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1

Recovering the geographic origin of early modern humans by realistic and spatially explicit simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most genetic and archeological evidence argue in favor of a recent and unique origin of modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa, but no attempt has ever been made at quantifying the likelihood of this model, relative to alternative hypotheses of human evolution. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using multilocus genetic data to correctly infer the geographic origin of

Nicolas Ray; Mathias Currat; Pierre Berthier; Laurent Excoffier

2005-01-01

2

Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario  

PubMed Central

The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa.

Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

2009-01-01

3

European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals  

PubMed Central

A consideration of the morphological aspects of the earliest modern humans in Europe (more than ?33,000 B.P.) and the subsequent Gravettian human remains indicates that they possess an anatomical pattern congruent with the autapomorphic (derived) morphology of the earliest (Middle Paleolithic) African modern humans. However, they exhibit a variable suite of features that are either distinctive Neandertal traits and/or plesiomorphic (ancestral) aspects that had been lost among the African Middle Paleolithic modern humans. These features include aspects of neurocranial shape, basicranial external morphology, mandibular ramal and symphyseal form, dental morphology and size, and anteroposterior dental proportions, as well as aspects of the clavicles, scapulae, metacarpals, and appendicular proportions. The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe. This interpretation is in agreement with current analyses of recent and past human molecular data.

Trinkaus, Erik

2007-01-01

4

An early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China  

PubMed Central

Thirty-four elements of an early modern human (EMH) were found in Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China in 2003. Dated to 42,000–39,000 calendrical years before present by using direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon, the Tianyuan 1 skeleton is among the oldest directly dated EMHs in eastern Eurasia. Morphological comparison shows Tianyuan 1 to have a series of derived modern human characteristics, including a projecting tuber symphyseos, a high anterior symphyseal angle, a broad scapular glenoid fossa, a reduced hamulus, a gluteal buttress, and a pilaster on the femora. Other features of Tianyuan 1 that are more common among EMHs are its modest humeral pectoralis major tuberosities, anteriorly rotated radial tuberosity, reduced radial curvature, and modest talar trochlea. It also lacks several mandibular features common among western Eurasian late archaic humans, including mandibular foramen bridging, mandibular notch asymmetry, and a large superior medial pterygoid tubercle. However, Tianyuan 1 exhibits several late archaic human features, such as its anterior to posterior dental proportions, a large hamulus length, and a broad and rounded distal phalangeal tuberosity. This morphological pattern implies that a simple spread of modern humans from Africa is unlikely.

Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Zhang, Shuangquan; Chen, Fuyou; Trinkaus, Erik

2007-01-01

5

Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human  

PubMed Central

We report here on the isotopic analysis of the diet of one of the oldest modern humans found in Eurasia, the Tianyuan 1 early modern human dating to ?40,000 calendar years ago from Tianyuan Cave (Tianyuandong) in the Zhoukoudian region of China. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of the human and associated faunal remains indicate a diet high in animal protein, and the high nitrogen isotope values suggest the consumption of freshwater fish. To confirm this inference, we measured the sulfur isotope values of terrestrial and freshwater animals around the Zhoukoudian area and of the Tianyuan 1 human, which also support the interpretation of a substantial portion of the diet from freshwater fish. This analysis provides the direct evidence for the consumption of aquatic resources by early modern humans in China and has implications for early modern human subsistence and demography.

Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Nehlich, Olaf; Liu, Wu; Zhao, Chaohong; Yu, Jincheng; Wang, Changsui; Trinkaus, Erik; Richards, Michael P.

2009-01-01

6

DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China.  

PubMed

Hominins with morphology similar to present-day humans appear in the fossil record across Eurasia between 40,000 and 50,000 y ago. The genetic relationships between these early modern humans and present-day human populations have not been established. We have extracted DNA from a 40,000-y-old anatomically modern human from Tianyuan Cave outside Beijing, China. Using a highly scalable hybridization enrichment strategy, we determined the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genome, the entire nonrepetitive portion of chromosome 21 (?30 Mbp), and over 3,000 polymorphic sites across the nuclear genome of this individual. The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans. They also show that this individual carried proportions of DNA variants derived from archaic humans similar to present-day people in mainland Asia. PMID:23341637

Fu, Qiaomei; Meyer, Matthias; Gao, Xing; Stenzel, Udo; Burbano, Hernán A; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

2013-01-22

7

Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans  

PubMed Central

We report here on the direct isotopic evidence for Neanderthal and early modern human diets in Europe. Isotopic methods indicate the sources of dietary protein over many years of life, and show that Neanderthals had a similar diet through time (?120,000 to ?37,000 cal BP) and in different regions of Europe. The isotopic evidence indicates that in all cases Neanderthals were top-level carnivores and obtained all, or most, of their dietary protein from large herbivores. In contrast, early modern humans (?40,000 to ?27,000 cal BP) exhibited a wider range of isotopic values, and a number of individuals had evidence for the consumption of aquatic (marine and freshwater) resources. This pattern includes Oase 1, the oldest directly dated modern human in Europe (?40,000 cal BP) with the highest nitrogen isotope value of all of the humans studied, likely because of freshwater fish consumption. As Oase 1 was close in time to the last Neanderthals, these data may indicate a significant dietary shift associated with the changing population dynamics of modern human emergence in Europe.

Richards, Michael P.; Trinkaus, Erik

2009-01-01

8

Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards  

PubMed Central

Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters.

Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S.; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Muller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C.; Stringer, Chris B.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Muller, Ulrich C.; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jorg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

2012-01-01

9

Evidence for Hominid Predation at Klasies River Mouth, South Africa, and its Implications for the Behaviour of Early Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

I report the results of a microscopic study of the bone modification in the identified bovid assemblage from Cave 1 at Klasies River Mouth (KRM), in South Africa. The study was undertaken in an effort to resolve divergent interpretations of the predatory competence of the early modern humans there. The microscopic data suggest that the hominids had relatively unrestricted access

Richard G. Milo

1998-01-01

10

No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been

David Serre; André Langaney; Mario Chech; Maria Teschler-Nicola; Maja Paunovic; Philippe Mennecier; Michael Hofreiter; Göran Possnert; Svante Pääbo

2004-01-01

11

ESR dating evidence for early modern humans at Border Cave in South Africa.  

PubMed

The archaeological and hominid site of Border Cave (KwaZulu, South Africa) has a stratigraphic sequence covering the Middle and Later Stone Ages (MSA and LSA). It has been proposed that four hominid specimens recovered there (BC1 and BC2 of uncertain provenance, and BC3 and BC5 recovered from MSA layers) represent very early examples of anatomically modern humans, supporting an early late-Pleistocene appearance of modern Homo sapiens in Africa. This early appearance, however, has been questioned, largely because of doubts about the stratigraphic positions associated with the specimens and because of the lack of a reliable chronology for the stratigraphic sequence. We now report on the first comprehensive radiometric dating analysis of Border Cave, using electron spin resonance (ESR) on teeth within sediment layers. BC3 is likely to be approximately 70-80 kyr old, and BC5, 50-65 kyr old. BC1 and BC2 are almost certainly less than 90 kyr old. These results, although younger than some age estimates, support the early occurrence of anatomically modern humans at Border Cave. In addition, our results suggest that the Howiesons Poort lithic industry (approximately 45-75 kyr) and the MSA-LSA transition (approximately 35 kyr) are younger than often believed. PMID:2157165

Grün, R; Beaumont, P B; Stringer, C B

1990-04-01

12

A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa approximately 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant approximately 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of-now buried-fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa. PMID:18936490

Osborne, Anne H; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

2008-10-20

13

A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa ?150–200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant ?120–90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130–117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of—now buried—fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa.

Osborne, Anne H.; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J.; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

2008-01-01

14

A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration "Out of Africa" of early modern humans 120,000 years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climatic history of the Sahara in the Quaternary is likely to have been a key control on the history of human migrations out of Africa. For example, it is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub- Saharan Africa around 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyper-arid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant around 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during the humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of - now buried - fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. This would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age (MSA) Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. We have previously used neodymium and oxygen isotope data to suggest that there was enhanced Nile outflow to the Levantine Sea during Saharan humid periods in Stage 5e and the Holocene1. Here, however, we present further geochemical data which suggest that the freshwater signal from Africa was much stronger further west in the Ionian Sea. Furthermore, analyses of shell samples retrieved from the Libyan fossil river channels traces the geochemical signature found in the Ionian Sea to the Tibesti Mountains in the southern Sahara. These data demonstrate that water in the fossil river systems of the Sahara derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular, confirming the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa. 1Scrivner, A.E. et al. (2004) Geology 32, 565-568.

Osborne, A. H.; Vance, D.; Rohling, E. J.; Barton, N.; Rogerson, M.; Fello, N.

2008-12-01

15

Early modern experimentation on live animals.  

PubMed

Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli's work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my study include Johannes Walaeus, Jean Pecquet, Marcello Malpighi, Reinier de Graaf, Richard Lower, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters expanded the range of practices and epistemic motivations associated with it, displaying considerable technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive and the issue of generalizing results to humans. Many practitioners expressed great discomfort at the suffering of the animals; however, many remained convinced that their investigations were not only indispensable from an epistemic standpoint but also had potential medical applications. Early modern vivisection experiments were both extensive and sophisticated and cannot be ignored in the literature of early modern experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time. PMID:22684270

Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

2013-01-01

16

Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus  

PubMed Central

Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins.

Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

2011-01-01

17

Never Married: Singlewomen in Early Modern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Never Married: Singlewomen in Early Modern England investigates a paradox in the history of early modern England: although one third of adult women were never married, these women have remained largely absent from historical scholarship. Amy Froide reintroduces us to the category of difference called marital status and to the significant ways it shaped the life experiences of early modern

Amy M. Froide

18

Postcolonial Revisions of the Early Modern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xhis special issue highlights the ongoing revision of early modern texts and contexts by contemporary novelists, playwrights, and filmmakers who may be termed “postcolonial.” 1 Complicating early modern and postcolonial studies through a dialogic approach to both, these essays focus on locations often marginalized in postcolonial studies, such as Turkey, Brazil, and Aboriginal Australia, while rethinking important touchstones for the

Bernadette Andrea; Mona Narain

2006-01-01

19

The Animal Other: Horse Training in Early Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This historical sociological analysis of the training of horses for competition in early modernity draws from the sociology of the body to suggest that animals as we know them are constructed through human social processes. Contemporary horse-care publications are used to demonstrate how equine bodies were shaped through an application of humoral physiological theory. That is, they were made suitable

Peter Mewett

2008-01-01

20

Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.  

PubMed

In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world. PMID:20509359

Nappi, Carla

2009-01-01

21

Subjectivity, Theory and Early Modern Drama  

Microsoft Academic Search

This forum has been organized, introduced, and edited by Viviana Comensoli with the aim of exploring current theoretical and critical approaches to the conceptualization and representation of subjectivity in English Renaissance drama. The introduction provides an overview of various poststructuralist theoretical approaches that since the 1980s have guided our thinking about the representation of early modern subjectivities, and calls for

Viviana Comensoli Viviana; Theodora Jankowski; Bryan Reynolds

2004-01-01

22

Remaking Media Participation in Early Modern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to begin to recover the multiplicity of media participation by focusing on its remaking during the spread and consolidation of a capitalist economy in early modern England. It develops a distinction between unidimensional and multidimensional conceptions of media participation, and uses this to identify and explore the implications of specific cultural forms and media practices which refashioned

James W. Hamilton

2003-01-01

23

Attending to Early Modern Women: Gender, Culture, and Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides annotated links to high quality academic resources useful for the study of women in early modern Europe and the Americas. Specific focus is on periods between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries; however, links also include some medieval and nineteenth century resources. Selected by members of the Arts and Humanities Team of the University of Maryland Libraries, materials range from bibliographic databases to full-text resources, images, and sound recordings. Viewers may search the database by keyword or browse by title, subject, reference type, time period, language, or geographic area. Although most of the resource links are free, some require a license for access.

2001-01-01

24

The Nature and Significance of Law in Early Modern Scholasticism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Scholasticism was an important feature of early modern philosophical thought. Before giving way to self-styled “modern” movements\\u000a in the second half of the seventeenth century, scholastic philosophy was ever present in many universities, colleges, academies,\\u000a and religious houses that supported philosophical learning throughout the early modern period. An eclectic intellectual phenomenon,\\u000a scholasticism embraced various positions that looked to ancient authorities

M. W. F. Stone

25

Outside Bets: Disciplining Gamblers in Early Modern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gambling house is one of the most visited places in early modern Spanish fiction, yet it still remains grossly overlooked in contemporary criticism. The first part of this essay provides an interdisciplinary reassessment of the topic by analyzing the economic, moral, and religious parameters that transformed the game of cards into a complex and multivalent issue, fascinating and polemical

2009-01-01

26

Orphans and adoption in early modern Castilian villages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high mortality rates of early modern rural Castile left multitudes of children without mothers and fathers. Castilian villagers found various informal ways to deal with these children: many were placed in adoptive homes; others in service or with guardians. Increasingly, though, the responsibility was institutionalized, as foundling hospices became centers for receiving and distributing orphans. The transfers of children

David E. Vassberg

1998-01-01

27

Lyric warriors, lyric women: Gendering Petrarchism in early modern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the circulation and adaptation of Petrarchan poetics in the literary discourse of early modern England. Specifically, I explore the construction of poetic subjectivity and authority for male and female poets writing in the wake of Petrarch. While previous research of Petrarchism in the period has been limited to the examination of a single genre or even a

Melanie E. Pitts

2003-01-01

28

Between Poland and Jerusalem: Kabbalistic Prayer in Early Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jewish mysticism in the early modern period was dominated by a specific tradition of meditative prayer, the practice of mystical kavvanot, or prayer intentions. This complex prayer represents a resurgence of a contemplative, if not meditative, system within Kabbalah. The central premise of the practice of kavvanot is that the adept’s contemplative mind is the agent of theurgic change. At

Pinchas Giller

2004-01-01

29

Ben Jonsons Alchemist and Early Modern Laboratory Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues that The Alchemist played an important but largely unrecognized part in the formation of early modern science. It shows how Jonson’s innovative combination of alchemical content and neoclassical form produced a model of space, time, and dexterity useful for the development of laboratory experience. At the same time, the play demonstrates how new ideas about what a

John Shanahan

2008-01-01

30

Jews, Christians, and the endtime in early modern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the ways in which early modern German literary culture portrayed Jewish visions of the endtime.\\u000a Christians employed notions of Jewish deceit to undermine the meaning of Jewish messianism, reshaping the signs of the endtime\\u000a to carry a far more sinister meaning. Christian writers transformed Jewish messianic claimants into predictable precursors\\u000a of the Antichrist and mocked

Elisheva Carlebach

2000-01-01

31

Gene losses during human origins.  

PubMed

Pseudogenization is a widespread phenomenon in genome evolution, and it has been proposed to serve as an engine of evolutionary change, especially during human origins (the "less-is-more" hypothesis). However, there has been no comprehensive analysis of human-specific pseudogenes. Furthermore, it is unclear whether pseudogenization itself can be selectively favored and thus play an active role in human evolution. Here we conduct a comparative genomic analysis and a literature survey to identify 80 nonprocessed pseudogenes that were inactivated in the human lineage after its separation from the chimpanzee lineage. Many functions are involved among these genes, with chemoreception and immune response being outstandingly overrepresented, suggesting potential species-specific features in these aspects of human physiology. To explore the possibility of adaptive pseudogenization, we focus on CASPASE12, a cysteinyl aspartate proteinase participating in inflammatory and innate immune response to endotoxins. We provide population genetic evidence that the nearly complete fixation of a null allele at CASPASE12 has been driven by positive selection, probably because the null allele confers protection from severe sepsis. We estimate that the selective advantage of the null allele is about 0.9% and the pseudogenization started shortly before the out-of-Africa migration of modern humans. Interestingly, two other genes related to sepsis were also pseudogenized in humans, possibly by selection. These adaptive gene losses might have occurred because of changes in our environment or genetic background that altered the threat from or response to sepsis. The identification and analysis of human-specific pseudogenes open the door for understanding the roles of gene losses in human origins, and the demonstration that gene loss itself can be adaptive supports and extends the "less-is-more" hypothesis. PMID:16464126

Wang, Xiaoxia; Grus, Wendy E; Zhang, Jianzhi

2006-02-14

32

Marginalia, commonplaces, and correspondence: scribal exchange in early modern science.  

PubMed

In recent years, historians of science have increasingly turned their attention to the "print culture" of early modern science. These studies have revealed that printing, as both a technology and a social and economic system, structured the forms and meanings of natural knowledge. Yet in early modern Europe, naturalists, including John Aubrey, John Evelyn, and John Ray, whose work is discussed in this paper, often shared and read scientific texts in manuscript either before or in lieu of printing. Scribal exchange, exemplified in the circulation of writings like commonplace books, marginalia, manuscript treatises, and correspondence, was the primary means by which communities of naturalists constructed scientific knowledge. Print and manuscript were necessary partners. Manuscript fostered close collaboration, and could be circulated relatively cheaply; but, unlike print, it could not reliably secure priority or survival for posterity. Naturalists approached scribal and print communication strategically, choosing the medium that best suited their goals at any given moment. As a result, print and scribal modes of disseminating information, constructing natural knowledge, and organizing communities developed in tandem. Practices typically associated with print culture manifested themselves in scribal texts and exchanges, and vice versa. "Print culture" cannot be hived off from "scribal culture." Rather, in their daily jottings and exchanges, naturalists inhabited, and produced, one common culture of communication. PMID:21486658

Yale, Elizabeth

2011-02-05

33

Renaissance plays as a useful source for the comparison between English and Croatian early modern medicine.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the differences between English and Croatian views of early modern medicine through the respective Renaissance plays. As Renaissance made no particular distinction between arts and sciences, plays of that time provide a very common source of medical narrative. During Renaissance both languages produced high literary achievements, which makes them exemplars among their Germanic and Slavic counterparts, and justifies this comparison, regardless of their significant differences. One should bear in mind that while England was a unified kingdom, with London as the major cultural centre, Croatia's division among the neighbouring powers produced several prominent cultural centres such as Zadar, Šibenik, Split, Hvar, Kor?ula, and the most important one, Dubrovnik. One should also bear in mind that the golden age of Croatian Renaissance plays had finished as early as 1567 with the death of Marin DrŽi?, before it even started in England with the foundation of the first permanent theatrical companies in 1576. Along these lines, this paper compares their early modern attitudes toward medicine in general and men and women practitioners in particular. In this respect, it evaluates the influences of the origin, patronage, and religion of their authors. Special attention is given to William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and Marin DrŽi? (1508-1567) as the exemplars of English and Croatian Renaissance literature. PMID:23094840

Atalic, Bruno

2012-01-01

34

[Foreigners and lepers as strangers in early modern imperial towns].  

