period: Guns Versus Butter In Eighteenth-Century Britain And Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing the existence of budgetary trade-offs in eighteenth-century Britain and Spain can contribute to resolve the debate on the economic impact of warfare and its relationships with the military potential of nations and the struggle for world supremacy during the early modern period. We have constructed several empirical models to search for trade-offs in order to show which country had

José Jurado-Sánchez; Miguel Jerez-Méndez

2011-01-01

197

Warfare, Economic Performance And The Struggle For World Hegemony In The Early Modern Period: Guns Versus Butter In Eighteenth-Century Britain And Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing the existence of budgetary trade-offs in eighteenth-century Britain and Spain can contribute to resolve the debate on the economic impact of warfare and its relationships with the military potential of nations and the struggle for world supremacy during the early modern period. We have constructed several empirical models to search for trade-offs in order to show which country had

José Jurado-Sánchez; Miguel Jerez-Méndez

2012-01-01

198

A review of "Libertines and Radicals in Early Modern London: Sexuality, Politics, and Literary Culture, 1630-1685." by James Grantham Turner  

E-print Network

274 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS debates and issues at the turn of the seventeenth century in its pages. James Grantham Turner. Libertines and Radicals in Early Modern London: Sexuality, Politics, and Literary Culture, 1630-1685. Cam- bridge..., politics, and literary culture. To be more precise, he reads sexual literature from 1630 to 1685 for what it says about the class and gender troubles that persist throughout this particularly troubled period. As a result, Turner challenges...

Matthew J. Kinservik

2002-01-01

199

A review of "Genre and Women's Life Writing in Early Modern England" edited by Michelle M. Dowd and Julie A. Eckerle  

E-print Network

prose is clear and her insights complex without being overworked and her readings are illuminating indeed, excavating new ways to look at these texts that de- velop our understanding of the intersections between them. Murphy?s contribution here... to our historical understanding of how the family- state analogy operates uidly will certainly engender further study. Michelle M. Dowd, and Julie A. Eckerle, eds. Genre and Women?s Life Writing in Early Modern England. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate...

Beck, Jeffrey P.

2011-01-01

200

A review of "Histories of Heresy in Early Modern Europe: For, Against, and Beyond Persecution and Toleration." by John Christian Laursen, ed.  

E-print Network

, ed., Histories of Heresy in Early Modern Europe: For, Against, and Beyond Persecution and Toleration. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2002. 290 pp. Review by ALISA PLANT, TULANE UNIVERSITY. Drawing on an important but underutilized body... are any measure, the conference must have been a splendid success. Barbara Fuchs. Mimesis and Empire: The New World, Islam, and European Identities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. xiii + 211. $54.95. Review by NABIL MATAR, FLORIDA...

Alisa Plant

2003-01-01

201

Origin and Evolution of Human and Simian T-Cell Lymphotropic Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three HTLV\\/STLV (together PTLV) types have been characterized: PTLV-I found in humans and most old world simian species, PTLV-II found in humans and pygmy chimpanzees and STLV-L only found in baboons. STLV-I clades and HTLV-I clades do not cluster according to species of origin, but rather according to geographic origin of the host. Within PTLV-I, the oldest phylogenetic lineages are

Marco Salemi; Sonia Van Dooren; Anne-Mieke Vandamme

1999-01-01

202

The First Humans: A Summary Perspective on the Origin and Early Evolution of the Genus Homo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Origin, adaptation and diversity are eternal themes in human evolution. These issues are equally timeless with respect to\\u000a our own lineage. Human paleontologists continue to grapple with questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of our\\u000a own genus. How do we identify the earliest members the genus Homo? How many species of Homo were there in the Pliocene and Pleistocene,

Frederick E. Grine; John G. Fleagle

203

The origins of human sexuality: procreation or recreation?  

PubMed

Human sexuality has multiple meanings, although reproduction is considered the focus of sexual activity. In spite of this, human sexuality began to lose its exclusive reproductive meaning very early in the evolution of the genus Homo and, with a concealed ovulation and a female accessible to the male during the entire menstrual cycle, the need became that of avoiding, rather than seeking conception during intercourse. The 'contraceptive revolutions' of the 20th century (sex without reproduction, reproduction without sex, reproduction in menopause and, one day, reproduction without gametes) are having a major impact on the lives of individual couples and women. At the same time, this tumultuous progress drew the attention of religious moralists, since ethics have always focused on sexuality and its moral regulation. Catholic ethicists have been at the forefront of the battle against 'dehumanizing' the reproductive process, whereas Judaism took a much more open position. Early Christian teaching on sexuality, focused on abstinence; this is because Christ himself defined celibacy as a better life choice for human beings. Drawing on this basis, early Church fathers developed the concept, upheld until the 20th century, that intercourse is totally justifiable only in order to procreate. Today, some cautious overtures are being made and the Church has recognized that sexuality can be expression of conjugal love independent from procreation. PMID:19281665

Benagiano, Giuseppe; Mori, Maurizio

2009-01-01

204

Universal mapping probes and the origin of human chromosome 3.  

PubMed Central

Universal mapping probes (UMPs) are defined as short segments of human DNA that are useful for physical and genetic mapping in a wide variety of mammals. The most useful UMPs contain a conserved DNA sequence immediately adjoined to a highly polymorphic CA repeat. The conserved region determines physical gene location, whereas the CA repeat facilitates genetic mapping. Both the CA repeat and its neighboring sequence are highly conserved in evolution. This permits molecular, cytogenetic, and genetic mapping of UMPs throughout mammalia. UMPs are significant because they make genetic information cumulative among well-studied species and because they transfer such information from "map rich" organisms to those that are "map poor." As a demonstration of the utility of UMPs, comparative maps between human chromosome 3 (HSA3) and the rat genome have been constructed. HSA3 is defined by at least 12 syntenic clusters located on seven different rat chromosomes. These data, together with previous comparative mapping information between human, mouse, and bovine genomes, allow us to propose a distinct evolutionary pathway that connects HSA3 with the chromosomes of rodents, artiodactyls, and primates. The model predicts a parsimonious phylogenetic tree, is readily testable, and will be of considerable use for determining the pathways of mammalian evolution. Images PMID:8093645

Hino, O; Testa, J R; Buetow, K H; Taguchi, T; Zhou, J Y; Bremer, M; Bruzel, A; Yeung, R; Levan, G; Levan, K K

1993-01-01

205

The human socio-cognitive niche and its evolutionary origins  

PubMed Central

Hominin evolution took a remarkable pathway, as the foraging strategy extended to large mammalian prey already hunted by a guild of specialist carnivores. How was this possible for a moderately sized ape lacking the formidable anatomical adaptations of these competing ‘professional hunters’? The long-standing answer that this was achieved through the elaboration of a new ‘cognitive niche’ reliant on intelligence and technology is compelling, yet insufficient. Here we present evidence from a diversity of sources supporting the hypothesis that a fuller answer lies in the evolution of a new socio-cognitive niche, the principal components of which include forms of cooperation, egalitarianism, mindreading (also known as ‘theory of mind’), language and cultural transmission, that go far beyond the most comparable phenomena in other primates. This cognitive and behavioural complex allows a human hunter–gatherer band to function as a unique and highly competitive predatory organism. Each of these core components of the socio-cognitive niche is distinctive to humans, but primate research has increasingly identified related capacities that permit inferences about significant ancestral cognitive foundations to the five pillars of the human social cognitive niche listed earlier. The principal focus of the present study was to review and integrate this range of recent comparative discoveries. PMID:22734055

Whiten, Andrew; Erdal, David

2012-01-01

206

The Origins of Sex Differences in Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of sex differences in human behavior can lie mainly in evolved dispositions that differ by sex or mainly in the differing placement of women and men in the social structure. The present article contrasts these 2 origin theories of sex differences and illustrates the explanatory power of each to account for the overall differences between the mate selection

Alice H. Eagly; Wendy Wood

1999-01-01

207

The Human Pseudoautosomal Region (PAR): Origin, Function and Future  

PubMed Central

The pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) of the human X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine during meiosis. Thus genes in this region are not inherited in a strictly sex-linked fashion. PAR1 is located at the terminal region of the short arms and PAR2 at the tips of the long arms of these chromosomes. To date, 24 genes have been assigned to the PAR1 region. Half of these have a known function. In contrast, so far only 4 genes have been discovered in the PAR2 region. Deletion of the PAR1 region results in failure of pairing and male sterility. The gene SHOX (short stature homeobox-containing) resides in PAR1. SHOX haploinsufficiency contributes to certain features in Turner syndrome as well as the characteristics of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Only two of the human PAR1 genes have mouse homologues. These do not, however, reside in the mouse PAR1 region but are autosomal. The PAR regions seem to be relics of differential additions, losses, rearrangements and degradation of the X and Y chromosome in different mammalian lineages. Marsupials have three homologues of human PAR1 genes in their autosomes, although, in contrast to mouse, do not have a PAR region at all. The disappearance of PAR from other species seems likely and this region will only be rescued by the addition of genes to both X and Y, as has occurred already in lemmings. The present review summarizes the current understanding of the evolution of PAR and provides up-to-date information about individual genes residing in this region. PMID:18660847

Helena Mangs, A; Morris, Brian J

2007-01-01

208

The fossil trade: paying a price for human origins.  

PubMed

Fossils have been traded for centuries. Over the past two hundred years the market has developed into an organized enterprise, with fossils serving multiple functions as objects of scientific study, collectors' items, and investments. Finding fossils, digging them up or purchasing them, transporting, studying, and conserving them, and putting them on display was and still is expensive. Since the early nineteenth century, funding bodies, academic institutions and museums, philanthropists, dealers, collectors, amateurs, and professional paleontologists have constituted elaborate networks driven by collaboration, necessity, ambition, accolades, and capital to generate knowledge and produce geological artifacts, increasing our understanding of the natural world, advancing careers and institutions, and contributing to personal fortunes. The emergence of paleoanthropology as a scientific discipline around 1900 generated a scientific focus on the human story that was easy to sell. The scarcity of ancient human remains made it close to impossible for a commercial market to evolve, yet finding them required serious funding. Elaborate schemes for financing expeditions and excavations went hand in hand with individual aspirations, patronage, philanthropy, networks, and alliance building, as concession rights and access to sponsors were objects of regular political intrigues and often bitter disputes. PMID:22908426

Kjoergaard, Peter C

2012-06-01

209

Does the human X contain a third evolutionary block? Origin of genes on human Xp11 and Xq28  

PubMed Central

Comparative gene mapping of human X-borne genes in marsupials defined an ancient conserved region and a recently added region of the eutherian X, and the separate evolutionary origins of these regions was confirmed by their locations on chicken chromosomes 4p and 1q, respectively. However, two groups of genes, from the pericentric region of the short arm of the human X (at Xp11) and a large group of genes from human Xq28, were thought to be part of a third evolutionary block, being located in a single region in fish, but mapping to chicken chromosomes other than 4p and 1q. We tested this hypothesis by comparative mapping of genes in these regions. Our gene mapping results show that human Xp11 genes are located on the marsupial X chromosome and platypus chromosome 6, indicating that the Xp11 region was part of original therian X chromosome. We investigated the evolutionary origin of genes from human Xp11 and Xq28, finding that chicken paralogs of human Xp11 and Xq28 genes had been misidentified as orthologs, and their true orthologs are represented in the chicken EST database, but not in the current chicken genome assembly. This completely undermines the evidence supporting a separate evolutionary origin for this region of the human X chromosome, and we conclude, instead, that it was part of the ancient autosome, which became the conserved region of the therian X chromosome 166 million years ago. PMID:19439513

Delbridge, Margaret L.; Patel, Hardip R.; Waters, Paul D.; McMillan, Daniel A.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

210

Does the human X contain a third evolutionary block? Origin of genes on human Xp11 and Xq28.  

PubMed

Comparative gene mapping of human X-borne genes in marsupials defined an ancient conserved region and a recently added region of the eutherian X, and the separate evolutionary origins of these regions was confirmed by their locations on chicken chromosomes 4p and 1q, respectively. However, two groups of genes, from the pericentric region of the short arm of the human X (at Xp11) and a large group of genes from human Xq28, were thought to be part of a third evolutionary block, being located in a single region in fish, but mapping to chicken chromosomes other than 4p and 1q. We tested this hypothesis by comparative mapping of genes in these regions. Our gene mapping results show that human Xp11 genes are located on the marsupial X chromosome and platypus chromosome 6, indicating that the Xp11 region was part of original therian X chromosome. We investigated the evolutionary origin of genes from human Xp11 and Xq28, finding that chicken paralogs of human Xp11 and Xq28 genes had been misidentified as orthologs, and their true orthologs are represented in the chicken EST database, but not in the current chicken genome assembly. This completely undermines the evidence supporting a separate evolutionary origin for this region of the human X chromosome, and we conclude, instead, that it was part of the ancient autosome, which became the conserved region of the therian X chromosome 166 million years ago. PMID:19439513

Delbridge, Margaret L; Patel, Hardip R; Waters, Paul D; McMillan, Daniel A; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

2009-08-01

211

Original article P2 receptors in human heart: upregulation of P2X6  

E-print Network

Original article P2 receptors in human heart: upregulation of P2X6 in patients undergoing heart transplantation, interaction with TNFa and potential role in myocardial cell death Cristina Banfi a,b,1 , Silvia+ and Ca2+ , and eight G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Despite evidence suggesting roles in human heart

Burnstock, Geoffrey

212

ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of human disturbance on the diet composition of wild  

E-print Network

to deer of reducing disturbance near open grassland. Keywords Diet composition . Faecal sampling . HabitatORIGINAL PAPER Effects of human disturbance on the diet composition of wild red deer (Cervus online: 25 February 2011 # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Disturbance from human recreational activities

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at, or Prior to,  

E-print Network

Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare. Citation: Gruhn JR, Rubio C, Broman KW, Hunt PA, Hassold T (2013) Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex

Broman, Karl W.

214

Original Article Cognitive adaptations for gathering-related navigation in humans  

E-print Network

Original Article Cognitive adaptations for gathering-related navigation in humans Max M. Krasnowa, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Initial receipt 15 May 2010; final revision received 8 July 2010 model of a navigational gathering adaptation in humans and test its predictions in samples from the US

Cosmides, Leda

215

Pulse-originated human figurative imagery transferred into dichromate gelatin DCG reflection holograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the transfer of human figurative imagery originated with a pulsed ruby laser into dichromate gelatin (DCG) emulsion. Human figurative imagery (live subject matter) has been recorded holographically with pulse laser systems, most commonly with pulsed ruby and frequency doubled Yag lasers using silver halide emulsion due to the short end reciprocity failure of other recording materials. Since

Fred D. Unterseher; August Muth; Rebecca E. Deem

1999-01-01

216

ORIGINAL PAPER A two-dimensional probabilistic acute human-health risk  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER A two-dimensional probabilistic acute human-health risk assessment of insecticide the lowest risk group assessed in this study. Total acute exposure ranged from 0.00003 to 0.0003 mg/kg day-1. Peterson et al. (2006) performed a deterministic human-health risk assessment for acute and subchronic expo

Peterson, Robert K. D.

217

The origins of polarimetric image contrast between healthy and cancerous human colon tissue  

E-print Network

The origins of polarimetric image contrast between healthy and cancerous human colon tissue T and cancerous human colon tissue T. Novikova,1,a) A. Pierangelo,1 S. Manhas,1 A. Benali,2 P. Validire,2 B. Gayet healthy and cancerous zones of colon specimen compared to unpolarized intensity images. Cancer development

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

On the origins of suboptimality in human probabilistic inference.  

PubMed

Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors), in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal). Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the priors, and by variability in the decision process, which we represent as a noisy or stochastic posterior. PMID:24945142

Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M

2014-06-01

219

Human microRNAs originated from two periods at accelerated rates in mammalian evolution.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that modulate genes posttranscriptionally. Frequent gains and losses of miRNA genes have been reported to occur during evolution. However, little is known systematically about the periods of evolutionary origin of the present miRNA gene repertoire of an extant mammalian species. Thus, in this study, we estimated the evolutionary periods during which each of 1,433 present human miRNA genes originated within 15 periods, from human to platypus-human common ancestral branch and a class "conserved beyond theria," primarily using multiple genome alignments of 38 species, plus the pairwise genome alignments of five species. The results showed two peak periods in which the human miRNA genes originated at significantly accelerated rates. The most accelerated rate appeared in the period of the initial phase of hominoid lineage, and the second appeared shortly before Laurasiatherian divergence. Approximately 53% of the present human miRNA genes have originated within the simian lineage to human. In particular, approximately 28% originated within the hominoid lineage. The early phase of placental mammal radiation comprises approximately 28%, while no more than 15% of human miRNAs have been conserved beyond placental mammals. We also clearly showed a general trend, in which the miRNA expression level decreases as the miRNA becomes younger. Intriguingly, amid this decreasing trend of expression, we found one significant rise in the expression level that corresponded to the initial phase of the hominoid lineage, suggesting that increased functional acquisitions of miRNAs originated at this particular period. PMID:23171859

Iwama, Hisakazu; Kato, Kiyohito; Imachi, Hitomi; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

220

Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins  

PubMed Central

DNA from ancient human remains provides perspectives on the origin of our species and the relationship between molecular and morphological variation. We report analysis of mtDNA from the remains of 10 ancient Australians. These include the morphologically gracile Lake Mungo 3 [?60 thousand years (ka) before present] and three other gracile individuals from Holocene deposits at Willandra Lakes (<10 ka), all within the skeletal range of living Australians, and six Pleistocene/early Holocene individuals (15 to <8 ka) from Kow Swamp with robust morphologies outside the skeletal range of contemporary indigenous Australians. Lake Mungo 3 is the oldest (Pleistocene) “anatomically modern” human from whom DNA has been recovered. His mtDNA belonged to a lineage that only survives as a segment inserted into chromosome 11 of the nuclear genome, which is now widespread among human populations. This lineage probably diverged before the most recent common ancestor of contemporary human mitochondrial genomes. This timing of divergence implies that the deepest known mtDNA lineage from an anatomically modern human occurred in Australia; analysis restricted to living humans places the deepest branches in East Africa. The other ancient Australian individuals we examined have mtDNA sequences descended from the most recent common ancestor of living humans. Our results indicate that anatomically modern humans were present in Australia before the complete fixation of the mtDNA lineage now found in all living people. Sequences from additional ancient humans may further challenge current concepts of modern human origins. PMID:11209053

Adcock, Gregory J.; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Easteal, Simon; Huttley, Gavin A.; Jermiin, Lars S.; Peacock, W. James; Thorne, Alan

2001-01-01

221

In Vivo Liver Regeneration Potential of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Diverse Origins  

PubMed Central

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a potential source of hepatocytes for liver transplantation to treat end-stage liver disease. In vitro differentiation of human iPSCs into hepatic cells has been achieved using a multistage differentiation protocol, but whether these cells are functional and capable of engrafting and regenerating diseased liver tissue is not clear. We show that human iPSC-derived hepatic cells at various differentiation stages can engraft the liver in a mouse transplantation model. Using the same differentiation and transplantation protocols, we also assessed the ability of human iPSCs derived from each of the three developmental germ layer tissues (that is, ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) to regenerate mouse liver. These iPSC lines, with similar but distinct global DNA methylation patterns, differentiated into multistage hepatic cells with an efficiency similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Human hepatic cells at various differentiation stages derived from iPSC lines of different origins successfully repopulated the liver tissue of mice with liver cirrhosis. They also secreted human-specific liver proteins into mouse blood at concentrations comparable to that of proteins secreted by human primary hepatocytes. Our results demonstrate the engraftment and liver regenerative capabilities of human iPSC-derived multistage hepatic cells in vivo and suggest that human iPSCs of distinct origins and regardless of their parental epigenetic memory can efficiently differentiate along the hepatic lineage. PMID:21562231

Liu, Hua; Kim, Yonghak; Sharkis, Saul; Marchionni, Luigi; Jang, Yoon-Young

2012-01-01

222

Origin and evolution of a placental-specific microRNA family in the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short regulatory RNAs encoded in the genome of DNA viruses, some single cell organisms, plants and animals. With the rapid development of technology, more and more miRNAs are being discovered. However, the origin and evolution of most miRNAs remain obscure. Here we report the origin and evolution dynamics of a human miRNA family.

Zhidong Yuan; Xiao Sun; Dongke Jiang; Yan Ding; Zhiyuan Lu; Lejun Gong; Hongde Liu; Jianming Xie

2010-01-01

223

The conditional returns to origin-country human capital among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.  

PubMed

This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that regarding employment, Moroccan immigrants, that is, those originating from former French colonies receive larger returns to their origin-country education and work experience in French- vs. Dutch-speaking regions. Other than the positive interaction effect between co-ethnic residential concentration and work experience on employment, there is little evidence that co-ethnic concentration increases the returns to origin-country human capital. Speaking the host-country language facilitates economic returns to origin-country work experience. Conversely, immigrants who acquire host-country credentials and work experience receive lower returns to origin-country education and experience, suggesting that, at least among low-skilled immigrants, pre- and post-migration human capital substitute rather than complement each other. PMID:24767595

Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank

2014-07-01

224

A review of "The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton’s Lives." by Mary Jo Kietzman  

E-print Network

144 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Mary Jo Kietzman. The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton?s Lives. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004. 350 pp. + 12 illus. $79.95. Review by TIM REINKE-WILLIAMS, UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK. Mary Jo... it showed self-fashioning to be a possibility for the lower sorts. According to Kietzman, the narratives Carleton deployed in court and in print emerged from and were responses to her social circum- stances. Her self-serialisations enabled her to advance...

Tim Reinke-Williams

2005-01-01

225

Human Origins  

NSF Publications Database

Proposers are reminded to identify the program solicitation number (NSF 01-120) in the program announcement/solicitation block on the proposal Cover Sheet (NSF Form 1207). More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Web site at http://www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/getpub?gpm. Any changes in NSF's fiscal year programs occurring after press time for the Guide to Programs will be announced in the ...

226

French Contribution to the study of Human Origins: The case of Australopithecus afarensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time, French scientists have been involved in the study of human evolution and especially of human origins. Their\\u000a key works in Eastern Africa have led to the discovery of major fossil hominid sites, especially in the Afar region in Ethiopia,\\u000a where numerous remains ofAustralopithecus afarensis have been unearthed. The major contribution of the French scholars to the

B. Senut

1992-01-01

227

Original Articles Identification of B and T Cells in Human Spleen  

E-print Network

Original Articles Identification of B and T Cells in Human Spleen Sections by Infrared spleen. A secondary follicle containing a germinal center and a T zone were studied in more detail, arteries, and spleen red pulp. The assignments could be confirmed in consec- utive sections

Meyer-Hermann, Michael

228

Origins and relatedness of human leukocyte antigen class I allele supertypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles can be classified into supertypes based on the epitope specificity of their peptide binding grooves. The evolutionary origin of these supertypes has been the topic of prior research and remains an important question because of the increasing interest in HLA supertypes in the contexts of infection and cancer epidemiology and vaccine development. Here

Christopher Naugler

2010-01-01

229

The Multiscale Origins of Fracture Resistance in Human Bone and Its Biological Degradation  

E-print Network

The Multiscale Origins of Fracture Resistance in Human Bone and Its Biological Degradation E action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone's strength or intrinsic fracture resistance in healthy bone and consequently degrade its mechanical properties, leading to increased fracture risk. Aging

Ritchie, Robert

230

IS Sag1 in streptococcal strains of human and animal origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal region of Streptococcus agalactiae harboring the C5a peptidase and the lmb genes displays the structure of a composite transposon. Its presence in a streptococcal strain is associated with the origin of this strain from a human host. In S. agalactiae it is flanked by two copies of the insertion element ISSag2, and the nucleotide sequence for a third

Carmen Franken; Claudia Brandt; Gerd Bröker; Barbara Spellerberg

2004-01-01

231

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Detecting Epileptic Seizures in Long-term Human EEG  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Detecting Epileptic Seizures in Long-term Human EEG: A New Approach to Automatic Online and Real-Time Detection and Classification of Polymorphic Seizure Patterns Ralph Meier,* Heike Dittrich, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, and Ad Aertsen* Summary: Epileptic seizures can cause a variety

232

Origins of XMRV deciphered, undermining claims for a role in human disease  

Cancer.gov

Delineation of the origin of the retrovirus known as XMRV from the genomes of laboratory mice indicates that the virus is unlikely to be responsible for either prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome in humans, as has been widely published. The virus arose because of genetic recombination of two mouse viruses.

233

Livestock Origin for a Human Pandemic Clone of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The importance of livestock as a source of bacterial pathogens with the potential for epidemic spread in human populations is unclear. In recent years, there has been a global increase in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections of healthy humans, but an understanding of the different evolutionary origins of CA-MRSA clones and the basis for their recent expansion is lacking. Here, using a high-resolution phylogenetic approach, we report the discovery of two emergent clones of human epidemic CA-MRSA which resulted from independent livestock-to-human host jumps by the major bovine S. aureus complex, CC97. Of note, one of the new clones was isolated from human infections on four continents, demonstrating its global dissemination since the host jump occurred over 40 years ago. The emergence of both human S. aureus clones coincided with the independent acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance and human-specific mediators of immune evasion, consistent with an important role for these genetic events in the capacity to survive and transmit among human populations. In conclusion, we provide evidence that livestock represent a reservoir for the emergence of new human-pathogenic S. aureus clones with the capacity for pandemic spread. These findings have major public health implications highlighting the importance of surveillance for early identification of emergent clones and improved transmission control measures at the human-livestock interface. PMID:23943757

Spoor, Laura E.; McAdam, Paul R.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Kearns, Angela M.; Larsen, Anders R.; Skov, Robert L.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

2013-01-01

234

The effect of the intra-S-phase checkpoint on origins of replication in human cells.  

PubMed

Although many chemotherapy drugs activate the intra-S-phase checkpoint pathway to block S-phase progression, not much is known about how and where the intra-S-phase checkpoint regulates origins of replication in human chromosomes. A genomic analysis of replication in human cells in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU) revealed that only the earliest origins fire, but the forks stall within 2 kb and neighboring clusters of dormant origins are activated. The initiation events are located near expressed genes with a preference for transcription start and end sites, and when they are located in intergenic regions they are located near regulatory factor-binding regions (RFBR). The activation of clustered neo-origins by HU suggests that there are many potential replication initiation sites in permissive parts of the genome, most of which are not used in a normal S phase. Consistent with this redundancy, we see multiple sites bound to MCM3 (representative of the helicase) in the region flanking three out of three origins studied in detail. Bypass of the intra-S-phase checkpoint by caffeine activates many new origins in mid- and late-replicating parts of the genome. The intra-S-phase checkpoint suppresses origin firing after the loading of Mcm10, but before the recruitment of Cdc45 and AND-1/CTF4; i.e., after helicase loading but before helicase activation and polymerase loading. Interestingly, Cdc45 recruitment upon checkpoint bypass was accompanied by the restoration of global Cdk2 kinase activity and decrease in both global and origin-bound histone H3 Lys 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), consistent with the suggestion that both of these factors are important for Cdc45 recruitment. PMID:21406556

Karnani, Neerja; Dutta, Anindya

2011-03-15

235

The effect of the intra-S-phase checkpoint on origins of replication in human cells  

PubMed Central

Although many chemotherapy drugs activate the intra-S-phase checkpoint pathway to block S-phase progression, not much is known about how and where the intra-S-phase checkpoint regulates origins of replication in human chromosomes. A genomic analysis of replication in human cells in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU) revealed that only the earliest origins fire, but the forks stall within 2 kb and neighboring clusters of dormant origins are activated. The initiation events are located near expressed genes with a preference for transcription start and end sites, and when they are located in intergenic regions they are located near regulatory factor-binding regions (RFBR). The activation of clustered neo-origins by HU suggests that there are many potential replication initiation sites in permissive parts of the genome, most of which are not used in a normal S phase. Consistent with this redundancy, we see multiple sites bound to MCM3 (representative of the helicase) in the region flanking three out of three origins studied in detail. Bypass of the intra-S-phase checkpoint by caffeine activates many new origins in mid- and late-replicating parts of the genome. The intra-S-phase checkpoint suppresses origin firing after the loading of Mcm10, but before the recruitment of Cdc45 and AND-1/CTF4; i.e., after helicase loading but before helicase activation and polymerase loading. Interestingly, Cdc45 recruitment upon checkpoint bypass was accompanied by the restoration of global Cdk2 kinase activity and decrease in both global and origin-bound histone H3 Lys 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), consistent with the suggestion that both of these factors are important for Cdc45 recruitment. PMID:21406556

Karnani, Neerja; Dutta, Anindya

2011-01-01

236

The Renaissance. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.8. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Standard 7.8 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and diffusion of the Renaissance," in terms of the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts affected a new interest in humanism; the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of…

Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

237

[Africa or Asia, which is the evolutionary origin of human schistosomes?].  

PubMed

The origin and the evolution of Schistosomatidae species, due to their medical importance (responsible of the second most important human parasitosis after malaria), arouse a great interest. A combination of phylogenetic studies using several molecular markers has provided support for the traditional grouping and evolutionary inferences derived from morphological and biological data. The genus Schistosoma, which comprises all species parasitizing Man, is generally split into four evolutionary lineages (mansoni, haematobium, indicum and japonicum lineages). The group of African schistosomes (including mansoni and haematobium lineages) appears very divergent from the japonicum lineage. Recent phylogenetic studies using partial 28S rDNA sequencing and including Orientobilharzia turkestanicum from Iran, an Asian parasite of livestock, found, unexpectedly, that this species nested among Schistosoma species, thus rendering the latter paraphyletic, and suggested an Asian origin for the Schistosoma genus. The present work re-examines the question of the geographical origin of human schistosomes by analysing a new genomic marker (ITS2) as well as by including the use of O. turkestanicum originating from northeastern China. Our results are in agreement with previous work using 28S, in demonstrating that Schistosoma is not monophyletic. However, O. turkestanicum, whatever the method of analysis used (distance or parsimony), was grouped with members of the japonicum group to the exclusion of African Schistosoma species. Then, our data argue strongly for the need for further phylogenetic study including new taxa and new genomic sequences before definitely concluding either an Asian or African origin for the genus Schistosoma. PMID:11725698

Zhang, G; Verneau, O; Qiu, C; Jourdane, J; Xia, M

2001-11-01

238

The Evolutionary Origin of Human Subtelomeric Homologies--or Where the Ends Begin  

PubMed Central

The subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes are comprised of sequence homologies shared between distinct subsets of chromosomes. In the course of developing a set of unique human telomere clones, we identified many clones containing such shared homologies, characterized by the presence of cross-hybridization signals on one or more telomeres in a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. We studied the evolutionary origin of seven subtelomeric clones by performing comparative FISH analysis on a primate panel that included great apes and Old World monkeys. All clones tested showed a single hybridization site in Old World monkeys that corresponded to one of the orthologous human sites, thus indicating the ancestral origin. The timing of the duplication events varied among the subtelomeric regions, from ?5 to ?25 million years ago. To examine the origin of and mechanism for one of these subtelomeric duplications, we compared the sequence derived from human 2q13—an ancestral fusion site of two great ape telomeric regions—with its paralogous subtelomeric sequences at 9p and 22q. These paralogous regions share large continuous homologies and contain three genes: RABL2B, forkhead box D4, and COBW-like. Our results provide further evidence for subtelomeric-mediated genomic duplication and demonstrate that these segmental duplications are most likely the result of ancestral unbalanced translocations that have been fixed in the genome during recent primate evolution. PMID:11875757

Martin, Christa Lese; Wong, Andrew; Gross, Alyssa; Chung, June; Fantes, Judy A.; Ledbetter, David H.

2002-01-01

239

Human papillomavirus (HPV) origin-binding protein associates with mitotic spindles to enable viral DNA partitioning  

PubMed Central

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) establish long-term infections in patients. The mechanism for extrachromosomal HPV DNA persistence in cycling cells is unknown. We show that HPV origin-containing plasmids partition as minichromosomes, attributable to an association of the viral origin recognition protein E2 with mitotic spindles. ?-, ?-, and ?-tubulins were pulled down with a tagged E2. The N-terminal transacting and C-terminal protein dimerization/DNA binding domains independently associated with the spindles. We suggest that this E2 property enables these viruses to establish persistence. Its implication for HPV oncogenesis is presented. PMID:15020762

Van Tine, Brian A.; Dao, Luan D.; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Sonbuchner, Timothy M.; Lin, Biing Yuan; Zou, Nianxiang; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Broker, Thomas R.; Chow, Louise T.

2004-01-01

240

The contribution of dormant origins to genome stability: From cell biology to human genetics  

PubMed Central

The ability of a eukaryotic cell to precisely and accurately replicate its DNA is crucial to maintain genome stability. Here we describe our current understanding of the process by which origins are licensed for DNA replication and review recent work suggesting that fork stalling has exerted a strong selective pressure on the positioning of licensed origins. In light of this, we discuss the complex and disparate phenotypes observed in mouse models and humans patients that arise due to defects in replication licensing proteins. PMID:24767947

Alver, Robert C.; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J. Julian

2014-01-01

241

Using autonomous replication to physically and genetically define human origins of replication  

SciTech Connect

The author previously developed a system for studying autonomous replication in human cells involving the use of sequences from the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome to provide extrachromosomal plasmids with a nuclear retention function. Using this system, it was demonstrated that large fragments of human genomic DNA could be isolated which replicate autonomously in human cells. In this study the DNA sequences which function as origins of replication in human cells are defined physically and genetically. These experiments demonstrated that replication initiates at multiple locations distributed throughout the plasmid. Another line of experiments addressed the DNA sequence requirements for autonomous replication in human cells. These experiments demonstrated that human DNA fragments have a higher replication activity than bacterial fragments do. It was also found, however, that the bacterial DNA sequence could support efficient replication if enough copies of it were present on the plasmid. These findings suggested that autonomous replication in human cells does not depend on extensive, specific DNA sequences. The autonomous replication system which the author has employed for these experiments utilizes a cis-acting sequence from the EBV origin and the trans-acting EBNA-1 protein to provide plasmids with a nuclear retention function. It was therefore relevant to verify that the autonomous replication of human DNA fragments did not depend on the replication activity associated with the EBV sequences utilized for nuclear retention. To accomplish this goal, the author demonstrated that plasmids carrying the EBV sequences and large fragments of human DNA could support long-term autonomous replication in hamster cells, which are not permissive for EBV replication.

Krysan, P.J.

1993-01-01

242

Determining the human origin of fragments of burnt bone: a comparative study of histological, immunological and DNA techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situations where badly burnt fragments of bone are found, identification of their human or non-human origin may be impossible by gross morphology alone and other techniques have to be employed. In order to determine whether histological methods were redundant and should be superseded by biomolecular analyses, small fragments of artificially burnt bone (human and non-human) were examined by quantitative

C. Cattaneo; S. DiMartino; S. Scali; O. E. Craig; M. Grandi; R. J. Sokol

1999-01-01

243

The origin of representational drawing: a comparison of human children and chimpanzees.  

PubMed

To examine the evolutional origin of representational drawing, two experiments directly compared the drawing behavior of human children and chimpanzees. The first experiment observed free drawing after model presentation, using imitation task. From longitudinal observation of humans (N = 32, 11-31 months), the developmental process of drawing until the emergence of shape imitation was clarified. Adult chimpanzees showed the ability to trace a model, which was difficult for humans who had just started imitation. The second experiment, free drawing on incomplete facial stimuli, revealed the remarkable difference between two species. Humans (N = 57, 6-38 months) tend to complete the missing parts even with immature motor control, whereas chimpanzees never completed the missing parts and instead marked the existing parts or traced the outlines. Cognitive characteristics may affect the emergence of representational drawings. PMID:25376268

Saito, Aya; Hayashi, Misato; Takeshita, Hideko; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2014-11-01

244

SIV infection of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin: a suitable model for HIV infection in humans  

PubMed Central

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (RM) has been widely used as a well-established nonhuman primate (NHP) model for HIV/AIDS research. However, there have been a growing number of studies using Chinese RM to evaluate immunopathogenesis of SIV infection. In this paper, we have for the first time reviewed and discussed the major publications related to SIV or SHIV infection of Chinese RM in the past decades. We have compared the differences in the pathogenesis of SIV infection between Chinese RM and Indian RM with regard to viral infection, immunological response, and host genetic background. Given AIDS is a disease that affects humans of diverse origins, it is of importance to study animals with different geographical background. Therefore, to examine and compare results obtained from RM models of Indian and Chinese origins should lead to further validation and improvement of these animal models for HIV/AIDS research. PMID:23947613

2013-01-01

245

A shortened and deformed humerus from early modern Lithuania (16th/17th century A.D.) : an unusual case of amputation in childhood?  

PubMed Central

During archaeological excavations in the early modern cemetery in Kernavé, Lithuania, a complete skeleton of a presumed adult male individual was found (grave 108). This skeleton showed a short right humerus and missing radius, ulna and hand. Other parts of the skeleton appeared to be normal, characteristic of a robust constitution. The skeletal material was analysed by macroscopic and radiological techniques. Sex and age were determined following the suggestions of the European Association of Anthropologists (Ferembach et al. 1980), measurements were recorded according to Martin (1928) and Bräuer (1988), and the pathological alterations according to Schultz (1988). The robustness and the measurements indicate a male individual, whose age was put at 40–45 y using the combined method (cf. Ferembach et al. 1980; Szilvássy, 1988) of cranial suture closure, spongiosa structure of the proximal humerus and femur and structure of the pubic symphysis. Skeletal elements analysed included both humeri, clavicles and scapulae. PMID:9419007

TEEGEN, WOLF-RUDIGER; SCHULTZ, MICHAEL; JANKAUSKAS, RIMANTAS

1997-01-01

246

Emergence of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND On April 15 and April 17, 2009, novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified in specimens obtained from two epidemiologically unlinked patients in the United States. The same strain of the virus was identified in Mexico, Canada, and elsewhere. We describe 642 confirmed cases of human S-OIV infection identi- fied from the rapidly evolving U.S. outbreak. METHODS

Seema Jain; Lyn Finelli; Michael W. Shaw; Stephen Lindstrom; Rebecca J. Garten; Larisa V. Gubareva; Xiyan Xu; Carolyn B. Bridges; Timothy M. Uyeki

2009-01-01

247

Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate  

PubMed Central

Although there is a general consensus on African origin of early modern humans, there is disagreement about how and when they dispersed to Eurasia. This paper reviews genetic and Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic archaeological literature from northeast Africa, Arabia, and the Levant to assess the timing and geographic backgrounds of Upper Pleistocene human colonization of Eurasia. At the center of the discussion lies the question of whether eastern Africa alone was the source of Upper Pleistocene human dispersals into Eurasia or were there other loci of human expansions outside of Africa? The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: (i) from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5), (ii) from a rapid dispersal out of East Africa via the Southern Route (across the Red Sea basin), dating to ~74–60?kya. PMID:21716744

Beyin, Amanuel

2011-01-01

248

Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: the spread of modern humans in Europe.  

PubMed

The earliest credible evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe is an archaeological proxy in the form of several artifact assemblages (Bohunician) found in South-Central and possibly Eastern Europe, dating to < or =48,000 calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal BP). They are similar to assemblages probably made by modern humans in the Levant (Emiran) at an earlier date and apparently represent a population movement into the Balkans during a warm climate interval [Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI 12)]. A second population movement may be represented by a diverse set of artifact assemblages (sometimes termed Proto-Aurignacian) found in the Balkans, parts of Southwest Europe, and probably in Eastern Europe, and dating to several brief interstadials (GI 11-GI 9) that preceded the beginning of cold Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) (approximately 40,000 cal BP). They are similar to contemporaneous assemblages made by modern humans in the Levant (Ahmarian). The earliest known human skeletal remains in Europe that may be unequivocally assigned to H. sapiens (Peçstera cu Oase, Romania) date to this time period (approximately 42,000 cal BP) but are not associated with artifacts. After the Campanian Ignimbrite volcanic eruption (40,000 cal BP) and the beginning of HE4, artifact assemblages assigned to the classic Aurignacian, an industry associated with modern human skeletal remains that seems to have developed in Europe, spread throughout the continent. PMID:19571003

Hoffecker, John F

2009-09-22

249

Must probiotics be of human origin to be effective on humans ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics modulating the immune response : potential implications for treating IBD Probiotics and prophylaxis of intestinal inflammations Improvement in lactose digestion with Kefir fermented milk Using lactobacillus to prevent atopic disease The DNA of yoghurt starter as the carrier of an immunostimulating oligonucleotide Research into new probiotics that can be included in human foodstuffs is continuing actively. Most of the

Robert Ducluzeau

2003-01-01

250

A Review of "Early Modern Women and Transnational Communities of Letters" edited by Julie D. Campbell and Anne R. Larsen  

E-print Network

Jesus, is crucified, is original and convincing. As Jonathan Nauman has pointed out, Louise Imogen Guiney?a pioneering student of Vaughan?wrote that ?Whenever [Vaughan] falls to translating, it is time for the sympathetic reader to prick up his ears... demonstrate how women used their written correspondence to maintain or create familial bonds. Susan Broom- hall?s opening chapter demonstrates how the women?especially Louise, the fourth wife and widow of the William the Silent?of the Nassau family used...

Kennedy, Colleen E.

2011-01-01

251

Generation of human vascular smooth muscle subtypes provides insight into embryological origin-dependent disease susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Heterogeneity of embryological origins is a hallmark of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which may influence vascular disease development. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into developmental origin-specific SMC subtypes remains elusive. In this study, we have established a chemically defined protocol where hPSCs were initially induced to form neuroectoderm, lateral plate mesoderm or paraxial mesoderm. These intermediate populations were further differentiated towards SMCs (>80% MYH11+ and ACTA2+) which displayed contractile ability in response to vasoconstrictors and invested perivascular regions in vivo. Derived SMC subtypes recapitulated the unique proliferative and secretory responses to cytokines previously documented in studies using aortic SMCs of distinct origins. Importantly, this system predicted increased extracellular matrix degradation by SMCs derived from lateral plate mesoderm, which was confirmed using rat aortic SMCs from corresponding origins. Collectively, this work will have broad applications in modeling origin-dependent disease susceptibility and in bio-engineered vascular grafts for regenerative medicine. PMID:22252507

Cheung, Christine; Bernardo, Andreia S; Trotter, Matthew W B; Pedersen, Roger A; Sinha, Sanjay

2012-01-01

252

The origin of intermittent exhalation (A! Ha! Ha!) peculiar to human laugh.  

PubMed

Since Darwin (1872), the origin of the laugh with an intermittent exhalation "A! Ha! Ha!" which is peculiar to human, has been a great question. The author found out that this laugh is caused by the three sets of emotion. Firstly, light surprise or discovery. The ability to estimate "light" is absolutely important, because the amount of the first exhalation "A!" caused by the stimulation is decided by the amount of "surprise" felt by the subject. The ability to estimate the amount of "surprise" to be "light", makes the partial exhalation "A!". Secondly, consciousness of this harmlessness or delight, and thirdly, the following expectation of some safe circumstances. The author proved this theory by electromyography (EMG), photoplethysmography and galvanic skin reaction (GSR). The similarity between the facial EMG distribution pattern of "the beginning of laugh" and "the light surprise" was proved by electromyography about many facial muscles, with special fine electrode which did not disturb any natural facial expression of the subjects. Plethysmography and GSR proved light sympathetic tension and following relaxation when laughing. The author also suggests relationships between human laugh and human history such as the origin of clothing, language, and use of fire, which are specific in human. PMID:10938997

Sumitsuji, N

2000-01-01

253

Prevalence and characterization of class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli of poultry and human origin.  

PubMed

A prospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the gene-cassette content of class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli of poultry and human origin. A total of 235 E. coli isolates were examined; 65 were derived from farm poultry, 80 from hospitalized, and 90 from nonhospitalized patients. Susceptibilities to a range of antimicrobial agents were determined by disk diffusion. Int1-specific polymerase chain reaction, conserved-segment polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing were used to determine the presence, length, and content of integrons. The relatedness among the isolates was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI digests of genomic DNA. The integron carriage rate for poultry isolates was 49.2%, whereas the carriage rate for hospital isolates was 26.2% and for community 11.1%. Multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics) phenotypes were observed in 96.8% of the integron-positive isolates, whereas only 34.9% of nonintegron-carrying organisms were multidrug resistant (p < 0.001). Seven integron types ranging in size from 663 to 2674 bp were identified; six types were observed in poultry isolates, five in hospital, and three in community isolates. Each integron type carried a distinct gene-cassette combination. The most prevalent gene cassettes belonged to the aad and dfr families. Identical integrons were detected in E. coli of human and poultry origin. A large reservoir of integrons exists in E. coli of poultry origin. The horizontal transfer of class 1 integrons among bacteria of poultry and human origins may contribute in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:19735202

Vasilakopoulou, Alexandra; Psichogiou, Mina; Tzouvelekis, Leonidas; Tassios, Panayiotis T; Kosmidis, Chris; Petrikkos, George; Roma, Eleftheria S; Charvalos, Ekaterina; Passiotou, Maria; Avlami, Athina; Daikos, George L

2009-12-01

254

A Review of "Writing the Forest in Early Modern England: A Sylvan Pastoral Nation" by Jeffrey Theis  

E-print Network

states that definitions of the forest offer ?contrasting ideas about one?s place in nature, and how that position either facilitates or diminishes the individual?s and his or her culture?s capacity to change? (42, emphasis mine). The human... essential to the definition of its subject. As with the confounding properties of the sylvan pastoral itself, it seems that efforts to map anew a particularly tangled thicket of cultural texts can leave the reader feeling somewhat lost and occa- 166...

Sherman, Donovan

2010-01-01

255

Stable isotope analysis of humans from Xiaojingshan site: implications for understanding the origin of millet agriculture in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millet agriculture originated in Northern China in the early Neolithic period (ca. 8000 BP), however, the actual importance of millet in human diets is still not clear. To determine the relative contribution of millet in human diets in this period we undertook stable isotope analysis of humans from Xiaojingshan site and fauna from Yuezhuang site, both of which are attributed

Yaowu Hu; Shougong Wang; Fengshi Luan; Changsui Wang; Michael P. Richards

2008-01-01

256

Characterization of Temperate Phages Infecting Clostridium difficile Isolates of Human and Animal Origins  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive pathogen infecting humans and animals. Recent studies suggest that animals could represent potential reservoirs of C. difficile that could then transfer to humans. Temperate phages contribute to the evolution of most bacteria, for example, by promoting the transduction of virulence, fitness, and antibiotic resistance genes. In C. difficile, little is known about their role, mainly because suitable propagating hosts and conditions are lacking. Here we report the isolation, propagation, and preliminary characterization of nine temperate phages from animal and human C. difficile isolates. Prophages were induced by UV light from 58 C. difficile isolates of animal and human origins. Using soft agar overlays with 27 different C. difficile test strains, we isolated and further propagated nine temperate phages: two from horse isolates (?CD481-1 and ?CD481-2), three from dog isolates (?CD505, ?CD506, and ?CD508), and four from human isolates (?CD24-2, ?CD111, ?CD146, and ?CD526). Two phages are members of the Siphoviridae family (?CD111 and ?CD146), while the others are Myoviridae phages. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and restriction enzyme analyses showed that all of the phages had unique double-stranded DNA genomes of 30 to 60 kb. Phages induced from human C. difficile isolates, especially the members of the Siphoviridae family, had a broader host range than phages from animal C. difficile isolates. Nevertheless, most of the phages could infect both human and animal strains. Phage transduction of antibiotic resistance was recently reported in C. difficile. Our findings therefore call for further investigation of the potential risk of transduction between animal and human C. difficile isolates. PMID:24532062

Sekulovic, Ognjen; Garneau, Julian R.; Néron, Audrey

2014-01-01

257

Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans  

PubMed Central

Africa is inferred to be the continent of origin for all modern human populations, but the details of human prehistory and evolution in Africa remain largely obscure owing to the complex histories of hundreds of distinct populations. We present data for more than 580,000 SNPs for several hunter-gatherer populations: the Hadza and Sandawe of Tanzania, and the ?Khomani Bushmen of South Africa, including speakers of the nearly extinct N|u language. We find that African hunter-gatherer populations today remain highly differentiated, encompassing major components of variation that are not found in other African populations. Hunter-gatherer populations also tend to have the lowest levels of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium among 27 African populations. We analyzed geographic patterns of linkage disequilibrium and population differentiation, as measured by FST, in Africa. The observed patterns are consistent with an origin of modern humans in southern Africa rather than eastern Africa, as is generally assumed. Additionally, genetic variation in African hunter-gatherer populations has been significantly affected by interaction with farmers and herders over the past 5,000 y, through both severe population bottlenecks and sex-biased migration. However, African hunter-gatherer populations continue to maintain the highest levels of genetic diversity in the world. PMID:21383195

Henn, Brenna M.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Jobin, Matthew; Granka, Julie M.; Macpherson, J. M.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Rodriguez-Botigue, Laura; Ramachandran, Sohini; Hon, Lawrence; Brisbin, Abra; Lin, Alice A.; Underhill, Peter A.; Comas, David; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Feldman, Marcus W.

2011-01-01

258

Evolution of social learning does not explain the origin of human cumulative culture.  

PubMed

Because culture requires transmission of information between individuals, thinking about the origin of culture has mainly focused on the genetic evolution of abilities for social learning. Current theory considers how social learning affects the adaptiveness of a single cultural trait, yet human culture consists of the accumulation of very many traits. Here we introduce a new modeling strategy that tracks the adaptive value of many cultural traits, showing that genetic evolution favors only limited social learning owing to the accumulation of maladaptive as well as adaptive culture. We further show that culture can be adaptive, and refined social learning can evolve, if individuals can identify and discard maladaptive culture. This suggests that the evolution of such "adaptive filtering" mechanisms may have been crucial for the birth of human culture. PMID:17275852

Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano

2007-05-01

259

Uptake, accumulation, and egress of erythromycin by tissue culture cells of human origin.  

PubMed

The ability of erythromycin A base to penetrate and accumulate in tissue culture cells of human origin was investigated. The antibiotic was highly concentrated by early passage cells of normal bronchus, kidney, liver, lung, and skin and by cancer cells derived from breast, liver, and lung. Intracellular levels 4 to 12 times that of the extracellular milieu were obtained in both early-passage and transformed cells. The total quantity of erythromycin accumulated depended on the extracellular concentration of antibiotic, but the cellular/extracellular ratios were, for the most part, independent of the initial extracellular drug concentration. In all cell types tested, the accumulated antibiotic rapidly egressed when cells were incubated in antibiotic-free medium. Bioactivity assays demonstrated that the expelled drug was unmetabolized, fully active antibiotic. The concentration of erythromycin by a variety of human cell types probably accounts, in part, for the effectiveness of the antibiotic against intracellular parasites such as Legionella and Chlamydia spp. PMID:3994346

Martin, J R; Johnson, P; Miller, M F

1985-03-01

260

Long-term persistence of cytomegalovirus genome in cultured human cells of prostatic origin.  

PubMed Central

Cells from prostatic tissue obtained from a 3-year-old male donor exhibited scattered foci of cytopathology on primary culture. A virus was isolated and shown by serological analysis to be cytomegalovirus (CMV). After a number of cell culture passages, a cell line (disignated CMV-Mj-P) was obtained in which foci of infection could no longer be demonstrated, nor could virus be rescued. On continued passage the doubling time of the cells decreased markedly, and the fibroblastoid cells ceased to demonstrate contact inhibition. CMV-specific antigen(s) was detected on the surface of the cells by indirect immunofluorescence techniques after exposure of the cultures to iododeoxyuridine. Microcytotoxocity tests established that CMV-Mj-P cells, but not control human prostate cells or human embryonic lung cells, share a membrane antigen with hamster cells transformed by CMV. Nucleic acid hybridization studies revealed that virus genetic information was carried by the human prostate cells and that the cells contained an average of about 10 to 15 genome equivalents of CMV DNA. Karyotypic analysis confirmed that the CMV-Mj-P cells were of human male origin. These results indicate that the cells either have been transformed by CMV or are chronically infected with CMV and releasing virus at levels below detection. Images PMID:170426

Rapp, F; Geder, L; Murasko, D; Lausch, R; Ladda, R; Huang, E S; Webber, M M

1975-01-01

261

Determination of platinum originated from antitumoral drugs in human urine by atomic absorption spectrometric methods.  

PubMed

Cisplatin and carboplatin are the most common platinum-based drugs used in cancer treatment. Pharmacokinetic investigations, the evaluation of the body burden during the treatment, as well as baseline levels of platinum in humans have attracted great interest. Thus, accurate analytical methods for fast and easy Pt monitoring in clinical samples become necessary. In the present study atomic absorption spectrometric methods for the determination of platinum in the forms of cisplatin and carboplatin in human urine were investigated. Platinum, in these different forms, could be determined in urine, after simple sample dilution. Regarding electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, the optimum parameters were defined by a central composite design optimization. Multiplicative matrix effects were overcome by using a mixture of HCl and NaCl as modifier. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.004 mgL(-1) of platinum in the original sample. For the analysis of more concentrated samples, high resolution continuous source flame atomic absorption spectrometry was also investigated. Flame conditions were optimized by a multivariate D-optimal design, using as response the sum of the analyte addition calibration slopes and their standard deviations. Matrix matched external calibration with PtCl(2) calibration solutions, was possible, and the LOD was 0.06 mgL(-1) in the original sample. The results obtained by the proposed procedures were also in good agreement with those obtained by an independent comparative procedure. PMID:20875558

da Costa, Anilton Coelho; Vieira, Mariana Antunes; Luna, Aderval Severino; de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto

2010-10-15

262

Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins.  

PubMed

The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans' place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000-130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS's accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G; Gaieski, Jill B; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G; Owings, Amanda C; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R Spencer

2014-01-01

263

Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins  

PubMed Central

The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans’ place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700?km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000–130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50?km of their villages. GPS’s accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S.; Maria Calo, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G.; Owings, Amanda C.; Gomez, Rocio; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabricio R.; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R. Spencer; Acosta, Oscar; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Hui; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Merchant, Nirav C.; Mitchell, John R.; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Sandoval, Jose Raul; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Ziegle, Janet S.

2014-01-01

264

The Ribagorda sand gully (east-central Spain): Sediment yield and human-induced origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gullies are developed under different climatic conditions and lithologies; however, those formed on sands have been scarcely described. This paper reports the study of the Ribagorda sand gully, 2.57 ha in area (east-central Spain). The main objectives were to characterize and quantify its geomorphic dynamics and to trace its origin. We described the landforms of the gully and measured the surface strength of the sand. We monitored, for six years, the filling of the storage areas of three check dams built downstream from the gully, and related it with rainfall characteristics. We also described the nature of the sediments trapped by the dams and estimated the amount of sediment eroded since the gully formation. Finally, we consulted historical records and maps to determine past land uses and transformations that may have affected the origin of the gully. The study shows a high diversity of landforms, denoting active processes, consistent with a measured mean annual sediment yield of 114 Mg ha- 1 yr- 1. A statistically significant relationship exists between the mass of sediment (Mg) and: 1) the total rainfall (mm) (P = 0.0007) or 2) the analysed rainfall intensities. Among five identified facies in the sedimentary wedge, the sandy ones are predominant. The total amount of sediment eroded by the Ribagorda gully since its origin was 962,800 Mg. The results are unequivocal signs of an intense geomorphic activity within the gully, with an alluvial-fan type deposition in the dams. We interpret that the Ribagorda gully was initiated by deforestation after the 13th century, when forests began to be intensively logged, and before the 18th century, when the gully was first indirectly described in print. The age, origin, evolution and dynamics of this gully indicate that this landscape is currently evolving towards a new steady state, after human disturbances over centuries. Given the gully evolution and local extent, we suggest that no correction measures are needed for its management.

Martín-Moreno, C.; Fidalgo Hijano, C.; Martín Duque, J. F.; González Martín, J. A.; Zapico Alonso, I.; Laronne, J. B.