PubMed

This paper provides insight into interdependent processes by which leprosy and foreignness were constructed in early modern Germany. The results are based on a case study and further source-samples from Imperial towns of the Swabian and Franconian district. As it seems the early modern period was characterized by an ambivalent attitude towards lepers resulting in a variety of ways of inclusion and of exclusion for these persons: The separation from certain forms of social life in the towns (and in the villages belonging to the respective territory) followed the "suspicion" by other inhabitants caused by physical "signs" and the confirmed diagnoses of leprosy by medical experts. Such alienation from one community was juxtaposed by a right to enter the towns in rather specific circumstances as group of alms-beggars or part of a festive community and to join the community of leprosaria. The admission to such houses on the other hand was associated with the status of a burgher, a status, however, which could not be gained by everybody and was not fixed for life but was flexible. We found evidence that the status of leprosarium-"burgher" could be negotiated, interchanged, abandoned by lepers or be granted, refused, denied, suspended by the authorities--temporarily and permanently. By such means affiliation and foreignness were constructed. Preliminary analysis of numbers at ceremonies suggest that a large number of lepers was mobile--whether voluntarily or forced has still to be found out. And they represented the double fold estranged who, albeit, were temporarily included into the celebrating or commemorating community. Such forms of inclusion of the excluded, on the other hand, caused suspicion of simulation which became increasingly the preoccupation of the authorities. PMID:21863698

Dross, Fritz; Kinzelbach, Annemarie

2011-01-01

35

Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.  

PubMed

In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data. PMID:16809862

McGough, Laura J

2006-01-01

36

Human origins: Out of Africa  

PubMed Central

Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent.

Tattersall, Ian

2009-01-01

37

Naomi Tadmor - Women and Wives: the Language of Marriage in Early Modern English Biblical Translations - History Workshop Journal 62:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article shows the ways in which an idiom of marriage became normative in early modern English translations of the Hebrew Bible. Focusing on successive biblical versions (especially from Tyndale's translation, published in 1530\\/1 and the first based on the Hebrew original, to the Authorized Version published in 1611), it shows how Hebrew terms relating to a variety of domestic

Naomi Tadmor

38

Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

Damsen, Silver

2009-01-01

39

Parental authority, legal practice, and state building in early modern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Set within the contexts of legal culture and the growth of the absolutist state, this study of early modern Burgundy reveals a more complex picture of family authority than has previously been acknowledged by historians. Implicitly, family disorder threatened the basis of political authority in early modern France. While the father was idealized, families and government officials wrestled with instances

Christopher Richard Corley

2001-01-01

40

Very now: Temporal aspects of melancholy in early modern English literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

To recent critical formulations regarding the role of humoral theory in early modern concepts of embodiment and emotion, this dissertation offers that the volatility of the self propounded by this theory provided correspondingly volatile structures of narrative to early modern English literature. Examining the works of Philip Sidney, William Shakespeare, and John Milton across a range of genres, and in

David Houston Wood

2004-01-01

41

Citizenship Beyond the State: Thinking with Early Modern Citizenship in the Contemporary World  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our introduction, we pose some of the broader questions raised by the interdisciplinary and inter-period work of our contributors, while also drawing upon our own research on early modern London and contemporary Mexico. We argue that elements of the early-modern tradition of urban citizenship have indeed survived alongside national citizenship, at least in certain contexts. Beyond that, we argue

Andrew Gordon; Trevor Stack

2007-01-01

42

Globalization and the Work of Fashion in Early Modern German Letters  

Microsoft Academic Search

As historians of the material cultures of Italy, England, India, China, and the Americas continue to reconstruct the early modern overseas trade in fashionable commodities, economic historians increasingly urge the study of early modern (or first-wave) globalism. Drawing on insights from this vast body of work, this essay explores the German Alamode discourse of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Bethany Wiggin

2011-01-01

43

Globalization and the Work of Fashion in Early Modern German Letters  

Microsoft Academic Search

: As historians of the material cultures of Italy, England, India, China, and the Americas continue to reconstruct the early modern overseas trade in fashionable commodities, economic historians increasingly urge the study of early modern (or first-wave) globalism. Drawing on insights from this vast body of work, this essay explores the German Alamode discourse of the seventeenth and early eighteenth

Bethany Wiggin

2011-01-01

44

Wild justice: The dynamics of gender and revenge in early modern English drama  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the role of the stage in cultural debate about revenge in early modern England. The theme of retribution was hugely popular in early modern drama, at a time when the emerging nation state sought to strengthen its sovereignty by monopolizing the right to punish. The stage's wide array of representations of revenge shaped the ways in which

K. Steenbergh

2007-01-01

45

Pe?tera cu Oase 2 and the cranial morphology of early modern Europeans  

PubMed Central

Between 2003 and 2005, the Pe?tera cu Oase, Romania yielded a largely complete early modern human cranium, Oase 2, scattered on the surface of a Late Pleistocene hydraulically displaced bone bed containing principally the remains of Ursus spelaeus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate an age of ?40.5 thousand calendar years before the present (?35 ka 14C B.P.). Morphological comparison of the adolescent Oase 2 cranium to relevant Late Pleistocene human samples documents a suite of derived modern human and/or non-Neandertal features, including absence of a supraorbital torus, subrectangular orbits, prominent canine fossae, narrow nasal aperture, level nasal floor, angled and anteriorly oriented zygomatic bones, a high neurocranium with prominent parietal bosses and marked sagittal parietal curvature, superiorly positioned temporal zygomatic root, vertical auditory porous, laterally bulbous mastoid processes, superiorly positioned posterior semicircular canal, absence of a nuchal torus and a suprainiac fossa, and a small occipital bun. However, these features are associated with an exceptionally flat frontal arc, a moderately large juxtamastoid eminence, extremely large molars that become progressively larger distally, complex occlusal morphology of the upper third molar, and relatively anteriorly positioned zygomatic arches. Moreover, the featureless occipital region and small mastoid process are at variance with the large facial skeleton and dentition. This unusual mosaic in Oase 2, some of which is paralleled in the Oase 1 mandible, indicates both complex population dynamics as modern humans dispersed into Europe and significant ongoing human evolution once modern humans were established within Europe.

Rougier, Helene; Milota, Stefan; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Gherase, Mircea; Sarcina, Laurentiu; Moldovan, Oana; Zilhao, Joao; Constantin, Silviu; Franciscus, Robert G.; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de Leon, Marcia; Trinkaus, Erik

2007-01-01

46

Dopamine and the Origins of Human Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general theory is proposed that attributes the origins of human intelligence to an expansion of dopaminergic systems in human cognition. Dopamine is postulated to be the key neurotransmitter regulating six predominantly left-hemispheric cognitive skills critical to human language and thought: motor planning, working memory, cognitive flexibility, abstract reasoning, temporal analysis\\/sequencing, and generativity. A dopaminergic expansion during early hominid evolution

Fred H. Previc

1999-01-01

47

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans On This Page Background Reporting ... Prevention Toolkit Other Flu Websites CDC Resources for Pandemic Flu Pandemic Flu Preparedness Tools Influenza Risk Assessment Tool ...

48

Walter Puchner - Early Modern Greek Drama: From Page to Stage - Journal of Modern Greek Studies 25:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial scholarly research on early Modern Greek drama was largely philological, but also entertained the possibility that these plays had a stage history. Evidence of a stage history for early modern Greek drama came to light in recent years indicating that there was more activity than anyone previously suspected. Evidence for theater performances in early modern Greece is now quite

Walter Puchner

2007-01-01

49

[Academy idea and Curiositas as leitmotif of the early modern Leopoldina].  

PubMed

Founded in 1652, the Academia Naturae Curiosorum fiercely defended this name, which it wished to bear. On the occasion of the founder's 400th birthday, this article will try to examine the objectives of the concept of academia and the understanding of curiositas in its historical context, with a focus on the early history of the academy up to its receipt of imperial privilege in 1687/88. This is done in four chapters (I-IV). The memorial occasion suggests a preliminary note on our contemporary situation: I. The Jubilee Triangle--Berlin (Berlin academies), Halle-Wittenberg (university), Schweinfurt-Halle (Leopoldina)--considering the fate of the different historical models of scholarly organizations before and after the political turnaround (die "Wende") in 1989/90. The main questions about the 17th century orient themselves around the founding documents, the imperial status of the foundational city, as well as the Bausch family's places of study, educational travels, and library.--II. The Imperially Privileged Leopoldina--"Academy" or "Society"? This question's point of departure is the incipient engagement--the year after J. L. Bausch died (1665)--of G. W. Leibniz, who had likewise earned his doctorate at the University of Altdorf. He was engaged for his state-based vision of society that considered scholarly critique of hitherto extant academies, including the curiosité of the Collegium Medicorum. The summing up of the naturae-curiosi's pursuit of imperial privilege emphasizes the denominational controversy, which pitted the imperial counsellors against the societal Nomen preferred by Vienna. The attempt to interpret both sides of the argument deals on the one hand with the semantic expansion to universities of the concept of academia, inspired by humanism and the reception of Roman law; this expansion also affected the imperial reservation rights (exemplary references to legal argumentation from the work on imperial publicity by Ch. Besold). On the other hand, it deals with aspects of privilege law, regarding the development of new kinds of higher learning institutions and university politics in the imperial city in the confessional era ("Semi-Universities"/"Academies" Strassburg, Nuremberg-Altdorf). This is followed by a thematic balancing.--Chapter III. Curiositas as an Early Modern Leitmotif of Natural Science Academies refers first to the multivalent popular usage of the fashionable and borrowed German word "Kuriosität" [curiosity] during the Enlightenment, then inquires about the word's original definitions in ancient and medieval scholarly traditions. In the age of humanist source study and expeditions into "new worlds", the concept of curiositas as an (ethically ambivalent) "desire for knowledge" was revitalized; this is exemplified by two types of sources: the report of the Orient and Brazil explorer André Thevet and the literarily virulent figure (around 1600) of knowledge-thirsty Faust. A reexamination of the academy's foundational documents, in conjunction with the peregrinatio academica of Schweinfurt doctors to Italy, confirms the old question, now newly posed, about the methodological and programmatic signal of the curiositas device. The self-reflection of the naturae-curiosi and their focus on observational development and natural-historical classifications in the area of "materia medica" show--besides other advances in scholarship in the early 17th century--clear correlation with the "phenomenology of modern thought" that is so often discussed today. However, there must be an evolutionary and innovative differentiation from what would later be called "natural science" disciplines (like biology, zoology, mineralogy, chemistry), as opposed to an all-inclusively defined "scientific revolution", which pertains to astronomical and mathematical ways of thinking, as well as new insights in the physical-instrumental field.--Chapter IV. The Urban Medical Profession Between Scholarly Medicin

Boehm, Laetitia

2008-01-01

50

Concerning the origin of handedness in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of right-handedness as the predominant chirality in humans seems to be related to the tendency of human (and presumably prehuman) mothers to hold infants on the left side. The latter practice has previously been ascribed to imprinting and the soothing sound of the mother's heartbeat on the infant. Given the practice of holding the child in this manner,

James E. Huheey

1977-01-01

51

Concerning the origin of handedness in humans.  

PubMed

The origin of right-handedness as the predominant chirality in humans seems to be related to the tendency of human (and presumably prehuman) mothers to hold infants on the left side. The latter practice has previously been ascribed to imprinting and the soothing sound of the mother's heartbeat on the infant. Given the practice of holding the child in this manner, dextral mothers will be more skillful at manipulation of objects and selectively favored. PMID:843315

Huheey, J E

1977-01-01

52

Early Modern ET, Reflexive Telescopics, and Their Relevance Today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The period from the discovery of Tycho's New Star in 1572 to Galileo's "geometrization of astronomical space" in 1610 (and the years following) saw the disintegration of the boundary between the sublunary and superlunary spheres—between the "lower storey" and "upper storey" of the Aristotelian Universe. This establishment of a strong physical affinity between the universe "up there" and the earthly realm "down here" was also complemented by the rise of Copernicanism: for once the Earth was seen as a planet, the other planets could readily be imagined as other Earths. This analogy suggested not only physical but also biological affinities and supported the plausibility of humans' capacity to travel to the Moon and beyond. Robert Burton—given the demise of Aristotle's physics—declared in 1621 that "If the heavens be penetrable … it were not amiss in this aerial progress to make wings and fly up." John Wilkins and Francis Godwin in the 1630s actively imagined creatures in the Moon and human journeys thither. The epic poet John Milton in 1667 hinted that "every star [is] perhaps a world / Of destined habitation." Moreover, space travel was no one-way street: Thomas Traherne in the 1670s imagined a dweller among the stars visiting Earth and remarking on what must be the condition of its inhabitants. In these and other ways, seventeenth-century writers offered serious and impressive speculation about extraterrestrial life and its possible perceptions of Earth. Such speculations remain pertinent to astrobiological theory today. What Hans Blumenberg in the 1970s called "reflexive telescopics"—the examination of Earth from an imagined extraterrestrial viewpoint—is an important counterpart to the search for life "out there." It serves as a reminder of the obvious but profound premise that Earth is part of the cosmos. At a popular level we often continue to speak of "outer space" as if the old "two-storey" picture of the universe still had some residual legitimacy. However, if Galileo, Wilkins, and other devotees of the New Astronomy were right about Earth's being a full participant in "the dance of the stars," then "outer" is a merely relative and parochial term, not a scientific or qualitative one. And it is no trivial claim to assert that the search for intelligent life in the universe has already identified its first specimens.

Danielson, Dennis

53

Elementary Education and the Practices of Literacy in Catholic Girls' Schools in Early Modern Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Girls' schools in the early modern era were largely run by nuns and can therefore be distinguished as Catholic institutions of learning. These schools flourished in the Catholic parts of Europe since the turn of the seventeenth century. Despite their focus on religious education, elementary skills such as reading, writing and sometimes arithmetic…

Rutz, Andreas

2012-01-01

54

Trading secrets: Jews and the early modern quest for clandestine knowledge.  

PubMed

This essay explores the significance and function of secrecy and secret sciences in Jewish-Christian relations and in Jewish culture in the early modern period. It shows how the trade in clandestine knowledge and the practice of secret sciences became a complex, sometimes hazardous space for contact between Jews and Christians. By examining this trade, the essay clarifies the role of secrecy in the early modern marketplace of knowledge. The attribution of secretiveness to Jews was a widespread topos in early modern European thought. However, relatively little is known about the implications of such beliefs in science or in daily life. The essay pays special attention to the fact that trade in secret knowledge frequently offered Jews a path to the center of power, especially at court. Furthermore, it becomes clear that the practice of secret sciences, the trade in clandestine knowledge, and a mercantile agenda were often inextricably interwoven. Special attention is paid to the Italian-Jewish alchemist, engineer, and entrepreneur Abramo Colorni (ca. 1544-1599), whose career illustrates the opportunities provided by the marketplace of secrets at that time. Much scholarly (and less scholarly) attention has been devoted to whether and what Jews "contributed" to what is commonly called the "Scientific Revolution." This essay argues that the question is misdirected and that, instead, we should pay more attention to the distinctive opportunities offered by the early modern economy of secrecy. PMID:23488236

Jütte, Daniel

2012-12-01

55

From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

Chamberland, Celeste

2013-01-01

56

The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in Early Modern English Drama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…

Cady, Christina J.

2010-01-01

57

The Literature of Domestic Travel in Early Modern England: The Journeys of John Taylor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early modern England, to ‘travel’ typically meant to leave the nation's shores. Yet acts of domestic travel were far more numerous and, arguably, more significant to the social and cultural history of the nation. What, then, did domestic travel mean in this period? And why is it so strangely erased from literary records? This essay, drawn from a larger

Andrew McRae

2008-01-01

58

From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

Chamberland, Celeste

2013-01-01

59

A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…

Maffioli, Cesare S.

2013-01-01

60

Elementary Education and the Practices of Literacy in Catholic Girls' Schools in Early Modern Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Girls' schools in the early modern era were largely run by nuns and can therefore be distinguished as Catholic institutions of learning. These schools flourished in the Catholic parts of Europe since the turn of the seventeenth century. Despite their focus on religious education, elementary skills such as reading, writing and sometimes arithmetic…

Rutz, Andreas

2012-01-01

61

Architecture of the human origin recognition complex.  

PubMed

All the human homologs of the six subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae origin recognition complex have been reported so far. However, not much has been reported on the nature and the characteristics of the human origin recognition complex. In an attempt to purify recombinant human ORC from insect cells infected with baculoviruses expressing HsORC subunits, we found that human ORC2, -3, -4, and -5 form a core complex. HsORC1 and HsORC6 subunits did not enter into this core complex, suggesting that the interaction of these two subunits with the core ORC2-5 complex is extremely labile. We found that the C-terminal region of ORC2 interacts directly with the N-terminal region of ORC3. The C-terminal region of ORC3 was, however, necessary to bring ORC4 and ORC5 into the core complex. A fragment containing the N-terminal 200 residues of ORC3 (ORC3N) competitively inhibited the ORC2-ORC3 interaction. Overexpression of this fragment in U2OS cells blocked the cells in G(1), providing the first evidence that a mammalian ORC subunit is important for the G(1)-S transition in mammalian cells. PMID:11395502

Dhar, S K; Delmolino, L; Dutta, A

2001-06-06

62

Genetic and Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of living Homo sapiens has once again been the subject of much debate. Genetic data on present human population relationships and data from the Pleistocene fossil hominid record are used to compare two contrasting models for the origin of modern humans. Both genetics and paleontology support a recent African origin for modern humans rather than a long period

C. B. Stringer; P. Andrews

1988-01-01

63

[The morphology of Silesian religiousness in early modern history: Socinianism and anabaptism].  