2014-11-01

265

Distribution, quantitation, and origin of immunoreactive neuropeptide Y in the human gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

A radioimmunoassay for measurement of immunoreactive neuropeptide Y has been developed using antiserum from a rabbit (221) immunized with porcine neuropeptide Y. Antibody 221 has been characterized for both sensitivity and specificity. To determine the distribution of neuropeptide Y in the human gastrointestinal tract, fresh tissue specimens were separated by microdissection into the muscularis externa and the mucosa-submucosa. To examine the origin of neuropeptide Y in human colon, specimens of aganglionic and ganglionic colon were obtained from patients with Hirschsprung's disease. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y in human gut was present in highest concentrations in the muscularis externa of the stomach and in lowest concentrations in the muscularis externa of the ileum and descending colon. Neuropeptide Y in the stomach was present in higher concentrations in the muscularis externa than in the mucosa-submucosa, but in the descending colon there were lower concentrations of neuropeptide Y in the muscularis externa than in the mucosa-submucosa. In Hirschsprung's disease, concentrations of neuropeptide Y were increased in aganglionic colon in both the muscularis externa and the mucosa-submucosa, compared to corresponding layers from proximal ganglionic colon. Extracts of the gastric muscularis externa and the colonic mucosa-submucosa were separated by C18 reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. One major immunoreactive species was identified by radioimmunoassay which eluted in a position similar to synthetic human neuropeptide Y. These results demonstrated both regional and layer differences in concentrations of neuropeptide Y in human gut. Increased concentrations of neuropeptide Y in aganglionic colon from Hirschsprung's disease most likely result from enlargement of neuropeptide Y-containing extrinsic nerve fibers in both the mucosa-submucosa and the muscularis externa. PMID:3413296

Koch, T R; Roddy, D R; Carney, J A; Telander, R L; Go, V L

1988-06-01

266

Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Accelerated Protein Evolution and Origins of Human-Specific Features  

E-print Network

-specific phenotypes may have been under altered selective pressures in human evolution and thus exhibit changesCopyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Accelerated Protein Evolution and Origins of Human-Specific Features: FOXP2 as an Example Jianzhi Zhang,1 David M. Webb and Ondrej Podlaha Department

Zhang, Jianzhi

267

Early-Modern "Speech" Marks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

Blackburn, Nick

2011-01-01

268

Elucidating the Origin of the Esterase Activity of Human Serum Albumin Using QM/MM Calculations.  

PubMed

Human serum albumin (HSA) is a critical transport plasma protein accounting for ?60% of the total protein content in blood. Remarkably, this protein is also found to display esterase activity. In this study, we apply theoretical studies to elucidate the origin of the esterase-like activity arising from the Sudlow site I. Using MD and QM/MM calculations, we investigate which active site residues are involved in the reaction, and the precise mechanistic sequence of events. Our results suggest Lys199, His242, and Arg257 help give rise to the esterase activity and that the most catalytically efficient active site configuration requires that both Lys199 and Aspirin are in their neutral forms. The abundance of HSA in the body suggests the protein might be a suitable target for the computational guided design of acetyl based pro-drugs of acidic molecules that often displayed limited oral exposure due to their unmasked ionizable substituent. PMID:25222879

Phuangsawai, Oraphan; Hannongbua, Supa; Gleeson, M Paul

2014-10-16

269

The origin and dispersion of human parasitic diseases in the old world (Africa, Europe and Madagascar).  

PubMed

The ancestors of present-day man (Homo sapiens sapiens) appeared in East Africa some three and a half million years ago (Australopithecs), and then migrated to Europe, Asia, and later to the Americas, thus beginning the differentiation process. The passage from nomadic to sedentary life took place in the Middle East in around 8000 BC. Wars, spontaneous migrations and forced migrations (slave trade) led to enormous mixtures of populations in Europe and Africa and favoured the spread of numerous parasitic diseases with specific strains according to geographic area. The three human plasmodia (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae) were imported from Africa into the Mediterranean region with the first human migrations, but it was the Neolithic revolution (sedentarisation, irrigation, population increase) which brought about actual foci for malaria. The reservoir for Leishmania infantum and L. donovani--the dog--has been domesticated for thousands of years. Wild rodents as reservoirs of L. major have also long been in contact with man and probably were imported from tropical Africa across the Sahara. L. tropica, by contrast, followed the migrations of man, its only reservoir. L. infantum and L. donovani spread with man and his dogs from West Africa. Likewise, for thousands of years, the dog has played an important role in the spread and the endemic character of hydatidosis through sheep (in Europe and North Africa) and dromadary (in the Sahara and North Africa). Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni have existed since prehistoric times in populations living in or passing through the Sahara. These populations then transported them to countries of Northern Africa where the specific, intermediary hosts were already present. Madagascar was inhabited by populations of Indonesian origin who imported lymphatic filariosis across the Indian Ocean (possibly of African origin since the Indonesian sailors had spent time on the African coast before reaching Madagascar). Migrants coming from Africa and Arabia brought with them the two African forms of bilharziosis: S. haematobium and S. mansoni. PMID:12687757

Nozais, Jean-Pierre

2003-01-01

270

Human pharmacokinetic profile of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-glycoside of herbal origin.  

PubMed

A natural form of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the active metabolite of vitamin D, was identified in glycosylated form in Solanum glaucophyllum (SG). Solbone P, an extract of SG with high and homogenous content of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3, was chemically characterized and produced under GMP conditions. Three different doses of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 were given as single oral dose to 16 healthy volunteers in a first-in-man trial. The oral pharmacokinetic properties of 1,25(OH)2D3 of SG origin were established and the subjects were monitored until day 28 for safety reasons. This included regular monitoring of vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) data, calcium, phosphate and creatinine values. Subjects were exposed to up to the equivalent of a 40-fold level of the recommended human daily dose for synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 (0.5?g/subject/day) without experiencing any untoward effects. When compared with the historically established pharmacokinetics profile of synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3, glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 of herbal origin exhibited delayed absorption characteristics. The phenomenon is species independent, as similar pharmacokinetic patterns were observed in rats and chickens. This modified release pattern may be attributed to the glycosylation of herbal 1,25(OH)2D3 because de-glycosylation by ubiquitous intestinal enzymes prior to intestinal uptake of the unmodified 1,25(OH)2D3 is the rate-limiting step. The major relevance of this finding is that the human pharmacokinetic profile of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 of herbal origin is reminiscent of a delayed release formulation of free 1,25(OH)2D3, resulting in a wider therapeutic window, a potentially longer therapeutic effectiveness, and thus, a better pharmacologic tolerance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24316430

Mathis, G A; Toggenburger, A; Pokorny, R; Autzen, S; Ibanez, R; Romeis, P; Bachmann, H

2014-10-01

271

A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism of Human Neuropeptide S Gene Originated from Europe Shows Decreased Bioactivity  

PubMed Central

Using accumulating SNP (Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism) data, we performed a genome-wide search for polypeptide hormone ligands showing changes in the mature regions to elucidate genotype/phenotype diversity among various human populations. Neuropeptide S (NPS), a brain peptide hormone highly conserved in vertebrates, has diverse physiological effects on anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, food intake, and sleeping time through its cognate receptor-NPSR. Here, we report a SNP rs4751440 (L6-NPS) causing non-synonymous substitution on the 6th position (V to L) of the NPS mature peptide region. L6-NPS has a higher allele frequency in Europeans than other populations and probably originated from European ancestors ?25,000 yrs ago based on haplotype analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Functional analyses indicate that L6-NPS exhibits a significant lower bioactivity than the wild type NPS, with ?20-fold higher EC50 values in the stimulation of NPSR. Additional evolutionary and mutagenesis studies further demonstrate the importance of the valine residue in the 6th position for NPS functions. Given the known physiological roles of NPS receptor in inflammatory bowel diseases, asthma pathogenesis, macrophage immune responses, and brain functions, our study provides the basis to elucidate NPS evolution and signaling diversity among human populations. PMID:24386135

Hsueh, Aaron J. W.

2013-01-01

272

Origin of Exhaled Breath Particles from Healthy and Human Rhinovirus-Infected Subjects  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Exhaled breath studies suggest that humans exhale fine particles during tidal breathing, but little is known of their physical origin in the respiratory system during health or disease. Methods Particles generated by 3 healthy and 16 human rhinovirus (HRV)-infected subjects were counted using an optical particle counter with nominal diameter-size bins ranging between 0.3 and 10??m. Data were collected from HRV-infected subjects during tidal breathing. In addition, data from healthy subjects were collected during coughs, swallows, tidal breathing, and breathing to total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV). Using general additive models, we graphed exhaled particle concentration versus airflow during exhalation. Exhaled particles were collected from expired air on gelatin filters and analyzed for HRV via quantitative PCR. Results HRV-infected subjects exhaled from 0.1 to 7200 particles per liter of exhaled air during tidal breathing (geometric mean?=?32 part/L). A small fraction (24%) of subjects exhaled most (81%) of the particles measured and 82% of particles detected were 0.300–0.499??m. Minute ventilation, maximum airflow during exhalation, and forced expiratory volume 1 second (FEV1 % predicted) were positively correlated with particle production. No human rhinovirus was detected in exhaled breath samples. Three healthy subjects exhaled less than 100 particles per liter of exhaled air during tidal breathing and increased particle concentrations more with exhalation to RV than with coughing, swallowing, or rapid exhalation. Conclusions Submicron particles were detected in the exhaled breath of healthy and HRV-infected subjects. Particle concentrations were correlated with airflow during the first half of exhalation, and peaked at the end of exhalation, indicating both lower and upper airways as particle sources. The effect of breathing maneuver suggested a major contribution from lower airways, probably the result of opening collapsed small airways and alveoli. PMID:21361786

Brain, Joseph; Houseman, E. Andres; Gern, James; Milton, Donald K.

2011-01-01

273

Comparison of Vero-cytotoxin-encoding phages from Escherichia coli of human and bovine origin.  

PubMed

Phages encoding production of Vero cytotoxins VT1 or VT2 were isolated from strains of Escherichia coli of human and bovine origin. Two human strains of serotype O157: H7 produced both VT1 and VT2 and each carried two separate phages encoding either VT1 or VT2. The phages were morphologically similar to each other and to a VT2 phage previously isolated from a strain of serotype O157: H-; all had regular hexagonal heads and short tails. The phages had similar genome sizes and DNA hybridization and restriction enzyme digestion showed that the DNAs were very closely related. This contrasts with another report that one of the strains tested (933) released two clearly distinguishable phages separately encoding VT1 and VT2. The O157 phages differed from a VT1 phage isolated from a bovine E. coli strain belonging to serotype O26: H11 and from the reference VT1 phage isolated previously from a human strain, H19, of serotype O26: H11. The two O26 phages were morphologically similar with elongated heads and long tails. They had similar genome sizes and DNA hybridization indicated a high level of homology between them. Hybridization of an O157 phage DNA probe to DNA of the O26 phages, and vice versa, showed there was some cross-hybridization between the two types of phage. A phage from a bovine strain of serotype O29: H34 had a regular hexagonal head and short tail resembling those of the O157 phages. The DNA was distinguishable from that of all the other phages tested in restriction digest patterns but hybridized significantly to that of an O157 phage. Hybridization of the phage genomes with VT1 and VT2 gene probes showed that sequences encoding these toxins were highly conserved in the different phages from strains belonging to the three serogroups. PMID:2699332

Rietra, P J; Willshaw, G A; Smith, H R; Field, A M; Scotland, S M; Rowe, B

1989-08-01

274

Biofilm formation by Mycobacterium avium isolates originating from humans, swine and birds  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium includes the subspecies avium, silvaticum, paratuberculosis and hominissuis, and M. avium subspecies has been isolated from various environments all over the world including from biofilms in water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to examine isolates of M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis of different origin for biofilm formation and to look for correlations between biofilm formation and RFLP-types, and to standardise the method to test for biofilm formation. In order to determine the best screening method, a panel of 14 isolates of M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis, were tested for their ability to form biofilm in microtiter plates under different conditions. Subsequently, 83 additional isolates from humans, swine and birds were tested for biofilm formation. The isolates were tested for the presence of selected genes involved in the synthesis of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) in the cell wall of M. avium, which is believed to be important for biofilm formation. Colony morphology and hsp65 sequvar were also determined. Results Nine isolates from swine produced biofilm. There was a significant higher frequency of porcine isolates forming biofilm compared to human isolates. All isolates were previously characterised by IS1311- and IS1245-RFLP typing. The ability to form biofilm did not correlate with the RFLP-type, hsp65 sequevar, colony morphology or the presence of gene sequences related to GPL synthesis. Conclusion The observed differences in biofilm forming abilities between porcine and human isolates raises questions regarding the importance of biofilm formation for infectious potential. The optimised method worked well for screening of multiple isolates. PMID:19660141

2009-01-01

275

Evidence for Sequential and Increasing Activation of Replication Origins along Replication Timing Gradients in the Human Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide replication timing studies have suggested that mammalian chromosomes consist of megabase-scale domains of coordinated origin firing separated by large originless transition regions. Here, we report a quantitative genome-wide analysis of DNA replication kinetics in several human cell types that contradicts this view. DNA combing in HeLa cells sorted into four temporal compartments of S phase shows that replication origins

Guillaume Guilbaud; Aurélien Rappailles; Antoine Baker; Chun-Long Chen; Alain Arneodo; Arach Goldar; Yves dAubenton-Carafa; Claude Thermes; Benjamin Audit; Olivier Hyrien

2011-01-01

276

Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment  

E-print Network

, Austria. The site of Willendorf II (48° 19’ 23.50” N, 15° 24’ 15.20” E), an open-air locality in the Danube Valley, preserves a long loess-paleosol sequence with abundant archaeological remains (23, 24). The site was excavated several times between 1908... of different varieties of hornstones/cherts that occur in the local Danube gravels. The majority of lithic artifacts is flakes (SI Appendix, Table S4); there are also bladelets, chips, one core tablet, and shattered pieces. In total, five lithic artifacts show...

Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2014-09-22

277

Human origins and the transition from promiscuity to pair-bonding  

PubMed Central

A crucial step in recent theories of human origins is the emergence of strong pair-bonding between males and females accompanied by a dramatic reduction in the male-to-male conflict over mating and an increased investment in offspring. How such a transition from promiscuity to pair-bonding could be achieved is puzzling. Many species would, indeed, be much better off evolutionarily if the effort spent on male competition over mating was redirected to increasing female fertility or survivorship of offspring. Males, however, are locked in a “social dilemma,” where shifting one’s effort from “appropriation” to “production” would give an advantage to free-riding competitors and therefore, should not happen. Here, I first consider simple models for four prominent scenarios of the human transition to pair-bonding: communal care, mate guarding, food for mating, and mate provisioning. I show that the transition is not feasible under biologically relevant conditions in any of these models. Then, I show that the transition can happen if one accounts for male heterogeneity, assortative pair formation, and evolution of female choice and faithfulness. This process is started when low-ranked males begin using an alternative strategy of female provisioning. At the end, except for the top-ranked individuals, males invest exclusively in provisioning females who have evolved very high fidelity to their mates. My results point to the crucial importance of female choice and emphasize the need for incorporating between-individual variation in theoretical and empirical studies of social dilemmas and behaviors. PMID:22645330

Gavrilets, Sergey

2012-01-01

278

Social Origins of Rhythm? Synchrony and Temporal Regularity in Human Vocalization  

PubMed Central

Humans have a capacity to perceive and synchronize with rhythms. This is unusual in that only a minority of other species exhibit similar behavior. Study of synchronizing species (particularly anurans and insects) suggests that simultaneous signal production by different individuals may play a critical role in the development of regular temporal signaling. Accordingly, we investigated the link between simultaneous signal production and temporal regularity in our own species. Specifically, we asked whether inter-individual synchronization of a behavior that is typically irregular in time, speech, could lead to evenly-paced or “isochronous” temporal patterns. Participants read nonsense phrases aloud with and without partners, and we found that synchronous reading resulted in greater regularity of durational intervals between words. Comparison of same-gender pairings showed that males and females were able to synchronize their temporal speech patterns with equal skill. These results demonstrate that the shared goal of synchronization can lead to the development of temporal regularity in vocalizations, suggesting that the origins of musical rhythm may lie in cooperative social interaction rather than in sexual selection. PMID:24312214

Bowling, Daniel L.; Herbst, Christian T.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

2013-01-01

279

*These Procedures were originally issued as the Columbia University Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Special Operating Procedures on December 21, 2005.  

E-print Network

by fertilization, parthenogenesis, cloning or any other means from one or more human gametes or human diploid cells____________ *These Procedures were originally issued as the Columbia University Human Embryonic HUMAN EMBRYO AND HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH SPECIAL OPERATING PROCEDURES* I. INTRODUCTION

Shepard, Kenneth

280

Human origin recognition complex binds preferentially to G-quadruplex-preferable RNA and single-stranded DNA.  

PubMed

Origin recognition complex (ORC), consisting of six subunits ORC1-6, is known to bind to replication origins and function in the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. In contrast to the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORC recognizes the replication origin in a sequence-specific manner, metazoan ORC has not exhibited strict sequence-specificity for DNA binding. Here we report that human ORC binds preferentially to G-quadruplex (G4)-preferable G-rich RNA or single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). We mapped the G-rich RNA-binding domain in the ORC1 subunit, in a region adjacent to its ATPase domain. This domain itself has an ability to preferentially recognize G4-preferable sequences of ssDNA. Furthermore, we found, by structure modeling, that the G-rich RNA-binding domain is similar to the N-terminal portion of AdoMet_MTase domain of mammalian DNA methyltransferase 1. Therefore, in contrast with the binding to double-stranded DNA, human ORC has an apparent sequence preference with respect to its RNA/ssDNA binding. Interestingly, this specificity coincides with the common signature present in most of the human replication origins. We expect that our findings provide new insights into the regulations of function and chromatin binding of metazoan ORCs. PMID:24003239

Hoshina, Shoko; Yura, Kei; Teranishi, Honami; Kiyasu, Noriko; Tominaga, Ayumi; Kadoma, Haruka; Nakatsuka, Ayaka; Kunichika, Tomoko; Obuse, Chikashi; Waga, Shou

2013-10-18

281

Human Origin Recognition Complex Binds Preferentially to G-quadruplex-preferable RNA and Single-stranded DNA*  

PubMed Central

Origin recognition complex (ORC), consisting of six subunits ORC1–6, is known to bind to replication origins and function in the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. In contrast to the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORC recognizes the replication origin in a sequence-specific manner, metazoan ORC has not exhibited strict sequence-specificity for DNA binding. Here we report that human ORC binds preferentially to G-quadruplex (G4)-preferable G-rich RNA or single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). We mapped the G-rich RNA-binding domain in the ORC1 subunit, in a region adjacent to its ATPase domain. This domain itself has an ability to preferentially recognize G4-preferable sequences of ssDNA. Furthermore, we found, by structure modeling, that the G-rich RNA-binding domain is similar to the N-terminal portion of AdoMet_MTase domain of mammalian DNA methyltransferase 1. Therefore, in contrast with the binding to double-stranded DNA, human ORC has an apparent sequence preference with respect to its RNA/ssDNA binding. Interestingly, this specificity coincides with the common signature present in most of the human replication origins. We expect that our findings provide new insights into the regulations of function and chromatin binding of metazoan ORCs. PMID:24003239

Hoshina, Shoko; Yura, Kei; Teranishi, Honami; Kiyasu, Noriko; Tominaga, Ayumi; Kadoma, Haruka; Nakatsuka, Ayaka; Kunichika, Tomoko; Obuse, Chikashi; Waga, Shou

2013-01-01

282

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1, an Indian Isolate of Human Gut Origin  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus fermentum is a normal inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an Indian isolate of the probiotic strain L. fermentum Lf1, isolated from the human gut. PMID:24233584

Sharma, Vineet K.; Mallapa, Rashmi H.; Batish, Virender K.

2013-01-01

283

Does the human X contain a third evolutionary block? Origin of genes on human Xp11 and Xq28  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative gene mapping of human X-borne genes in marsupials defined an ancient conserved region and a recently addedregionoftheeutherianX,andtheseparateevolutionaryoriginsoftheseregionswasconfirmedbytheirlocationson chicken chromosomes 4p and 1q, respectively. However, two groups of genes, from the pericentric region of the short arm of the human X (at Xp11) and a large group of genes from human Xq28, were thought to be part of a third

Margaret L. Delbridge; Hardip R. Patel; Paul D. Waters; Daniel A. McMillan; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

2009-01-01

284

Human intestinal Vdelta1+ lymphocytes recognize tumor cells of epithelial origin  

PubMed Central

gammadelta T cells can be grouped into discrete subsets based upon their expression of T cell receptor (TCR) variable (V) region families, their tissue distribution, and their specificity. Vdelta2+ T cells constitute the majority of gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood whereas Vdelta1+T cells reside preferentially in skin epithelium and in the intestine. gammadelta T cells are envisioned as first line host defense mechanisms capable of providing a source of immune effector T cells and immunomodulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 4 or interferon (IFN) gamma. We describe here the fine specificity of three distinct gammadelta+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) obtained from patients with primary or metastatic colorectal cancer, that could be readily expanded in vitro in the presence of IL-1beta and IL-7. Irrespective of donor, these individual gammadelta T cells exhibited a similar pattern of reactivity defined by recognition of autologous and allogeneic colorectal cancer cells, renal cell cancer, pancreatic cancer, and a freshly isolated explant from human intestine as measured by cytolytic T cell responses and by IFN-gamma release. In contrast, tumors of alternate histologies were not lysed, including lung cancer, squamous cell cancer, as well as the natural/lymphocyte-activated killer cell-sensitive hematopoietic cell lines T2, C1R, or Daudi. The cell line K562 was only poorly lysed when compared with colorectal cancer targets. Target cell reactivity mediated by Vdelta1+ T cells was partially blocked with Abs directed against the TCR, the beta2 or beta7 integrin chains, or fibronectin receptor. Marker analysis using flow cytometry revealed that all three gammadelta T cell lines exhibit a similar phenotype. Analysis of the gammadelta TCR junctional suggested exclusive usage of the Vdelta1/Ddelta3/Jdelta1 TCR segments with extensive (< or = 29 bp) N/P region diversity. T cell recognition of target cells did not appear to be a major histocompatibility complex restricted or to be correlated with target cell expression of heat- shock proteins. Based on the ability of some epithelial tumors, including colorectal, pancreatic, and renal cell cancers to effectively cold target inhibit the lysis of colorectal cancer cell lines by these Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cells are capable of recognizing cell surface Ag(s) shared by tumors of epithelial origin. PMID:8666926

1996-01-01

285

Relationship Between Human Physiological Parameters And Geomagnetic Variations Of Solar Origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study attempts to assess the influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure, heart rate and general well-being of 86 volunteers were measured (the latter by means of a standardized questionnaire) on work days in autumn 2001 (01/10 to 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 to 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether, 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The three factors were the following: 1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; 2) gender - males and females; 3) blood pressure degree - persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors' levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure reached 9%, which deserves attention from a medical point of view. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase. During severe geomagnetic storms 30% of the persons examined reported subjective complaints and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females. The results obtained add further evidence that blood pressure seems to be affected by geomagnetic variations of solar origin. The examinations and analyses performed show that space weather prediction may be utilized for the purpose of pharmacological and regime measures to limit the adverse physiological reactions to geomagnetic storms.

Dimitrova, S.

286

Cytology and time of origin of interstitial neurons in the white matter in infant and adult human and monkey telencephalon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The fine structure, synaptic relationships, distribution and time of origin of interstitial neurons situated within the white matter subjacent to the visual, somatosensory and motor cortices were studied in the human and monkey telencephalon. The analysis was carried out on Nissl-stained serial sections, rapid Golgi impregnations, by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry, electron microscopy and [3H]thymidine ([3H]TdR) autoradiography. Interstitial neurons have

Ivica Kostovic; Pasko Rakic

1980-01-01

287

Antiproliferative activity of the non-myelotoxic antitumour agent of plant origin, Thaliblastine, on two human glioma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The antiproliferative activity of the non-myelotoxic antitumour agent of plant origin, Thaliblastine, on two human glioma cell lines is described. Thaliblastine was added once one day following start of culture; proliferation was monitored over 7 days. The anti-proliferative activity of Thaliblastine was strongly dependent on concentration and time of incubation. The ID50 of Thaliblastine in T406 and GW27 glioma

D. K. Todorov; W. J. Zeller

1992-01-01

288

Genetic relatedness between Japanese and European isolates of Clostridium difficile originating from piglets and their risk associated with human health  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile colonization in pig intestine has been a public health concern. We analyzed C. difficile prevalence among piglets in Japan to clarify their origin and extent of the associated risk by using molecular and microbiological methods for both swine and human clinical isolates and foreign isolates. C. difficile was isolated from 120 neonatal piglet fecal samples. Toxin gene profile, antimicrobial susceptibilities, PCR ribotype, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) type of swine isolates were determined and compared with those of human clinical and foreign isolates. One-hundred C. difficile strains were isolated from 69 (57.5%) samples, and 61 isolates (61%) were toxin gene-positive. Some isolates were resistant to antimicrobials, contributing to antibiotic-associated diarrhea by C. difficile. These results suggest that C. difficile, prevalent among Japanese pigs, is a potential risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Furthermore, PCR ribotype 078 (12 isolates), which has been linked to multiple outbreaks worldwide, was the third-most frequently isolated of the 14 PCR ribotypes identified. Moreover, MLVA revealed that all 12 PCR ribotype 078 isolates were genetically related to European PCR ribotype 078 strains found in both humans and pigs. To date, in Japan, many breeding pigs have been imported from European countries. The genetic relatedness of C. difficile isolates of Japanese swine origin to those of European origin suggests that they were introduced into Japan via imported pigs. PMID:25339943

Usui, Masaru; Nanbu, Yukie; Oka, Kentaro; Takahashi, Motomichi; Inamatsu, Takashi; Asai, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Shigeru; Tamura, Yutaka

2014-01-01

289

Identification of DNA of human origin based on amplification of human-specific mitochondrial cytochrome b region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-specific differences in a non-polymorphic region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene appear to be large enough to allow human-specific amplification of forensic DNA samples. We therefore developed a PCR-based method using newly designed primers to amplify a 157-bp portion of the human mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The forward and reverse primers were designed to hybridize to regions of the

Hirokazu Matsuda; Yasuhisa Seo; Eiji Kakizaki; Shuji Kozawa; Eri Muraoka; Nobuhiro Yukawa

2005-01-01

290

ORIGINAL PAPER Quantifying the effects of climate variability and human activities  

E-print Network

of the basin, and human activities. With the worsening of the water shortage problems and the increasing number do duty for a reference for regional water resources assessment and management. 1 Introduction of water-related disasters globally, the effects of climate variability and human activities on water

291

Original Articles The force of selection on the human life cycle  

E-print Network

of selection on the human life cycle fundamentally change after demographic transitions? There is controversy histories, despite a great abundance of demographic diversity. Human life histories are highly structured the survival of children ages 0 to 4 years. The fact that the preponderance of selection falls on transitions

Jones, James Holland

292

Serial Propagation of the Microsporidian Enterocytozoon bieneusi of Human Origin in Immunocompromised Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian, is clinically one of the most significant opportunistic causes of diarrhea and wasting associated with profound human immunodeficiencies. The lack of an animal model for E. bieneusi hinders serious investigations and limits the availability of spores to individuals with severe human immunodeficiency virus\\/AIDS disease who are infected with E. bieneusi. The development of procedures for purification

Xiaochuan Feng; Donna E. Akiyoshi; Abhineet Sheoran; Inderpal Singh; Joel Hanawalt; Quanshun Zhang; Giovanni Widmer; Saul Tzipori

2006-01-01

293

Built for Speed: Pleistocene Climate Variation and the Origin of Human Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several authors have argued that the Pleistocene climatic fluctuations are responsible for the evolution of human anatomy and cognition. This hypothesis contrasts with the common idea that human language, tools, and culture represent a revolutionary breakthrough rather than a conventional adaptation to a particular ecological niche. Neither hypothesis is satisfactory. The \\

Peter J. Richerson; Robert Boyd

2000-01-01

294

TP53 Mutations in Human Cancers: Origins, Consequences, and Clinical Use  

PubMed Central

Somatic mutations in the TP53 gene are one of the most frequent alterations in human cancers, and germline mutations are the underlying cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which predisposes to a wide spectrum of early-onset cancers. Most mutations are single-base substitutions distributed throughout the coding sequence. Their diverse types and positions may inform on the nature of mutagenic mechanisms involved in cancer etiology. TP53 mutations are also potential prognostic and predictive markers, as well as targets for pharmacological intervention. All mutations found in human cancers are compiled in the IARC TP53 Database (http://www-p53.iarc.fr/). A human TP53 knockin mouse model (Hupki mouse) provides an experimental model to study mutagenesis in the context of a human TP53 sequence. Here, we summarize current knowledge on TP53 gene variations observed in human cancers and populations, and current clinical applications derived from this knowledge. PMID:20182602

Olivier, Magali; Hollstein, Monica; Hainaut, Pierre

2010-01-01

295

Origin of human chromosome 2: An ancestral telomere-telomere fusion  

SciTech Connect

The authors identified two allelic genomic cosmids from human chromosome 2, c8.1 and c29B, each containing two inverted arrays of the vertebrate telomeric repeat in a head-to-head arrangement, 5{prime}(TTAGGG){sub n}-(CCCTAA){sub m}3{prime}. Sequences flanking this telomeric repeat are characteristic of present-day human pretelomeres. BAL-31 nuclease experiments with yeast artificial chromosome clones of human telomeres and fluorescence in situ hybridization reveal that sequences flanking these inverted repeats hybridize both to band 2q13 and to different, but overlapping, subsets of human chromosome ends. They conclude that the locus cloned in cosmids c8.1 and c29B is the relic of an ancient telomere-telomere fusion and marks the point at which two ancestral ape chromosomes fused to give rise to human chromosome 2.