PubMed

In the 16th and 17th century religion and religiousness had been more important than today. This also applies to Silesia which ahd a particular position in Germany of the Early Modern History and kept close connections wtih Poland. Among the religious streams - Catholicism, Lutheranism, Calvinism - there were also potent religious substreams. Some thinkers (J. Böhme, H. Th. von Tschesch, A. von Franckenberg, D. Czepko a.o.) were based on Mysticism. This article deals with Socianism and Anabaptism. Principally the Socinianism had come from Poland to Silesia. Soon Silesians like A. Witrelin and G. Schomann - originally Calvinists - represented it. Centres of German Socianians were situated in Small Poland near the Silesian border: Schmiegel (near Lissa resp. Fraustadt, Bobelwitz (near Meseritz) and Kosten (Posener Country). The Thirty Years War and the Polish-Swedish War supported the reciprocal emigration of Polish and Silesian Protestants and Socinians. And the tolerance, too! Since 1655-1660 the emigration of Polish Socinians has extended - also to Silesia. Furthermore some basic principles of the Unitarism (Socinianism) and concepts of the Anabaptists in Silesia are described, the latter especially in their connection to the Socinians. Since 1526/27 Anabaptists - led by B. Hubmaier, O. Glaidt, S. Froschauer, A. Fischer, G. Ascherham a.o. - have settled in Breslau and in the areas around Glogau and Liegnitz. Approximately since 1538 no Anabaptists have been in Silesia anymore, they have affiliated to the Antitrinitarism in Poland since 1562. From the second half of the 16th to the first half of the 17th century many German Socinians went to Poland and operated there (e.g. V. Schmalz, J. Völkel, M. Ruar). Among the theorists, who worked in Silesia resp. who came from there, are counted J. Felbinger, M Scheffer (Schäfer), Th. Pisecki, A. Dudith, G. and D. Vechner, A. Wissowatius, Pater Matthias, S. Pistorius, G. Manlius, J. Licinius, M. Seidel, J. Pastorius von Hirtenberg and others. The connection between the Socinians and the Bohemian Brothers (J. A. Comenius) is mentioned, as a Cryptosocinianism at the "Akademisches Gymnasium" in Beuthen/Oder. In 1663 the Socinians held a synod in Kreuzberg. PMID:15648113

Wollgast, Siegfried

2003-01-01

64

Human Origins Program: In Search of What Makes Us Human  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Human Origins Program at the Smithsonian "is dedicated to understanding the biological and cultural foundations of human life." Their new site gives visitors an accessible and informative tour of the current state of human paleontology. At the heart of the site is a hypertext family tree of early human phylogeny that helps users see not only the relations between various incarnations of human ancestors, but lets them click on parts of the timetable to examine fossil evidence and read about the discovery of and conclusions drawn from crucial skull bones and fragments. Another section allows users to examine three key fossilized skulls with QuickTime, so that one can rotate the skull and zoom in on key features. The What's Hot! in Paleoanthropology section offers readable summaries of key professional articles published in the field in the last three years. Finally, users are invited to ask questions via email of the paleontologists at the Human Origins Program. Some of these will, no doubt, be posted in the yet-to-be completed Frequently Asked Questions portion of the site. Ironically enough, materials for the latest entries in the human family tree, including Homo sapiens, are still under construction.

65

The role of western Asia in modern human origins.  

PubMed

Western Asia provides the best collection of human skeletal remains relevant to the two basic models for the emergence of modern humans, namely the 'rapid replacement' and the 'regional continuity' models. Regardless of the taxonomies of particular hominids, their chronology is of crucial importance. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) dates demonstrate that the Acheulo-Yabrudian and Mousterian entities and their associated fossils (Zuttiyeh, Tabun, Skhul, Qafzeh, Kebara, Shanidar, Amud) span the late Middle and Upper Pleistocene period. These new dates initiated major chronological revisions and renewed discussion of the cultural-archaeological implications. One of the most important conclusions is that the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition (or Revolution) 45-40 ka ago has nothing to do with the appearance of anatomically early modern humans in western Asia, which occurred some 100 ka ago or more. The Levant, the coastal region of the eastern Mediterranean, was both a corridor for movement of humans and animals as well as a refugium during climatically harsh periods. The mixture of morphological characteristics among the available Middle Palaeolithic human fossils is interpreted as reflecting the presence of immigrant and local populations. Archaeologically observable behavioural changes are taken as hints to the pre-adaptations of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic revolution. The archaeological record of western Asia can contribute significantly to explaining the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic revolution. This region was the core area where the 'Neolithic Revolution' took place. The shift to systematic cultivation and the domestication of animals occurred within a short time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1357694

Bar-Yosef, O

1992-08-29

66

MIXING METAPHORS: SCIENCE AND RELIGION OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper1 is historiographical: How have historians understood the relationship between science and religion in early modern Europe? This discussion bears directly on current re-considerations of the historiographical utility of the concept of the Scientific Revolution.2 One of the assumptions embedded in the traditional historiography of science is that disciplinary bounda- ries have remained static throughout history.3

Margaret J. Osler

1998-01-01

67

A Fruitful Exchange\\/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their education and argued for an institutional reform of their profession, Girolamo Cardano and other

Cesare S. Maffioli

2012-01-01

68

The “Parrhesiastic Game”: Textual Self-Justification in Spiritual Narratives of Early Modern Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though scholars debate whether Foucault offers a viable theory of resistance, his analysis of parrhesia(fearless speech) poses and problematizes an oppositional rhetoric of truth-telling. Fearless speech challenges regimes of power\\/truth; spiritual narratives of Early Modern women challenge cultural norms to justify their right to speak. The rhetorical strategies that women use to authorize their writing—performing a struggle between God and

Gae Lyn Henderson

2007-01-01

69

The Language of Violence: Symbolic Body Parts in Marital Conflicts in Early Modern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Early Modern Europe, physical violence was a ubiquitous part of sociability and, as such, culturally coded to an extremely\\u000a high degree.1 In this context, recent studies have repeatedly emphasized the importance of gender as one of the principal factors that\\u000a determined acts of violence and their perception.2 Most research, though, presents physical violence as a quasi exclusively male phenomenon,

Dorothea Nolde

70

Postcolonial Perspectives on Early Modern Canada: Champlain's Voyages de la Nouvelle France (1632)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early modern dimension of francophone postcolonialism has yet to be fully explored. This paper adds historical depth to postcolonial studies by applying post-colonial theory to an early seventeenth-century French colonial text: Samuel de Champlain’s Voyages de la Nouvelle France (1632). A postcolonial reading of Champlain’s Voyages reveals the ambivalence latent in a text traditionally seen as a straightforward narrative

Ursula Haskins Gonthier

2012-01-01

71

The Intimacy of Death: Interpreting Gender and the Life Course in Medieval and Early Modern Burials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter engages with Mary Beaudry’s contribution “Stitching Women’s Lives” (Chapter 7) to review points of similarity\\u000a and difference in the study of gender and material culture in American and British historical archaeology. An interpretive\\u000a approach is developed through a review of the archaeology of medieval and early modern burial practices in England, with stress\\u000a placed on evidence connected with

Roberta Gilchrist

72

Dance as a Project of the Early Modern Avant-garde  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation presents an analysis of three expressive dance works created between 1900 and 1920 as projects of the Early Modern avant-garde. The dances chosen were Incense (1906) by Ruth St. Denis, Gnossienne (1919) by Ted Shawn, and L’Après-Midi d’un Faune by Vaslav Nijinsky. While Shawn and St. Denis were American dance artists at the forefront of modern dance development,

Elizabeth M. Drake-Boyt

2005-01-01

73

The origin recognition complex in human diseases.  

PubMed

ORC (origin recognition complex) serves as the initiator for the assembly of the pre-RC (pre-replication complex) and the subsequent DNA replication. Together with many of its non-replication functions, ORC is a pivotal regulator of various cellular processes. Notably, a number of reports connect ORC to numerous human diseases, including MGS (Meier-Gorlin syndrome), EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-infected diseases, American trypanosomiasis and African trypanosomiasis. However, much of the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In those genetic diseases, mutations in ORC alter its function and lead to the dysregulated phenotypes; whereas in some pathogen-induced symptoms, host ORC and archaeal-like ORC are exploited by these organisms to maintain their own genomes. In this review, I provide detailed examples of ORC-related human diseases, and summarize the current findings on how ORC is involved and/or dysregulated. I further discuss how these discoveries can be generalized as model systems, which can then be applied to elucidating other related diseases and revealing potential targets for developing effective therapies. PMID:23662735

Shen, Zhen

2013-06-11

74

The origin recognition complex in human diseases  

PubMed Central

ORC (origin recognition complex) serves as the initiator for the assembly of the pre-RC (pre-replication complex) and the subsequent DNA replication. Together with many of its non-replication functions, ORC is a pivotal regulator of various cellular processes. Notably, a number of reports connect ORC to numerous human diseases, including MGS (Meier–Gorlin syndrome), EBV (Epstein–Barr virus)-infected diseases, American trypanosomiasis and African trypanosomiasis. However, much of the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In those genetic diseases, mutations in ORC alter its function and lead to the dysregulated phenotypes; whereas in some pathogen-induced symptoms, host ORC and archaeal-like ORC are exploited by these organisms to maintain their own genomes. In this review, I provide detailed examples of ORC-related human diseases, and summarize the current findings on how ORC is involved and/or dysregulated. I further discuss how these discoveries can be generalized as model systems, which can then be applied to elucidating other related diseases and revealing potential targets for developing effective therapies.

Shen, Zhen

2013-01-01

75

(See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.  

PubMed

This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions. PMID:22702173

Kraye, Jill

2012-01-01

76

[Mental interiority in the early-modern age. The "Cartesian theater"].  

PubMed

This paper looks into the notion of mental interiority in the early-modern age and, more specifically, into the Cartesian conception of the mind as an "inner theater". The main claim emphasizes a close connexion at work between the representative theory of the mind, associated with internalism, on the one hand, and a "neuropsychological" view on the other hand. Cartesian mentalism, in so far as it is based upon a disjunction between representation and resemblance, can therefore not be separated from the general project, already at work in the Dioptrique, of an intra-cerebral localization of the mental. PMID:20533801

Gillot, Pascale

2010-01-01

77

All that glitters: fool's gold in the early-modern era.  

PubMed

Natural philosophers of the early-modern period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the early Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones. PMID:19019438

Roos, Anna Marie

2008-11-18

78

A word of the Empirics: the ancient concept of observation and its recovery in early modern medicine.  

PubMed

The genealogy of observation as a philosophical term goes back to the ancient Greek astronomical and medical traditions, and the revival of the concept in the Renaissance also happened in the astronomical and medical context. This essay focuses primarily on the medical genealogy of the concept of observation. In ancient Greek culture, an elaboration of the concept of observation (t?r?sis) first emerged in the Hellenistic age with the medical sect of the Empirics, to be further developed by the ancient Sceptics. Basically unknown in the Middle Ages, the Empirics' conceptualisation of t?r?sis trickled back into Western medicine in the fourteenth century, but its meaning seems to have been fully recovered by European scholars only in the 1560s, concomitantly with the first Latin translation of the works of Sextus Empiricus. As a category originally associated with medical Scepticism, observatio was a new entry in early modern philosophy. Although the term gained wide currency in general scholarly usage in the seventeenth century, its assimilation into standard philosophical language was very slow. In fact, observatio does not even appear as an entry in the philosophical dictionaries until the eighteenth century--with one significant exception, the medical lexica, which featured the lemma, reporting its ancient Empiric definition, as early as 1564. PMID:21466002

Pomata, Gianna

2011-01-01

79

Mitochondrial COII Sequences and Modern Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to measure human mitochondrial sequence variability in the relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit II (CO11 ) and to estimate when the the human common ancestral mitochondrial type existed. New CO11 gene sequences were determined for five humans (Homo sap- iens), including some of the most mitochondrially divergent humans known; for two

Maryellen Ruvolo; Sarah Zehr; Miranda von Dornum; Deborah Pan; Belinda Chang; Jenny Lin

1993-01-01

80

Origin of trisomies in human spontaneous abortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome heteromorphisms of 34 trisomic abortuses and their parents were compared to determine the origin of the extra chromosome. Fourteen of the trisomies were maternal in origin, ten resulting from a first-meiotic-division error and four from either first- or second-meiotic-division errors. No paternally derived trisomy was identified.

Terry Hassold; Aileen Matsuyama

1979-01-01

81

Genetic Evidence on Modern Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of genetic evidence leads to the following conclusions concerning human population history: (1) Between 33,000 and 150,000 years ago, the human population expanded from an initial size of perhaps 10,000 breeding individuals to reach a size of at least 300,000. (2) Although the initial population was small, it contained at least 1,000 breeding individuals. (3) The human races

Alan R. Rogers; Lynn B. Jorde

82

Human Behaviour and the Origin of Man  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study of origin and evolution of man gives new perspective for understanding his behavior. Physical behaviors such as walking and throwing are results of biological evolution which has not kept pace with sociocultural evolution. Irrational decisions by man in social, cultural, and political fields are results of this brain activity. (PS)|

Raleigh, M. J.; Washburn, S. L.

1973-01-01

83

Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit  

PubMed Central

During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany.

McHugh, Tim

2012-01-01

84

Expanding women's rural medical work in early modern Brittany: the Daughters of the Holy Spirit.  

PubMed

During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

McHugh, Tim

2011-07-01

85

Gulliver meets Descartes: early modern concepts of age-related memory loss.  

PubMed

Age-related memory loss was a marginal issue in medical discussions during early modern times and until well into the second half of the 17th century. There are many possible explanations: the lack of similar traditions in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, insufficient physiological and morphological knowledge of the brain, and the underlying conflict between idealistic and materialistic perspectives on the functions of the soul and the conditions of these in old age. After these boundaries had been pushed back by the influence of Cartesianism and Iatromechanism, the problem of age-related memory loss was increasingly regarded as a physical illness and began to receive more attention. This trend first occurred in medicine, before spreading to the literary world, where the novel "Gulliver's Travels" is one clear and famous example. PMID:12785108

Schäfer, Daniel

2003-03-01

86

Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.  

PubMed

Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism. PMID:21874692

Chang, Ku-ming

2011-06-01

87

The English Galileo: Thomas Harriot and the Force of Shared Knowledge in Early Modern Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss the work of the English mathematician and philosopher Thomas Harriot (1560 1621), analyzing especially his work on projectile motion, and comparing it to that of his contemporary Galileo Galilei (1564 1642). I argue that although their work on projectile motion was carried out independently and displays both similarities and differences, it shows that they focused on common challenging objects of study that embodied what I term “points of contact” between preclassical and classical mechanics. I also argue that their shared knowledge defined the space of possible solutions to the problem of projectile motion, although the inferential pathways they followed through their shared knowledge proceeded in exactly opposite directions. I conclude that their work suggests that the lines of development in early modern mechanics converged in such a way that the long-term development of science was largely unaffected by the peculiarities in an individual scientist’s work.

Schemmel, Matthias

2006-12-01

88

Infection, contagion, and public health in late medieval and early modern German imperial towns.  

PubMed

From today's point of view, the concepts of "miasma" and "contagion" appear to be two mutually exclusive perceptions of the spread of epidemic diseases, and quite a number of historians have tried to discuss the history of public health and epidemic diseases in terms of a progression from the miasmic to the contagionist concept. More detailed local studies, however, indicate how extremely misleading it may be to separate such medical concepts and ideas from their actual historical context. The article presented here, based on local studies in late medieval and early modern imperial towns in southern Germany, demonstrates to what extent the inhabitants of these towns had notions of both "miasma" and "contagion." Furthermore, a contextual analysis of language shows that they did not see a necessity to strictly distinguish between these different concepts relating to the spread of diseases. Tracing the meaning of "infection" and "contagion," we find that these terms were used in connection with various diseases, and that a change in the use of the expressions does not necessarily imply a change of the corresponding notion. Moreover, a coexistence of differing perceptions cannot--as some historians have suggested--be attributed to a divergence between the academic medicine and the popular ideas of that period. A survey of measures and actions in the public health sector indicates that a coexistence of--from our point of view--inconsistent concepts helped the authorities as well as the individuals to find means of defense and consolation during all those crises caused by epidemic diseases--crises that occurred very frequently in these towns during the late medieval and early modern periods. As the article demonstrates, the interaction during such crises reveals the continuity of ancient rituals and concepts as well as the adoption of new insights resulting from changes in the economical, political, scientific, religious, and social structures. PMID:16540700

Kinzelbach, Annemarie

2006-03-15

89

GENETIC PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN ORIGINS AND DIFFERENTIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract This is a review of genetic evidence about the ancient demography of the ancestors of our species and about the genesis of worldwide human diversity. The issue of whether or not a population size bottleneck occurred among our ancestors is under debate among geneticists as well as among anthropologists. The bottleneck, if it occurred, would confirm the Garden

Henry Harpending; Alan Rogers

2000-01-01

90

Reconstructing human origins in the genomic era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of recently acquired genomic sequence data are leading to important insights into the early evolution of anatomically modern humans, as well as into the more recent demographic processes that accompanied the global radiation of Homo sapiens. Some of the new results contradict early, but still influential, conclusions that were based on analyses of gene trees from mitochondrial DNA and

Daniel Garrigan; Michael F. Hammer

2006-01-01

91

A Laboratory Guide to the Mycoplasmas of Human Origin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual is intended to assist the laboratory worker who is involved in the isolation and identification of Mycoplasma species of human origin. The preparation of various media, rabbit antisera, complement-fixing antigen, and immunizing antigens are pre...

Y. E. Crawford

1966-01-01

92

Phenotypic Differentiation of Bifidobacteria of Human and Animal Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotypes of 153 strains belonging or related to the genus Bijidobacterium were studied. These organisms included 38 collection strains and 115 wild strains (41 strains of human origin, 56 strains of animal origin, and 18 strains obtained from rivers or sewage). Our phenotypic analysis revealed seven main groups that were subdivided into 20 subgroups. Seven subgroups contained no type

FRANCOISE GAVINI; ANNE-MARIE POURCHER; CHRISTEL NEUT; DANIEL MONGET; CHARLES ROMOND; CATHERINE OGER; DANIEL IZARD

93

Middle Childhood and Modern Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of modern human life history has involved substantial changes in the overall length of the subadult period,\\u000a the introduction of a novel early childhood stage, and many changes in the initiation, termination, and character of the other\\u000a stages. The fossil record is explored for evidence of this evolutionary process, with a special emphasis on middle childhood,\\u000a which many

Jennifer L. Thompson; Andrew J. Nelson

94

Synergistes Group Organisms of Human Origin  

PubMed Central

The bacterial division Synergistes represents a poorly characterized phylotype of which only a few isolates have been cultured, primarily from natural environments. Recent detection of Synergistes-like sequence types in periodontal pockets and caries lesions of humans prompted us to search the R. M. Alden culture collection (Santa Monica, Calif.) for biochemically unidentifiable, slow-growing, obligately anaerobic gram-negative bacilli. Here we report on five clinical isolates cultured from peritoneal fluid and two isolates from soft-tissue infections that together constitute three separate evolutionary lineages within the phylogenetic radiation of the division Synergistes. One of these clusters was formed by the peritoneal isolates and had an 85% similarity to Synergistes jonesii, the first described Synergistes species, which was isolated from the rumen of a goat. The isolates from soft-tissue infections, on the other hand, formed two distinct lineages moderately related to each other with a similarity of approximately 78%. In addition, by using a newly designed 16S rRNA gene-based PCR assay with intended target specificity for Synergistes, we found that the dominant phylotype from a fecal sample was nearly identical to that of the strains obtained from peritonitis. Conversely, sequence types detected in periodontal pockets formed a separate cluster that shared a similarity of only 80% with the soft-tissue isolates. These findings suggest a high diversity of medically important Synergistes clades that apparently are unique to individual ecological niches in the human body. In conclusion, we now have available the first characterized human isolates of the division Synergistes which are colonizing, and probably infecting, several sites in the human body.

Horz, Hans-Peter; Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Conrads, Georg

2006-01-01

95

On the origin of the human treponematoses  

PubMed Central

A close relationship between the four human treponematoses is suggested by their clinical and epidemiological characteristics and by such limited knowledge of the treponemes as there is at present. No treponeme of this group (except for that of the rabbit) is known other than in man, but the human treponemes probably arose long ago from an animal infection. The long period of infectiousness of pinta suggests that it may have been the earliest human treponematosis. It may have been spread throughout the world by about 15 000 B.C., being subsequently isolated in the Americas when the Bering Strait was flooded. About 10 000 B.C. in the Afro-Asian land mass environmental conditions might have favoured treponeme mutants leading to yaws; from these, about 7000 B.C., endemic syphilis perhaps developed, to give rise to venereal syphilis about 3000 B.C. in south-west Asia as big cities developed there. Towards the end of the fifteenth century A.D. a further mutation may have resulted in a more severe venereal syphilis in Europe which, with European exploration and geographical expansion, was subsequently carried throughout the then treponemally uncommitted world. These suggestions find some tentative support in climatic changes which might have influenced the selection of those treponemes which still survive in humid or arid climates. Venereal transmission would presumably remove the treponeme from the direct influence of climate. The author makes a plea for further investigation of many aspects of this subject while this is still possible.

Hackett, C. J.

1963-01-01

96

Evolutionary origins of human brain and spirituality.  

PubMed

Evolving brains produce minds. Minds operate on imaginary entities. Thus they can create what does not exist in the physical world. Spirits can be deified. Perception of spiritual entities is emotional--organic. Spirituality is a part of culture while culture is an adaptive mechanism of human groups as it allows for technology and social organization to support survival and reproduction. Humans are not rational, they are emotional. Most of explanations of the world, offered by various cultures, involve an element of "fiat", a will of a higher spiritual being, or a reference to some ideal. From this the rules of behaviour are deduced. These rules are necessary to maintain social peace and allow a complex unit consisting of individuals of both sexes and all ages to function in a way ensuring their reproductive success and thus survival. There is thus a direct biological benefit of complex ideological superstructure of culture. This complex superstructure most often takes a form of religion in which logic is mixed with appeals to emotions based on images of spiritual beings. God is a consequence of natural evolution. Whether a deity is a cause of this evolution is difficult to discover, but existence of a deity cannot be questioned. PMID:20440961

Henneberg, Maciej; Saniotis, Arthur

2009-12-01

97

Legal enemies, beloved brothers: high nobility, family conflict and the aristocrats' two bodies in early-modern Castile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the conflicts and alliances between different Dukes of Pastrana, lords of a Grandée household, and their relatives are analysed from two viewpoints. The first perspective shows how litigation between early-modern aristocratic siblings for family inheritance was a very common phenomenon. Secondly, litigious kin were allies in the political and social arena. With these features in mind, this

Antonio Terrasa-Lozano

2010-01-01

98

Middle childhood and modern human origins.  

PubMed

The evolution of modern human life history has involved substantial changes in the overall length of the subadult period, the introduction of a novel early childhood stage, and many changes in the initiation, termination, and character of the other stages. The fossil record is explored for evidence of this evolutionary process, with a special emphasis on middle childhood, which many argue is equivalent to the juvenile stage of African apes. Although the "juvenile" and "middle childhood" stages appear to be the same from a broad comparative perspective, in that they begin with the eruption of the first molar and the achievement of the majority of adult brain size and end with sexual maturity, the detailed differences in the expression of these two stages, and how they relate to the preceding and following stages, suggest that a distinction should be maintained between them to avoid blurring subtle, but important, differences. PMID:22388876

Thompson, Jennifer L; Nelson, Andrew J

2011-09-01

99

The early modern kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth century. Part 1.  

PubMed

The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to early modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). PMID:23278189

Eknoyan, Garabed

2012-12-23

100

Vertebral pathologies in two early modern period (16th-19th century) populations from Croatia.  

PubMed

In order to test to what degree Schmorl's nodes (SN), osteophytosis of the vertebral bodies (VO), and osteoarthritis of the articular facets (OA) are useful indicators of activity-related stress, an analysis of their frequencies and severity of expression was conducted in two early Modern period skeletal samples from Croatia--Koprivno and Sisak. Historic and contemporary ethnographic sources suggest that living conditions were more demanding in Koprivno, and that a sexual division of labor existed in both populations. A total of 2,552 vertebral bodies (990 from Koprivno and 1,562 from Sisak) and 5,186 articular facets (2,135 from Koprivno and 3,051 from Sisak) were analyzed. Koprivno exhibits significantly higher total frequencies of SN, VO, and OA than Sisak, and the total frequencies of SN and OA in both series are significantly higher in males. When, however, the series were analyzed by age and sex categories, the same trend was noted only in SN. The frequencies and severity of VO and OA could not be interpreted in keeping with the historic and contemporary ethnographic sources and were additionally, unlike SN, found to be strongly correlated with increased age. This study, therefore, suggests that while SN are useful indicators of different lifestyles and/or different activity patterns between various archaeological populations, VO and OA are-possibly because of their more varied etiologies-less useful markers of activity-related stress. PMID:21365616

Novak, Mario; Šlaus, Mario

2011-03-01

101

Analysis of origin of DNA replication of human papovavirus BK.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the cis-acting sequence elements and properties of the origin of DNA replication of human papovavirus BK (BKV). The precise boundaries of the origin varied, depending on the cell type and the viral T antigen used for assay. The BKV minimal origin of replication consisted of an inverted repeat, T-antigen-binding site II, and a 20-base-pair AT block when assayed in monkey kidney CV1 and HeLa cells by using the BKV T antigen. This 76-base-pair minimal origin did not replicate in COS cells in the presence of the simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen. Unlike that from the SV40 minimal origin, replication from the BKV minimal origin was not enhanced by BKV ori-flanking sequences in CV1 or HeLa cells, using the BKV T antigen. BKV ori-flanking sequences did activate the SV40 minimal origin of replication in COS cells and relieved the orientation-dependent property of this origin. Finally, the BKV T antigen was found to autoregulate activity of the BKV early transcriptional regulatory region. The BKV origin of replication shows similarities to and differences from those of the related viruses SV40 and polyomavirus, suggesting that the proteins involved in the initiation of replication interact with origin sequences differently in these viruses. Images

Deyerle, K L; Sajjadi, F G; Subramani, S

1989-01-01

102

De Novo Origin of Human Protein-Coding Genes  

PubMed Central

The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA–seq data indicate that these genes have their highest expression levels in the cerebral cortex and testes, which might suggest that these genes contribute to phenotypic traits that are unique to humans, such as improved cognitive ability. Our results are inconsistent with the traditional view that the de novo origin of new genes is very rare, thus there should be greater appreciation of the importance of the de novo origination of genes.

Wu, Dong-Dong; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2011-01-01

103

De Novo Origin of Human Protein-Coding Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA–seq data indicate that these

Dong-Dong Wu; David M. Irwin; Ya-Ping Zhang

2011-01-01

104

Virtual assessment of the endocranial morphology of the early modern European fossil calvaria from cioclovina, romania.  

PubMed

Endocasts provide evidence on size and shape characteristics, blood supply trajectories, and neurological features of the brain, allowing comparative analyses of fossil hominins crucial to our understanding of human brain evolution. Here, we assess the morphological features of the virtual endocast of the Cioclovina Upper Paleolithic calvarium, one of the earliest reliably dated European modern human fossils. Our study was conducted on a computed tomography (CT) scan of the original specimen. The endocranial profile was approximated via a semiautomatic segmentation of the CT data. Virtual reconstructions of the endocast were used for assessing the morphological features of the endocranium and for the estimation of the endocranial volume. Cioclovina exhibits a clockwise torque with a small anterior extension of the left frontal lobe over the right one and a protrusion of the right occipital lobe over the left, most likely due to the superior sagittal sinus coursing over the occipital pole. There is an obvious right predominance of the posterior drainage system. Interestingly, the area of the frontal sinus is occupied by dense bony tissue with small air cells corresponding probably to a natural bony loss in the diploë and to vascular spaces. An estimated endocranial volume of 1498.53 cc was calculated. The convolutional details of the third inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's caps) are indistinguishable from those found in modern Homo sapiens, and the left occipital lobe appears wider than the right, a possible correlate of right-handedness. Our metric analysis of endocranial measurements also aligns Cioclovina with modern humans. PMID:21634023

Kranioti, Elena F; Holloway, Ralph; Senck, Sascha; Ciprut, Tudor; Grigorescu, Dan; Harvati, Katerina

2011-06-01

105

Exploring early modern chemistry: the first twenty-five years of the Society for the Study of Alchemy & Early Modern Chemistry 1935-1960.  

PubMed

The article uses the recently deposited archives of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry to explore the ideas, motives and disagreements of its founders and officers between 1935 and 1960. The origin of the title Ambix for the society's journal is also explained. An appendix identifies the initial membership of the society. PMID:22397154

Brock, W H

2011-11-01

106

'Very Sore Nights and Days': The Child's Experience of Illness in Early Modern England, c.1580-1720  

PubMed Central

Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children’s experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfilment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children’s emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors’ casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife.

NEWTON, HANNAH

2011-01-01

107

Human cancers express mutator phenotypes: origin, consequences and targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data on DNA sequencing of human tumours have established that cancer cells contain thousands of mutations. These data support the concept that cancer cells express a mutator phenotype. This Perspective considers the evidence supporting the mutator phenotype hypothesis, the origin and consequences of a mutator phenotype, the implications for personalized medicine and the feasibility of ablating tumours by error

Lawrence A. Loeb

2011-01-01

108

Origin of Oligodendrocytes within the Human Spinal Cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the time and site of origin of the oligodendrocyte lineage in the developing human spinal cord, we have exam- ined tissues from 45 to 83 d postconception (dpc) using sets of probes and antibodies recognizing oligodendrocyte-specific glycolipids, transcripts, and proteins. We found that two clus- ters of oligodendrocyte precursors appear on or before 45 dpc on each side

Mohammad Hajihosseini; Monique Dubois-Dalcq

1996-01-01

109

Tracing Sexual Identities in “Old Age”: Gender and Seniority in Advice Literature of the Early-modern and Modern Periods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, historians have interpreted representations of elderly women with reference to women’s roles or to women’s positions in society.This article proposes a different approach toward gender: to relate representations of the aged to the sexual identities of both men and women. This article analyzes representations of old age in conduct books of the early-modern period and the nineteenth century.

Marja van Tilburg

2009-01-01

110

Human embryonic stem cells: origin, properties and applications.  

PubMed

Human embryonic stem cells originate from the human preimplantation embryo. The derivation of the first human embryonic stem cells was reported in 1998. Since then we have learnt a great deal about how to isolate and culture these cells. Additionally, their stem cell phenotype and differentiation competence have been determined. Although it is expected that many basic biological properties, such as self-renewal and cell specification, are evolutionary conserved, at least from the mouse, we lack significant knowledge about the molecular events that regulate the unique stem cell features of human embryonic stem cells. The pluripotent nature of human embryonic stem cells has attracted great interest in using them as a source of cells and tissues in cell therapy. Recent progress in human somatic cell nuclear transfer suggests that there may be a solution to the immunotolerance problems associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells in cell-replacement therapy. Thus, human embryonic stem cells supply the research community with unique research tools to study basic biological processes in human cells, model human genetic diseases and develop new cell-replacement therapies. PMID:16480446

Semb, Henrik

111

Developmental origins of variation in human hand preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though right-handedness is a prominant characteristic within all human societies, a substantial and stable proportion of individuals\\u000a are left-handed. Any comprehensive approach to the origin of variation in handedness must account for substantial evidence\\u000a that left-handedness is associated with reduced fitness, neurodevelopmental disorders, and reduced neuroanatomical asymmetry.\\u000a In this paper we investigate the hypothesis that developmental instability in early fetal

Ronald A. Yeo; Steven W. Gangestad

1993-01-01

112

Origin of human bipedalism: The knuckle-walking hypothesis revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most long-standing questions in paleoanthropology concern how and why human bipe- dalism evolved. Over the last century, many hypotheses have been offered on the mode of locomotion from which bipedalism originated. Candidate ancestral adaptations include monkey-like arboreal or terrestrial quadrupedal- ism, gibbon- or orangutan-like (or other forms of) climbing and suspension, and knuckle-walking. This paper reviews the

Brian G. Richmond; David R. Begun; David S. Strait

2001-01-01

113

Functional interactions of DNA topoisomerases with a human replication origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human DNA replication origin, located in the lamin B2 gene, interacts with the DNA topoisomerases I and II in a cell cycle-modulated manner. The topoisomerases inter- act in vivo and in vitro with precise bonds ahead of the start sites of bidirectional replication, within the pre- replicative complex region; topoisomerase I is bound in M, early G1 and G1\\/S

Gulnara Abdurashidova; Sorina Radulescu; Oscar Sandoval; Sotir Zahariev; Miltcho B Danailov; Alexander Demidovich; Laura Santamaria; Giuseppe Biamonti; Silvano Riva; Arturo Falaschi

2007-01-01

114

SK HEP1: A human cell line of endothelial origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  SK-HEP-1 is an immortal, human cell line derived from the ascitic fluid of a patient with adenocarcinoma of the liver. We\\u000a have determined that these cells are of endothelial origin. Despite the location of the tumor from which SK HEP-1 was derived,\\u000a the cell line does not have properties of hepatocytes. Northern blot analysis of total cellular RNA shows no

Sue C. Heffelfinger; Hal H. Hawkins; Jim Barrish; Linda Taylor; Gretchen J. Darlington

1992-01-01

115

Effects of student ontological position on cognition of human origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the narratives from a hermeneutical dialectic cycle of three high school students were analyzed to understand the influences of ontological position on the learning of human origins. The interpretation of the narratives provides the reader an opportunity to consider the learning process from the perspective of worldview and conceptual change theories. Questions guiding this research include: Within a context of a worldview, what is the range of ontological positions among a high school AP biology class? To what extent does ontological position influence the learning of scientific concepts about human origins? If a student's ontological position is contradictory to scientific explanation of human origins, how will learning strategies and motivations change? All consenting students in an AP biology class were interviewed in order to select three students who represented three different ontological positions of a worldview: No Supernatural, Supernatural Without Impact, or Supernatural Impact. The issue of worldview is addressed at length in this work. Consenting students had completed the graduation requirements in biology, but were taking an additional biology course in preparation for college. Enrollment in an AP biology course was assumed to indicate that the selected students have an understanding of the concept of human origins at a comprehensive level, but not necessarily at an apprehension level, both being needed for conceptual change. Examination of the narratives reveals that students may alternate between two ontological positions in order to account for inconsistencies within a situation. This relativity enables the range of ontological positions to vary depending on concepts being considered. Not all Supernatural Impact positions conflict with biological understanding of human origins due to the ability of some to create a dichotomy between religion and school. Any comprehended concepts within this dichotomy lead to plagiaristic knowledge rather than conceptual change. When conflicts occur, students employ alternate learning strategies for comprehension, but not apprehension, which result in plagiaristic knowledge. These findings suggest that teachers consider the ontological positions of student worldviews because of the potential influence on knowledge construction and conceptual change, especially about topics involving the theory of evolution.

Ervin, Jeremy Alan

116

Timing the origin of human malarias: the lemur puzzle  

PubMed Central

Background Timing the origin of human malarias has been a focus of great interest. Previous studies on the mitochondrial genome concluded that Plasmodium in primates, including those parasitic to humans, radiated relatively recently during a process where host switches were common. Those investigations, however, assumed constant rate of evolution and tightly bound (fixed) calibration points based on host fossils or host distribution. We investigate the effect of such assumptions using different molecular dating methods. We include parasites from Lemuroidea since their distribution provides an external validation to time estimates allowing us to disregard scenarios that cannot explain their introduction in Madagascar. Results We reject the assumption that the Plasmodium mitochondrial genome, as a unit or each gene separately, evolves at a constant rate. Our analyses show that Lemuroidea parasites are a monophyletic group that shares a common ancestor with all Catarrhini malarias except those related to P. falciparum. However, we found no evidence that this group of parasites branched with their hosts early in the evolution of primates. We applied relaxed clock methods and different calibrations points to explore the origin of primate malarias including those found in African apes. We showed that previous studies likely underestimated the origin of malarial parasites in primates. Conclusions The use of fossils from the host as absolute calibration and the assumption of a strict clock likely underestimate time when performing molecular dating analyses on malarial parasites. Indeed, by exploring different calibration points, we found that the time for the radiation of primate parasites may have taken place in the Eocene, a time consistent with the radiation of African anthropoids. The radiation of the four human parasite lineages was part of such events. The time frame estimated in this investigation, together with our phylogenetic analyses, made plausible a scenario where gorillas and humans acquired malaria from a Pan lineage.

2011-01-01

117

Human Cell Lines of Epithelial Lung Adenocarcinoma Origin, Human Proteins and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to novel established and continuous human adenocarcinoma cell lines of epithelial lung tissue origin that produce pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins. The invention also relates to novel methods for regulating the expression of ...

J. A. Whitsett A. F. Gazdar

1989-01-01

118

Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here, we developed a novel polymerase chain reaction based single genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in fecal samples of wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed, and almost always comprised of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas was comprised of parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin.

Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Robertson, Joel D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Shaw, George M.; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

2010-01-01

119

Modern human origins: continuity, replacement, and masticatory robusticity in Australasia.  

PubMed

Morphological evidence for a Multiregional (MR) model of human origins is suggested by a series of "linking traits" seen in the crania of late Javanese Homo erectus from Ngandong and anatomically modern Australian crania. A few studies that consider the genetic, structural, or functional aspects of these regional traits suggest their appearance is heavily influenced not by shared phylogeny but by a common "strong" masticatory pattern. Using dental occlusal areas, external mandibular metrics, internal biomechanical properties of the mandibular corpus measured from CT scans, and nonmetric traits associated with the attachment of masticatory muscles, we test the hypothesis that Australians exhibit evidence of a "strong" masticatory pattern. We use a mixed-sex comparative human sample (n = 415) that includes precontact Alaskans from Point Hope and the Aleutian Islands, Californians, Peruvians, an urban forensic sample, and the late Pleistocene Afalou-Taforalt sample. In comparison with recent humans known to exhibit such patterns, Australian mandibles show none of the expected changes related to producing and dissipating heavy occlusal loads. This is true regardless of whether external or internal mandibular dimensions are considered, albeit Australians show large occlusal areas and relatively large section modulus indices. Thus, a prime functional argument proposed for the origin of some Australian regional features is not supported by these data. PMID:20934739

Antón, Susan C; Carter-Menn, Hannah; DeLeon, Valerie B

2010-10-08

120

The motor origins of human and avian song structure  

PubMed Central

Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:69–80]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples.