Ijdo, J.W.; Baldini, A.; Ward, D.C.; Reeders, S.T.; Wells, R.A. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-10-15

296

The relationship between the human state and external perturbations of atmospheric, geomagnetic and solar origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the state of human body and the external factors such as the different phenomena of solar activity, geomagnetic perturbations and local atmospheric characteristics is studied. The monitoring of blood pressure and electro-conductivity of human body in acupuncture points for a group fo 28 people over the period of 1.5 year has been performed daily from February 2001 to August 2002 in Capodimonte Observatory in Naples, Italy. The modified Voll method of electropuncture diagnostics was used. The strong correlation between the human body state and meteo conditions is found and the probable correlation with geomagnetic perturbations is discussed.

Gavryuseva, E.; Kroussanova, N.

2002-12-01

297

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Structural insights into a human anti-IFN antibody exerting  

E-print Network

in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune disorders such as SLE [7]. Since human type I interferon (IFN) are the main-organ autoimmune disease that primarily affects the skin, joints, blood cells, heart, kidneys, and the nervous

Zhijie, Liu

298

Sex chromosomes: platypus genome suggests a recent origin for the human X.  

PubMed

The unusual sex chromosomes of platypus are not homologous to the human X and Y chromosomes, implying that the sex chromosomes of placental mammals evolved after the monotreme and placental mammal lineages split about 165 million years ago. PMID:18606124

Ellegren, Hans

2008-07-01

299

A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans  

PubMed Central

Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named “Melaka virus”) isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family members developed similar symptoms ?1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus. Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house ?1 week before the onset of the father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans. PMID:17592121

Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; Yu, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2007-01-01

300

Origins of Human Malaria: Rare Genomic Changes and Full Mitochondrial Genomes Confirm the Relationship of Plasmodium falciparum to Other Mammalian Parasites but Complicate the Origins of Plasmodium vivax  

PubMed Central

Despite substantial work, the phylogeny of malaria parasites remains debated. The matter is complicated by concerns about patterns of evolution in potentially strongly selected genes as well as the extreme AT bias of some Plasmodium genomes. Particularly contentious has been the position of the most virulent human parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whether grouped with avian parasites or within a larger clade of mammalian parasites. Here, we study 3 classes of rare genomic changes, as well as the sequences of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We report 3 lines of support for a clade of mammalian parasites: 1) we find no instances of spliceosomal intron loss in a hypothetical ancestor of P. falciparum and the avian parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, suggesting against a close relationship between those species; 2) we find 4 genomic mitochondrial indels supporting a mammalian clade, but none grouping P. falciparum with avian parasites; and 3) slowly evolving mitochondrial rRNA sequences support a mammalian parasite clade with 100% posterior probability. We further report a large deletion in the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene, which suggests a subclade including both African and Asian parasites within the clade of closely related primate malarias. This contrasts with previous studies that provided strong support for separate Asian and African clades, and reduces certainty about the historical and geographic origins of Plasmodium vivax. Finally, we find a lack of synapomorphic gene losses, suggesting a low rate of ancestral gene loss in Plasmodium. PMID:18359945

Irimia, Manuel

2008-01-01

301

Novel avian-origin human influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between ferrets via respiratory droplets.  

PubMed

The outbreak of human infections caused by novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) in China since March 2013 underscores the need to better understand the pathogenicity and transmissibility of these viruses in mammals. In a ferret model, the pathogenicity of influenza A(H7N9) was found to be less than that of an influenza A(H5N1) strain but comparable to that of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), based on the clinical signs, mortality, virus dissemination, and results of histopathologic analyses. Influenza A(H7N9) could replicate in the upper and lower respiratory tract, the heart, the liver, and the olfactory bulb. It is worth noting that influenza A(H7N9) exhibited a low level of transmission between ferrets via respiratory droplets. There were 4 mutations in the virus isolated from the contact ferret: D678Y in the gene encoding PB2, R157K in the gene encoding hemagglutinin (H3 numbering), I109T in the gene encoding nucleoprotein, and T10I in the gene encoding neuraminidase. These data emphasized that avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between mammals, highlighting its potential for human-to-human transmissibility. PMID:23990570

Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Deng, Wei; Dong, Libo; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Ting; Lv, Qi; Li, Fengdi; Yuan, Jing; Xiang, Zhiguang; Gao, Kai; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Jiangning; Yao, Yanfeng; Yu, Pin; Li, Xiyan; Huang, Weijuan; Zhao, Xiang; Lan, Yu; Guo, Junfeng; Yong, Weidong; Wei, Qiang; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan

2014-02-15

302

Replicon typing of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 in Enterobacteriaceae of animal, environmental and human origin  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the plasmid replicon profiles of a collection of blaCTX-M-1-positive enterobacterial strains. The isolates originated from chicken in the production pyramid, healthy food-producing animals at slaughter (chicken, calves, and pigs), chicken retail meat, environmental isolates originating from water bodies, and isolates from humans. A selection of IncI and IncN plasmids were characterized by multilocus sequence typing in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness. Methods: Transconjugants of 74 blaCTX-M-1-positive isolates were analyzed by PCR-based replicon typing and by PCR-based plasmid multilocus sequence typing. Results: The incompatibility groups detected among the blaCTX-M-1-harboring plasmids included IncI1, IncN, IncHI1B, IncF, IncFIIS, IncFIB, and IncB/O, with plasmid lineage IncI1/ST3 predominating in isolates from chicken and from humans. Lineage IncN/ST1 was detected mainly in isolates from pigs. For the first time, blaCTX-M-1 genes encoded on IncHI1 plasmids were detected in isolates from cattle and from water bodies. Conclusions: This study identifies plasmid lineages that are contributing to the dissemination of blaCTX-M-1 genes in the food chain, the environment, and humans.

Zurfluh, Katrin; Jakobi, Gianna; Stephan, Roger; Hachler, Herbert; Nuesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena

2014-01-01

303

Uterine Vasculature Remodeling in Human Pregnancy Involves Functional Macrochimerism by Endothelial Colony Forming Cells of Fetal Origin  

PubMed Central

The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149–471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health. PMID:23554274

Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, HÉlène; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P

2013-01-01

304

Autonomic origins of a nonsignal stimulus-elicited bradycardia and its habituation in humans  

PubMed Central

The purposes of the present study were to determine the autonomic origins of a bradycardiac response to a moderate intensity nonsignal auditory stimulus and the changes in autonomic cardiac control of this response as a function of habituation. Pure tone stimuli were repeatedly presented to participants while phasic changes in heart period (HP), preejection period (PEP), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were observed. Tone stimuli initially elicited an increase in HP, an increase in RSA, and a decrease in PEP, suggesting a coactivation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic inputs mediating changes in the bradycardiac HP response. As expected, HP responses habituated with repeated presentations of the tones. PEP and RSA responses, however, demonstrated different habituation rates than HP. These data demonstrate that cardiodeceleratory responses to nonsignal stimuli can arise from changes in activity of both autonomic divisions and document the importance of considering the autonomic origins of habituating cardiac responses in order to fully understand the process of response habituation. PMID:11352143

GIANAROS, PETER J.; QUIGLEY, KAREN S.

2010-01-01

305

A review of "Literature, Mapping and the Politics of Space in Early Modern Britain." by Andrew Gordon and Bernhard Klein, eds.  

E-print Network

reduces the kingdom to national political and economic units it simultaneously stimulates erotic voyeurism over territory; that in the travels the play gradually dissolves outside landscapes into interior human- ity stripped bare; and that on Dover cliff... reduces the kingdom to national political and economic units it simultaneously stimulates erotic voyeurism over territory; that in the travels the play gradually dissolves outside landscapes into interior human- ity stripped bare; and that on Dover cliff...

Ira Clark

2002-01-01

306

Origin of the scaling law in human mobility: Hierarchy of traffic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncovering the mechanism leading to the scaling law in human trajectories is of fundamental importance in understanding many spatiotemporal phenomena. We propose a hierarchical geographical model to mimic the real traffic system, upon which a random walker will generate a power-law-like travel displacement distribution with tunable exponent, and display a scaling behavior in the probability density of having traveled a

Xiao-Pu Han; Qiang Hao; Bing-Hong Wang; Tao Zhou

2011-01-01

307

Slow Rhythmic Oscillations within the Human Cranium: Phenomenology, Origin, and Informational Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow rhythmic oscillations in the human cranial cavity were studied using two noninvasive methods: the bioimpedance method (volume ratios between liquid media in the cranial cavity) and transcranial ultrasound Doppler echography (variation in the blood flow in the middle cerebral artery). The combination of these methods made it possible to estimate the intracranial hemodynamics. Simultaneous recording of these parameters and

Yu. E. Moskalenko; V. Frymann; G. B. Weinstein; V. N. Semernya; T. I. Kravchenko; S. P. Markovets; A. A. Panov; N. F. Maiorova

2001-01-01

308

Original Research Article Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in  

E-print Network

. Biol. 00:000­000, 2013. VC 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Physical fitness, or the ability to perform)]. In humans, even elite athletes exhibit physical fitness declines (Sagiv et al., 2007) and these declines (Fitzgerald et al., 1997). Although the decline in physical fitness appears universal in industrialized

Gurven, Michael

309

Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: the meaning of neandertal skeletal morphology.  

PubMed

A procedure is outlined for distinguishing among competing hypotheses for fossil morphology and then used to evaluate current views on the meaning of Neandertal skeletal morphology. Three explanations have dominated debates about the meaning of Neandertal cranial features: climatic adaptation, anterior dental loading, and genetic drift. Neither climatic adaptation nor anterior dental loading are well supported, but genetic drift is consistent with the available evidence. Climatic adaptation and activity patterns are the most discussed explanations for Neandertal postcranial features. Robust empirical relationships between climate and body form in extant humans and other endotherms currently make climatic adaptation the most plausible explanation for the wide bodies and relatively short limbs of Neandertals, and many additional postcranial features are likely secondary consequences of these overall skeletal proportions. Activity patterns may explain certain Neandertal postcranial features, but unlike the situation for climate, relationships in extant humans between morphology and activities are typically not well established. For both the cranium and the postcranium, changes in diet or activity patterns may underlie why Neandertals and Pleistocene modern humans tend to be more robust than Holocene humans. PMID:19805258

Weaver, Timothy D

2009-09-22

310

The origin, effects and control of air pollution in laboratories used for human embryo culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing shows that most laboratories conducting human gamete and embryo culture have air quality and sources of contamination that exceed the levels measured in homes, businesses and schools. The sources of these contaminants have been shown to be either from activities outside the laboratory, or emitted from materials used in the facility, such as compressed gas, cleaning and sterilizing agents,

Jerry Hall; Antonia Gilligan; Tim Schimmel; Michael Cecchi; Jacques Cohen

311

Porcine-Origin Gentamicin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Humans, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2001-2002, high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) Enterococcus faecalis isolates were detected in 2 patients in Denmark who had infective endocarditis and in pigs and pork. Our results demonstrate that these isolates belong to the same clonal group, which suggests that pigs are a source of HLGR E. faecalis infection in humans.

Jesper Larsen; Henrik C. Schønheyder; Camilla H. Lester; Stefan S. Olsen; Lone J. Porsbo; Lourdes Garcia-Migura; Lars B. Jensen; Magne Bisgaard; Anette M. Hammerum

2010-01-01

312

ORIGINAL PAPER Long-term human impacts on genetic structure of Italian  

E-print Network

markers Paola Pollegioni & Keith Woeste & Irene Olimpieri & Danilo Marandola & Francesco Cannata & Maria of local walnut populations (inferred by SSR markers) and human migrations along ancient routes, using and Natural Resources, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center, Purdue

313

Porcine-Origin Gentamicin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Humans, Denmark  

PubMed Central

During 2001–2002, high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) Enterococcus faecalis isolates were detected in 2 patients in Denmark who had infective endocarditis and in pigs and pork. Our results demonstrate that these isolates belong to the same clonal group, which suggests that pigs are a source of HLGR E. faecalis infection in humans. PMID:20350387

Sch?nheyder, Henrik C.; Lester, Camilla H.; Olsen, Stefan S.; Porsbo, Lone J.; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Jensen, Lars B.; Bisgaard, Magne; Hammerum, Anette M.

2010-01-01

314

Porcine-origin gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in humans, Denmark.  

PubMed

During 2001-2002, high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) Enterococcus faecalis isolates were detected in 2 patients in Denmark who had infective endocarditis and in pigs and pork. Our results demonstrate that these isolates belong to the same clonal group, which suggests that pigs are a source of HLGR E. faecalis infection in humans. PMID:20350387

Larsen, Jesper; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Lester, Camilla H; Olsen, Stefan S; Porsbo, Lone J; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Jensen, Lars B; Bisgaard, Magne; Hammerum, Anette M

2010-04-01

315

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Diffusion Tensor Microscopy Indicates the Cytoarchitectural Basis for Diffusion Anisotropy in the Human Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Observing changes to water diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (FA) for particular hippocampal regions may improve the sensitivity and specificity of diffusion tensor MR imaging for hippocampal pathologies like Alzheimer disease and mesial temporal sclerosis. As a first step toward this goal, this study characterized the cytoarchitectural features underlying diffusion anisotropy in human hippocampus autopsy specimens at 60-m

T. M. Shepherd; E. Ozarslan; A. T. Yachnis; M. A. King; S. J. Blackband

316

Ethno-Therapeutic Importance of the Human Body*: 1. Medicaments of Physical and Physiological Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various external and internal components of the human body like blood, bone, tooth, nail, hair, saliva, milk, semen, tear, bile, sweat, urine, ear wax, pus and faeces are used as remedies directly or indirectly against diseases as per information, collected from lore and literatures of Indian society. Attempts are being made to bring out these facts based on ethno

Santosh Kumar Dash; Sachidananda Padhy

317

ON BANKS OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL OF HUMAN ORIGIN (BIOBANKS) IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report discusses the key-points of the debate which developed in recent years around banks of human biological material (biobanks). The great importance of biobanks for research and the serious emerging bioethical questions have began to attract the attention of the research community in our country as well. The issue is closely linked to the management of genetic data

T. Vidalis; K. Manolakou; Christina Xanthopoulou

318

Original Article SORCS1: A Novel Human Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility  

E-print Network

- tribution of variation in SORCS1 to human insulin­related traits in two distinct Mexican-American cohorts. One cohort (the Mexican-American Coronary Artery Disease [MACAD] cohort) consisted of nondiabetic cohort. Similar to our results in the mice, the genetic association was strongest in overweight women. We

Yandell, Brian S.

319

Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba  

PubMed Central

Background Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I) and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals. Results The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times. PMID:18644108

2008-01-01

320

A new Late Miocene great ape from Kenya and its implications for the origins of African great apes and humans  

PubMed Central

Extant African great apes and humans are thought to have diverged from each other in the Late Miocene. However, few hominoid fossils are known from Africa during this period. Here we describe a new genus of great ape (Nakalipithecus nakayamai gen. et sp. nov.) recently discovered from the early Late Miocene of Nakali, Kenya. The new genus resembles Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (9.6–8.7 Ma, Greece) in size and some features but retains less specialized characters, such as less inflated cusps and better-developed cingula on cheek teeth, and it was recovered from a slightly older age (9.9–9.8 Ma). Although the affinity of Ouranopithecus to the extant African apes and humans has often been inferred, the former is known only from southeastern Europe. The discovery of N. nakayamai in East Africa, therefore, provides new evidence on the origins of African great apes and humans. N. nakayamai could be close to the last common ancestor of the extant African apes and humans. In addition, the associated primate fauna from Nakali shows that hominoids and other non-cercopithecoid catarrhines retained higher diversity into the early Late Miocene in East Africa than previously recognized. PMID:18024593

Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Masayuki; Hyodo, Hironobu; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Nakaya, Hideo; Saegusa, Haruo; Mazurier, Arnaud; Saneyoshi, Mototaka; Tsujikawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ayumi; Mbua, Emma

2007-01-01

321

Origin of the Scaling Law in Human Mobility: Hierarchical Organization of Traffic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncovering the mechanism leading to the scaling law in human trajectories is\\u000aof fundamental importance in understanding many spatiotemporal phenomena. We\\u000apropose a hierarchical geographical model to mimic the real traffic system,\\u000aupon which a random walker will generate a power-law travel displacement\\u000adistribution with exponent -2. When considering the inhomogeneities of cities'\\u000alocations and attractions, this model reproduces a

Xiao-Pu Han; Qiang Hao; Bing-Hong Wang; Tao Zhou

2009-01-01

322

Evidence Supporting a Zoonotic Origin of Human Coronavirus Strain NL63  

PubMed Central

The relationship between bats and coronaviruses (CoVs) has received considerable attention since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoV was identified in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae) in 2005. Since then, several bats throughout the world have been shown to shed CoV sequences, and presumably CoVs, in the feces; however, no bat CoVs have been isolated from nature. Moreover, there are very few bat cell lines or reagents available for investigating CoV replication in bat cells or for isolating bat CoVs adapted to specific bat species. Here, we show by molecular clock analysis that alphacoronavirus (?-CoV) sequences derived from the North American tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) are predicted to share common ancestry with human CoV (HCoV)-NL63, with the most recent common ancestor between these viruses occurring approximately 563 to 822 years ago. Further, we developed immortalized bat cell lines from the lungs of this bat species to determine if these cells were capable of supporting infection with HCoVs. While SARS-CoV, mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15), and chimeric SARS-CoVs bearing the spike genes of early human strains replicated inefficiently, HCoV-NL63 replicated for multiple passages in the immortalized lung cells from this bat species. These observations support the hypothesis that human CoVs are capable of establishing zoonotic-reverse zoonotic transmission cycles that may allow some CoVs to readily circulate and exchange genetic material between strains found in bats and other mammals, including humans. PMID:22993147

Huynh, Jeremy; Li, Shimena; Yount, Boyd; Smith, Alexander; Sturges, Leslie; Olsen, John C.; Nagel, Juliet; Johnson, Joshua B.; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gates, J. Edward; Frieman, Matthew B.; Baric, Ralph S.

2012-01-01

323

Molecular Origins for the Dominant Negative Function of Human Glucocorticoid Receptor Beta  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study molecularly elucidates the basis for the dominant negative mechanism of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform hGR, whose overexpression is associated with human glucocorticoid resistance. Using a series of truncated hGR mutants and sequential mutagenesis to generate a series of hGR\\/ hybrids, we find that the absence of helix 12 is neither necessary nor sufficient for the GR dominant

Matthew R. Yudt; Christine M. Jewell; Rachelle J. Bienstock; John A. Cidlowski

2003-01-01

324

The Gran Dolina-TD6 Human Fossil Remains and the Origin of Neanderthals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a revision of the main features withphylogenetic interest observed in the human fossil remains recovered from the\\u000a Aurora Stratum of the TD6 level, Gran Dolina site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) that have been assigned to Homo antecessor. Our aim is to test the hypothesis of a possible relationship between this species and the European Middle and early Late

José María Bermúdez Castro; María Martinón-Torres; Aida Gómez-Robles; Ann Margvelashvili; Juan Luis Arsuaga; José Miguel Carretero; Ignacio Martinez; Susana Sarmiento

325

Testing the Hypothesis of a Recombinant Origin of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype E  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic in Southeast Asia has been largely due to the emergence of clade E (HIV-1E). It has been suggested that HIV-1E is derived from a recombinant lineage of subtype A (HIV-1A) and subtype E, with multiple breakpoints along the E genome. We obtained complete genome sequences of clade E viruses from Thailand (93TH057

JON P. ANDERSON; ALLEN G. RODRIGO; GERALD H. LEARN; ANUP MADAN; CLAIRE DELAHUNTY; MICHAEL COON; MARC GIRARD; SALADIN OSMANOV; LEROY HOOD; JAMES I. MULLINS

2000-01-01

326

Interindividual variability and parent of origin DNA methylation differences at specific human Alu elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the CpG methylation of 19 specific members of Alu sub-families in human DNA isolated from whole blood, using an assay based on methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease digestion of genomic DNA and 'hot-stop' polymerase chain reaction. We found significant interindividual variability in the level of methylation for specific Alu elements among the members of 48 three-generation families. Surprisingly, some of

Ionel Sandovici; Sacha Kassovska-Bratinova; J. Concepcion Loredo-Osti; Mark Leppert; Alexander Suarez; Rae Stewart; F. Dale Bautista; Michael Schiraldi; Carmen Sapienza

2005-01-01

327

Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations  

PubMed Central

Background The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the Andaman Islands, is inconsistent with this scenario. Results In this study, we collected more than 5,000 male samples from 73 East Asian populations and reconstructed the phylogeography of the D-M174 lineage. Our results suggest that D-M174 represents an extremely ancient lineage of modern humans in East Asia, and a deep divergence was observed between northern and southern populations. Conclusion We proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages. The Neolithic expansion of Han culture and the last glacial maximum are likely the key factors leading to the current relic distribution of D-M174 in East Asia. The Tibetan and Japanese populations are the admixture of two ancient populations represented by two major East Asian specific Y chromosome lineages, the O and D haplogroups. PMID:18959782

Shi, Hong; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Dong, Yong-Li; Qi, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lu-Fang; Tan, Si-Jie; Ma, Runlin Z; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Wells, R Spencer; Jin, Li; Su, Bing

2008-01-01

328

Isidore of Seville on the origins and meanings of medical terms.  

PubMed

Early in the 7th century of our era, the prelate and scholar Isidore of Seville compiled a Latin encyclopedia of classical learning that retained its popularity throughout the Middle Ages and into early modern times. This work, called Origines seu Etymologiae, treats many of its topics by tracing (often fancifully and incorrectly) the histories of their terms. From Book IV, which deals with medicine, 3 chapters containing glossaries of acute, chronic, and cutaneous diseases are here translated. PMID:18032959

Dirckx, John H

2007-12-01

329

Origins and Formation of Histone Methylation across the Human Cell Cycle  

PubMed Central

The connections between various nuclear processes and specific histone posttranslational modifications are dependent to a large extent on the acquisition of those modifications after histone synthesis. The reestablishment of histone posttranslational modifications after S phase is especially critical for H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation, both of which are linked with epigenetic memory and must be stably transmitted from one cellular generation to the next. This report uses a proteomic strategy to interrogate how and when the cell coordinates the formation of histone posttranslational modifications during division. Paramount among the findings is that H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation begins during S phase but is completed only during the subsequent G1 phase via two distinct pathways from the unmodified and preexisting dimethylated states. In short, we have systematically characterized the temporal origins and methylation pathways for histone posttranslational modifications during the cell cycle. PMID:22547680

Zee, Barry M.; Britton, Laura-Mae P.; Wolle, Daniel; Haberman, Devorah M.

2012-01-01

330

Origins and formation of histone methylation across the human cell cycle.  

PubMed

The connections between various nuclear processes and specific histone posttranslational modifications are dependent to a large extent on the acquisition of those modifications after histone synthesis. The reestablishment of histone posttranslational modifications after S phase is especially critical for H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation, both of which are linked with epigenetic memory and must be stably transmitted from one cellular generation to the next. This report uses a proteomic strategy to interrogate how and when the cell coordinates the formation of histone posttranslational modifications during division. Paramount among the findings is that H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation begins during S phase but is completed only during the subsequent G(1) phase via two distinct pathways from the unmodified and preexisting dimethylated states. In short, we have systematically characterized the temporal origins and methylation pathways for histone posttranslational modifications during the cell cycle. PMID:22547680

Zee, Barry M; Britton, Laura-Mae P; Wolle, Daniel; Haberman, Devorah M; Garcia, Benjamin A

2012-07-01

331

Unraveling the origin of exponential law in intra-urban human mobility  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of travel takes place within cities. Recently, new data has become available which allows for the discovery of urban mobility patterns which differ from established results about long distance travel. Specifically, the latest evidence increasingly points to exponential trip length distributions, contrary to the scaling laws observed on larger scales. In this paper, in order to explore the origin of the exponential law, we propose a new model which can predict individual flows in urban areas better. Based on the model, we explain the exponential law of intra-urban mobility as a result of the exponential decrease in average population density in urban areas. Indeed, both empirical and analytical results indicate that the trip length and the population density share the same exponential decaying rate. PMID:24136012

Liang, Xiao; Zhao, Jichang; Dong, Li; Xu, Ke

2013-01-01

332

The origin, function, and diagnostic potential of RNA within extracellular vesicles present in human biological fluids  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that tumor cells release membranous structures into their extracellular environment, which are termed exosomes, microvesicles or extracellular vesicles depending on specific characteristics, including size, composition and biogenesis pathway. These cell-derived vesicles can exhibit an array of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids derived from the originating tumor. This review focuses of the transcriptome (RNA) of these extracellular vesicles. Based on current data, these vesicular components play essential roles as conveyers of intercellular communication and mediators of many of the pathological conditions associated with cancer development, progression and therapeutic failures. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, signal pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer, chemoresistance, and genetic exchange. These tumor-derived extracellular vesicles not only to represent a central mediator of the tumor microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for tumor biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. PMID:23908664

Taylor, Douglas D.; Gercel-Taylor, Cicek

2013-01-01

333

Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India  

PubMed Central

Background Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed individuals. Methods In this study, serum samples (n=282) from cases of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) (n=243), and occupationally exposed individuals (n=39) were collected and tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), indirect ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA. Blood culture for isolation of Brucella was performed for 10 serologically positive patients using BACTEC 9050 automated blood culture system. Biochemical tests and PCR techniques were used for confirmation of the isolates. Results Of the samples tested, 4.25%, 3.54%, 6.02% and 4.96% samples were positive by RBPT, SAT, indirect ELISA and IgG ELISA, respectively. None of the sample was positive for IgM ELISA. Of the 10 blood samples cultured bacteriologically, one Brucella isolate was recovered. The isolate was confirmed as Brucella abortus. Amplification of the bcsp31 and IS711 genes was also observed. Conclusion Seropositivity for brucellosis was observed among PUO cases, animal handlers and dairy workers in Goa, India. The serological tests showed variable results. One Brucella isolate was obtained by performing blood culture. Confirmation of the case was done rapidly using molecular tools. General awareness about clinical symptoms should be increased which will improve proper diagnosis within short time frame. PMID:24762925

Pathak, Ajay D.; Dubal, Zunjar B.; Doijad, Swapnil; Raorane, Abhay; Rodrigues, Savio; Naik, Rajeshwar; Naik-Gaonkar, Shraddha; Kalorey, Dewanand R.; Kurkure, Nitin V.; Naik, Rajesh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B.

2014-01-01

334

The origin, effects and control of air pollution in laboratories used for human embryo culture.  

PubMed

Testing shows that most laboratories conducting human gamete and embryo culture have air quality and sources of contamination that exceed the levels measured in homes, businesses and schools. The sources of these contaminants have been shown to be either from activities outside the laboratory, or emitted from materials used in the facility, such as compressed gas, cleaning and sterilizing agents, plastic and stored materials. Both the laboratory structure and the air handling systems may affect the air composition. The significance of these findings is being validated by the accumulation of field case studies and now by assay procedures. Products given off by road sealant were shown to have accumulated in one of the examined laboratories, adjacent to a large re-surfaced parking area. Aldehydes such as acrolein, hexanal, decanal, pentanal and others were detected at elevated concentrations that were statistically significant. Since it is not appropriate to add potentially suspect chemicals to human embryos, we used a mouse-model to study the effect of acrolein. The growth of mouse embryos was significantly affected after acrolein was added at different concentrations to the culture environment. The physiological effect was noted at concentrations in the low ppm range. The testing end-point of embryo death must still be considered to be a crude basis for evaluating toxicological effects, since it involves addition of compounds to culture media and unprotected growth until the blastocyst stage. The findings may, however, support observations of decreased pregnancy rate following exposure of human embryos to aldehydes or other adverse conditions. With proper engineering and material selection, it is possible to reduce such contamination. The usefulness of this approach for controlling aldehydes has been demonstrated by decreasing levels in the laboratory to below those of the outside air. PMID:10091065

Hall, J; Gilligan, A; Schimmel, T; Cecchi, M; Cohen, J

1998-12-01

335

ON THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN TREPONEMATOSES (PINTA, YAWS, ENDEMIC SYPHILIS AND VENEREAL SYPHILIS).  

PubMed

A close relationship between the four human treponematoses is suggested by their clinical and epidemiological characteristics and by such limited knowledge of the treponemes as there is at present. No treponeme of this group (except for that of the rabbit) is known other than in man, but the human treponemes probably arose long ago from an animal infection. The long period of infectiousness of pinta suggests that it may have been the earliest human treponematosis. It may have been spread throughout the world by about 15 000 B.C., being subsequently isolated in the Americas when the Bering Strait was flooded. About 10 000 B.C. in the Afro-Asian land mass environmental conditions might have favoured treponeme mutants leading to yaws; from these, about 7000 B.C., endemic syphilis perhaps developed, to give rise to venereal syphilis about 3000 B.C. in south-west Asia as big cities developed there. Towards the end of the fifteenth century A.D. a further mutation may have resulted in a more severe venereal syphilis in Europe which, with European exploration and geographical expansion, was subsequently carried throughout the then treponemally uncommitted world. These suggestions find some tentative support in climatic changes which might have influenced the selection of those treponemes which still survive in humid or arid climates. Venereal transmission would presumably remove the treponeme from the direct influence of climate. The author makes a plea for further investigation of many aspects of this subject while this is still possible. PMID:14043755

HACKETT, C J

1963-01-01

336

Origins of chromosomal rearrangement hotspots in the human genome: evidence from the AZFadeletion hotspots  

E-print Network

26) belonging to haplogroups R1b*, R1b6 and R1b(xR1b6,R1b8). All distal sequences were 18 identical to each other, except for conversions within inter-AD, and all proximal sequences were completely identical to each other. The partial sequence... .F. and S.L. Zegura. 2002. The human Y chromosome haplogroup tree: nomenclature and phylogeny of its major divisions. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 31: 303-321. Hurles, M. 2002. Are 100,000 "SNPs" useless? Science 298: 1509. Huson, D.H. 1998. Splits...

Hurles, Matthew E; Willey, David; Matthews, Lucy; Hussain, Syed Sufyan

2004-07-14

337

The origins of polarimetric image contrast between healthy and cancerous human colon tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimentally measured spectral Mueller matrix images of ex vivo human colon tissue revealed the contrast enhancement between healthy and cancerous zones of colon specimen compared to unpolarized intensity images. Cancer development starts with abnormal changes which being not yet visible macroscopically may alter the polarization of reflected light. We have shown with experiments and modeling that light scattering by small (sub wavelength) scatterers and light absorption (mainly due to blood hemoglobin) are the key factors for observed polarimetric image contrast. These findings can pave the way for the alternative optical technique for the monitoring and early detection of cancer.

Novikova, T.; Pierangelo, A.; Manhas, S.; Benali, A.; Validire, P.; Gayet, B.; De Martino, A.

2013-06-01

338

The human cruciform-binding protein, CBP, is involved in DNA replication and associates in vivo with mammalian replication origins.  

PubMed

We previously identified and purified from human (HeLa) cells a 66-kDa cruciform-binding protein, CBP, with binding specificity for cruciform DNA regardless of its sequence. DNA cruciforms have been implicated in the regulation of initiation of DNA replication. CBP is a member of the 14-3-3 family of proteins, which are conserved regulatory molecules expressed in all eukaryotes. Here, the in vivo association of CBP/14-3-3 with mammalian origins of DNA replication was analyzed by studying its association with the monkey replication origins ors8 and ors12, as assayed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and quantitative PCR analysis. The association of the 14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta isoforms with these origins was found to be approximately 9-fold higher, compared with other portions of the genome, in logarithmically growing cells. In addition, the association of these isoforms with ors8 and ors12 was also analyzed as a function of the cell cycle. Higher binding of 14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta isoforms with ors8 and ors12 was found at the G(1)/S border, by comparison with other stages of the cell cycle. The CBP/14-3-3 cruciform binding activity was also found to be maximal at the G(1)/S boundary. The involvement of 14-3-3 in mammalian DNA replication was analyzed by studying the effect of anti-14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta antibodies in the in vitro replication of p186, a plasmid containing the minimal replication origin of ors8. Anti-14-3-3epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta antibodies alone or in combination inhibited p186 replication by approximately 50-80%, while anti-14-3-3beta antibodies had a lesser effect ( approximately 25-50%). All of the antibodies tested were also able to interfere with CBP binding to cruciform DNA. The results indicate that CBP/14-3-3 is an origin-binding protein, acting at the initiation step of DNA replication by binding to cruciform-containing molecules, and dissociates after origin firing. PMID:11805087

Novac, Olivia; Alvarez, David; Pearson, Christopher E; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

2002-03-29

339

Cytotoxic evaluation of cubic boron nitride in human origin cultured cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of cubic boron nitride (cBN), a component of surgical cutting tools. The small quantities of cBN that typically remain on implants as a result of the manufacturing process may act as abrasives, injuring tissues surrounding the implant. To determine how cBN affects cells, we treated human neuroblastoma cells (NB-1) and human articular chondrocytes (nHAC-kn) with different concentrations of cBN powder and assessed cell growth and cell survival using the methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and a fluorescence probe assay. We also assessed the effects of tungsten carbide (WC) and cobalt (Co), two common components of joint implants, on cell growth and cell survival. Both cBN and WC moderately inhibited NB-1 and nHAC-kn cell growth. However, cBN and WC did not affect cell survival, even at high concentrations (40 microg/ml). By contrast, Co affected cell survival, inducing cell death in both cell types at increasing concentrations. These results suggest that cBN may be less toxic than WC alloys containing Co. PMID:16890396

Koga, Kenjiro; Kaji, Akira; Hirosaki, Kenichi; Hata, Yukako; Ogura, Tsutomu; Fujishita, Osamu; Shintani, Kazuhiro

2006-12-01

340

Emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus of Animal Origin in Humans  

PubMed Central

In 2003 in the Netherlands, a new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain emerged that could not be typed with Sma1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NT-MRSA). The association of NT-MRSA in humans with a reservoir in animals was investigated. The frequency of NT-MRSA increased from 0% in 2002 to >21% after intensified surveillance was implemented in July 2006. Geographically, NT-MRSA clustered with pig farming. A case–control study showed that carriers of NT-MRSA were more often pig or cattle farmers (pig farmers odds ratio [OR] 12.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1–48.6; cattle farmers OR 19.7, 95% CI 2.3–169.5). Molecular typing showed that the NT-MRSA strains belonged to a new clonal complex, ST 398. This study shows that MRSA from an animal reservoir has recently entered the human population and is now responsible for >20% of all MRSA in the Netherlands. PMID:18258032

van Loo, Inge; Huijsdens, Xander; Tiemersma, Edine; de Neeling, Albert; van de Sande-Bruinsma, Nienke; Beaujean, Desiree; Voss, Andreas

2007-01-01

341

Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer.  

PubMed

Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic substitutions, which exhibited dramatic replicative strand bias, predominantly C > T and A > G on the mitochondrial heavy strand. This strand-asymmetric signature differs from those found in nuclear cancer genomes but matches the inferred germline process shaping primate mtDNA sequence content. A number of mtDNA mutations showed considerable heterogeneity across tumor types. Missense mutations were selectively neutral and often gradually drifted towards homoplasmy over time. In contrast, mutations resulting in protein truncation undergo negative selection and were almost exclusively heteroplasmic. Our findings indicate that the endogenous mutational mechanism has far greater impact than any other external mutagens in mitochondria and is fundamentally linked to mtDNA replication. PMID:25271376

Ju, Young Seok; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Gerstung, Moritz; Martincorena, Inigo; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Davies, Helen R; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Gundem, Gunes; Shlien, Adam; Bolli, Niccolo; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Nangalia, Jyoti; Massie, Charles E; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Vassiliou, George S; Green, Anthony R; Du, Ming-Qing; Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Pimanda, John E; Teh, Bin Tean; Munshi, Nikhil; Greaves, Mel; Vyas, Paresh; El-Naggar, Adel K; Santarius, Tom; Collins, V Peter; Grundy, Richard; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, D Neil; Malkin, David; Foster, Christopher S; Warren, Anne Y; Whitaker, Hayley C; Brewer, Daniel; Eeles, Rosalind; Cooper, Colin; Neal, David; Visakorpi, Tapio; Isaacs, William B; Bova, G Steven; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Futreal, P Andrew; Lynch, Andy G; Chinnery, Patrick F; McDermott, Ultan; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J

2014-01-01

342

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial squids from different geographical origins: levels and risks for human consumption.  

PubMed

The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in five commercially valuable squid species from different geographical origins (Atlantic, Indic and Pacific Oceans). Out of the 18 quantified PAHs (the 16 PAHs considered by US EPA as priority pollutants, dibenzo(a,l)pyrene and benzo(j)fluoranthene) only dibenz(a,h)anthracene was not detected. The total concentrations of PAHs varied by a factor of more than 100-fold, from 0.22 (Loligo gahi) to 60.9 ?g/kg ww (Loligo reynaudii). Intra- and inter-specific variability of PAH levels was statistically assessed. Nine carcinogenic (probable/possible) PAHs accounted for 1% (L. reynaudii) to 26% (Loligo opalescens) of the total PAHs content being the main contributors naphthalene (in Loligo duvaucelii, L. reynaudii and Loligo vulgaris species), chrysene (in L. opalescens) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (in L. gahi). PAHs source analysis indicated that four of the five zones of capture of the different squid species are significantly affected by both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources. Assessment of the target carcinogenic risks, established by the US EPA, suggested that L. gahi (Atlantic Ocean) and L. opalescens (from Pacific Ocean) may pose additional risks for consumers, if not eaten in moderation, derived from benzo(a)pyrene ingestion. PMID:23727335

Gomes, Filipa; Oliveira, Marta; Ramalhosa, Maria João; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

2013-09-01

343

The Multiscale Origins of Fracture Resistance in Human Bone and Its Biological Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone's strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation, and disease. Indeed, aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to initiation and growth of cracks.

Zimmermann, E. A.; Barth, H. D.; Ritchie, R. O.

2012-04-01

344

A cell of origin gene signature indicates human bladder cancer has distinct cellular progenitors.  

PubMed

There are two distinct forms of urothelial (bladder) cancer: muscle-invasive (MI) and nonmuscle invasive (NMI) disease. Since it is currently believed that bladder cancer arises by transformation of urothelial cells of the basal layer, bladder cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been isolated based on expression markers found in such cells. However, these CSCs have only been identified in MI tumors raising the intriguing hypothesis that NMI tumor progenitors do not arise from the basal compartment. To test this hypothesis, we carried out genome-wide expression profiling of laser capture microdissected basal and umbrella cells, the two most histologically distinct cell types in normal urothelium and developed a cell of origin (COO) gene signature that distinguishes these. The COO signature was a better predictor of stage and survival than other bladder, generic, or breast CSC signatures and bladder cell differentiation markers in multiple patient cohorts. To assess whether NMI and MI tumors arise from a distinct progenitor cell (DPC) or common progenitor cell, we developed a novel statistical framework that predicts COO score as a function of known genetic alterations (TP53, HRAS, KDM6A, and FGFR3) that drive either MI or NMI bladder cancer and compared this to the observed COO score of the tumor. Analysis of 874 patients in five cohorts established the DPC model as the best fit to the available data. This observation supports distinct progenitor cells in NMI and MI tumors and provides a paradigm shift in our understanding of bladder cancer biology that has significant diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24357085

Dancik, Garrett M; Owens, Charles R; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Theodorescu, Dan

2014-04-01

345

Origins and functional impact of copy number variation in the human genome  

PubMed Central

Structural variations of DNA greater than 1 kilobase in size account for most bases that vary among human genomes, but are still relatively under-ascertained. Here we use tiling oligonucleotide microarrays, comprising 42 million probes, to generate a comprehensive map of 11,700 copy number variations (CNVs) greater than 443 base pairs, of which most (8,599) have been validated independently. For 4,978 of these CNVs, we generated reference genotypes from 450 individuals of European, African or East Asian ancestry. The predominant mutational mechanisms differ among CNV size classes. Retrotransposition has duplicated and inserted some coding and non-coding DNA segments randomly around the genome. Furthermore, by correlation with known trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified 30 loci with CNVs that are candidates for influencing disease susceptibility. Despite this, having assessed the completeness of our map and the patterns of linkage disequilibrium between CNVs and SNPs, we conclude that, for complex traits, the heritability void left by genome-wide association studies will not be accounted for by common CNVs. PMID:19812545

Conrad, Donald F.; Pinto, Dalila; Redon, Richard; Feuk, Lars; Gokcumen, Omer; Zhang, Yujun; Aerts, Jan; Andrews, T. Daniel; Barnes, Chris; Campbell, Peter; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Hu, Min; Ihm, Chun Hwa; Kristiansson, Kati; MacArthur, Daniel G.; MacDonald, Jeffrey R.; Onyiah, Ifejinelo; Pang, Andy Wing Chun; Robson, Sam; Stirrups, Kathy; Valsesia, Armand; Walter, Klaudia; Wei, John; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Carter, Nigel P.; Lee, Charles; Scherer, Stephen W.; Hurles, Matthew E.

2012-01-01

346

Characterisation of Nuclear Architectural Alterations during In Vitro Differentiation of Human Stem Cells of Myogenic Origin  

PubMed Central

Cell differentiation is based on a synchronised orchestra of complex pathways of intrinsic and extrinsic signals that manifest in the induced expression of specific transcription factors and pivotal genes within the nucleus. One cannot ignore the epigenetic status of differentiating cells, comprising not only histones and DNA modifications but also the spatial and temporal intranuclear chromatin organisation, which is an important regulator of nuclear processes. In the present study, we investigated the nuclear architecture of human primary myoblasts and myocytes in an in vitro culture, with reference to global changes in genomic expression. Repositioning of the chromosomal centromeres, along with alterations in the nuclear shape and volume, was observed as a consequence of myotube formation. Moreover, the microarray data showed that during in vitro myogenesis cells tend to silence rather than induce gene expression. The creation of a chromosome map marked with gene expression changes that were at least 2-fold confirmed the observation. Additionally, almost all of the chromosomal centromeres in the differentiated cells preferentially localised near the nuclear periphery when compared to the undifferentiated cells. The exceptions were chromosomes 7 and 11, in which we were unable to confirm the centromere repositioning. In our opinion, this is the first reported observation of the movement of chromosomal centromeres along differentiating myogenic cells. Based on these data we can conclude that the myogenic differentiation with global gene expression changes is accompanied by the spatial repositioning of chromosomes and chromatin remodelling, which are important processes that regulate cell differentiation. PMID:24019912

Rozwadowska, Natalia; Kolanowski, Tomasz; Wiland, Ewa; Siatkowski, Marcin; Pawlak, Piotr; Malcher, Agnieszka; Mietkiewski, Tomasz; Olszewska, Marta; Kurpisz, Maciej

2013-01-01

347

Differential efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells based on source of origin.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are useful in tissue repair but also possess immunomodulatory properties. Murine and uncontrolled human trials suggest efficacy of MSCs in treating lupus. Autologous cells are preferable; however, recent studies suggest that lupus-derived MSCs lack efficacy in treating disease. Thus, the optimum derivation of MSCs for use in lupus is unknown. It is also unknown which in vitro assays of MSC function predict in vivo efficacy. The objectives for this study were to provide insight into the optimum source of MSCs and to identify in vitro assays that predict in vivo efficacy. We derived MSCs from four umbilical cords, four healthy bone marrows (BMs), and four lupus BMs. In diseased MRL/lpr mice, MSCs from healthy BM and umbilical cords significantly decreased renal disease, whereas lupus BM MSCs only delayed disease. Current in vitro assays did not differentiate efficacy of the different MSCs. However, differences in MSC efficacy were observed in B cell proliferation assays. Our results suggest that autologous MSCs from lupus patients are not effective in treating disease. Furthermore, standard in vitro assays for MSC licensing are not predictive of in vivo efficacy, whereas inhibiting B cell proliferation appears to differentiate effective MSCs from ineffective MSCs. PMID:25274529

Collins, Erin; Gu, Fei; Qi, Maosong; Molano, Ivan; Ruiz, Phillip; Sun, Lingyun; Gilkeson, Gary S

2014-11-01

348

DNA curvature in front of the human mitochondrial L-strand replication origin with specific protein binding.  

PubMed Central

DNA bending has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of gene expression, initiation of DNA-replication, site specific recombination, and DNA packaging. In the human mitochondrial DNA we have found a DNA curvature structure within the 3'-region of ther URF2 sequence in front of the L-strand origin of replication. This structure interacts specifically with a protein factor isolated from mitochondria. Based on the localization of this DNA curvature structure and the known function of such structures the data suggest a model in which this DNA signal sequence and its specific protein binding is involved in the regulatory initiation event of L-strand replication. Images PMID:2475854

Welter, C; Dooley, S; Zang, K D; Blin, N

1989-01-01

349

Nucleotide sequence analysis of isolates of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 of diverse geographical origins.  

PubMed

Nucleotide sequences for long terminal repeat (LTR), gag, the protease gene, and pol of a human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) isolate of probable Caribbean origin (HTLV-1CH) and a Zairian isolate (HTLV-1EL) were determined providing complete proviral sequences for these isolates. These sequences were compared with those available from previously analyzed isolates. Nucleotide sequence differences of 1.2-3.3% were identified among isolates for which complete genetic information was available. Nucleotide sequence diversity was distributed relatively evenly over the genome with 1.3-5.2% differences in the LTR, 1.1-2.9% differences in gag, 0.7-2.1% differences in the protease gene, 0.9-2.5% differences in pol, 0.9-2.4% differences in env, 0.0-1.4% differences in rex, and 0.1-2.6% differences in tax. There were 1.2-2.3% amino acid differences overall, with 0.8-1.6% nonconservative amino acid alterations. Nucleotide differences were not found in regions of the LTR which are important for transcriptional activity or Tax response. Within the Rex-response element, nucleotide differences were found predominantly in loop rather than stem structures, thus, maintaining the overall secondary structure necessary for Rex activity. Evolutionary tree analysis of the sequence differences suggests a predominant clustering of different HTLV1 strains according to geographical origin. An open reading frame was also identified on the minus DNA strand situated between the env and rex/tax genes which exhibits 0.1-6.9% nucleotide sequence variation among HTLV1 strains. The limited sequence variation among HTLV-1 strains is in striking contrast to the extensive heterogeneity seen among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains. PMID:1760230

Ratner, L; Philpott, T; Trowbridge, D B

1991-11-01

350

Resistance to Zinc and Cadmium in Staphylococcus aureus of Human and Animal Origin.  

PubMed

Objective.?Studies conducted in Europe have observed resistance to trace metals such as zinc chloride and copper sulfate in livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zinc and cadmium resistance in S. aureus isolated in the United States. Design.?Cross-sectional study of convenience sample of S. aureus isolates. Participants.?Three hundred forty-nine S. aureus isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) obtained from human, swine, and retail meat were included in the sample set. Methods.?Polymerase chain reaction was used to test for the presence of genes for zinc and cadmium resistance (czrC), methicillin resistance (mecA), and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn). Antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was tested using the broth microdilution method. Data were analyzed using the multivariable logistic regression method. Results.?Twenty-nine percent (102/349) of S. aureus isolates were czrC positive. MRSA isolates were more likely to be czrC positive compared to MSSA (MRSA czrC positive: 12/61, 19.6%; MSSA czrC positive: 12/183, 6.6%). After adjustment for oxacillin and clindamycin susceptibility in analysis, multidrug-resistant S. aureus was observed to have low odds of being czrC positive (P = .03). The odds of being czrC positive were observed to be significantly high in tetracycline-resistant S. aureus isolated from noninfection samples (P = .009) and swine (P < .0001). Conclusions.?Resistance to zinc and cadmium was observed to be associated with MRSA, a finding consistently observed in European studies. Prolonged exposure to zinc in livestock feeds and fertilizers could propagate resistance to the metal ion, thereby hindering use of zinc-based topical agents in treating S. aureus infections. PMID:25222896

Nair, Rajeshwari; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Su, Yutao; Smith, Tara C

2014-10-01

351

Relationship between human physiological parameters and geomagnetic variations of solar origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results presented concern influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure and heart rate of 86 volunteers were measured on working days in autumn 2001 (01/10 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. Questionnaire information about subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also gathered. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were the following: (1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; (2) gender males and females; (3) blood pressure degree persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors’ levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the group examined reached 9%. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females.

Dimitrova, S.

352

Molecular comparison of plasmids encoding heat-labile enterotoxin isolated from Escherichia coli strains of human origin.  

PubMed

The molecular properties of enterotoxin (Ent) plasmids from 12 Escherichia coli strains of human origin were examined. Ten strains belonged to the O78 serogroup, and the remainder were of serogroup O7 or O159. Eleven plasmids coded for heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), and one coded for heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) and LT. The results of restriction enzyme digests and deoxyribonucleic acid reassociation experiments showed that all of the Ent plasmids were related, and supported the subdivision of the LT plasmids into three groups based on their genetic properties (M. M. McConnell et al., J. Bacteriol. 143: 158-167, 1980). Within group 1, two plasmids from South African strains were indistinguishable but differed in EcoRI and HindIII digests from the LT plasmid that originated from an Ethiopian strain. The three plasmids had >70% homology. The two non-autotransferring group 2 plasmids identified in O78.H11 strains from Bangladesh were indistinguishable. The group 3 plasmids were from strains belonging to serogroups O7 and O78 isolated in Bangladesh, India, and Thailand. They shared >95% homology but showed slight differences in fragment patterns when treated with EcoRI and HindIII. There was 60 to 70% homology between the plasmids of groups 1 and 3, and the group 2 plasmid had 40 to 50% homology with members of these two groups. The autotransferring Ent plasmids had up to 40% homology with R factors of incompatibility groups FI, FII, and FIV. PMID:6249787

Willshaw, G A; Barclay, E A; Smith, H R; McConnell, M M; Rowe, B

1980-07-01

353

Human Papillomavirus and Cystic Node Metastasis in Oropharyngeal Cancer and Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin  

PubMed Central

The clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in neck node metastasis from cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is not well established. We aimed to address the relationship of HPV status between node metastasis and the primary tumor, and also the relevance of HPV status regarding radiographically detected cystic node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and CUP. HPV DNA was examined in 68 matched pairs of node metastasis and primary tumor, and in node metastasis from 27 CUPs. In surgically treated CUPs, p16 was examined immunohistochemically. When tonsillectomy proved occult tonsillar cancer in CUP, HPV DNA and p16 were also examined in the occult primary. Cystic node metastasis on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans was correlated with the primary site and HPV status in another series of 255 HNSCCs and CUPs with known HPV status. Node metastasis was HPV-positive in 19/37 (51%) oropharyngeal SCCs (OPSCCs) and 10/27 (37%) CUPs, but not in non-OPSCCs. Fluid was collected from cystic node metastasis using fine needle aspiration in two OPSCCs and one CUP, and all fluid collections were HPV-positive. HPV status, including the presence of HPV DNA, genotype, and physical status, as well as the expression pattern of p16 were consistent between node metastasis and primary or occult primary tumor. Occult tonsillar cancer was found more frequently in p16-positive CUP than in p16-negative CUP (odds ratio (OR), 39.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4–377.8; P?=?0.02). Radiographically, cystic node metastasis was specific to OPSCC and CUP, and was associated with HPV positivity relative to necrotic or solid node metastasis (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.2–45.7; P?=?0.03). In conclusion, HPV status remains unchanged after metastasis. The occult primary of HPV-positive CUP is most probably localized in the oropharynx. HPV status determined from fine needle aspirates facilitates the diagnosis of cystic node metastasis. PMID:24752007

Yasui, Toshimichi; Morii, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshii, Tadashi; Takenaka, Yukinori; Nakahara, Susumu; Todo, Takeshi; Inohara, Hidenori

2014-01-01

354

Novel isolation strategy to deliver pure fetal-origin and maternal-origin mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations from human term placenta.  

PubMed

The placenta is an abundant source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Although presumed of translationally-advantageous fetal origin, the literature instead suggests a high incidence of either contaminating or pure maternal MSC. Despite definitional criteria that MSC are CD34-, increasing evidence suggests that fetal MSC may be CD34 positive in vivo. We flow sorted term placental digests based on CD34+ expression and exploited differential culture media to isolate separately pure fetal and maternal MSC populations. This method has considerable translational implications, in particular to clinical trials underway with "placental" MSC of uncertain or decidual origin. PMID:25239220

Patel, J; Shafiee, A; Wang, W; Fisk, N M; Khosrotehrani, K

2014-11-01

355

Chromosomes and expression in human testicular germ-cell tumors: insight into their cell of origin and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Human germ-cell tumors (GCTs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Based on epidemiology, anatomical site of presentation, histology, chromosomal constitution, and pattern of genomic imprinting, GCTs are classified into five entities. Within the testis, three types of GCTs can be diagnosed: type I (teratomas and yolk-sac tumors of neonates and infants); type II (seminomas and nonseminomas); type III (spermatocytic seminomas). Here the focus is on the type II GCTs, the most frequent type in the adult testis (so-called TGCTs). They can also be diagnosed in dysgenetic gonads (an incomplete or defective formation of the gonad, caused by a disturbed process of migration of the germ cells and/or their correct organization in their fetal gonadal ridge), the anterior mediastinum, and pineal/suprasellar region. In the testis, they originate from the malignant counterpart of primordial germ cells/gonocytes, referred to as carcinoma in situ (CIS)/intratubular germ-cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGCNU). CIS/ITGCNU and seminomatous cells are characterized by expression of OCT3/4 and NANOG, while in addition embryonal carcinoma expresses SOX2, all identified as transcription factors related to pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells. With the exception of teratomas, most histological elements of TGCTs are sensitive for (cisplatin-based) chemotherapy; CIS/ITGCNU and seminoma cells are also sensitive to DNA damage induced by irradiation. Similar observations have been made for ES cells and their derivates. Moreover, the genetic constitution of TGCTs (low incidence of mutations and frequent uniparental disomies) can also be linked to characteristics of ES cells, likely related to their specific inability to repair DNA damage and their high sensitivity to apoptotic cell death. The unusual presence of wild-type P53 in TGCTs is explained by specific expression of a cluster of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), that is, hsa-miR 371-373, also expressed in ES cells, which prevents P53-driven cellular senescence upon oncogenic stress. Many characteristics of human TGCTs reflect the nonmalignant counterparts from which they originate. Demonstration of these characteristics, in combination with the knowledge of the abnormal niche of these cells, normally occupied by spermatogonia, allows an informative method for (early) diagnosis. The conclusion is that TGCTs are embryonic cancers found in adults. PMID:17911410

Looijenga, Leendert H J; Gillis, Ad J M; Stoop, Hans J; Hersmus, Remko; Oosterhuis, J Wolter

2007-12-01

356

Adhesion of Human and Animal Escherichia coli Strains in Association with Their Virulence-Associated Genes and Phylogenetic Origins  

PubMed Central

Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H.