Tierney, Adam T.; Russo, Frank A.; Patel, Aniruddh D.

2011-01-01

121

The first recombinant human coagulation factor VIII of human origin: human cell line and manufacturing characteristics  

PubMed Central

Introduction Since the early 1990s, recombinant human clotting factor VIII (rhFVIII) produced in hamster cells has been available for haemophilia A treatment. However, the post-translational modifications of these proteins are not identical to those of native human FVIII, which may lead to immunogenic reactions and the development of inhibitors against rhFVIII. For the first time, rhFVIII produced in a human host cell line is available. Aim We describe here the establishment of the first human production cell line for rhFVIII and the manufacturing process of this novel product. Methods and results A human cell line expressing rhFVIII was derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 F cells transfected with an FVIII expression plasmid. No virus or virus-like particles could be detected following extensive testing. The stringently controlled production process is completely free from added materials of animal or human origin. Multistep purification employing a combination of filtration and chromatography steps ensures the efficient removal of impurities. Solvent/detergent treatment and a 20 nm pore size nanofiltration step, used for the first time in rhFVIII manufacturing, efficiently eliminate any hypothetically present viruses. In contrast to hamster cell-derived products, this rhFVIII product does not contain hamster-like epitopes, which might be expected to be immunogenic. Conclusions HEK 293 F cells, whose parental cell line HEK 293 has been used by researchers for decades, are a suitable production cell line for rhFVIII and will help avoid immunogenic epitopes. A modern manufacturing process has been developed to ensure the highest level of purity and pathogen safety.

Casademunt, Elisabeth; Martinelle, Kristina; Jernberg, Mats; Winge, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Maya; Biesert, Lothar; Knaub, Sigurd; Walter, Olaf; Schroder, Carola

2012-01-01

122

Fossils and human origins, Mark StonekingSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Mark Stoneking DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>migrations Geneticist Mark Stoneking, co-author of an early mitochondrial DNA paper, talks about the competing theories of human origins.

2008-10-06

123

ATP-dependent assembly of the human origin recognition complex.  

PubMed

The origin recognition complex (ORC) was initially discovered in budding yeast extracts as a protein complex that binds with high affinity to autonomously replicating sequences in an ATP-dependent manner. We have cloned and expressed the human homologs of the ORC subunits as recombinant proteins. In contrast to other eukaryotic initiators examined thus far, assembly of human ORC in vitro is dependent on ATP binding. Mutations in the ATP-binding sites of Orc4 or Orc5 impair complex assembly, whereas Orc1 ATP binding is not required. Immunofluorescence staining of human cells with anti-Orc3 antibodies demonstrate cell cycle-dependent association with a nuclear structure. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that ORC disassembles as cells progress through S phase. The Orc6 protein binds directly to the Orc3 subunit and interacts as part of ORC in vivo. These data suggest that the assembly and disassembly of ORC in human cells is uniquely regulated and may contribute to restricting DNA replication to once in every cell division cycle. PMID:17716973

Siddiqui, Khalid; Stillman, Bruce

2007-08-22

124

Human herpesvirus 6B origin: sequence diversity, requirement for two binding sites for origin-binding protein, and enhanced replication from origin multimers.  

PubMed Central

A previously identified human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) origin of DNA replication contains two binding sites for the origin-binding protein (OBPH6B). We have investigated the functional significance of these sites by determining the replication efficiencies of mutated origin sequences, using a transient replication assay. The results indicate that both sites are required for DNA replication. In addition, we have tested the functional consequences of linear sequence amplifications in the origin. The data show that tandemized origin elements are more efficiently replicated than single-copy origins. Finally, we have determined the extent of interstrain origin sequence variation that exists among HHV-6 isolates by cloning, sequencing, and analyzing origins from a number of virus isolates, including examples of both HHV-6A and HHV-6B. Images

Dewhurst, S; Krenitsky, D M; Dykes, C

1994-01-01

125

Romanticism, the Avant-Garde, and the Early Modern Innovators in Arts Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contributions of major avant-garde innovators, e.g., Cizek, Jaques-Dalcroze, Laban, Lowenfeld, Orff, Kodaly, and Mearns, who worked to establish the creative process as an important means of human education are discussed. (RM)

Leeds, Jo Alice

1985-01-01

126

Fine mapping of a replication origin of human DNA.  

PubMed Central

A highly sensitive procedure was developed for the identification of the origin of bidirectional DNA synthesis in single-copy replicons of mammalian cells. The method, which does not require cell synchronization or permeabilization, entails the absolute quantification, by a competitive PCR procedure in newly synthesized DNA samples, of the abundance of neighboring DNA fragments distributed along a given genomic region. This procedure was utilized for mapping the start site of DNA replication in a 13.7-kb region of human chromosome 19 coding for lamin B2, which is replicated immediately after the onset of S phase in HL-60 cells. Within this region, DNA replication initiates in a 474-bp area corresponding to the 3' noncoding end of the lamin B2 gene and the nontranscribed spacer between this gene and the 5' end of another highly transcribed one. This localization was obtained both in aphidicolin-synchronized and in exponentially growing HL-60 cells. Images

Giacca, M; Zentilin, L; Norio, P; Diviacco, S; Dimitrova, D; Contreas, G; Biamonti, G; Perini, G; Weighardt, F; Riva, S

1994-01-01

127

[Strategies of medical self-authorization in early modern medicine: the example of Volcher Coiter (1534-1576)].  

PubMed

Based on the example of Volcher Coiter--a town physician at Nuremberg and one of the leading anatomists in early modern medicine--, this essay points out that the authoritative status of contemporary physicians mainly was predicated on an interplay of self-fashioning and outside perception. It provides ample evidence that Coiter made use of several characteristic rhetorical and discourse-related strategies of self-authorisation such as the participation in social networks, a highly convincing technique of self-fashioning by emphasizing particular erudition, the presentation of academic medicine as a science authorised by god and the concurrent devaluation of non-academic healers. Furthermore, graphic and visual strategies of self-authorisation could be ascertained: Coiter took care for a premium typography of his books. He also used his talent as a graphic artist in his books to visualise his medical concepts. Moreover, the so-called 'Nuremberg Portrait' of Coiter served to illustrate his outstanding authority. PMID:16382689

Gross, Dominik; Steinmetzer, Jan

2005-01-01

128

Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?  

PubMed Central

The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins.

Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

2010-01-01

129

Beyond Consumption: Functionality, Artifact Biography, and Early Modernity in a European Periphery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the functionality and biographies of artifacts in the context of historical archaeology. It is argued\\u000a that in order to understand how human life in the recent past unfolded in relation with material culture, artifacts must be\\u000a recognized to perform various unobvious functions and also be conceived as processes rather than bounded physical objects.\\u000a The paper begins with

Vesa-Pekka Herva; Risto Nurmi

2009-01-01

130

Genome-wide studies highlight indirect links between human replication origins and gene regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To get insights into the regulation of replication initiation, we systematically mapped replication origins along 1% of the human genome in HeLa cells. We identified 283 origins, 10 times more than previously known. Origin density is strongly correlated with genomic landscapes, with clusters of closely spaced origins in GC-rich regions and no origins in large GC-poor regions. Origin sequences are

Jean-Charles Cadoret; Françoise Meisch; Vahideh Hassan-Zadeh; Isabelle Luyten; Claire Guillet; Laurent Duret; Hadi Quesneville; Marie-Noëlle Prioleau

2008-01-01

131

Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.  

PubMed

At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new. PMID:22702172

Jalobeanu, Dana

2012-01-01

132

Origins.  

PubMed

The farthest of the galaxies that can be seen through the large ground-based telescopes of modern astronomy, such as those on La Palma in the Canary Islands, are so far away that they appear as they did close to the time of the origin of the universe, perhaps some 10 billion years ago. Much has been learned, and much has still to be learned, about the young universe from optical and radio telescopes, but these instruments cannot be used to look directly at the universe in its first few hundred thousand years. Instead, they are used to search the relatively recent past for relics of much earlier times. Together with experiments planned for the next generation of elementary particle accelerators, astronomical observations should continue to extend what is known about the universe backward in time to the Big Bang and may eventually help to reveal the origins of the physical laws that govern the universe. PMID:17817144

Weinberg, S

1985-10-01

133

Microbiological and biochemical origins of human axillary odour.  

PubMed

The generation of malodour on various sites of the human body is caused by the microbial biotransformation of odourless natural secretions into volatile odorous molecules. On the skin surface, distinctive odours emanate, in particular, from the underarm (axilla), where a large and permanent population of microorganisms thrives on secretions from the eccrine, apocrine and sebaceous glands. Traditional culture-based microbiological studies inform us that this resident microbiota consists mainly of Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium. Among the molecular classes that have been implicated in axillary malodour are short- and medium-chain volatile fatty acids, 16-androstene steroids and, most recently, thioalcohols. Most of the available evidence suggests that members of the Corynebacterium genus are the primary causal agents of axillary odour, with the key malodour substrates believed to originate from the apocrine gland. In this article, we examine, in detail, the microbiology and biochemistry of malodour formation on axillary skin, focussing on precursor-product relationships, odour-forming enzymes and metabolic pathways and causal organisms. As well as reviewing the literature, some relevant new data are presented and considered alongside that already available in the public domain to reach an informed view on the current state-of-the-art, as well as future perspectives. PMID:23278215

James, A Gordon; Austin, Corrine J; Cox, Diana S; Taylor, David; Calvert, Ralph

2012-12-31

134

Literary uses of architecture and the explanation of defeat. Interpretations of the Islamic conquest in the context of the construction of national identity in early modern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explaining Islamic architecture was a challenge for early modern Spanish historians. Although many of the buildings were highly valued, they nonetheless represented a defeat and 700 years of Muslim presence in the Peninsula. Consequently, the Islamic legacy was sometimes viewed with a wide range of aesthetic, moral and religious prejudices. This paper aims to analyse the role of these unfavourable

Antonio Urquízar Herrera

2011-01-01

135

Shifting Experiences: The Changing Roles of Women in the Italian, Lowland, and German Regions of Western Europe from the Middle Ages to the Early Modern Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the culture of the Middle Ages declined and Early Modern period characterized by a revival of humanistic ideals of the Renaissance commenced, the society of Western Europe underwent many changes. Different attitudes emerged concerning cultural values, and the medieval feudal way of life that has often been interpreted as being antiquated and obsolete gave way to more modern political,

Susan Papino

2006-01-01

136

Division of the Dowry on the Death of the Daughter: An Instance in the Negotiation of Laws and Jewish Customs in Early Modern Tuscany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuscan notarial acts permit the exploration of the often elusive relationship of Jewish practice, Jewish law and the corresponding laws of the state. One issue in early modern Italian Jewish marriage negotiations was the eventual disposition of the dowry of a childless wife who predeceased her husband. Jewish law on the succession of the childless woman was complicated by traditional

Stefanie B. Siegmund

2002-01-01

137

AFRICAN GENETIC DIVERSITY: Implications for Human Demographic History, Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of ethnically diverse human populations, particularly in Africa, are important for reconstructing human evolutionary history and for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation and complex disease. African populations are characterized by greater levels of genetic diversity, extensive population substructure, and less linkage disequilibrium (LD) among loci compared to non-African populations. Africans also possess a number of genetic adaptations that have evolved in response to diverse climates and diets, as well as exposure to infectious disease. This review summarizes patterns and the evolutionary origins of genetic diversity present in African populations, as well as their implications for the mapping of complex traits, including disease susceptibility.

Campbell, Michael C.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

2010-01-01

138

Human Embryonic Lung Cells (HEL-R66) Are of Monkey Origin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two cultures of cells designated HEL-R-66, presumably of human origin, revealed monkey instead of human cell characteristics, including chromosomes, isoenzyme mobility pattern and species-specific cell membrane antigen. The establishment of a permanent ce...

W. A. Nelson-Rees D. W. Daniels R. R. Flandermeyer

1981-01-01

139

Geometric variation of the frontal squama in the genus homo: frontal bulging and the origin of modern human morphology.  

PubMed

The majority of studies of frontal bone morphology in paleoanthropology have analyzed the frontal squama and the browridge as a single unit, mixing information from different functional elements. Taking into account that the bulging of the frontal bone is often described as a species-specific trait of Homo sapiens, in this article we analyze variation in the midsagittal profile of the genus Homo, focusing on the frontal squama alone, using landmark-based superimpositions and principal components analysis. Our results demonstrate that anatomically modern humans are definitely separated from extinct human taxa on the basis of frontal bulging. However, there is minor overlap among these groups, indicating that it is necessary to exercise caution when using this trait alone to make taxonomic inferences on individual specimens. Early modern humans do not show differences with recent modern humans, and "transitional" individuals such as Jebel Irhoud 1, Maba, and Florisbad, show modern-like frontal squama morphology. The bulging of the frontal squama in modern humans may represent a structural consequence of more general cranial changes, or it could be a response to changes in the morphology of the underlying prefrontal brain elements. A subtle difference between Neandertals and the Afro-European Middle Pleistocene Homo sample is associated with flattening at bregma in the former group, a result that merits further investigation. PMID:23292748

Bruner, Emiliano; Athreya, Sheela; de la Cuétara, José Manuel; Marks, Tarah

2013-01-04

140

Tissue culture of human kidney epithelial cells of proximal tubule origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue culture of human kidney epithelial cells of proximal tubule origin. The in vitro culture of human kidney epithelial cells of defined nephronal origin would prove valuable in a variety of studies defining the factors and mechanisms responsible for diseases and disorders of the kidney. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that employing a serum-free growth medium allows

Carol J Detrisac; Mary Ann Sens; A Julian Garvin; Samuel S Spicer; Donald A Sens

1984-01-01

141

Socio-cultural factors in dental diseases in the Medieval and early Modern Age of northern Spain.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to present, discuss and compare the results of pathological conditions in teeth from skeletal remains found in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) in four Medieval cemeteries (late 15th century) and three cemeteries from the Modern Age (late 18th century). The final objective was to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic and cultural changes that took place during the early Modern Age in Spain, on oral health. Dental caries and antemortem tooth loss were considered as indicators of dental disease. A significant increase of both dental caries and antemortem tooth loss occurred in Modern Age individuals when compared to Medieval values, as reported for other regions. Increased trade with other continents may explain this deterioration of dental health, as food exchanges (mainly with America) contributed to diet changes for the overall population, including higher carbohydrate consumption (introduction of potatoes) at the expense of other vegetables. A sex-specific increase of dental disease with age, and a significantly higher prevalence of carious lesions in Modern Age females than in males, were also found. These changes can be explained by women having had limited access to dental care after the Middle-Modern Age transition, as a consequence of socio-cultural and political changes. In these changes, an increasing influence of the Catholic Church in Spanish society has to be noted, as it can contribute to the explanation of the unequal dental health of men and women. Women were socially excluded from dental care by regulations inspired by religious precepts. PMID:22265008

Lopez, Belen; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Dopico, Eduardo

2012-01-20

142

Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been a potent tool in our understanding of human evolution, owing to characteristics such as high copy number, apparent lack of recombination, high substitution rate and maternal mode of inheritance. However, almost all studies of human evolution based on mtDNA sequencing have been confined to the control region, which constitutes less than 7%

Max Ingman; Henrik Kaessmann; Svante Pääbo; Ulf Gyllensten

2000-01-01

143

DNA replication origin interference increases the spacing between initiation events in human cells.  

PubMed

Mammalian DNA replication origins localize to sites that range from base pairs to tens of kilobases. A regular distribution of initiations in individual cell cycles suggests that only a limited number of these numerous potential start sites are converted into activated origins. Origin interference can silence redundant origins; however, it is currently unknown whether interference participates in spacing functional human initiation events. By using a novel hybridization strategy, genomic Morse code, on single combed DNA molecules from primary keratinocytes, we report the initiation sites present on 1.5 Mb of human chromosome 14q11.2. We confirm that initiation zones are widespread in human cells, map to intergenic regions, and contain sequence motifs found at other mammalian initiation zones. Origins used per cell cycle are less abundant than the potential sites of initiation, and their limited use increases the spacing between initiation events. Between-zone interference decreases in proportion to the distance from the active origin, whereas within-zone interference is 100% efficient. These results identify a hierarchical organization of origin activity in human cells. Functional origins govern the probability that nearby origins will fire in the context of multiple potential start sites of DNA replication, and this is mediated by origin interference. PMID:17005913

Lebofsky, Ronald; Heilig, Roland; Sonnleitner, Max; Weissenbach, Jean; Bensimon, Aaron

2006-09-27

144

DNA Replication Origin Interference Increases the Spacing between Initiation Events in Human Cells  

PubMed Central

Mammalian DNA replication origins localize to sites that range from base pairs to tens of kilobases. A regular distribution of initiations in individual cell cycles suggests that only a limited number of these numerous potential start sites are converted into activated origins. Origin interference can silence redundant origins; however, it is currently unknown whether interference participates in spacing functional human initiation events. By using a novel hybridization strategy, genomic Morse code, on single combed DNA molecules from primary keratinocytes, we report the initiation sites present on 1.5 Mb of human chromosome 14q11.2. We confirm that initiation zones are widespread in human cells, map to intergenic regions, and contain sequence motifs found at other mammalian initiation zones. Origins used per cell cycle are less abundant than the potential sites of initiation, and their limited use increases the spacing between initiation events. Between-zone interference decreases in proportion to the distance from the active origin, whereas within-zone interference is 100% efficient. These results identify a hierarchical organization of origin activity in human cells. Functional origins govern the probability that nearby origins will fire in the context of multiple potential start sites of DNA replication, and this is mediated by origin interference.

Lebofsky, Ronald; Heilig, Roland; Sonnleitner, Max; Weissenbach, Jean

2006-01-01

145

Neandertal DNA sequences and the origin of modern humans.  