2013-01-01

357

The origin, evolution, and functional impact of short insertion–deletion variants identified in 179 human genomes  

PubMed Central

Short insertions and deletions (indels) are the second most abundant form of human genetic variation, but our understanding of their origins and functional effects lags behind that of other types of variants. Using population-scale sequencing, we have identified a high-quality set of 1.6 million indels from 179 individuals representing three diverse human populations. We show that rates of indel mutagenesis are highly heterogeneous, with 43%–48% of indels occurring in 4.03% of the genome, whereas in the remaining 96% their prevalence is 16 times lower than SNPs. Polymerase slippage can explain upwards of three-fourths of all indels, with the remainder being mostly simple deletions in complex sequence. However, insertions do occur and are significantly associated with pseudo-palindromic sequence features compatible with the fork stalling and template switching (FoSTeS) mechanism more commonly associated with large structural variations. We introduce a quantitative model of polymerase slippage, which enables us to identify indel-hypermutagenic protein-coding genes, some of which are associated with recurrent mutations leading to disease. Accounting for mutational rate heterogeneity due to sequence context, we find that indels across functional sequence are generally subject to stronger purifying selection than SNPs. We find that indel length modulates selection strength, and that indels affecting multiple functionally constrained nucleotides undergo stronger purifying selection. We further find that indels are enriched in associations with gene expression and find evidence for a contribution of nonsense-mediated decay. Finally, we show that indels can be integrated in existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS); although we do not find direct evidence that potentially causal protein-coding indels are enriched with associations to known disease-associated SNPs, our findings suggest that the causal variant underlying some of these associations may be indels. PMID:23478400

Montgomery, Stephen B.; Goode, David L.; Kvikstad, Erika; Albers, Cornelis A.; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Ananda, Guruprasad; Howie, Bryan; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Smith, Kevin S.; Anaya, Vanessa; Richardson, Rhea; Davis, Joe; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Sidow, Arend; Duret, Laurent; Gerstein, Mark; Makova, Kateryna D.; Marchini, Jonathan; McVean, Gil; Lunter, Gerton

2013-01-01

358

First Ancient Mitochondrial Human Genome from a Prepastoralist Southern African  

PubMed Central

The oldest contemporary human mitochondrial lineages arose in Africa. The earliest divergent extant maternal offshoot, namely haplogroup L0d, is represented by click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa. Broadly defined as Khoesan, contemporary Khoesan are today largely restricted to the semidesert regions of Namibia and Botswana, whereas archeological, historical, and genetic evidence promotes a once broader southerly dispersal of click-speaking peoples including southward migrating pastoralists and indigenous marine-foragers. No genetic data have been recovered from the indigenous peoples that once sustained life along the southern coastal waters of Africa prepastoral arrival. In this study we generate a complete mitochondrial genome from a 2,330-year-old male skeleton, confirmed through osteological and archeological analysis as practicing a marine-based forager existence. The ancient mtDNA represents a new L0d2c lineage (L0d2c1c) that is today, unlike its Khoe-language based sister-clades (L0d2c1a and L0d2c1b) most closely related to contemporary indigenous San-speakers (specifically Ju). Providing the first genomic evidence that prepastoral Southern African marine foragers carried the earliest diverged maternal modern human lineages, this study emphasizes the significance of Southern African archeological remains in defining early modern human origins. PMID:25212860

Smith, Andrew B.; Hayes, Vanessa M.

2014-01-01

359

First ancient mitochondrial human genome from a prepastoralist southern african.  

PubMed

The oldest contemporary human mitochondrial lineages arose in Africa. The earliest divergent extant maternal offshoot, namely haplogroup L0d, is represented by click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa. Broadly defined as Khoesan, contemporary Khoesan are today largely restricted to the semidesert regions of Namibia and Botswana, whereas archeological, historical, and genetic evidence promotes a once broader southerly dispersal of click-speaking peoples including southward migrating pastoralists and indigenous marine-foragers. No genetic data have been recovered from the indigenous peoples that once sustained life along the southern coastal waters of Africa prepastoral arrival. In this study we generate a complete mitochondrial genome from a 2,330-year-old male skeleton, confirmed through osteological and archeological analysis as practicing a marine-based forager existence. The ancient mtDNA represents a new L0d2c lineage (L0d2c1c) that is today, unlike its Khoe-language based sister-clades (L0d2c1a and L0d2c1b) most closely related to contemporary indigenous San-speakers (specifically Ju). Providing the first genomic evidence that prepastoral Southern African marine foragers carried the earliest diverged maternal modern human lineages, this study emphasizes the significance of Southern African archeological remains in defining early modern human origins. PMID:25212860

Morris, Alan G; Heinze, Anja; Chan, Eva K F; Smith, Andrew B; Hayes, Vanessa M

2014-01-01

360

The (social) construction of the world - at the crossroads of Christianity and Humanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early modern philosophy the motive of logical creation emerged in reac- tion to the Greek-Medieval legacy of a realistic metaphysics. The dominant nominalistic trends of thought since Thomas Hobbes and Immanuel Kant ex- plored its rationalistic implications. The latter drew the radical (humanistic) conclusion that the laws of nature are present in human thought a priori (i.e. before all

D F M Strauss

361

Family Labor Strategies in Early Modern Swabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents evidence from the period 1480–1618 in Augsburg suggesting that there were economic constraints on the decisionmaking of the peasant family: (1) Inheritance patterns and village rights offered options to the peasant. These supply side factors helped to promote an integrated labor market in Swabia. (2) Market forces influenced the supply of labor by acting on subsidiary enterprises

Martha White Paas

1992-01-01

362

Globalism and Tolerance in Early Modern Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geography's voice within the debates on cosmopolitan citizenship initiated by Martha Nussbaum's 1994 restatement of Stoic cosmopolitanism has been strangely muted, especially given the significance of spatiality and cultural specificity within recent geographical theory. David Harvey's (2000) contribution is an exception, but while his argument that geographical education should be propaedeutic to cosmopolitanism is politically powerful and timely, his presentation

Denis Cosgrove

2003-01-01

363

Public finance in the early modern era.  

E-print Network

??Die vorliegende Diplomarbeit behandelt das Thema der Staatsfinanzen in England und Frankreich im 18. Jahrhundert. Sie behandelt drei große Themen: Steuern, Staatsverschuldung und die politische… (more)

Uschmann, Till

2013-01-01

364

The Missouri Human Rights Act makes it illegal to discriminate in any aspect of employment because of an individual's race, color, religion, national origin, ancestry,  

E-print Network

The Missouri Human Rights Act makes it illegal to discriminate in any aspect of employment because of an individual's race, color, religion, national origin, ancestry, sex, disability or age (40 through 69 agencies www.labor.mo.gov/mohumanrights If you believe you have been discriminated against in employment

Subramanian, Venkat

365

Comparative analysis of bilateral memoranda on anti-human trafficking cooperation between Thailand and three neighboring countries : what do the origin and the destination states agree upon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prevent, suppress and punish human trafficking, bilateral agreements between origin of victim countries and destination countries are crucial, because their cooperation involves cross-border activities such as repatriation of victims, extradition of criminals and information-sharing. This article analyzes three bilateral legal instruments between The Government of The Kingdom of Thailand and her three neighboring countries, namely The Royal

Miwa Yamada

2012-01-01

366

Monday 26 May 09:30 Archaeology of Modern Human Origins. The Greeks and the Mediterranean World, c. 950-500 BC.  

E-print Network

:30 Science Based Methods in Archaeology. 14:30 Greek Archaeology and Art c.500-323 BC. C. H. GOSDEN ChairmanMonday 26 May 09:30 Archaeology of Modern Human Origins. The Greeks and the Mediterranean World, c. Saturday 31 May 09:30 Archaeology of Southern African Hunter-Gatherers. Farming and Early States in Sub

Oxford, University of

367

Dendritic structure of single hippocampal neurons according to sex and hemisphere of origin in middle-aged and elderly human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organization of basilar dendritic patterns in the CA1 hippocampal region obtained from 13 middled-aged and elderly human subjects was assessed using the Golgi method. Neurons were classified according to hemisphere of origin and the sex of the respective subjects. Three parameters were measured: total dendritic length (TDL), number of dendritic segments (NDS) and average segment length (ASL, which is

Álvaro Barrera; Leonella Jiménez; Gloria Mar??a González; Juan Montiel; Francisco Aboitiz

2001-01-01

368

Glycan analysis of Fonsecaea monophora from clinical and environmental origins reveals different structural profile and human antigenic response  

PubMed Central

Dematiaceous fungi constitute a large and heterogeneous group, characterized by having a dark pigment, the dihydroxynaftalen melanin—DHN, inside their cell walls. In nature they are found mainly as soil microbiota or decomposing organic matter, and are spread in tropical and subtropical regions. The fungus Fonsecaea monophora causes chromoblastomycosis in humans, and possesses essential mechanisms that may enhance pathogenicity, proliferation and dissemination inside the host. Glycoconjugates confer important properties to these pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, structural characterization of glycan structures present in two different strains of F. monophora MMHC82 and FE5p4, from clinical and environmental origins, respectively, was performed. Each one were grown on Minimal Medium (MM) and Czapeck-Dox (CD) medium, and the water soluble cell wall glycoconjugates and exopolysaccharides (EPS) were evaluated by NMR, methylation and principal component analysis (PCA). By combining the methylation and 2D NMR analyses, it was possible to visualize the glycosidic profiles of the complex carbohydrate mixtures. Significant differences were observed in ?-D-Galf-(1?5) and (1?6) linkages, ?- and ?-D-Glcp-(1?3), (1?4), and (1?6) units, as well as in ?-D-Manp. PCA from 1H-NMR data showed that MMHC82 from CD medium showed a higher variation in the cell wall carbohydrates, mainly related to O-2 substituted ?-D-Galf (? 106.0/5.23 and ? 105.3/5.23) units. In order to investigate the antigenic response of the glycoconjugates, these were screened against serum from chromoblastomycosis patients. The antigen which contained the cell wall of MMHC82 grown in MM had ?-D-Manp units that promoted higher antigenic response. The distribution of these fungal species in nature and the knowledge of how cell wall polysaccharides and glycoconjugates structure vary, may contribute to the better understanding and the elucidation of the pathology caused by this fungus.

Burjack, Juliana R.; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P.; Ruthes, Andrea C.; Riter, Daniel S.; Vicente, Vania A.; Alvarenga, Larissa M.; Sassaki, Guilherme L.

2014-01-01

369

"The city of Hepar": Rituals, gastronomy, and politics at the origins of the modern names for the liver  

PubMed Central

Summary Medical etymology sometimes provides unexpected information about health concepts and medical practice in different times and cultures. We conducted an etymological analysis of the terms used to indicate “liver” in Germanic and Romance languages. The Greek word “hèpar” was originally connected to the concept of “pleasure”, showing that in antiquity the liver was considered to be the seat of soul and human feelings. In Romance languages, the Latin term “ficatum” was linked to the ancient practice of fattening geese with figs (ficus in Latin) to make their livers more delicious. This relationship between the liver, fat, and carbohydrates seems to indicate that ancient gourmets had clear knowledge of the nutritional mechanisms underlying “fatty liver” in animals. On the other hand, the Germanic term “lifere” was initially connected to “life”, underscoring the relation of the liver to health and existence. In the Early Modern Age, the liver became a recurring image in political reflection, especially within the Elizabethan tradition of the body politic, where the king was frequently described as the “liver” of his country. Finally, the liver was used to indicate courage, or the lack of it: some modern French and English idiomatic expressions derive from the ancient belief that people who had no blood in their liver (“lily-livered”) would thus be cowards or betrayers. PMID:21718666

Riva, Michele Augusto; Riva, Enrica; Spicci, Mauro; Strazzabosco, Mario; Giovannini, Marcello; Cesana, Giancarlo

2013-01-01

370

Genomic Study of Replication Initiation in Human Chromosomes Reveals the Influence of Transcription Regulation and Chromatin Structure on Origin Selection  

PubMed Central

DNA replication in metazoans initiates from multiple chromosomal loci called origins. Currently, there are two methods to purify origin-centered nascent strands: lambda exonuclease digestion and anti-bromodeoxyuridine immunoprecipitation. Because both methods have unique strengths and limitations, we purified nascent strands by both methods, hybridized them independently to tiling arrays (1% genome) and compared the data to have an accurate view of genome-wide origin distribution. By this criterion, we identified 150 new origins that were reproducible across the methods. Examination of a subset of these origins by chromatin immunoprecipitation against origin recognition complex (ORC) subunits 2 and 3 showed 93% of initiation peaks to localize at/within 1 kb of ORC binding sites. Correlation of origins with functional elements of the genome revealed origin activity to be significantly enriched around transcription start sites (TSSs). Consistent with proximity to TSSs, we found a third of initiation events to occur at or near the RNA polymerase II binding sites. Interestingly, ?50% of the early origin activity was localized within 5 kb of transcription regulatory factor binding region clusters. The chromatin signatures around the origins were enriched in H3K4-(di- and tri)-methylation and H3 acetylation modifications on histones. Affinity of origins for open chromatin was also reiterated by their proximity to DNAse I-hypersensitive sites. Replication initiation peaks were AT rich, and >50% of the origins mapped to evolutionarily conserved regions of the genome. In summary, these findings indicate that replication initiation is influenced by transcription initiation and regulation as well as chromatin structure. PMID:19955211

Karnani, Neerja; Taylor, Christopher M.; Malhotra, Ankit

2010-01-01

371

Genomic study of replication initiation in human chromosomes reveals the influence of transcription regulation and chromatin structure on origin selection.  

PubMed

DNA replication in metazoans initiates from multiple chromosomal loci called origins. Currently, there are two methods to purify origin-centered nascent strands: lambda exonuclease digestion and anti-bromodeoxyuridine immunoprecipitation. Because both methods have unique strengths and limitations, we purified nascent strands by both methods, hybridized them independently to tiling arrays (1% genome) and compared the data to have an accurate view of genome-wide origin distribution. By this criterion, we identified 150 new origins that were reproducible across the methods. Examination of a subset of these origins by chromatin immunoprecipitation against origin recognition complex (ORC) subunits 2 and 3 showed 93% of initiation peaks to localize at/within 1 kb of ORC binding sites. Correlation of origins with functional elements of the genome revealed origin activity to be significantly enriched around transcription start sites (TSSs). Consistent with proximity to TSSs, we found a third of initiation events to occur at or near the RNA polymerase II binding sites. Interestingly, approximately 50% of the early origin activity was localized within 5 kb of transcription regulatory factor binding region clusters. The chromatin signatures around the origins were enriched in H3K4-(di- and tri)-methylation and H3 acetylation modifications on histones. Affinity of origins for open chromatin was also reiterated by their proximity to DNAse I-hypersensitive sites. Replication initiation peaks were AT rich, and >50% of the origins mapped to evolutionarily conserved regions of the genome. In summary, these findings indicate that replication initiation is influenced by transcription initiation and regulation as well as chromatin structure. PMID:19955211

Karnani, Neerja; Taylor, Christopher M; Malhotra, Ankit; Dutta, Anindya

2010-02-01

372

Bubble-seq analysis of the human genome reveals distinct chromatin-mediated mechanisms for regulating early- and late-firing origins  

PubMed Central

We have devised a method for isolating virtually pure and comprehensive libraries of restriction fragments that contained replication initiation sites (bubbles) in vivo. We have now sequenced and mapped the bubble-containing fragments from GM06990, a near-normal EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line, and have compared origin distributions with a comprehensive replication timing study recently published for this cell line. We find that early-firing origins, which represent ?32% of all origins, overwhelmingly represent zones, associate only marginally with active transcription units, are localized within large domains of open chromatin, and are significantly associated with DNase I hypersensitivity. Origin “density” falls from early- to mid-S-phase, but rises again in late S-phase to levels only 17% lower than in early S-phase. Unexpectedly, late origin density calculated on the 1-Mb scale increases as a function of increasing chromatin compaction. Furthermore, the median efficiency of origins in late-replicating, heterochromatic domains is only 25% lower than in early-replicating euchromatic loci. Thus, the activation of early- and late-firing origins must be regulated by quintessentially different mechanisms. The aggregate data can be unified into a model in which initiation site selection is driven almost entirely by epigenetic factors that fashion both the long-range and local chromatin environments, with underlying DNA sequence and local transcriptional activity playing only minor roles. Importantly, the comprehensive origin map we have prepared for GM06990 overlaps moderately well with origin maps recently reported for the genomes of four different human cell lines based on the distributions of small nascent strands. PMID:23861383

Mesner, Larry D.; Valsakumar, Veena; Cieslik, Marcin; Pickin, Rebecca; Hamlin, Joyce L.; Bekiranov, Stefan

2013-01-01

373

Comparison of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers typing and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins  

PubMed Central

Background Animal mycobacterioses are regarded as a potential zoonotic risk and cause economical losses world wide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis is a slow-growing subspecies found in mycobacterial infected humans and pigs and therefore rapid and discriminatory typing methods are needed for epidemiological studies. The genetic similarity of M. avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins using two different typing methods have not been studied earlier. The objective of this study was to compare the IS1245 RFLP pattern and MIRU-VNTR typing to study the genetic relatedness of M. avium strains isolated from slaughter pigs and humans in Finland with regard to public health aspects. Methods A novel PCR-based genotyping method, variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing of eight mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs), was evaluated for its ability to characterize Finnish Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis strains isolated from pigs (n = 16) and humans (n = 13) and the results were compared with those obtained by the conventional IS1245 RFLP method. Results The MIRU-VNTR results showed a discriminatory index (DI) of 0,92 and the IS1245 RFLP resulted in DI 0,98. The combined DI for both methods was 0,98. The MIRU-VNTR test has the advantages of being simple, reproducible, non-subjective, which makes it suitable for large-scale screening of M. avium strains. Conclusions Both typing methods demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains of human and porcine origin. The parallel application of the methods adds epidemiological value to the comparison of the strains and their origins. The present approach and results support the hypothesis that there is a common source of M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection for pigs and humans or alternatively one species may be the infective source to the other. PMID:20219093

2010-01-01

374

Remodeling of the Human Papillomavirus Type 11 Replication Origin into Discrete Nucleoprotein Particles and Looped Structures by the E2 Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA replication origin (ori) shares a common theme with many DNA control elements in having multiple binding sites for one or more proteins spaced over several hundreds of base pairs. The HPV type 11 ori spans 103 bp and contains three palindromic E2 binding sites (E2BS-2, E2BS-3, and E2BS-4) for the dimeric E2 ori binding protein. These

Jeonggu Sim; Sezgin Ozgur; Biing Yuan Lin; Jei-Hwa Yu; Thomas R. Broker; Louise T. Chow; Jack Griffith

2008-01-01

375

On the origins of human handedness and language: a comparative review of hand preferences for bimanual coordinated actions and gestural communication in nonhuman primates.  

PubMed

Within the evolutionary framework about the origin of human handedness and hemispheric specialization for language, the question of expression of population-level manual biases in nonhuman primates and their potential continuities with humans remains controversial. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence showing consistent population-level handedness particularly for complex manual behaviors in both monkeys and apes. In the present article, within a large comparative approach among primates, we will review our contribution to the field and the handedness literature related to two particular sophisticated manual behaviors regarding their potential and specific implications for the origins of hemispheric specialization in humans: bimanual coordinated actions and gestural communication. Whereas bimanual coordinated actions seem to elicit predominance of left-handedness in arboreal primates and of right-handedness in terrestrial primates, all handedness studies that have investigated gestural communication in several primate species have reported stronger degree of population-level right-handedness compared to noncommunicative actions. Communicative gestures and bimanual actions seem to affect differently manual asymmetries in both human and nonhuman primates and to be related to different lateralized brain substrates. We will discuss (1) how the data of hand preferences for bimanual coordinated actions highlight the role of ecological factors in the evolution of handedness and provide additional support the postural origin theory of handedness proposed by MacNeilage [MacNeilage [2007]. Present status of the postural origins theory. In W. D. Hopkins (Ed.), The evolution of hemispheric specialization in primates (pp. 59-91). London: Elsevier/Academic Press] and (2) the hypothesis that the emergence of gestural communication might have affected lateralization in our ancestor and may constitute the precursors of the hemispheric specialization for language. PMID:23955015

Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Hopkins, William D

2013-09-01

376

Genetically Matched Human iPS Cells Reveal that Propensity for Cartilage and Bone Differentiation Differs with Clones, not Cell Type of Origin  

PubMed Central

Background For regenerative therapy using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, cell type of origin to be reprogrammed should be chosen based on accessibility and reprogramming efficiency. Some studies report that iPSCs exhibited a preference for differentiation into their original cell lineages, while others did not. Therefore, the type of cell which is most appropriate as a source for iPSCs needs to be clarified. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetically matched human iPSCs from different origins were generated using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) of the same donor, and global gene expression profile, DNA methylation status, and differentiation properties into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineage of each clone were analyzed. Although genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation suggested tissue memory in iPSCs, genes expressed differentially in BMSCs and DFs were equally silenced in our bona fide iPSCs. After cell-autonomous and induced differentiation, each iPSC clone exhibited various differentiation properties, which did not correlate with cell-of-origin. Conclusions/Significance The reprogramming process may remove the difference between DFs and BMSCs at least for chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Qualified and genetically matched human iPSC clone sets established in this study are valuable resources for further basic study of clonal differences. PMID:23382851

Nasu, Akira; Ikeya, Makoto; Yamamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Akira; Jin, Yonghui; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Amano, Naoki; Sato, Shingo; Osafune, Kenji; Aoyama, Tomoki; Nakamura, Takashi; Kato, Tomohisa; Toguchida, Junya

2013-01-01

377

Risk Factors for Human Salmonellosis Originating from Pigs, Cattle, Broiler Chickens and Egg Laying Hens: A Combined Case-Control and Source Attribution Analysis  

PubMed Central

Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (?90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case-control studies can be enhanced by incorporating source attribution data and vice versa. PMID:24503703

Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

2014-01-01

378

Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.  

PubMed

Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (? 90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case-control studies can be enhanced by incorporating source attribution data and vice versa. PMID:24503703

Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

2014-01-01

379

Early Origin for HumanLike Precision Grasping: A Comparative Study of Pollical Distal Phalanges in Fossil Hominins  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe morphology of human pollical distal phalanges (PDP) closely reflects the adaptation of human hands for refined precision grip with pad-to-pad contact. The presence of these precision grip-related traits in the PDP of fossil hominins has been related to human-like hand proportions (i.e. short hands with a long thumb) enabling the thumb and finger pads to contact. Although this has

Sergio Almécija; Salvador Moyà-Solà; David M. Alba; David S. Strait

2010-01-01

380

The human oncoprotein MDM2 induces replication stress eliciting early intra-S-phase checkpoint response and inhibition of DNA replication origin firing.  

PubMed

Conventional paradigm ascribes the cell proliferative function of the human oncoprotein mouse double minute2 (MDM2) primarily to its ability to degrade p53. Here we report that in the absence of p53, MDM2 induces replication stress eliciting an early S-phase checkpoint response to inhibit further firing of DNA replication origins. Partially synchronized lung cells cultured from p53-/-:MDM2 transgenic mice enter S phase and induce S-phase checkpoint response earlier than lung cells from p53-/- mice and inhibit firing of DNA replication origins. MDM2 activates chk1 phosphorylation, elevates mixed lineage lymphoma histone methyl transferase levels and promotes checkpoint-dependent tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4, known to prevent firing of late replication origins at the early S phase. In the absence of p53, a condition that disables inhibition of cyclin A expression by MDM2, MDM2 increases expression of cyclin D2 and A and hastens S-phase entry of cells. Consistently, inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases, known to activate DNA replication origins during firing, inhibits MDM2-mediated induction of chk1 phosphorylation indicating the requirement of this activity in MDM2-mediated chk1 phosphorylation. Our data reveal a novel pathway, defended by the intra-S-phase checkpoint, by which MDM2 induces unscheduled origin firing and accelerates S-phase entry of cells in the absence of p53. PMID:24163099

Frum, Rebecca A; Singh, Shilpa; Vaughan, Catherine; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D; Grossman, Steven R; Windle, Brad; Deb, Sumitra; Deb, Swati Palit

2014-01-01

381

Bubble-chip analysis of human origin distributions demonstrates on a genomic scale significant clustering into zones and significant association with transcription  

PubMed Central

We have used a novel bubble-trapping procedure to construct nearly pure and comprehensive human origin libraries from early S- and log-phase HeLa cells, and from log-phase GM06990, a karyotypically normal lymphoblastoid cell line. When hybridized to ENCODE tiling arrays, these libraries illuminated 15.3%, 16.4%, and 21.8% of the genome in the ENCODE regions, respectively. Approximately half of the origin fragments cluster into zones, and their signals are generally higher than those of isolated fragments. Interestingly, initiation events are distributed about equally between genic and intergenic template sequences. While only 13.2% and 14.0% of genes within the ENCODE regions are actually transcribed in HeLa and GM06990 cells, 54.5% and 25.6% of zonal origin fragments overlap transcribed genes, most with activating chromatin marks in their promoters. Our data suggest that cell synchronization activates a significant number of inchoate origins. In addition, HeLa and GM06990 cells activate remarkably different origin populations. Finally, there is only moderate concordance between the log-phase HeLa bubble map and published maps of small nascent strands for this cell line. PMID:21173031

Mesner, Larry D.; Valsakumar, Veena; Karnani, Neerja; Dutta, Anindya; Hamlin, Joyce L.; Bekiranov, Stefan

2011-01-01

382

Bubble-chip analysis of human origin distributions demonstrates on a genomic scale significant clustering into zones and significant association with transcription.  

PubMed

We have used a novel bubble-trapping procedure to construct nearly pure and comprehensive human origin libraries from early S- and log-phase HeLa cells, and from log-phase GM06990, a karyotypically normal lymphoblastoid cell line. When hybridized to ENCODE tiling arrays, these libraries illuminated 15.3%, 16.4%, and 21.8% of the genome in the ENCODE regions, respectively. Approximately half of the origin fragments cluster into zones, and their signals are generally higher than those of isolated fragments. Interestingly, initiation events are distributed about equally between genic and intergenic template sequences. While only 13.2% and 14.0% of genes within the ENCODE regions are actually transcribed in HeLa and GM06990 cells, 54.5% and 25.6% of zonal origin fragments overlap transcribed genes, most with activating chromatin marks in their promoters. Our data suggest that cell synchronization activates a significant number of inchoate origins. In addition, HeLa and GM06990 cells activate remarkably different origin populations. Finally, there is only moderate concordance between the log-phase HeLa bubble map and published maps of small nascent strands for this cell line. PMID:21173031

Mesner, Larry D; Valsakumar, Veena; Karnani, Neerja; Dutta, Anindya; Hamlin, Joyce L; Bekiranov, Stefan

2011-03-01

383

CROSS-SPECIES TRANSMISSION OF GIARDIA: INOCULATION OF BEAVERS AND MUSKRATS WITH CYSTS OF HUMAN, BEAVER, MOUSE, AND MUSKRAT ORIGIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Giardia cysts isolated from humans, beavers, mice and muskrats were tested in cross-species transmission experiments for their ability to infect either beavers or muskrats. iardia cysts, derived from multiple symptomatic human donors and used for inoculation of beavers ormuskrats...

384

Evaluation of the efficacy of 100% Type-I collagen membrane of bovine origin in the treatment of human gingival recession: A clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background: Various treatment modalities have been devised for gingival recession, which is one of the most common signs of periodontal disease. The present study evaluates the efficacy of bioresorbable 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin in the treatment of human gingival recession. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of Miller's class I or class II localized gingival recession defects on the facial surface were treated with 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin in conjunction with coronally positioned flap. Pre-operative and post-operative assessments were performed with respect to probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and clinical recession at 12, 24 and 36 weeks. The data thus collected were analyzed statistically. Results: Statistically significant improvement based on Student's t test was found in all the three clinical parameters. Conclusion: Bioresorbable 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin has given inspiring results in the treatment of human gingival recession defects, thereby justifying the use of this material wherever indicated.