PubMed

DNA was extracted from the Neandertal-type specimen found in 1856 in western Germany. By sequencing clones from short overlapping PCR products, a hitherto unknown mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence was determined. Multiple controls indicate that this sequence is endogenous to the fossil. Sequence comparisons with human mtDNA sequences, as well as phylogenetic analyses, show that the Neandertal sequence falls outside the variation of modern humans. Furthermore, the age of the common ancestor of the Neandertal and modern human mtDNAs is estimated to be four times greater than that of the common ancestor of human mtDNAs. This suggests that Neandertals went extinct without contributing mtDNA to modern humans. PMID:9230299

Krings, M; Stone, A; Schmitz, R W; Krainitzki, H; Stoneking, M; Pääbo, S

1997-07-11

146

Warfare, Economic Performance And The Struggle For World Hegemony In The Early Modern Period: Guns Versus Butter In Eighteenth-Century Britain And Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing the existence of budgetary trade-offs in eighteenth-century Britain and Spain can contribute to resolve the debate on the economic impact of warfare and its relationships with the military potential of nations and the struggle for world supremacy during the early modern period. We have constructed several empirical models to search for trade-offs in order to show which country had

José Jurado-Sánchez; Miguel Jerez-Méndez

2012-01-01

147

Warfare, Economic Performance And The Struggle For World Hegemony In The Early Modern Period: Guns Versus Butter In Eighteenth-Century Britain And Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing the existence of budgetary trade-offs in eighteenth-century Britain and Spain can contribute to resolve the debate on the economic impact of warfare and its relationships with the military potential of nations and the struggle for world supremacy during the early modern period. We have constructed several empirical models to search for trade-offs in order to show which country had

José Jurado-Sánchez; Miguel Jerez-Méndez

2011-01-01

148

Necessities and Luxuries in Early-Modern Textile Consumption: Real Values of Worsted Says and Fine Woollens in the Sixteenth-Century Low Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

If mankind’s three basic necessities have always been food, clothing, and shelter, whose production, trade, and consumption have rightly been a primary focus of economists and economic historians for many generations, we may ask this vital question: how do they distinguish between necessities and luxury products? Indeed, any examination of later-medieval, early-modern commodity prices soon reveals that for all three

John H. Munro

2008-01-01

149

Origins of the Human Pointing Gesture: A Training Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite its importance in the development of children's skills of social cognition and communication, very little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the pointing gesture. We report a training study in which mothers gave children one month of extra daily experience with pointing as compared with a control group who had extra experience with…

Matthews, Danielle; Behne, Tanya; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2012-01-01

150

The origins of non-human primates' manual gestures  

PubMed Central

The increasing body of research into human and non-human primates' gestural communication reflects the interest in a comparative approach to human communication, particularly possible scenarios of language evolution. One of the central challenges of this field of research is to identify appropriate criteria to differentiate a gesture from other non-communicative actions. After an introduction to the criteria currently used to define non-human primates' gestures and an overview of ongoing research, we discuss different pathways of how manual actions are transformed into manual gestures in both phylogeny and ontogeny. Currently, the relationship between actions and gestures is not only investigated on a behavioural, but also on a neural level. Here, we focus on recent evidence concerning the differential laterality of manual actions and gestures in apes in the framework of a functional asymmetry of the brain for both hand use and language.

Liebal, Katja; Call, Josep

2012-01-01

151

Exploring the Origins of the Human Brain through Molecular Evolution  

PubMed Central

The emergence of the human brain is one of evolution’s most compelling mysteries. With its singular importance and astounding complexity, understanding the forces that gave rise to the human brain is a major undertaking. Recently, the identification and publication of the complete genomic sequence of humans, mice, chimpanzees, and macaques has allowed for large-scale studies looking for the genic substrates of this natural selection. These investigations into positive selection, however, have generally produced incongruous results. Here we consider some of these studies and their differences in methodologies with an eye towards how they affect the results. We also clarify the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches and discuss how these can be synthesized to develop a more complete understanding of the genetic correlates behind the human brain and the selective events that have acted upon them.

Vallender, Eric J.

2009-01-01

152

Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes Present Conflicting Portraits of Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

polymorphism patterns could be caused by different sample origins for the different data sets. To examine the mtDNA-nuclear difference more closely, DNA sequences were generated from a portion of the X-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase Ela subunit (PDHAl) locus and from a portion of mitochondrial control region I (CRI) from each of eight individuals, four from sub-Saharan Africa. The two genes revealed

Jody Hey

153

Neandertal DNA Sequences and the Origin of Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA was extracted from the Neandertal-type specimen found in 1856 in western Germany. By sequencing clones from short overlapping PCR products, a hitherto unknown mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence was determined. Multiple controls indicate that this sequence is endogenous to the fossil. Sequence comparisons with human mtDNA sequences, as well as phylogenetic analyses, show that the Neandertal sequence falls outside the

Matthias Krings; Anne Stone; Ralf W. Schmitz; Heike Krainitzki; Mark Stoneking; Svante Pääbo

1997-01-01

154

The origin of interspersed repeats in the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a third of the human genome consists of interspersed repetitive sequences which are primarily degenerate copies of transposable elements. In the past year, the identities of many of these transposable elements were revealed. The emerging concept is that only three mechanisms of amplification are responsible for the vast majority of interspersed repeats and that with each autonomous element a

Arian FA Smit

1996-01-01

155

Limits to human locomotor performance: phylogenetic origins and comparative perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of human exercise physiology have been conducted from a largely ahistorical perspective. This approach usefully elucidates proximate limits to locomotor performance, but ignores potential sources of biomechanical and physiological variation that derive from adaptation to ancestral environments. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that multiple hominoid lineages, including that leading to Homo sapiens, evolved in African highlands at altitudes of 1000-2000 m.

Robert Dudley

2001-01-01

156

Relevant Oncogenic Viruses in Veterinary Medicine: Original Pathogens and Animal Models for Human Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncogenic viruses are important pathogens in farm and companion animals. These original pathogens are classified in various virus families, such as Retroviridae, Papillomaviridae, and Herpesviridae. Besides a role as pathogens for its original host, animal viruses serve as valuable models for viruses affecting humans, such as hepatitis B virus, and issues of immunity, therapy, but also basic pathophysiological mechanisms, can

U. Truyen

2006-01-01

157

DNA Replication Origin Plasticity and Perturbed Fork Progression in Human Inverted Repeats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of metazoan genomes during their duplication depends on the spatiotemporal activation of origins and the progression of forks. Human rRNA genes represent a unique challenge to DNA replication since a large proportion of them exist as noncanonical palindromes in addition to canonical tandem repeats. Whether origin usage and\\/or fork elongation can cope with the variable structure of these

Ronald Lebofsky; Aaron Bensimon

2005-01-01

158

Identification of a Binding Region for Human Origin Recognition Complex Proteins 1 and 2 That Coincides with an Origin of DNA Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the binding regions of components of the origin recognition complex (ORC) in the human genome. For this purpose, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with antibodies against human Orc1 and Orc2 proteins. We identified a binding region for human Orc proteins 1 and 2 in a <1-kbp segment between two divergently transcribed human genes. The region is characterized by

Eva-Maria Ladenburger; Christian Keller; Rolf Knippers

2002-01-01

159

Universal mapping probes and the origin of human chromosome 3.  

PubMed Central

Universal mapping probes (UMPs) are defined as short segments of human DNA that are useful for physical and genetic mapping in a wide variety of mammals. The most useful UMPs contain a conserved DNA sequence immediately adjoined to a highly polymorphic CA repeat. The conserved region determines physical gene location, whereas the CA repeat facilitates genetic mapping. Both the CA repeat and its neighboring sequence are highly conserved in evolution. This permits molecular, cytogenetic, and genetic mapping of UMPs throughout mammalia. UMPs are significant because they make genetic information cumulative among well-studied species and because they transfer such information from "map rich" organisms to those that are "map poor." As a demonstration of the utility of UMPs, comparative maps between human chromosome 3 (HSA3) and the rat genome have been constructed. HSA3 is defined by at least 12 syntenic clusters located on seven different rat chromosomes. These data, together with previous comparative mapping information between human, mouse, and bovine genomes, allow us to propose a distinct evolutionary pathway that connects HSA3 with the chromosomes of rodents, artiodactyls, and primates. The model predicts a parsimonious phylogenetic tree, is readily testable, and will be of considerable use for determining the pathways of mammalian evolution. Images

Hino, O; Testa, J R; Buetow, K H; Taguchi, T; Zhou, J Y; Bremer, M; Bruzel, A; Yeung, R; Levan, G; Levan, K K

1993-01-01

160

Electrostatic origin of in vitro aggregation of human ?-crystallin.  

PubMed

The proteins ?-, ?-, and ?-crystallins are the major components of the lens in the human eye. Using dynamic light scattering method, we have performed in vitro investigations of protein-protein interactions in dilute solutions of human ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin. We find that ?-crystallin spontaneously aggregates into finite-sized clusters in phosphate buffer solutions. There are two distinct populations of unaggregated and aggregated ?-crystallins in these solutions. On the other hand, ?-crystallin molecules are not aggregated into large clusters in solutions of ?-crystallin alone. When ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin are mixed in phosphate buffer solutions, we demonstrate that the clusters of ?-crystallin are prevented. By further investigating the roles of temperature, protein concentration, pH, salt concentration, and a reducing agent, we show that the aggregation of ?-crystallin under our in vitro conditions arises from non-covalent electrostatic interactions. In addition, we show that aggregation of ?-crystallin occurs under the dilute in vitro conditions even in the absence of oxidizing agents that can induce disulfide cross-links, long considered to be responsible for human cataracts. Aggregation of ?-crystallin when maintained under reducing conditions suggests that oxidation does not contribute to the aggregation in dilute solutions. PMID:24089726

Mohr, Benjamin G; Dobson, Cassidy M; Garman, Scott C; Muthukumar, Murugappan

2013-09-28

161

Universal mapping probes and the origin of human chromosome 3  

SciTech Connect

Universal mapping probes (UMPs) are defined as short segments of human DNA that are useful for physical and genetic mapping in a wide variety of mammals. The most useful UMPs contain a conserved DNA sequence immediately adjoined to a highly polymorphic CA repeat. The conserved region determines physical gene location, whereas the CA repeat facilitates genetic mapping. Both the CA repeat and its neighboring sequence are highly conserved in evolution. This permits molecular, cytogenetic, and genetic mapping of UMPs throughout mammalia. UMPs are significant because they make genetic information cumulative among well-studied species and because they transfer such information from [open quotes]map poor[close quotes]. As a demonstration of the utility of UMPs, comparative maps between human chromosome 3 (HSA3) and the rat genome have been constructed. HSA3 is defined by at least 12 syntenic clusters located on seven different rat chromosomes. These data, together with previous comparative mapping information between human, mouse, and bovine genomes, allow us to propose a distinct evolutionary pathway that connects HSA3 with the chromosomes of rodents, artiodactyls, and primates. The model predicts a parsimonious phylogenetic tree, is readily testable, and will be of considerable use for determining the pathways of mammalian evolution. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Okio Hino (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan)); Testa, J.R.; Buetow, K.H.; Taguchi, Takahiro; Zhou, Jian-Yuan; Bremer, M.; Bruzel, A.; Yeung, R.; Levan, G.; Levan, K.K. (Gothenburg Univ., Guldhedsg (Sweden)); Knudson, A.F.; Tartof, K.D. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1993-01-15

162

The human socio-cognitive niche and its evolutionary origins.  

PubMed

Hominin evolution took a remarkable pathway, as the foraging strategy extended to large mammalian prey already hunted by a guild of specialist carnivores. How was this possible for a moderately sized ape lacking the formidable anatomical adaptations of these competing 'professional hunters'? The long-standing answer that this was achieved through the elaboration of a new 'cognitive niche' reliant on intelligence and technology is compelling, yet insufficient. Here we present evidence from a diversity of sources supporting the hypothesis that a fuller answer lies in the evolution of a new socio-cognitive niche, the principal components of which include forms of cooperation, egalitarianism, mindreading (also known as 'theory of mind'), language and cultural transmission, that go far beyond the most comparable phenomena in other primates. This cognitive and behavioural complex allows a human hunter-gatherer band to function as a unique and highly competitive predatory organism. Each of these core components of the socio-cognitive niche is distinctive to humans, but primate research has increasingly identified related capacities that permit inferences about significant ancestral cognitive foundations to the five pillars of the human social cognitive niche listed earlier. The principal focus of the present study was to review and integrate this range of recent comparative discoveries. PMID:22734055

Whiten, Andrew; Erdal, David

2012-08-01

163

Electrostatic origin of in vitro aggregation of human ?-crystallin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proteins ?-, ?-, and ?-crystallins are the major components of the lens in the human eye. Using dynamic light scattering method, we have performed in vitro investigations of protein-protein interactions in dilute solutions of human ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin. We find that ?-crystallin spontaneously aggregates into finite-sized clusters in phosphate buffer solutions. There are two distinct populations of unaggregated and aggregated ?-crystallins in these solutions. On the other hand, ?-crystallin molecules are not aggregated into large clusters in solutions of ?-crystallin alone. When ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin are mixed in phosphate buffer solutions, we demonstrate that the clusters of ?-crystallin are prevented. By further investigating the roles of temperature, protein concentration, pH, salt concentration, and a reducing agent, we show that the aggregation of ?-crystallin under our in vitro conditions arises from non-covalent electrostatic interactions. In addition, we show that aggregation of ?-crystallin occurs under the dilute in vitro conditions even in the absence of oxidizing agents that can induce disulfide cross-links, long considered to be responsible for human cataracts. Aggregation of ?-crystallin when maintained under reducing conditions suggests that oxidation does not contribute to the aggregation in dilute solutions.

Mohr, Benjamin G.; Dobson, Cassidy M.; Garman, Scott C.; Muthukumar, Murugappan

2013-09-01

164

The origin of alkanes found in human skin surface lipids.  

PubMed

Lipids extracted from human skin contain variable amounts of paraffin hydrocarbons. Although the composition of these alkanes strongly resembles petroleum waxes, it has been proposed that they are biosynthetic products of human skin. To investigate this question, skin surface lipids from 15 normal subjects were analyzed for the amount and composition of alkanes, using quantitative thin-layer chromatography and quartz capillary gas chromatography. The alkanes were found to constitute 0.5% to 1.7% of the skin lipids. Subjects differed greatly in the chain length distribution of their alkanes between 15 and 35 carbon atoms, and in the relative amounts of normal alkanes (like those in petroleum waxes) and branched chain alkanes (like those in petroleum lubricating oils). In 6 subjects, the alkane content of cerumen from each ear was examined to investigate whether alkanes arrive at the skin surface by a systemic route or by direct contact with environmental surfaces. No trace of alkanes was found in 11 of the 12 cerumen samples. Using a tandem accelerator mass spectrometer for carbon-14 dating, a combined sample of the skin surface alkanes was found to have a theoretical age of 30,950 years, similar to that of a sample of petrolatum. These analyses indicate that the alkanes found on the surface of human skin are mixtures of a variety of petroleum distillation fractions that are acquired by direct contamination from the environment. PMID:2584738

Bortz, J T; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

1989-12-01

165

The Human Pseudoautosomal Region (PAR): Origin, Function and Future.  

PubMed

The pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) of the human X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine during meiosis. Thus genes in this region are not inherited in a strictly sex-linked fashion. PAR1 is located at the terminal region of the short arms and PAR2 at the tips of the long arms of these chromosomes. To date, 24 genes have been assigned to the PAR1 region. Half of these have a known function. In contrast, so far only 4 genes have been discovered in the PAR2 region. Deletion of the PAR1 region results in failure of pairing and male sterility. The gene SHOX (short stature homeobox-containing) resides in PAR1. SHOX haploinsufficiency contributes to certain features in Turner syndrome as well as the characteristics of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Only two of the human PAR1 genes have mouse homologues. These do not, however, reside in the mouse PAR1 region but are autosomal. The PAR regions seem to be relics of differential additions, losses, rearrangements and degradation of the X and Y chromosome in different mammalian lineages. Marsupials have three homologues of human PAR1 genes in their autosomes, although, in contrast to mouse, do not have a PAR region at all. The disappearance of PAR from other species seems likely and this region will only be rescued by the addition of genes to both X and Y, as has occurred already in lemmings. The present review summarizes the current understanding of the evolution of PAR and provides up-to-date information about individual genes residing in this region. PMID:18660847

Helena Mangs, A; Morris, Brian J

2007-04-01

166

The Human Pseudoautosomal Region (PAR): Origin, Function and Future  

PubMed Central

The pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) of the human X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine during meiosis. Thus genes in this region are not inherited in a strictly sex-linked fashion. PAR1 is located at the terminal region of the short arms and PAR2 at the tips of the long arms of these chromosomes. To date, 24 genes have been assigned to the PAR1 region. Half of these have a known function. In contrast, so far only 4 genes have been discovered in the PAR2 region. Deletion of the PAR1 region results in failure of pairing and male sterility. The gene SHOX (short stature homeobox-containing) resides in PAR1. SHOX haploinsufficiency contributes to certain features in Turner syndrome as well as the characteristics of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Only two of the human PAR1 genes have mouse homologues. These do not, however, reside in the mouse PAR1 region but are autosomal. The PAR regions seem to be relics of differential additions, losses, rearrangements and degradation of the X and Y chromosome in different mammalian lineages. Marsupials have three homologues of human PAR1 genes in their autosomes, although, in contrast to mouse, do not have a PAR region at all. The disappearance of PAR from other species seems likely and this region will only be rescued by the addition of genes to both X and Y, as has occurred already in lemmings. The present review summarizes the current understanding of the evolution of PAR and provides up-to-date information about individual genes residing in this region.

Helena Mangs, A; Morris, Brian J

2007-01-01

167

The fossil trade: paying a price for human origins.  

PubMed

Fossils have been traded for centuries. Over the past two hundred years the market has developed into an organized enterprise, with fossils serving multiple functions as objects of scientific study, collectors' items, and investments. Finding fossils, digging them up or purchasing them, transporting, studying, and conserving them, and putting them on display was and still is expensive. Since the early nineteenth century, funding bodies, academic institutions and museums, philanthropists, dealers, collectors, amateurs, and professional paleontologists have constituted elaborate networks driven by collaboration, necessity, ambition, accolades, and capital to generate knowledge and produce geological artifacts, increasing our understanding of the natural world, advancing careers and institutions, and contributing to personal fortunes. The emergence of paleoanthropology as a scientific discipline around 1900 generated a scientific focus on the human story that was easy to sell. The scarcity of ancient human remains made it close to impossible for a commercial market to evolve, yet finding them required serious funding. Elaborate schemes for financing expeditions and excavations went hand in hand with individual aspirations, patronage, philanthropy, networks, and alliance building, as concession rights and access to sponsors were objects of regular political intrigues and often bitter disputes. PMID:22908426

Kjoergaard, Peter C

2012-06-01

168

Human origins family treeSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>our family tree Meet the extended family Until the late 1900s, many researchers believed that humans evolved from an apelike ancestor through a linear series of stages. There are now many different theories about the relationships between species. It appears that we may just be one of the twigs on a vast family tree.