Soni, Nitin; Sikri, Poonam; Kapoor, Daljit; Soni, Bhavita Wadhwa; Jain, Rachna

2014-01-01

385

Cross-Reaction between the Crude Hydatid Cyst Fluid Antigens of Human and Animals Origin in Response to Human IgG Class and Subclasses  

PubMed Central

The current work aimed to evaluate the cross-reactivity of human immune sera against crude hydatid fluid antigens of sheep, human, mouse, cattle, as well as B fraction of cystic fluid antigen. 30?balb/c mice were infected with sheep hydatid cyct fluid antigen containing protoscolex after the viability of these protoscolices was assessed. ANOVA was used to test the difference of themean of optical density (OD) values among case and control groups. The highest human IgG class antibody was against antigen B (0.93) and the lowest against cattle HCF antigen (0.32). The differences between responses to these antigens were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test used for evaluating the responses of human total IgG to different hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens among the case and control groups were 100 and 95.8%, respectively. Cross-reaction of human IgG class and subclasses responses was found almost for all the antigens with the best reaction against human and cattle (HCF) antigens and antigen B using a ratio of mean OD value to each antigen divided by the cut-off point value for the same antigen. Human sera showed a considerable cross-reactivity against all antigens by using ELISA. PMID:22523645

Khosravi, Afra; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Shamsi, Morteza; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Maleki, Abbas; Babaahmadi, Ebrahim

2012-01-01

386

Correlation between P-wave Morphology and Origin of Atrial Focal Tachycardia - Insights from Realistic Models of the Human Atria and Torso  

PubMed Central

Atrial arrhythmias resulting from abnormally rapid focal activity in the artia may be reflected in an altered P-wave morphology (PWM) in the ECG. Although clinically important, detailed relationships between PWM and origins of atrial focal excitations has not been established. To study such relationships, we developed computational models of the human atria and torso. The model simulation results were used to evaluate an extant clinical algorithm for locating the origin of atrial focal points from the ECG. The simulations showed that the algorithm was practical, and could predict the atrial focal locations with 85% accuracy. We proposed a further refinement of the algorithm to distinguish between focal locations within large atrial bundles. PMID:21742568

Colman, Michael A.; Aslanidi, Oleg V.; Stott, Jonathan; Holden, Arun V.; Zhang, Henggui

2011-01-01

387

The Origin and Evolution of Variable Number Tandem Repeat of CLEC4M Gene in the Global Human Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

CLEC4M is a C-type lectin gene serving as cell adhesion receptor and pathogen recognition receptor. It recognizes several pathogens of important public health concern. In particular, a highly polymorphic variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) at the neck-region of CLEC4M had been associated with genetic predisposition to some infectious diseases. To gain insight into the origin and evolution of this VNTR

Hui Li; Jia-Xin Wang; Dong-Dong Wu; Hua-Wei Wang; Nelson Leung-Sang Tang; Ya-Ping Zhang

2012-01-01

388

The Human Stress-Activated Protein kin17 Belongs to the Multiprotein DNA Replication Complex and Associates In Vivo with Mammalian Replication Origins  

PubMed Central

The human stress-activated protein kin17 accumulates in the nuclei of proliferating cells with predominant colocalization with sites of active DNA replication. The distribution of kin17 protein is in equilibrium between chromatin-DNA and the nuclear matrix. An increased association with nonchromatin nuclear structure is observed in S-phase cells. We demonstrated here that kin17 protein strongly associates in vivo with DNA fragments containing replication origins in both human HeLa and monkey CV-1 cells. This association was 10-fold higher than that observed with nonorigin control DNA fragments in exponentially growing cells. In addition, the association of kin17 protein to DNA fragments containing replication origins was also analyzed as a function of the cell cycle. High binding of kin17 protein was found at the G1/S border and throughout the S phase and was negligible in both G0 and M phases. Specific monoclonal antibodies against kin17 protein induced a threefold inhibition of in vitro DNA replication of a plasmid containing a minimal replication origin that could be partially restored by the addition of recombinant kin17 protein. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the colocalization of kin17 protein with replication proteins like RPA, PCNA, and DNA polymerase ?. A two-step chromatographic fractionation of nuclear extracts from HeLa cells revealed that kin17 protein localized in vivo in distinct protein complexes of high molecular weight. We found that kin17 protein purified within an ?600-kDa protein complex able to support in vitro DNA replication by means of two different biochemical methods designed to isolate replication complexes. In addition, the reduced in vitro DNA replication activity of the multiprotein replication complex after immunodepletion for kin17 protein highlighted for a direct role in DNA replication at the origins. PMID:15831485

Miccoli, Laurent; Frouin, Isabelle; Novac, Olivia; Di Paola, Domenic; Harper, Francis; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria; Maga, Giovanni; Biard, Denis S. F.; Angulo, Jaime F.

2005-01-01

389

The human stress-activated protein kin17 belongs to the multiprotein DNA replication complex and associates in vivo with mammalian replication origins.  

PubMed

The human stress-activated protein kin17 accumulates in the nuclei of proliferating cells with predominant colocalization with sites of active DNA replication. The distribution of kin17 protein is in equilibrium between chromatin-DNA and the nuclear matrix. An increased association with nonchromatin nuclear structure is observed in S-phase cells. We demonstrated here that kin17 protein strongly associates in vivo with DNA fragments containing replication origins in both human HeLa and monkey CV-1 cells. This association was 10-fold higher than that observed with nonorigin control DNA fragments in exponentially growing cells. In addition, the association of kin17 protein to DNA fragments containing replication origins was also analyzed as a function of the cell cycle. High binding of kin17 protein was found at the G(1)/S border and throughout the S phase and was negligible in both G(0) and M phases. Specific monoclonal antibodies against kin17 protein induced a threefold inhibition of in vitro DNA replication of a plasmid containing a minimal replication origin that could be partially restored by the addition of recombinant kin17 protein. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the colocalization of kin17 protein with replication proteins like RPA, PCNA, and DNA polymerase alpha. A two-step chromatographic fractionation of nuclear extracts from HeLa cells revealed that kin17 protein localized in vivo in distinct protein complexes of high molecular weight. We found that kin17 protein purified within an approximately 600-kDa protein complex able to support in vitro DNA replication by means of two different biochemical methods designed to isolate replication complexes. In addition, the reduced in vitro DNA replication activity of the multiprotein replication complex after immunodepletion for kin17 protein highlighted for a direct role in DNA replication at the origins. PMID:15831485

Miccoli, Laurent; Frouin, Isabelle; Novac, Olivia; Di Paola, Domenic; Harper, Francis; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria; Maga, Giovanni; Biard, Denis S F; Angulo, Jaime F

2005-05-01

390

The Road to Homo sapien sapien: Genetic Evidences Tell Us Stories about the Origin and Evolution of Modern Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Beings, the common name of Homo sapien sapien, is regarded as the lord of the earth, at least by themselves. Now they are trying to look deep into their own history, that is, the evolutionary history of their own. In this review, we first look back on the history of development of theory of evolution, which leads to the

Chen Yi-Lun

391

Functional deficiencies of components of the MHC class I antigen pathway in human tumors of epithelial origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between oncogenic transformation and repression of different components of the MHC class I antigen processing machinery (APM) have been described in murine model systems. In order to discover whether a similar correlation exists, human tumor cell lines of distinct histology with altered ras protein were analyzed for the expression of APM components utilizing RT-PCR and Western blot analyses.

K Delp; F Momburg; C Hilmes; C Huber; B Seliger

2000-01-01

392

Original Full Length Article Mixed-mode toughness of human cortical bone containing a longitudinal crack in  

E-print Network

as traumatic events that can cause fractures [1,2]. As human cortical bone contains a dis- tribution of microcracks [3], it is important to understand how bone's resistance to fracture is affected by the presence is a physiologically rele- vant scenario in cortical bone, the vast majority of fracture mechanics studies

Ritchie, Robert

393

Original Contribution The induction of human superoxide dismutase and catalase in vivo: A fundamentally new approach to antioxidant therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composition consisting of extracts of five widely studied medicinal plants (Protandim) was administered to healthy human subjects ranging in age from 20 to 78 years. Individual ingredients were selected on the basis of published findings of induction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and\\/or catalase in rodents in vivo, combined with evidence of decreasing lipid peroxidation. Each ingredient was present at

Sally K. Nelson; Swapan K. Bose; Gary K. Grunwald; Paul Myhill; Joe M. McCord

394

Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants.  

PubMed

Establishing the age of each mutation segregating in contemporary human populations is important to fully understand our evolutionary history and will help to facilitate the development of new approaches for disease-gene discovery. Large-scale surveys of human genetic variation have reported signatures of recent explosive population growth, notable for an excess of rare genetic variants, suggesting that many mutations arose recently. To more quantitatively assess the distribution of mutation ages, we resequenced 15,336 genes in 6,515 individuals of European American and African American ancestry and inferred the age of 1,146,401 autosomal single nucleotide variants (SNVs). We estimate that approximately 73% of all protein-coding SNVs and approximately 86% of SNVs predicted to be deleterious arose in the past 5,000-10,000?years. The average age of deleterious SNVs varied significantly across molecular pathways, and disease genes contained a significantly higher proportion of recently arisen deleterious SNVs than other genes. Furthermore, European Americans had an excess of deleterious variants in essential and Mendelian disease genes compared to African Americans, consistent with weaker purifying selection due to the Out-of-Africa dispersal. Our results better delimit the historical details of human protein-coding variation, show the profound effect of recent human history on the burden of deleterious SNVs segregating in contemporary populations, and provide important practical information that can be used to prioritize variants in disease-gene discovery. PMID:23201682

Fu, Wenqing; O'Connor, Timothy D; Jun, Goo; Kang, Hyun Min; Abecasis, Goncalo; Leal, Suzanne M; Gabriel, Stacey; Rieder, Mark J; Altshuler, David; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Akey, Joshua M

2013-01-10

395

Evolutionary origin and methylation status of human intronic CpG islands that are not present in mouse.  

PubMed

Imprinting of the human RB1 gene is due to the presence of a differentially methylated CpG island (CGI) in intron 2, which is part of a retrocopy derived from the PPP1R26 gene on chromosome 9. The murine Rb1 gene does not have this retrocopy and is not imprinted. We have investigated whether the RB1/Rb1 locus is unique with respect to these differences. For this, we have compared the CGIs from human and mouse by in silico analyses. We have found that the human genome does not only contain more CGIs than the mouse, but the proportion of intronic CGIs is also higher (7.7% vs. 3.5%). At least 2,033 human intronic CGIs are not present in the mouse. Among these CGIs, 104 show sequence similarities elsewhere in the human genome, which suggests that they arose from retrotransposition. We could narrow down the time points when most of these CGIs appeared during evolution. Their methylation status was analyzed in two monocyte methylome data sets from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and in 18 published methylomes. Four CGIs, which are located in the RB1, ASRGL1, PARP11, and PDXDC1 genes, occur as methylated and unmethylated copies. In contrast to imprinted methylation at the RB1 locus, differential methylation of the ASRGL1 and PDXDC1 CGIs appears to be sequence dependent. Our study supports the notion that the epigenetic fate of the retrotransposed DNA depends on its sequence and selective forces at the integration site. PMID:24923327

Rademacher, Katrin; Schröder, Christopher; Kanber, Deniz; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Wallner, Stefan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Horsthemke, Bernhard

2014-07-01

396

The Origin of Behavior  

E-print Network

We propose a single evolutionary explanation for the origin of several behaviors that have been observed in organisms ranging from ants to human subjects, including risk-sensitive foraging, risk aversion, loss aversion, ...

Brennan, Thomas J.

397

A glimpse into the early origins of medieval anatomy through the oldest conserved human dissection (Western Europe, 13th c. A.D.)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Medieval autopsy practice is very poorly known in Western Europe, due to a lack of both descriptive medico-surgical texts and conserved dissected human remains. This period is currently considered the dark ages according to a common belief of systematic opposition of Christian religious authorities to the opening of human cadavers. Material and methods The identification in a private collection of an autopsied human individual dated from the 13th century A.D. is an opportunity for better knowledge of such practice in this chrono-cultural context, i.e. the early origins of occidental dissections. A complete forensic anthropological procedure was carried out, completed by radiological and elemental analyses. Results The complete procedure of this body opening and internal organs exploration is explained, and compared with historical data about forensic and anatomical autopsies from this period. During the analysis, a red substance filling all arterial cavities, made of mercury sulfide (cinnabar) mixed with vegetal oil (oleic and palmitic acids) was identified; it was presumably used to highlight vascularization by coloring in red such vessels, and help in the preservation of the body. Conclusions Of particular interest for the description of early medical and anatomical knowledge, this “human preparation” is the oldest known yet, and is particularly important for the fields of history of medicine, surgery and anatomical practice. PMID:24904674

Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Poupon, Joel; Lancelot, Eloise; Campos, Paula F.; Favier, Dominique; Jeannel, Gael-Francois; Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Herve, Christian

2013-01-01

398

Individual crypt genetic heterogeneity and the origin of metaplastic glandular epithelium in human Barrett’s oesophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Current models of clonal expansion in human Barrett’s oesophagus are based upon heterogenous, flow-purified biopsy analysis taken at multiple segment levels. Detection of identical mutation fingerprints from these biopsy samples led to the proposal that a mutated clone with a selective advantage can clonally expand to fill an entire Barrett’s segment at the expense of competing clones (selective sweep to

S J Leedham; S L Preston; S A C McDonald; G Elia; P Bhandari; D Poller; R Harrison; M R Novelli; J A Jankowski; N A Wright

2008-01-01

399

Ancient Origin and Molecular Features of the Novel Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 3 Revealed by Complete Genome Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 3 (HTLV-3) is a new virus recently identified in two primate hunters in Central Africa. Limited sequence analysis shows that HTLV-3 is distinct from HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 but is genetically similar to simian T-lymphotropic virus type 3 (STLV-3). We report here the first complete HTLV-3 sequence obtained by PCR-based genome walking using uncultured peripheral blood lymphocytes

William M. Switzer; Shoukat H. Qari; Nathan D. Wolfe; Donald S. Burke; Thomas M. Folks; Walid Heneine

2006-01-01

400

Simian immunodeficiency viruses of diverse origin can use CXCR4 as a coreceptor for entry into human cells.  

PubMed

Primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm [n = 6]), stumptail (SIVstm [n = 1]), mandrill (SIVmnd [n = 1]), and African green (SIVagm [n = 1]) primates were examined for their ability to infect human cells and for their coreceptor requirements. All isolates infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a CCR5(+/+) donor, and seven of eight isolates tested also infected CCR5(-/-) PBMCs. Analysis of coreceptor utilization using GHOST and U87 cell lines revealed that all of the isolates tested used CCR5 and the orphan receptors STRL33 and GPR15. Coreceptors such as CCR2b, CCR3, CCR8, and CX3CR1 were also utilized by some primary SIV isolates. More importantly, we found that CXCR4 was used as a coreceptor by the SIVstm, the SIVagm, and four of the SIVsm isolates in GHOST and U87 cells. These data suggest that primary SIV isolates from diverse primate species can utilize CXCR4 for viral entry, similar to what has been described for human immunodeficiency viruses. PMID:10823878

Owen, S M; Masciotra, S; Novembre, F; Yee, J; Switzer, W M; Ostyula, M; Lal, R B

2000-06-01

401

Expression of the human amylase genes: Recent origin of a salivary amylase promoter from an actin pseudogene  

SciTech Connect

The human genes encoding salivary amylase (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase (AMY2) are nearly identical in structure and sequence. The authors have used ribonuclease protection studies to identify the functional gene copies in this multigene family. Riboprobes derived from each gene were hybridized to RNA from human pancreas, parotid and liver. The sizes of the protected fragments demonstrated that both pancreatic genes are expressed in pancreas. One of the pancreatic genes, AMY2B, is also transcribed at a low level in liver, but not from the promoter used in pancreas. AMY1 transcripts were detected in parotid, but not in pancreas or liver. Unexpected fragments protected by liver RNA led to the discovery that the 5{prime} regions of the five human amylase genes contain a processed {gamma}-actin pseudogene. The promoter and start site for transcription of AMY1 are recently derived from the 3{prime} untranslated region of {gamma}-actin. In addition, insertion of an endogenous retrovirus has interrupted the {gamma}-actin pseudogene in four of the five amylase genes.

Samuelson, L.C.; Gumucio, D.L.; Meisler, M.H. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Wiebauer, K. (Friedrich Miescher Institut, Basel (Switzerland))

1988-09-12

402

Origin-Dependent Neural Cell Identities in Differentiated Human iPSCs In Vitro and after Transplantation into the Mouse Brain.  

PubMed

The differentiation capability of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) toward certain cell types for disease modeling and drug screening assays might be influenced by their somatic cell of origin. Here, we have compared the neural induction of human iPSCs generated from fetal neural stem cells (fNSCs), dermal fibroblasts, or cord blood CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons could be generated at similar efficiencies from all iPSCs. Transcriptomics analysis of the whole genome and of neural genes revealed a separation of neuroectoderm-derived iPSC-NPCs from mesoderm-derived iPSC-NPCs. Furthermore, we found genes that were similarly expressed in fNSCs and neuroectoderm, but not in mesoderm-derived iPSC-NPCs. Notably, these neural signatures were retained after transplantation into the cortex of mice and paralleled with increased survival of neuroectoderm-derived cells in vivo. These results indicate distinct origin-dependent neural cell identities in differentiated human iPSCs both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25220454

Hargus, Gunnar; Ehrlich, Marc; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Hemmer, Kathrin; Hallmann, Anna-Lena; Reinhardt, Peter; Kim, Kee-Pyo; Adachi, Kenjiro; Santourlidis, Simeon; Ghanjati, Foued; Fauser, Mareike; Ossig, Christiana; Storch, Alexander; Kim, Jeong Beom; Schwamborn, Jens C; Sterneckert, Jared; Schöler, Hans R; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Zaehres, Holm

2014-09-25

403

Genome-wide parent-of-origin DNA methylation analysis reveals the intricacies of human imprinting and suggests a germline methylation-independent mechanism of establishment  

PubMed Central

Differential methylation between the two alleles of a gene has been observed in imprinted regions, where the methylation of one allele occurs on a parent-of-origin basis, the inactive X-chromosome in females, and at those loci whose methylation is driven by genetic variants. We have extensively characterized imprinted methylation in a substantial range of normal human tissues, reciprocal genome-wide uniparental disomies, and hydatidiform moles, using a combination of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density methylation microarrays. This approach allowed us to define methylation profiles at known imprinted domains at base-pair resolution, as well as to identify 21 novel loci harboring parent-of-origin methylation, 15 of which are restricted to the placenta. We observe that the extent of imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) is extremely similar between tissues, with the exception of the placenta. This extra-embryonic tissue often adopts a different methylation profile compared to somatic tissues. Further, we profiled all imprinted DMRs in sperm and embryonic stem cells derived from parthenogenetically activated oocytes, individual blastomeres, and blastocysts, in order to identify primary DMRs and reveal the extent of reprogramming during preimplantation development. Intriguingly, we find that in contrast to ubiquitous imprints, the majority of placenta-specific imprinted DMRs are unmethylated in sperm and all human embryonic stem cells. Therefore, placental-specific imprinting provides evidence for an inheritable epigenetic state that is independent of DNA methylation and the existence of a novel imprinting mechanism at these loci. PMID:24402520

Court, Franck; Tayama, Chiharu; Romanelli, Valeria; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Okamura, Kohji; Sugahara, Naoko; Simón, Carlos; Moore, Harry; Harness, Julie V.; Keirstead, Hans; Sanchez-Mut, Jose Vicente; Kaneki, Eisuke; Lapunzina, Pablo; Soejima, Hidenobu; Wake, Norio; Esteller, Manel; Ogata, Tsutomu; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Monk, David

2014-01-01

404

Evidence that the negative BOLD response is neuronal in origin: a simultaneous EEG-BOLD-CBF study in humans.  

PubMed

Unambiguous interpretation of changes in the BOLD signal is challenging because of the complex neurovascular coupling that translates changes in neuronal activity into the subsequent haemodynamic response. In particular, the neurophysiological origin of the negative BOLD response (NBR) remains incompletely understood. Here, we simultaneously recorded BOLD, EEG and cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses to 10 s blocks of unilateral median nerve stimulation (MNS) in order to interrogate the NBR. Both negative BOLD and negative CBF responses to MNS were observed in the same region of the ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (S1/M1) and calculations showed that MNS induced a decrease in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) in this NBR region. The ?CMRO2/?CBF coupling ratio (n) was found to be significantly larger in this ipsilateral S1/M1 region (n=0.91±0.04, M=10.45%) than in the contralateral S1/M1 (n=0.65±0.03, M=10.45%) region that exhibited a positive BOLD response (PBR) and positive CBF response, and a consequent increase in CMRO2 during MNS. The fMRI response amplitude in ipsilateral S1/M1 was negatively correlated with both the power of the 8-13 Hz EEG mu oscillation and somatosensory evoked potential amplitude. Blocks in which the largest magnitude of negative BOLD and CBF responses occurred therefore showed greatest mu power, an electrophysiological index of cortical inhibition, and largest somatosensory evoked potentials. Taken together, our results suggest that a neuronal mechanism underlies the NBR, but that the NBR may originate from a different neurovascular coupling mechanism to the PBR, suggesting that caution should be taken in assuming the NBR simply represents the neurophysiological inverse of the PBR. PMID:24632092

Mullinger, K J; Mayhew, S D; Bagshaw, A P; Bowtell, R; Francis, S T

2014-07-01

405

?-Secretase binding sites in aged and Alzheimer's disease human cerebrum: The choroid plexus as a putative origin of CSF A?  

PubMed Central

Deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides, cleavage products of ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ?-secretase-1 (BACE1) and ?-secretase, is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). ?-Secretase inhibition is a therapeutical anti-A? approach, although less is clear about the change of the enzyme’s activity in AD brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A? peptides are considered to derive from brain parenchyma, thus may serve as biomarkers for assessing cerebral amyloidosis and anti-A? efficacy. The present study compared active ?-secretase binding sites with A? deposition in aged and AD human cerebrum, and explored a possibility of A? production and secretion by the choroid plexus (CP). Specific binding density of [3H]-L-685,458, a radiolabeled high affinity ?-secretase inhibitor, in the temporal neocortex and hippocampal formation was similar for AD and control cases with comparable ages and postmortem delays. The CP in postmortem samples exhibited exceptionally high [3H]-L-685,458 binding density, with the estimated maximal binding sites (Bmax) reduced in the AD relative to control groups. Surgically resected human CP exhibited APP, BACE1 and presenilin-1 immunoreactivity, and ?-site APP cleavage enzymatic activity. In primary culture, human CP cells also expressed these amyloidogenic proteins but released A?40 and A?42 into the medium. These results suggest that ?-secretase activity appears not altered in the cerebrum in AD related to aged control, nor correlated with regional amyloid plaque pathology. The choroid plexus appears to represent a novel non-neuronal source in the brain that may contribute A? into cerebrospinal fluid, probably at reduced levels in AD. PMID:23432732

Liu, Fei; Xue, Zhi-Qin; Deng, Si-Hao; Kun, Xiong; Luo, Xue-Gang; Patrylo, Peter R.; Rose, Gregory M.; Cai, Huaibin; Struble, Robert G.; Cai, Yan; Yan, Xiao-Xin

2013-01-01

406

Structure of the NS1 Protein N-Terminal Origin Recognition/Nickase Domain from the Emerging Human Bocavirus  

E-print Network

, Allander T, Soderlund- Venermo M. 2012. Human bocavirus: the first 5 years. Rev. Med. Virol. 22:46–64. 13. Meriluoto M, Hedman L, Tanner L, Simell V, Makinen M, Simell S, Mykkanen J, Korpelainen J, Ruuskanen O, Ilonen J, Knip M, Simell O, Hedman K.... Virol. 155:771–775. 39. Best SM, Shelton JF, Pompey JM, Wolfinbarger JB, Bloom ME. 2003. Caspase cleavage of the nonstructural protein NS1mediates replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus. J. Virol. 77:5305–5312. 40. Chen AY, Luo Y, Cheng F, Sun Y...

Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Zhao, Haiyan; Shen, Weiran; Qiu, Jianming; Tang, Liang

2013-08-21

407

Origin and Expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae): A Mixture of Historical Natural Expansion and Contemporary Human-Mediated Relocation  

PubMed Central

The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats. PMID:25372458

Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

2014-01-01

408

Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory: An experimental approach to the origins of structure in human language  

PubMed Central

We introduce an experimental paradigm for studying the cumulative cultural evolution of language. In doing so we provide the first experimental validation for the idea that cultural transmission can lead to the appearance of design without a designer. Our experiments involve the iterated learning of artificial languages by human participants. We show that languages transmitted culturally evolve in such a way as to maximize their own transmissibility: over time, the languages in our experiments become easier to learn and increasingly structured. Furthermore, this structure emerges purely as a consequence of the transmission of language over generations, without any intentional design on the part of individual language learners. Previous computational and mathematical models suggest that iterated learning provides an explanation for the structure of human language and link particular aspects of linguistic structure with particular constraints acting on language during its transmission. The experimental work presented here shows that the predictions of these models, and models of cultural evolution more generally, can be tested in the laboratory. PMID:18667697

Kirby, Simon; Cornish, Hannah; Smith, Kenny

2008-01-01

409

Characterization of a Shiga Toxin 2e-Converting Bacteriophage from an Escherichia coli Strain of Human Origin  

PubMed Central

An infectious Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e-converting bacteriophage (?P27) was isolated from Stx2e-producing Escherichia coli ONT:H? isolate 2771/97 originating from a patient with diarrhea. The phage could be transduced to E. coli laboratory strain DH5?, and we could show that lysogens were able to produce biologically active toxin in a recA-dependent manner. By DNA sequence analysis of a 6,388-bp HindIII restriction fragment of ?P27, we demonstrated that the stx2e gene was located directly downstream of ileZ and argO tRNA genes. Although no analogue of an antiterminator Q encoding gene was present on this fragment, a lysis cassette comprising two holin genes which are related to the holin genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage ?CTX and a gene homologous to the endolysin gene gp19 of phage PS3 were detected. The results of our study demonstrated for the first time that Stx2e can be encoded in the genome of an infectious bacteriophage. PMID:10948096

Muniesa, Maite; Recktenwald, Jürgen; Bielaszewska, Martina; Karch, Helge; Schmidt, Herbert

2000-01-01

410

Expression of PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (PBK/TOPK) in human urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression pattern of PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (PBK/TOPK) and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer (BC). We detected PBK/TOPK mRNA overexpression in BC and human normal testis tissues using RT-PCR. Using qRT-PCR revealed a higher expression of PBK/TOPK in BC tissues than their adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCTs) (p<0.0001). Cytoplasmic expression of PBK/TOPK protein was found to be positive in 64.6% (42 of 65) BC patients. Expression of PBK/TOPK protein was found to be significantly higher in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) than in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (86.1% vs. 37.9%, p<0.001). The immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of PBK/TOPK was found to be significantly (p<0.001) associated with the stage of disease. Study findings suggest that the PBK/TOPK mRNA/protein expression is specific to human BC and might be used as a novel target for development of cancer immunotherapy and diagnostic biomarker. PMID:24629784

Singh, P K; Srivastava, Anupam K; Dalela, D; Rath, S K; Goel, M M; Bhatt, M L B

2014-06-01

411

Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptor expression and toxin susceptibility of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas of differing origin and differentiation.  