2009-04-10

169

Open chromatin encoded in DNA sequence is the signature of 'master' replication origins in human cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, progress in elucidating the mechanisms underlying replication initiation and its coupling to transcriptional activities and to local chromatin structure has been hampered by the small number (approximately 30) of well-established origins in the human genome and more generally in mammalian genomes. Recent in silico studies of compositional strand asymmetries revealed a high level of organ- ization of human

Benjamin Audit; Lamia Zaghloul; C. Vaillant; G. Chevereau; Y. d'Aubenton-Carafa; C. Thermes; A. Arneodo

2009-01-01

170

Pulse-originated human figurative imagery transferred into dichromate gelatin DCG reflection holograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the transfer of human figurative imagery originated with a pulsed ruby laser into dichromate gelatin (DCG) emulsion. Human figurative imagery (live subject matter) has been recorded holographically with pulse laser systems, most commonly with pulsed ruby and frequency doubled Yag lasers using silver halide emulsion due to the short end reciprocity failure of other recording materials. Since

Fred D. Unterseher; August Muth; Rebecca E. Deem

1999-01-01

171

Microbial origin of phenylcarboxylic acids in the human body.  

PubMed

In previous studies we demonstrated increased amounts of phenylcarboxylic acids (PCA) in serum of patients with sepsis. This observation prompted the present study of the ability of the human microbiome bacteria to produce PCA in vitro. PCA were detected in culture media by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Increased amounts of phenyllactic and p-hydroxyphenyllactic acids were produced by Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Certain strict anaerobes (bifidobacteria, lactobacteria, eubacteria) have also been found to actively produce these PCA, but these bacteria are not etiologically linked to sepsis. Thus our results demonstrate the ability of sepsis-related bacteria to produce PCA and provide experimental support for the theory that the accumulation of PCA in the blood of patients with sepsis results from microbial degradation of phenylalanine and tyrosine. PMID:19961416

Beloborodova, N V; Khodakova, A S; Bairamov, I T; Olenin, A Yu

2009-12-01

172

Presence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus-1 in reference reagents of human origin in diagnostic kits.  

PubMed

We tested 54 reagents of human origin that were included in a number of diagnostic kits to be used as positive or negative control material, and for quality assurance, for the presence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Of these, 12 (22%) reagents were found to give positive results for antibodies to HIV-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or supplementary tests. These results suggest that some diagnostic reagents of human origin may be contaminated with HIV-1 and potentially may be infectious. PMID:3163408

Brake, F A; Maskill, W J; Howard, T S; Breschkin, A M; Gandhi, S S

1988-05-16

173

Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa  

PubMed Central

Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

Toups, Melissa A.; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

2011-01-01

174

Coevolution Reveals a Network of Human Proteins Originating with Multicellularity  

PubMed Central

Protein interaction networks play central roles in biological systems, from simple metabolic pathways through complex programs permitting the development of organisms. Multicellularity could only have arisen from a careful orchestration of cellular and molecular roles and responsibilities, all properly controlled and regulated. Disease reflects a breakdown of this organismal homeostasis. To better understand the evolution of interactions whose dysfunction may be contributing factors to disease, we derived the human protein coevolution network using our MatrixMatchMaker algorithm and using the Orthologous MAtrix project (OMA) database as a source for protein orthologs from 103 eukaryotic genomes. We annotated the coevolution network using protein–protein interaction data, many functional data sources, and we explored the evolutionary rates and dates of emergence of the proteins in our data set. Strikingly, clustering based only on the topology of the coevolution network partitions it into two subnetworks, one generally representing ancient eukaryotic functions and the other functions more recently acquired during animal evolution. That latter subnetwork is enriched for proteins with roles in cell–cell communication, the control of cell division, and related multicellular functions. Further annotation using data from genetic disease databases and cancer genome sequences strongly implicates these proteins in both ciliopathies and cancer. The enrichment for such disease markers in the animal network suggests a functional link between these coevolving proteins. Genetic validation corroborates the recruitment of ancient cilia in the evolution of multicellularity.

Bezginov, Alexandr; Clark, Gregory W.; Charlebois, Robert L.; Dar, Vaqaar-un-Nisa; Tillier, Elisabeth R.M.

2013-01-01

175

Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1\\/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This

Martha I. Nelson; Philippe Lemey; Yi Tan; Amy Vincent; Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam; Susan Detmer; Cécile Viboud; Marc A. Suchard; Andrew Rambaut; Edward C. Holmes; Marie Gramer

2011-01-01

176

Does the human X contain a third evolutionary block? Origin of genes on human Xp11 and Xq28  

PubMed Central

Comparative gene mapping of human X-borne genes in marsupials defined an ancient conserved region and a recently added region of the eutherian X, and the separate evolutionary origins of these regions was confirmed by their locations on chicken chromosomes 4p and 1q, respectively. However, two groups of genes, from the pericentric region of the short arm of the human X (at Xp11) and a large group of genes from human Xq28, were thought to be part of a third evolutionary block, being located in a single region in fish, but mapping to chicken chromosomes other than 4p and 1q. We tested this hypothesis by comparative mapping of genes in these regions. Our gene mapping results show that human Xp11 genes are located on the marsupial X chromosome and platypus chromosome 6, indicating that the Xp11 region was part of original therian X chromosome. We investigated the evolutionary origin of genes from human Xp11 and Xq28, finding that chicken paralogs of human Xp11 and Xq28 genes had been misidentified as orthologs, and their true orthologs are represented in the chicken EST database, but not in the current chicken genome assembly. This completely undermines the evidence supporting a separate evolutionary origin for this region of the human X chromosome, and we conclude, instead, that it was part of the ancient autosome, which became the conserved region of the therian X chromosome 166 million years ago.

Delbridge, Margaret L.; Patel, Hardip R.; Waters, Paul D.; McMillan, Daniel A.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

177

Human microRNAs originated from two periods at accelerated rates in mammalian evolution.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that modulate genes posttranscriptionally. Frequent gains and losses of miRNA genes have been reported to occur during evolution. However, little is known systematically about the periods of evolutionary origin of the present miRNA gene repertoire of an extant mammalian species. Thus, in this study, we estimated the evolutionary periods during which each of 1,433 present human miRNA genes originated within 15 periods, from human to platypus-human common ancestral branch and a class "conserved beyond theria," primarily using multiple genome alignments of 38 species, plus the pairwise genome alignments of five species. The results showed two peak periods in which the human miRNA genes originated at significantly accelerated rates. The most accelerated rate appeared in the period of the initial phase of hominoid lineage, and the second appeared shortly before Laurasiatherian divergence. Approximately 53% of the present human miRNA genes have originated within the simian lineage to human. In particular, approximately 28% originated within the hominoid lineage. The early phase of placental mammal radiation comprises approximately 28%, while no more than 15% of human miRNAs have been conserved beyond placental mammals. We also clearly showed a general trend, in which the miRNA expression level decreases as the miRNA becomes younger. Intriguingly, amid this decreasing trend of expression, we found one significant rise in the expression level that corresponded to the initial phase of the hominoid lineage, suggesting that increased functional acquisitions of miRNAs originated at this particular period. PMID:23171859

Iwama, Hisakazu; Kato, Kiyohito; Imachi, Hitomi; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

2012-11-20

178

Human MicroRNAs Originated from Two Periods at Accelerated Rates in Mammalian Evolution  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that modulate genes posttranscriptionally. Frequent gains and losses of miRNA genes have been reported to occur during evolution. However, little is known systematically about the periods of evolutionary origin of the present miRNA gene repertoire of an extant mammalian species. Thus, in this study, we estimated the evolutionary periods during which each of 1,433 present human miRNA genes originated within 15 periods, from human to platypus–human common ancestral branch and a class “conserved beyond theria,” primarily using multiple genome alignments of 38 species, plus the pairwise genome alignments of five species. The results showed two peak periods in which the human miRNA genes originated at significantly accelerated rates. The most accelerated rate appeared in the period of the initial phase of hominoid lineage, and the second appeared shortly before Laurasiatherian divergence. Approximately 53% of the present human miRNA genes have originated within the simian lineage to human. In particular, approximately 28% originated within the hominoid lineage. The early phase of placental mammal radiation comprises approximately 28%, while no more than 15% of human miRNAs have been conserved beyond placental mammals. We also clearly showed a general trend, in which the miRNA expression level decreases as the miRNA becomes younger. Intriguingly, amid this decreasing trend of expression, we found one significant rise in the expression level that corresponded to the initial phase of the hominoid lineage, suggesting that increased functional acquisitions of miRNAs originated at this particular period.

Iwama, Hisakazu; Kato, Kiyohito; Imachi, Hitomi; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

2013-01-01

179

Utilization of the same DNA replication origin by human cells of different derivation.  

PubMed Central

In the past, a highly sensitive and efficient method was developed to map DNA replication origins in human cells, based on quantitative PCR performed on nascent DNA samples. This method allowed the identification of a replication origin in the myeloid HL-60 cell line, located on chromosome 19 within an approximately 500 bp segment near the lamin B2 gene [Giacca et al. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91, 7119]. The same procedure has now been further simplified and extended to a variety of other exponentially growing human cells of different histological derivation (three neural, one connectival and one epithelial), with a nearly diploid chromosomal content. In all the six cell lines tested, the origin activity within the lamin B2 gene domain was localized to the same region. Furthermore, the lamin B2 origin was also found to be active in stimulated, but not in quiescent, peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Kumar, S; Giacca, M; Norio, P; Biamonti, G; Riva, S; Falaschi, A

1996-01-01

180

Dating the origin and dispersal of hepatitis B virus infection in humans and primates.  

PubMed

The origin of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in humans and other primates remains largely unresolved. Understanding the origin of HBV is crucial because it provides a framework for studying the burden, and subsequently the evolution, of HBV pathogenicity with respect to changes in human population size and life expectancy. To investigate this controversy we examined the relationship between HBV phylogeny and genetic diversity of modern humans, investigated the timescale of global HBV dispersal, and tested the hypothesis of HBV-human co-divergence. We find that the global distribution of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes are consistent with the major prehistoric modern human migrations. We calibrate the HBV molecular clock using the divergence times of different indigenous human populations based on archaeological and genetic evidence and show that HBV jumped into humans around 33,600 years ago; 95% higher posterior density (HPD): 22,000-47,100 years ago (estimated substitution rate: 2.2 × 10(-6) ; 95% HPD: 1.5-3.0 × 10(-6) substitutions/site/year). This coincides with the origin of modern non-African humans. Crucially, the most pronounced increase in the HBV pandemic correlates with the global population increase over the last 5,000 years. We also show that the non-human HBV clades in orangutans and gibbons resulted from cross-species transmission events from humans that occurred no earlier than 6,100 years ago. Conclusion: Our study provides, for the first time, an estimated timescale for the HBV epidemic that closely coincides with dates of human dispersals, supporting the hypothesis that HBV has been co-expanding and co-migrating with human populations for the last 40,000 years. (HEPATOLOGY 2013). PMID:22987324

Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Ho, Simon Y W; Belshaw, Robert; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Hatzakis, Angelos

2013-02-07

181

[Human origin and evolution. A review of advances in paleoanthropology, comparative genetics, and evolutionary psychology].  

PubMed

In his main work, "On the origin of species", Darwin has refrained from discusion of the origin of man; be only mentioned that his theory would "throw light" on this problem. This famous Darwin's phrase turned out to be one of the most succesful scientific predictions. In the present paper some of the most important recent adavnces in paleoanthroplogy, comparative genetics and evolutionary psychology are reviewed. These three disciplines currently contribute most to our knowledge of anthropogenesis. The review demonstrates that Darwin's ideas not only "threw light" on human origin and evolution; they provided a comprehensive framework for a great variety of studies concerning different aspects of anthropogenesis. PMID:19891409

Markov, A V

182

Identification of HsORC4, a member of the human origin of replication recognition complex.  

PubMed

A new member of human origin recognition complex (ORC) has been cloned and identified as the human homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORC4. HsORC4 is a 45-kDa protein encoded by a 2.2-kilobase mRNA whose amino acid sequence is 29% identical to ScORC4. HsORC4 has a putative nucleotide triphosphate binding motif that is not seen in ScORC4. HsORC4P also reveals an unsuspected homology to the ORC1-Cdc18 family of proteins. HsORC4 mRNA expression and protein levels remain constant through the cell cycle. HsORC4P is coimmunoprecipitated from cell extracts with another subunit of human ORC, HsORC2P, consistent with it being a part of the putative human origin recognition complex. PMID:9353276

Quintana, D G; Hou, Zh; Thome, K C; Hendricks, M; Saha, P; Dutta, A

1997-11-01

183

The Renaissance. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.8. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|California State Standard 7.8 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and diffusion of the Renaissance," in terms of the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts affected a new interest in humanism; the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of…

Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

184

Human memory B cells originate from three distinct germinal center-dependent and -independent maturation pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple distinct memory B-cell subsets have been identified in humans, but it remains unclear how their phenotypic diversity corresponds to the type of responses from which they originate. Especially, the contribution of germinal center-independent responses in humans remains controversial. We defined 6 memory B-cell subsets based on their antigen-experienced phenotype and differential expression of CD27 and IgH isotypes. Molecular characterization

M. A. Berkowska; G. J. A. Driessen; V. Bikos; C. Grosserichter-Wagener; K. Stamatopoulos; A. Cerutti; B. He; K. Biermann; J. F. Lange; Burg van der M; Dongen van J. J. M; Zelm van M. C

2011-01-01

185

Haplotypes in the Dystrophin DNA Segment Point to a Mosaic Origin of Modern Human Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Africa has played a central role in human evolutionary history, certain studies have suggested that not all contemporary human genetic diversity is of recent African origin. We investigated 35 simple polymorphic sites and one Tn microsatellite in an 8-kb segment of the dystrophin gene. We found 86 haplotypes in 1,343 chromosomes from around the world. Although a classical out-of-Africa

Ewa Zi?tkiewicz; Vania Yotova; Dominik Gehl; Tina Wambach; Isabel Arrieta; Mark Batzer; David E. C. Cole; Peter Hechtman; Feige Kaplan; David Modiano; Jean-Paul Moisan; Roman Michalski; Damian Labuda

2003-01-01

186

New potent inhibitors of aquaporins: silver and gold compounds inhibit aquaporins of plant and human origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver and gold compounds were tested as potential inhibitors of aquaporins of plant- and human origin. Silver as AgNO3 or silver sulfadiazine inhibited with high potency (EC50 1–10 ?M) the water permeability of the peribacteroid membrane from soybean (containing Nodulin 26), the water permeability of plasma membrane from roots (containing plasma membrane integral proteins), and the water permeability of human

Christa M Niemietz; Stephen D Tyerman

2002-01-01

187

Prostate Cancer Cells with Stem Cell Characteristics Reconstitute the Original Human Tumor In vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer may arise from a cancer stem\\/progenitor cell that shares characteristics with its normal counterpart. We report the reconstitution of the original human prostate cancer specimen from epithelial cell lines (termed HPET for human prostate epithelial\\/hTERT) derived from this sample. These tumors can be described in terms of Gleason score, a classification not applied to any of the transgenic mouse

Guangyu Gu; Jialing Yuan; Marcia Wills; Susan Kasper

2007-01-01

188

A new method for identifying blood meals of human origin in tsetse flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sensitive technique using the electrophoresis of superoxide dismutase to distinguish between tsetse blood meals of human and non-human origin is described. In Côte d'Ivoire, 602 blood meals were collected; 170 were from man (28.3%), 377 from animals (62.6%) and 55 were unidentified (9.1%) because no pattern was observed. When calculating the index of epidemiological risk, it is strongly

Boubacar P Diallo; Philippe Truc; Claude Laveissière

1997-01-01

189

Human memory B cells originate from three distinct germinal center-dependent and -independent maturation pathways  

PubMed Central

Multiple distinct memory B-cell subsets have been identified in humans, but it remains unclear how their phenotypic diversity corresponds to the type of responses from which they originate. Especially, the contribution of germinal center-independent responses in humans remains controversial. We defined 6 memory B-cell subsets based on their antigen-experienced phenotype and differential expression of CD27 and IgH isotypes. Molecular characterization of their replication history, Ig somatic hypermutation, and class-switch profiles demonstrated their origin from 3 different pathways. CD27?IgG+ and CD27+IgM+ B cells are derived from primary germinal center reactions, and CD27+IgA+ and CD27+IgG+ B cells are from consecutive germinal center responses (pathway 1). In contrast, natural effector and CD27?IgA+ memory B cells have limited proliferation and are also present in CD40L-deficient patients, reflecting a germinal center-independent origin. Natural effector cells at least in part originate from systemic responses in the splenic marginal zone (pathway 2). CD27?IgA+ cells share low replication history and dominant Ig? and IgA2 use with gut lamina propria IgA+ B cells, suggesting their common origin from local germinal center-independent responses (pathway 3). Our findings shed light on human germinal center-dependent and -independent B-cell memory formation and provide new opportunities to study these processes in immunologic diseases.

Berkowska, Magdalena A.; Driessen, Gertjan J. A.; Bikos, Vasilis; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Cerutti, Andrea; He, Bing; Biermann, Katharina; Lange, Johan F.; van der Burg, Mirjam; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.