PubMed

Shiga toxins (Stxs) are composed of an enzymatically active A subunit (StxA) and a pentameric B subunit (StxB) that preferentially binds to the glycosphingolipid (GSL) globo\\xadtriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer/CD77) and to a reduced extent to globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer). The identification of Gb3Cer as a tumor-associated GSL in human pancreatic cancer prompted us to investigate the expression of Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer in 15 human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from primary tumors and liver, ascites, and lymph node metastases. Thin-layer chromatography overlay assays revealed the occurrence of Gb3Cer in all and of Gb4Cer in the majority of cell lines, which largely correlated with transcriptional expression analysis of Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer synthases. Prominent Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer lipoform heterogeneity was based on ceramides carrying predominantly C16:0 and C24:0/C24:1 fatty acids. Stx2-mediated cell injury ranged from extremely high sensitivity (CD(50) of 0.94 pg/ml) to high refractiveness (CD(50) of 5.8 ?g/ml) and to virtual resistance portrayed by non-determinable CD(50) values even at the highest Stx2 concentration (10 ?g/ml) applied. Importantly, Stx2-mediated cytotoxicity did not correlate with Gb3Cer expression (the preferential Stx receptor), suggesting that the GSL receptor content does not primarily determine cell sensitivity and that other, yet to be delineated, cellular factors might influence the responsiveness of cancer cells. PMID:22944681

Storck, Wiebke; Meisen, Iris; Gianmoena, Kathrin; Pläger, Ina; Kouzel, Ivan U; Bielaszewska, Martina; Haier, Jörg; Mormann, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Karch, Helge; Müthing, Johannes

2012-08-01

412

Identification of Novel Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part II): In Silico Prediction in Antidiabetic Extracts  

PubMed Central

Background Natural extracts play an important role in traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and are also an essential resource for new drug discovery. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are potential candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the effectiveness of certain antidiabetic extracts of natural origin could be, at least partially, explained by the inhibition of DPP-IV. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and an experimentally validated virtual screening procedure previously developed in our lab (Guasch et al.; 2012) [1], we have predicted 12 potential DPP-IV inhibitors from 12 different plant extracts that are known to have antidiabetic activity. Seven of these molecules are identical or similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity (although their role as DPP-IV inhibitors has not been suggested as an explanation for their bioactivity). Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of these extracts through their inhibitory effect on DPP-IV. In addition, we also identified as potential DPP-IV inhibitors 6 molecules from 6 different plants with no described antidiabetic activity but that share the same genus as plants with known antidiabetic properties. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules that we predicted as DPP-IV inhibitors exhibits chemical similarity with a group of 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance Our study identified 18 potential DPP-IV inhibitors in 18 different plant extracts (12 of these plants have known antidiabetic properties, whereas, for the remaining 6, antidiabetic activity has been reported for other plant species from the same genus). Moreover, none of the 18 molecules exhibits chemical similarity with a large group of known DPP-IV inhibitors. PMID:23028712

Guasch, Laura; Sala, Esther; Ojeda, Maria Jose; Valls, Cristina; Blade, Cinta; Mulero, Miquel; Blay, Mayte; Ardevol, Anna; Garcia-Vallve, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

2012-01-01

413

Inference of human continental origin and admixture proportions using a highly discriminative ancestry informative 41-SNP panel  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate determination of genetic ancestry is of high interest for many areas such as biomedical research, personal genomics and forensics. It remains an important topic in genetic association studies, as it has been shown that population stratification, if not appropriately considered, can lead to false-positive and -negative results. While large association studies typically extract ancestry information from available genome-wide SNP genotypes, many important clinical data sets on rare phenotypes and historical collections assembled before the GWAS area are in need of a feasible method (i.e., ease of genotyping, small number of markers) to infer the geographic origin and potential admixture of the study subjects. Here we report on the development, application and limitations of a small, multiplexable ancestry informative marker (AIM) panel of SNPs (or AISNP) developed specifically for this purpose. Results Based on worldwide populations from the HGDP, a 41-AIM AISNP panel for multiplex application with the ABI SNPlex and a subset with 31 AIMs for the Sequenome iPLEX system were selected and found to be highly informative for inferring ancestry among the seven continental regions Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Central/South Asia, East Asia, the Americas and Oceania. The panel was found to be least informative for Eurasian populations, and additional AIMs for a higher resolution are suggested. A large reference set including over 4,000 subjects collected from 120 global populations was assembled to facilitate accurate ancestry determination. We show practical applications of this AIM panel, discuss its limitations for admixed individuals and suggest ways to incorporate ancestry information into genetic association studies. Conclusion We demonstrated the utility of a small AISNP panel specifically developed to discern global ancestry. We believe that it will find wide application because of its feasibility and potential for a wide range of applications. PMID:23815888

2013-01-01

414

Evidence for the evolutionary origin of human chromosome 21 from comparative gene mapping in the cow and mouse  

SciTech Connect

To determine the extent of conservation between bovine syntenic group U10, human chromosome 21 (HSA 21), and mouse chromosome 16(MMU 16), 11 genes were physically mapped by segregation analysis in a bovine-hamster hybrid somatic cell panel. The genes chosen for study span MMU 16 and represent virtually the entire q arm of HSA 21. Because the somatostatin gene (SST), an HSA 3/MMU 16 locus, was previously shown to be in U10, the transferrin gene (TF), an HSA 3/MMU 9 marker, was also mapped to determine whether U10 contains any HSA 3 genes not represented on MMU 16. With the exception of the protamine gene PRM1 (HSA 16/MMU 16), all of the genes studies were syntenic on bovine U10. Thus, all homologous loci from HSA 21 that have been studied in the cow are on a single chromosome. The bovine homolog of HSA 21 also carries several HSA 3 genes, two of which have homologous loci on MMU 16. The syntenic association of genes from the q arm of HSA 3 with HSAS 21 genes in two mammalian species, the mouse and the cow, indicates that HSA 21 may have evolved from a larger ancestral mammalian chromosome that contained genes now residing on HSA 3. Additionally, the syntenic association of TF with SST in the cow permits the prediction that the rhodopsin gene (RHO) is proximal to TF on HSA 3q.

Threadgill, D.S.; Womack, J.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)); Kraus, J.P. (Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver (United States)); Krawetz, S.A. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States))

1991-01-01

415

[The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water. PMID:23680749

Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

2013-04-01

416

Structural Origins for the Loss of Catalytic Activities of Bifunctional Human LTA4H Revealed through Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

PubMed Central

Human leukotriene A4 hydrolase (hLTA4H), which is the final and rate-limiting enzyme of arachidonic acid pathway, converts the unstable epoxide LTA4 to a proinflammatory lipid mediator LTB4 through its hydrolase function. The LTA4H is a bi-functional enzyme that also exhibits aminopeptidase activity with a preference over arginyl tripeptides. Various mutations including E271Q, R563A, and K565A have completely or partially abolished both the functions of this enzyme. The crystal structures with these mutations have not shown any structural changes to address the loss of functions. Molecular dynamics simulations of LTA4 and tripeptide complex structures with functional mutations were performed to investigate the structural and conformation changes that scripts the observed differences in catalytic functions. The observed protein-ligand hydrogen bonds and distances between the important catalytic components have correlated well with the experimental results. This study also confirms based on the structural observation that E271 is very important for both the functions as it holds the catalytic metal ion at its location for the catalysis and it also acts as N-terminal recognition residue during peptide binding. The comparison of binding modes of substrates revealed the structural changes explaining the importance of R563 and K565 residues and the required alignment of substrate at the active site. The results of this study provide valuable information to be utilized in designing potent hLTA4H inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:22848428

Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; John, Shalini; Lazar, Prettina; Choi, Sun; Lee, Keun Woo

2012-01-01

417

Cosmic ray variations of solar origin in relation to human physiological state during the December 2006 solar extreme events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing amount of evidence linking biological effects to solar and geomagnetic disturbances. A series of studies is published referring to the changes in human physiological responses at different levels of geomagnetic activity. In this study, the possible relation between the daily variations of cosmic ray intensity, measured by the Neutron Monitor at the Cosmic Ray Station of the University of Athens (http://cosray.phys.uoa.gr) and the average daily and hourly heart rate variations of persons, with no symptoms or hospital admission, monitored by Holter electrocardiogram, is considered. This work refers to a group of persons admitted to the cardiological clinic of the KAT Hospital in Athens during the time period from 4th to 24th December 2006 that is characterized by extreme solar and geomagnetic activity. A series of Forbush decreases started on 6th December and lasted until the end of the month and a great solar proton event causing a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) of the cosmic ray intensity on 13th December occurred. A sudden decrease of the cosmic ray intensity on 15th December, when a geomagnetic storm was registered, was also recorded in Athens Neutron Monitor station (cut-off rigidity 8.53 GV) with amplitude of 4%. It is noticed that during geomagnetically quiet days the heart rate and the cosmic ray intensity variations are positively correlated. When intense cosmic ray variations, like Forbush decreases and relativistic proton events produced by strong solar phenomena occur, cosmic ray intensity and heart rate get minimum values and their variations, also, coincide. During these events the correlation coefficient of these two parameters changes and follows the behavior of the cosmic ray intensity variations. This is only a small part of an extended investigation, which has begun using data from the year 2002 and is still in progress.

Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Vassilaki, A.; Kelesidis, K. M.; Mertzanos, G. A.; Petropoulos, B.

2009-02-01

418

Irish Cepaea nemoralis Land Snails Have a Cryptic Franco-Iberian Origin That Is Most Easily Explained by the Movements of Mesolithic Humans  

PubMed Central

The origins of flora and fauna that are only found in Ireland and Iberia, but which are absent from intervening countries, is one of the enduring questions of biogeography. As Southern French, Iberian and Irish populations of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis sometimes have a similar shell character, we used mitochondrial phylogenies to begin to understand if there is a shared “Lusitanian” history. Although much of Europe contains snails with A and D lineages, by far the majority of Irish individuals have a lineage, C, that in mainland Europe was only found in a restricted region of the Eastern Pyrenees. A past extinction of lineage C in the rest of Europe cannot be ruled out, but as there is a more than 8000 year continuous record of Cepaea fossils in Ireland, the species has long been a food source in the Pyrenees, and the Garonne river that flanks the Pyrenees is an ancient human route to the Atlantic, then we suggest that the unusual distribution of the C lineage is most easily explained by the movements of Mesolithic humans. If other Irish species have a similarly cryptic Lusitanian element, then this raises the possibility of a more widespread and significant pattern. PMID:23840368

Grindon, Adele J.; Davison, Angus

2013-01-01

419

Human ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1): Genomic organization and identification of the genetic defect in the original Tangier disease kindred  

PubMed Central

Tangier disease is characterized by low serum high density lipoproteins and a biochemical defect in the cellular efflux of lipids to high density lipoproteins. ABC1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette family, recently has been identified as the defective gene in Tangier disease. We report here the organization of the human ABC1 gene and the identification of a mutation in the ABC1 gene from the original Tangier disease kindred. The organization of the human ABC1 gene is similar to that of the mouse ABC1 gene and other related ABC genes. The ABC1 gene contains 49 exons that range in size from 33 to 249 bp and is over 70 kb in length. Sequence analysis of the ABC1 gene revealed that the proband for Tangier disease was homozygous for a deletion of nucleotides 3283 and 3284 (TC) in exon 22. The deletion results in a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon starting at nucleotide 3375. The product is predicted to encode a nonfunctional protein of 1,084 aa, which is approximately half the size of the full-length ABC1 protein. The loss of a Mnl1 restriction site, which results from the deletion, was used to establish the genotype of the rest of the kindred. In summary, we report on the genomic organization of the human ABC1 gene and identify a frameshift mutation in the ABC1 gene of the index case of Tangier disease. These results will be useful in the future characterization of the structure and function of the ABC1 gene and the analysis of additional ABC1 mutations in patients with Tangier disease. PMID:10535983

Remaley, Alan T.; Rust, Stephan; Rosier, Marie; Knapper, Cathy; Naudin, Laurent; Broccardo, Cyril; Peterson, Katherine M.; Koch, Christine; Arnould, Isabelle; Prades, Catherine; Duverger, Nicholas; Funke, Harald; Assman, Gerd; Dinger, Maria; Dean, Michael; Chimini, Giovanna; Santamarina-Fojo, Silvia; Fredrickson, Donald S.; Denefle, Patrice; Brewer, H. Bryan

1999-01-01

420

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales, UK e-mail: edwinjamesburns@ gmail.com; ctw@cogsci.info Dual process models individuals with DP and a group of controls using an R/K paradigm while recording electroencephalogram (EEG, electroencephalogram (EEG) INTRODUCTION Prosopagnosia is a selective face perception disorder character- ized

Weidemann, Christoph

421

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

on the self-referential brain network in social anxiety disorder Philippe Goldin*, Michal Ziv, Hooria Jazaieri. The relationship of self- views to social functioning is especially salient in the clinical con- text of social.00295 Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction versus aerobic exercise: effects

Gross, James J.

422

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

.00038 Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks Wendy Hasenkamp to examine the effect of meditation experience on brain networks under- lying cognitive actions employed fluctuations that occur during the practice of focused attention meditation.This model specifies four intervals

Barsalou, Lawrence W.

423

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

a confirmation bias effect in that associations to being "stupid" led to a gradual decrease in performance the memory process. This model explains both the confirmation bias and double dissociation effects and demon. Fitting the computational model to experimental data confirmed our hypothesis that priming affects

Penny, Will

424

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Germany Reviewed by: Shozo Tobimatsu, Kyushu University related to the cortical magnification properties and functional activity of early visual areas, including

Tong, Frank

425

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

neglect patients attend more to their affected side. Keywords: neglect, stroke, rehabilitation, music, Goldsmiths University of London, London, UK Edited by: Eckart Altenm�ller, University of Music and Drama' left side achieved during keyboard scale-playing, the current study employed a musical intervention

Malfait, Nicole

426

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

musical sequences for music performance. Keywords: music performance, learning, memory, hippocampus, brain.00694 New learning of music after bilateral medial temporal lobe damage: evidence from an amnesic patient declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether

McCloskey, Michael

427

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

,emotion,andmotivation(arousaleffect). The present study further investigates the positive impact of music on memory for non-linguistic material.00294 Music as a mnemonic to learn gesture sequences in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease Aline Moussard1 for Brain, Music and Sound Research (BRAMS), Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada 5 Centre

428

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

and degree of cortical folding) is an important cerebral character- istic related to the geometry in the process of meditation, such as daydreaming, mind-wandering, and projections into past or future. Moreover

Gaser, Christian

429

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

of awareness was required, thus ruling out motor confounds. A receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve-central deflection peaking 20­100 ms after the erroneous response, and the error positivity (Pe; Falkenstein et al

Nieuwenhuis, Sander

430

Peat Bog Archives: from human history, vegetation change and Holocene climate, to atmospheric dusts and trace elements of natural and anthropogenic origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For at least two centuries, peat has been recognized as an excellent archive of environmental change. William Rennie (1807), for example, interpreted stratigraphic changes in Scottish bogs not only in terms of natural changes in paleoclimate, but was also able to identify environmental changes induced by humans, namely deforestation and the hydrological impacts which result from such activities. The use of bogs as archives of climate change in the early 20th century was accelerated by studies of fossil plant remains such as those by Lewis in Scotland, and by systematic investigations of pollen grains pioneered by von Post in Sweden. In Denmark, Glob outlined the remarkably well-preserved remains of bog bodies and associated artefacts (of cloth, wood, ceramic and metal) in Danish bogs. In Britain, Godwin provided an introduction to the use of bogs as archives of human history, vegetation change, and Holocene climate, with a more recent survey provided by Charman. Recent decades have provided many mineralogical studies of peat and there is growing evidence that many silicate minerals, whether derived from the surrounding watershed or the atmosphere (soil-derived dusts and particles emitted from volcanoes), also are well preserved in anoxic peatland waters. Similarly, geochemical studies have shown that a long list of trace metals, of both natural and anthropogenic origin, also are remarkably well preserved in peat bogs. Thus, there is growing evidence that ombrotrophic (ie 'rain-fed') peat bogs are reliable archives of atmospheric deposition of a wide range of trace elements, including conservative, lithogenic metals such as Al, Sc, Ti, Y, Zr, Hf and the REE, but also the potentially toxic Class B, or 'heavy metals' such as Cu, Ag, Hg, Pb, Sb and Tl. When high quality measurements of these elements is combined with accurate radiometric age dating, it becomes possible to create high resolution reconstructions of atmospheric soil dust fluxes, ancient and modern metal pollution, and Holocene climate change.

Shotyk, William

2010-05-01

431

Requirement of T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase for TRAIL resistance of human HeLa cervical cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) appears to be highly expressed in various cancer cells and to play an important role in maintaining proliferation of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism by which TOPK regulates growth of cancer cells remains elusive. Here we report that upregulated endogenous TOPK augments resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Stable knocking down of TOPK markedly increased TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of human HeLa cervical cancer cells, as compared with control cells. Caspase 8 or caspase 3 activities in response to TRAIL were greatly incremented in TOPK-depleted cells. Ablation of TOPK negatively regulated TRAIL-mediated NF-{kappa}B activity. Furthermore, expression of NF-{kappa}B-dependent genes, FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1), or X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was reduced in TOPK-depleted cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that TOPK contributed to TRAIL resistance of cancer cells via NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that TOPK might be a potential molecular target for successful cancer therapy using TRAIL.

Kwon, Hyeok-Ran [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Konyang University, 685 Gasuwon-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Konyang University, 685 Gasuwon-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Won [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Zigang [Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Avenue NE, Austin, MN 55912 (United States)] [Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Avenue NE, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Lee, Kyung Bok [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Konyang University, 685 Gasuwon-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Konyang University, 685 Gasuwon-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang-Muk, E-mail: sangmuk_oh@konyang.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Konyang University, 685 Gasuwon-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Konyang University, 685 Gasuwon-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-01

432

Slipping through the Cracks: The Taxonomic Impediment Conceals the Origin and Dispersal of Haminoea japonica, an Invasive Species with Impacts to Human Health  

PubMed Central

Haminoea japonica is a species of opisthobranch sea slug native to Japan and Korea. Non-native populations have spread unnoticed for decades due to difficulties in the taxonomy of Haminoea species. Haminoea japonica is associated with a schistosome parasite in San Francisco Bay, thus further spread could have consequence to human health and economies. Anecdotal evidence suggests that H. japonica has displaced native species of Haminoea in North America and Europe, becoming locally dominant in estuaries and coastal lagoons. In this paper we study the population genetics of native and non-native populations of H. japonica based on mt-DNA data including newly discovered populations in Italy and France. The conclusions of this study further corroborate a Northeastern Japan origin for the non-native populations and suggest possible independent introductions into North America and Europe. Additionally, the data obtained revealed possible secondary introductions within Japan. Although non-native populations have experienced severe genetic bottlenecks they have colonized different regions with a broad range of water temperatures and other environmental conditions. The environmental tolerance of this species, along with its ability to become dominant in invaded areas and its association with a schistosome parasite, suggest H. japonica could be a dangerous invasive species. PMID:24098588

Hanson, Dieta; Cooke, Samantha; Hirano, Yayoi; Malaquias, Manuel A. E.; Crocetta, Fabio; Valdes, Angel

2013-01-01

433

Comparative Evaluation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Fetal (Wharton's Jelly) and Adult (Adipose Tissue) Origin during Prolonged In Vitro Expansion: Considerations for Cytotherapy  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are somatic cells with a dual capacity for self-renewal and differentiation, and diverse therapeutic applicability, both experimentally and in the clinic. These cells can be isolated from various human tissues that may differ anatomically or developmentally with relative ease. Heterogeneity due to biological origin or in vitro manipulation is, nevertheless, considerable and may equate to differences in qualitative and quantitative characteristics which can prove crucial for successful therapeutic use. With this in mind, in the present study we have evaluated the proliferation kinetics and phenotypic characteristics of MSCs derived from two abundant sources, that is, fetal umbilical cord matrix (Wharton's jelly) and adult adipose tissue (termed WJSC and ADSC, resp.) during prolonged in vitro expansion, a process necessary for obtaining cell numbers sufficient for clinical application. Our results show that WJSC are derived with relatively high efficiency and bear a substantially increased proliferation capacity whilst largely sustaining the expression of typical immunophenotypic markers, whereas ADSC exhibit a reduced proliferation potential showing typical signs of senescence at an early stage. By combining kinetic with phenotypic data we identify culture thresholds up to which both cell types maintain their stem properties, and we discuss the practical implications of their differences. PMID:23533440

Christodoulou, I.; Kolisis, F. N.; Papaevangeliou, D.; Zoumpourlis, V.

2013-01-01

434

U-series and ESR analyses of bones and teeth relating to the human burials from Skhul  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to resolve long-standing issues surrounding the age of the Skhul early modern humans, new analyses have been conducted, including the dating of four well-provenanced fossils by ESR and U-series. If the Skhul burials took place within a relatively short time span, then the best age estimate lies between 100 and 135ka. This result agrees very well with TL

Rainer Grün; Chris Stringer; Frank McDermott; Roger Nathan; Naomi Porat; Steve Robertson; Lois Taylor; Graham Mortimer; Stephen Eggins; Malcolm McCulloch

2005-01-01

435

Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment  

PubMed Central

The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

Trinkaus, Erik

2011-01-01

436

* This Policy was originally issued as the Columbia University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2005 and  

E-print Network

reproductive cloning. This Policy only applies to human embryos and human embryonic stem cells and does University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2013. August 5, 2013 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY POLICY ON THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH WITH HUMAN EMBRYOS AND HUMAN

Grishok, Alla

437

* This Policy was originally issued as the Columbia University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2005 and  

E-print Network

for human reproductive cloning. This Policy only applies to human embryos and human embryonic stem cells as a human subject under 45 C.F.R. Part 46, that is derived by fertilization, parthenogenesis, cloning or any University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8

Qian, Ning

438

The Origin of Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys place in the world that is still controversial today. It is both a brilliant

Charles Darwin

2005-01-01

439

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli O1:K1:H7/NM from human and avian origin: detection of clonal groups B2 ST95 and D ST59 with different host distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains of serotype O1:K1:H7/NM are frequently implicated in neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections and septicemia in humans. They are also commonly isolated from colibacillosis in poultry. Studies to determine the similarities of ExPEC from different origins have indicated that avian strains potentially have zoonotic properties. Results A total of 59 ExPEC O1:K1:H7/NM isolates (21 from avian colibacillosis, 15 from human meningitis, and 23 from human urinary tract infection and septicemia) originated from four countries were characterized by phylogenetic PCR grouping, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and genotyping based on several genes known for their association with ExPEC or avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) virulence. APEC and human ExPEC isolates differed significantly in their assignments to phylogenetic groups, being phylogroup B2 more prevalent among APEC than among human ExPEC (95% vs. 53%, P = 0.001), whereas phylogroup D was almost exclusively associated with human ExPEC (47% vs. 5%, P = 0.0000). Seven virulence genes showed significant differences, being fimAvMT78 and sat genes linked to human isolates, while papGII, tsh, iron, cvaC and iss were significantly associated to APEC. By MLST, 39 of 40 ExPEC belonging to phylogroup B2, and 17 of 19 belonging to phylogroup D exhibited the Sequence Types (STs) ST95 and ST59, respectively. Additionally, two novel STs (ST1013 and ST1006) were established. Considering strains sharing the same ST, phylogenetic group, virulence genotype and PFGE cluster to belong to the same subclone, five subclones were detected; one of those grouped six strains of human and animal origin from two countries. Conclusion Present results reveal that the clonal group B2 O1:K1:H7/NM ST95, detected in strains of animal and human origin, recovered from different dates and geographic sources, provides evidence that some APEC isolates may act as potential pathogens for humans and, consequently, poultry as a foodborne source, suggesting no host specificity for this type of isolates. A novel and important finding has been the detection of the clonal group D O1:K1:H7/NM ST59 almost exclusively in humans, carrying pathogenic genes linked to the phylogenetic group D. This finding would suggest D O1:K1:H7/NM ST59 as a host specific pathotype for humans. PMID:19583828

2009-01-01

440

Anal Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men by Geographical Origin, Age, and Cytological Status in a Spanish Cohort  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23966501

Torres, Montserrat; Gonzalez, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Fortunez, Patricia; Masia, Mar; Blanco, Jose Ramon; Portilla, Joaquin; Rodriguez, Carmen; Hernandez-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia

2013-01-01

441

African Origin of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 (HTLV-2) Supported by a Potential New HTLV-2d Subtype in Congolese Bambuti Efe Pygmies  

PubMed Central

We identified a potential new subtype within human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), HTLV-2d, present in members of an isolated Efe Bambuti Pygmy tribe. Two of 23 Efe Pygmies were HTLV-2 seropositive, with HTLV-2 Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivities. From one of them the entire genome of the HTLV-2 strain Efe2 could be amplified and sequenced. In all gene regions analyzed, this strain was the most divergent HTLV-2 strain, differing by 2.4% (tax/rex) to 10.7% (long terminal repeat) from both subtypes HTLV-2a and HTLV-2b, yet major functional elements are conserved. The similarity between the HTLV-2 Efe2 Gag and Env proteins and the corresponding HTLV-2a and -2b proteins is consistent with the observed serological reactivity. In the proximal pX region, one of the two alternative splice acceptor sites is abolished in HTLV-2 Efe2. Another interesting feature of this potential new subtype is that it has a Tax protein of 344 amino acids (aa), which is intermediate in length between the HTLV-2a Tax protein (331 aa) and the HTLV-2b and -2c Tax proteins (356 aa) and similar to the simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (STLV-2) PP1664 Tax protein. Together these two findings suggest a different phenotype for the HTLV-2 Efe2 strain. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the Pygmy Efe2 strain potentially belonged to a new and quite divergent subtype, HTLV-2d. When the STLV-2 bonobo viruses PP1664 and PanP were used as an outgroup, it was clear that the Pygmy HTLV-2 Efe2 strain had the longest independent evolution and that HTLV-2 evolution is consistent with an African origin. PMID:9557723

Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Salemi, Marco; Van Brussel, Marianne; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Van Laethem, Kristel; Van Ranst, Marc; Michels, Ludovic; Desmyter, Jan; Goubau, Patrick

1998-01-01

442

Originality & Attribution  

E-print Network

21 Originality & Attribution A guide for student writers atVassar College #12;1 Foreword: A Guide for Student Writers at Vassar College, the pamphlet has proved extraordinarily valuable within comprised of "tips" to students from the student members of the panel. The final section, which contains

Smith, Marc L.

443

Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.  

PubMed

Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages. PMID:18000894

Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

2008-04-01

444

* This Policy was originally issued as the Columbia University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2005 and  

E-print Network

technology or somatic cell nuclear transfer for human reproductive cloning. Columbia University recognizes, that is derived by fertilization, parthenogenesis, cloning or any other means from one or more human gametes University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8

Shepard, Kenneth

445

Identification of novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids and a Tn5406-like transposon in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis of human and animal origin.  

PubMed

Nine staphylococcal strains of human and animal origin with a lincomycin-resistant/erythromycin-susceptible phenotype and carrying vga genes were characterised to determine the genetic elements involved in the dissemination of these uncommon resistance genes. These strains were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and/or spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Presence of the genes lnu(A), lnu(B), vga(A), vga(A)v, vga(B), vga(C), vga(E), lsa(B) and cfr was studied by PCR. Transformation experiments were carried out in all strains, and the plasmid or chromosomal gene location was determined by Southern blot analysis. Genetic environments of the vga genes were analysed by PCR mapping or inverse PCR and sequencing. Five meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 strains and three Staphylococcus epidermidis strains harboured the gene vga(A), and one MRSA-ST8 strain contained the gene vga(A)v. One MRSA-ST398 strain, which also contained the gene lnu(A), showed the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to lincomycin. The vga(A)v-positive strain presented lower MIC values than the vga(A)-positive strains. Presence of the pVGA plasmid was confirmed in two MRSA-ST398 strains. Four novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids were detected: pUR2355 (in two MRSA and one meticillin-susceptible S. epidermidis); pUR4128 (one MRSA); pUR3036 [one meticillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE)]; and pUR3937 (one MRSE). The plasmid pUR4128 was very similar to pUR2355. Plasmids pUR3036 and pUR3937 were related and were very similar to plasmid pSE-12228-06. The gene vga(A)v was located in a transposon analogous to Tn5406. Therefore, four novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids and a variant of Tn5406 were identified in this study. PMID:22901706

Lozano, Carmen; Aspiroz, Carmen; Rezusta, Antonio; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Simon, Carmen; Gómez, Paula; Ortega, Carmelo; Revillo, Maria José; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

2012-10-01

446

Humanizing self-administered surveys: experiments on social presence in web and IVR surveys ? ? An earlier version of this paper was originally presented at the CHI '01 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems in Seattle, Washington in April, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social interface theory has had widespread influence within the field of human–computer interaction. The basic thesis is that humanizing cues in a computer interface can engender responses from users similar to those produced by interactions between humans. These humanizing cues often confer human characteristics on the interface (such as gender) or suggest that the interface is an agent actively interacting

Roger Tourangeau; Mick P Couper; Darby M Steiger

2003-01-01

447

The interplanetary superhighway and the Origins Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of the universe and of life itself have been central to human inquiries since the dawn of consciousness. To develop and use the technologies to answer these timeless and profound questions is the mission of NASA's Origins Program.

Lo, M. W.

2002-01-01

448

The Origin of Homo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a steady increase in the number and diversity of African Middle Pliocene hominin fossils, paleoanthropolo-gists are\\u000a not now substantially closer to understanding the temporal, geographical or ecological contexts of the origin of the Homo clade than was the case in 1964, when Louis Leakey, Phillip Tobias and John Napier introduced Homo habilis as the earliest species of the human

William H. Kimbel

449