2011-01-01

190

A General Theory Concerning the Prenatal Origins of Cerebral Lateralization in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of cerebral lateralization in humans are traced to the asymmetric prenatal development of the ear and labyrinth. Aural lateralization is hypothesized to result from an asymmetry in craniofacial development, whereas vestibular dominance is traced to the position of the fetus during the final trimester. A right-ear sensitivity advantage may contribute to a left-hemispheric advantage in speech perception and

Fred H. Previc

1991-01-01

191

The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary Although molecular genetic evidence continues to accumulate that is consistent with a recent common African ancestry of modern humans, its ability to illuminate regional histories remains incomplete. A set of unique event polymorphisms associated with the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome (NRY) addresses this issue by providing evidence concerning successful migrations originating from Africa, which can be interpreted as

P. A. UNDERHILL; G. PASSARINO; A. A. LIN; P. SHEN; M. MIRAZON LAHR; R. A. FOLEY; P. J. OEFNER; L. L. CAVALLI-SFORZA

2001-01-01

192

The origins of human disease: a short story on ''where diseases come from  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of public health is based on the working hypothesis that disease is caused by exposure to noxious factors in the external environment. While this approach has produced great successes in primary prevention, a general theory of the origins of human disease cannot be found in the textbooks of public health or epidemiology. This paper suggests that, in all its

Johan P Mackenbach

193

The origins of human disease: a short story on “where diseases come from”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of public health is based on the working hypothesis that disease is caused by exposure to noxious factors in the external environment. While this approach has produced great successes in primary prevention, a general theory of the origins of human disease cannot be found in the textbooks of public health or epidemiology. This paper suggests that, in all its

Johan P Mackenbach

2006-01-01

194

A New Approach to Studying Modern Human Origins: Hypothesis Testing with Coalescence Time Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for testing hypotheses about modern human origins using molecular divergence dates is presented. Coalescence times from many unlinked loci are needed to test the alternative models. Hypotheses are evaluated on the basis of their differing predicted distribution patterns of coalescence times from multiple genes. No single coalescence time from one genetic system is sufficient to reject any

Maryellen Ruvolo

1996-01-01

195

Canine distemper virus in primary and continuous cell lines of human and monkey origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Canine distemper virus produced characteristic cytopathic effects in primary and continuous cell cultures of human and monkey origin. The importance of selection of variants for successful adaptation to a given cell type was indicated by the marked differences in growth and CPE demonstrated by CDV lines of varying background. The Onderstepoort strain which had previously been passaged in ferret

Robert H. Bussell; David T. Karzon

1965-01-01

196

Serological difference between Erwinia herbicola strains of plant and human origin.  

PubMed

Fifty Erwinia herbicola isolates obtained from host plants were examined in an agglutination reaction with antiserum prepared against E. ananas (E. herbicola) strain CCM 2407 antigen of plant origin and with antiserum prepared against Enterobacter agglomerans strain CNCTC M 269 antigen of human origin. In tests with strain CCM 2407 antiserum, 56% isolates showed a positive reaction, while in tests with strain CNCTC M 269 antiserum only 14% isolates showed a positive reaction. Among E. herbicola isolates which showed a positive reaction with CCM 2407 antiserum 18% showed a positive reaction with the CNCTC M 269 antiserum too. Our results confirmed the serological heterogeneity of E. herbicola population. In spite of the difference in the origin of the two antigens used for the preparation of antisera (plant, human; Japan, Czech Republic) our results indicate that some of our E. herbicola strains and E. agglomerans strain CNCTC M 269 are serologically identical. PMID:8550027

Mráz, I; Hladká, I; K?dela, V

1994-01-01

197

Premodern origins of modern homophobia and masculinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Premodern and early modern perceptions of same-sex desires and behaviors, in particular in Protestant seventeenth and eighteenth\\u000a century Holland, show similarities with modern discourse on homophobia, especially vis-à-vis the suggested mutability of homosexuality.\\u000a Early European perceptions of homosexuality represented universalizing discourses according to which everybody could become\\u000a a sodomite. Like modern discourses on homophobia, they originated from a comprehensive sexual

Theo van der Meer

2004-01-01

198

The effect of the intra-S-phase checkpoint on origins of replication in human cells.  

PubMed

Although many chemotherapy drugs activate the intra-S-phase checkpoint pathway to block S-phase progression, not much is known about how and where the intra-S-phase checkpoint regulates origins of replication in human chromosomes. A genomic analysis of replication in human cells in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU) revealed that only the earliest origins fire, but the forks stall within 2 kb and neighboring clusters of dormant origins are activated. The initiation events are located near expressed genes with a preference for transcription start and end sites, and when they are located in intergenic regions they are located near regulatory factor-binding regions (RFBR). The activation of clustered neo-origins by HU suggests that there are many potential replication initiation sites in permissive parts of the genome, most of which are not used in a normal S phase. Consistent with this redundancy, we see multiple sites bound to MCM3 (representative of the helicase) in the region flanking three out of three origins studied in detail. Bypass of the intra-S-phase checkpoint by caffeine activates many new origins in mid- and late-replicating parts of the genome. The intra-S-phase checkpoint suppresses origin firing after the loading of Mcm10, but before the recruitment of Cdc45 and AND-1/CTF4; i.e., after helicase loading but before helicase activation and polymerase loading. Interestingly, Cdc45 recruitment upon checkpoint bypass was accompanied by the restoration of global Cdk2 kinase activity and decrease in both global and origin-bound histone H3 Lys 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), consistent with the suggestion that both of these factors are important for Cdc45 recruitment. PMID:21406556

Karnani, Neerja; Dutta, Anindya

2011-03-15

199

The effect of the intra-S-phase checkpoint on origins of replication in human cells  

PubMed Central

Although many chemotherapy drugs activate the intra-S-phase checkpoint pathway to block S-phase progression, not much is known about how and where the intra-S-phase checkpoint regulates origins of replication in human chromosomes. A genomic analysis of replication in human cells in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU) revealed that only the earliest origins fire, but the forks stall within 2 kb and neighboring clusters of dormant origins are activated. The initiation events are located near expressed genes with a preference for transcription start and end sites, and when they are located in intergenic regions they are located near regulatory factor-binding regions (RFBR). The activation of clustered neo-origins by HU suggests that there are many potential replication initiation sites in permissive parts of the genome, most of which are not used in a normal S phase. Consistent with this redundancy, we see multiple sites bound to MCM3 (representative of the helicase) in the region flanking three out of three origins studied in detail. Bypass of the intra-S-phase checkpoint by caffeine activates many new origins in mid- and late-replicating parts of the genome. The intra-S-phase checkpoint suppresses origin firing after the loading of Mcm10, but before the recruitment of Cdc45 and AND-1/CTF4; i.e., after helicase loading but before helicase activation and polymerase loading. Interestingly, Cdc45 recruitment upon checkpoint bypass was accompanied by the restoration of global Cdk2 kinase activity and decrease in both global and origin-bound histone H3 Lys 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), consistent with the suggestion that both of these factors are important for Cdc45 recruitment.

Karnani, Neerja; Dutta, Anindya

2011-01-01

200

In vitro protein-DNA interactions at the human lamin B2 replication origin.  

PubMed

The complexity of mammalian origins of DNA replication has prevented, so far, the in vitro studies of the modalities of initiator protein binding and origin selection. We approached this problem by utilizing the human lamin B2 origin, wherein the precise start sites of replication initiation have been identified and known to be bound in vivo by the origin recognition complex (ORC). In order to analyze the in vitro interactions occurring at this origin, we have compared the DNA binding requirements and patterns of the human recombinant Orc4 with those of preparations of HeLa nuclear proteins containing the ORC complex. Here we show that both HsOrc4 alone and HeLa nuclear proteins recognize multiple sites within a 241-bp DNA sequence encompassing the lamin B2 origin. The DNA binding activity of HeLa cells requires the presence of ORC and can be reproduced in the absence of all the other proteins known to be recruited to origins by ORC. Both HsOrc4 alone and HeLa nuclear proteins exhibit cooperative and ATP-independent binding. This binding covers nucleotides 3853-3953 and then spreads outward. Because this region contains the start sites of DNA synthesis as well as the area protected in vivo and preserves protein binding capacity in vitro after removal of a fraction of the protected region, we suggest that it could contain the primary binding site. Thus the in vitro approach points to the sequence requirements for ORC binding as a key element for origin recognition. PMID:12902329

Stefanovic, Dragana; Stanojcic, Slavica; Vindigni, Alessandro; Ochem, Alexander; Falaschi, Arturo

2003-08-05

201

Homeotic proteins participate in the function of human-DNA replication origins  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence points to homeotic proteins as actors in the crosstalk between development and DNA replication. The present work demonstrates that HOXC13, previously identified as a new member of human DNA replicative complexes, is a stable component of early replicating chromatin in living cells: it displays a slow nuclear dynamics due to its anchoring to the DNA minor groove via the arginine-5 residue of the homeodomain. HOXC13 binds in vivo to the lamin B2 origin in a cell-cycle-dependent manner consistent with origin function; the interaction maps with nucleotide precision within the replicative complex. HOXC13 displays in vitro affinity for other replicative complex proteins; it interacts also in vivo with the same proteins in a cell-cycle-dependent fashion. Chromatin-structure modifying treatments, disturbing origin function, reduce also HOXC13–origin interaction. The described interactions are not restricted to a single origin nor to a single homeotic protein (also HOXC10 binds the lamin B2 origin in vivo). Thus, HOX complexes probably contribute in a general, structure-dependent manner, to origin identification and assembly of replicative complexes thereon, in presence of specific chromatin configurations.

Marchetti, Laura; Comelli, Laura; D'Innocenzo, Barbara; Puzzi, Luca; Luin, Stefano; Arosio, Daniele; Calvello, Mariantonietta; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Peverali, Fiorenzo; Trovato, Fabio; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Abdurashidova, Gulnara; Beltram, Fabio; Falaschi, Arturo

2010-01-01

202

Human behavioral ecology, phenotypic (developmental) plasticity, and agricultural origins: insights from the emerging evolutionary synthesis.  

PubMed

The fields of human behavioral ecology (HBE) and evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) both stand to make significant contributions to our understanding of agricultural origins. These two approaches share a concern with phenotypic-plasticity and its evolutionary significance. HBE considers the adaptive plasticity of the human phenotype in response to resource distribution in time and space and has helped to advance understanding of the economic costs and benefits of food production. However, evo-devo and the associated subject of phenotypic (developmental) plasticity have so far been largely neglected as sources of insight into the domestication of plants, despite growing evidence for their evolutionary importance in nature and their roles in the origins of novel traits. We argue that it is important to consider environmentally induced phenotypic variation resulting directly from both natural- and human-induced ecological change as a source of the distinctive morphologies of domesticated plants. PMID:20642147

Gremillion, Kristen J; Piperno, Dolores R

2009-10-01

203

A monkey's tale: The origin of Plasmodium vivax as a human malaria parasite  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of Duffy negativity (lack of the Duffy blood group antigen) among human populations in sub-Saharan Africa has been used to argue that Plasmodium vivax originated on that continent. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 10 species of Plasmodium that infect primates by using three genes, two nuclear (?-tubulin and cell division cycle 2) and a gene from the plastid genome (the elongation factor Tu). We find compelling evidence that P. vivax is derived from a species that inhabited macaques in Southeast Asia. Specifically, those phylogenies that include P. vivax as an ancient lineage from which all of the macaque parasites could originate are significantly less likely to explain the data. We estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor at four neutral gene loci from Asian and South American isolates (a minimum sample of seven isolates per locus). Our analysis estimates that the extant populations of P. vivax originated between 45,680 and 81,607 years ago. The phylogeny and the estimated time frame for the origination of current P. vivax populations are consistent with an “out of Asia” origin for P. vivax as hominoid parasite. The current debate regarding how the Duffy negative trait became fixed in Africa needs to be revisited, taking into account not only human genetic data but also the genetic diversity observed in the extant P. vivax populations and the phylogeny of the genus Plasmodium.

Escalante, Ananias A.; Cornejo, Omar E.; Freeland, Denise E.; Poe, Amanda C.; Durrego, Ester; Collins, William E.; Lal, Altaf A.

2005-01-01

204

Novel swine-origin influenza A virus in humans: another pandemic knocking at the door  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza A viruses represent a continuous pandemic threat. In April 2009, a novel influenza A virus, the so-called swine-origin\\u000a influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), was identified in Mexico. Although S-OIV originates from triple-reassortant swine influenza\\u000a A (H1) that has been circulating in North American pig herds since the end of the 1990s, S-OIV is readily transmitted between\\u000a humans but is

Martin Michaelis; Hans Wilhem Doerr; Jindrich Cinatl Jr

2009-01-01

205

Replication Fork Velocities at Adjacent Replication Origins Are Coordinately Modified during DNA Replication in Human Cells  

PubMed Central

The spatial organization of replicons into clusters is believed to be of critical importance for genome duplication in higher eukaryotes, but its functional organization still remains to be fully clarified. The coordinated activation of origins is insufficient on its own to account for a timely completion of genome duplication when interorigin distances vary significantly and fork velocities are constant. Mechanisms coordinating origin distribution with fork progression are still poorly elucidated, because of technical difficulties of visualizing the process. Taking advantage of a single molecule approach, we delineated and compared the DNA replication kinetics at the genome level in human normal primary and malignant cells. Our results show that replication forks moving from one origin, as well as from neighboring origins, tend to exhibit the same velocity, although the plasticity of the replication program allows for their adaptation to variable interorigin distances. We also found that forks that emanated from closely spaced origins tended to move slower than those associated with long replicons. Taken together, our results indicate a functional role for origin clustering in the dynamic regulation of genome duplication.

Conti, Chiara; Sacca, Barbara; Herrick, John; Lalou, Claude; Pommier, Yves

2007-01-01

206

Using autonomous replication to physically and genetically define human origins of replication  

SciTech Connect

The author previously developed a system for studying autonomous replication in human cells involving the use of sequences from the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome to provide extrachromosomal plasmids with a nuclear retention function. Using this system, it was demonstrated that large fragments of human genomic DNA could be isolated which replicate autonomously in human cells. In this study the DNA sequences which function as origins of replication in human cells are defined physically and genetically. These experiments demonstrated that replication initiates at multiple locations distributed throughout the plasmid. Another line of experiments addressed the DNA sequence requirements for autonomous replication in human cells. These experiments demonstrated that human DNA fragments have a higher replication activity than bacterial fragments do. It was also found, however, that the bacterial DNA sequence could support efficient replication if enough copies of it were present on the plasmid. These findings suggested that autonomous replication in human cells does not depend on extensive, specific DNA sequences. The autonomous replication system which the author has employed for these experiments utilizes a cis-acting sequence from the EBV origin and the trans-acting EBNA-1 protein to provide plasmids with a nuclear retention function. It was therefore relevant to verify that the autonomous replication of human DNA fragments did not depend on the replication activity associated with the EBV sequences utilized for nuclear retention. To accomplish this goal, the author demonstrated that plasmids carrying the EBV sequences and large fragments of human DNA could support long-term autonomous replication in hamster cells, which are not permissive for EBV replication.

Krysan, P.J.

1993-01-01

207

Rapid morphological change in living humans: implications for modern human origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human body size and body proportions are interpreted as markers of ethnicity, ‘race,’ adaptation to temperature, nutritional history and socioeconomic status. Some studies emphasize only one of these indicators and other studies consider combinations of indicators. To better understand the biocultural nature of human size and proportions a new study of the growth of Maya-American youngsters was undertaken in 1999

Barry Bogin; Luis Rios

2003-01-01

208

Original Article Characterization of human septic sera induced gene expression modulation in human myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain a better understanding of the gene expression changes that occurs during sepsis, we have performed a cDNA microarray study utilizing a tissue culture model that mimics human sepsis. This study utilized an in vitro model of cultured human fetal cardiac myocytes treated with 10% sera from septic patients or 10% sera from healthy volunteers. A 1700 cDNA expression

Shaimaa Hussein; Paul Michael; Danielle Brabant; Abdelwahab Omri; Ravin Narain; Kalpdrum Passi; Chilakamarti V. Ramana; Joseph E. Parrillo; Anand Kumar; Amadeo Parissenti; Aseem Kumar

209

SIV infection of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin: a suitable model for HIV infection in humans  

PubMed Central

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (RM) has been widely used as a well-established nonhuman primate (NHP) model for HIV/AIDS research. However, there have been a growing number of studies using Chinese RM to evaluate immunopathogenesis of SIV infection. In this paper, we have for the first time reviewed and discussed the major publications related to SIV or SHIV infection of Chinese RM in the past decades. We have compared the differences in the pathogenesis of SIV infection between Chinese RM and Indian RM with regard to viral infection, immunological response, and host genetic background. Given AIDS is a disease that affects humans of diverse origins, it is of importance to study animals with different geographical background. Therefore, to examine and compare results obtained from RM models of Indian and Chinese origins should lead to further validation and improvement of these animal models for HIV/AIDS research.

2013-01-01

210

A structural role for ATP in the formation and stability of the human origin recognition complex.  

PubMed

The locally restricted recruitment of the multisubunit origin recognition complex (ORC) to eukaryotic chromosomes defines the position of origins of DNA replication. In budding yeast and metazoans the DNA binding activity of ORC is stimulated by ATP and requires an AAA+-type nucleotide binding domain in the largest subunit. Little else is known about the mechanisms behind the ATP requirement for ORC in its initiator function and, specifically, the relevance of nucleotide binding domains present on other subunits. Here we show that ATP is required for specific subunit interactions in the human ORC, with the Orc4 subunit playing a critical role in this dynamic process. ATP is essential for the maintenance of ORC integrity and facilitates complex formation. Thus, besides its previously identified role in DNA binding, ATP serves also as a structural cofactor for human ORC. PMID:16549788

Ranjan, Anand; Gossen, Manfred

2006-03-20

211

Effects of fibroblasts of different origin on long term maintenance of xenotransplanted human epidermal kerationocytes in immunodeficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined effects of fibroblasts of different origin on long-term maintenance of xenotransplanted human epidermal keratinocytes. A suspension of cultured epidermal cells, originating from adult human trunk skin, was injected into double mutant immunodeficient (BALB\\/c nu\\/scid) mice subcutaneously, with or without cultured fibroblastic cells of different origin. At one week after transplantation, the epidermal cells generated epidermoid cysts consisting of

Sadaki Inokuchi I; Kazuo Shimamura; Hiroko Tohya; Masako Kidokoro; Makiko Tanaka; Yoshito Ueyama; Yuhwsuke Sawada

1995-01-01

212

Emergence of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND On April 15 and April 17, 2009, novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified in specimens obtained from two epidemiologically unlinked patients in the United States. The same strain of the virus was identified in Mexico, Canada, and elsewhere. We describe 642 confirmed cases of human S-OIV infection identi- fied from the rapidly evolving U.S. outbreak. METHODS

Seema Jain; Lyn Finelli; Michael W. Shaw; Stephen Lindstrom; Rebecca J. Garten; Larisa V. Gubareva; Xiyan Xu; Carolyn B. Bridges; Timothy M. Uyeki

2009-01-01

213

Start Sites of Bidirectional DNA Synthesis at the Human Lamin B2 Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation sites of bidirectional synthesis at the DNA replication origin located at the 3' end of the human lamin B2 gene were investigated. RNA-primed nascent DNA molecules were subjected to second-strand synthesis with appropriate primers, amplified by ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction, and size fractionated. Evidence for precise start sites was obtained. Exploration of close to 1 kilobase, coupled to

Gulnara Abdurashidova; Marta Deganuto; Raffaella Klima; Silvano Riva; Giuseppe Biamonti; Mauro Giacca; Arturo Falaschi

2000-01-01

214

Identification of Persistent RNA-DNA Hybrid Structures within the Origin of Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic-phase DNA replication initiates at the cis-acting origin of replication, oriLyt. oriLyt is a structurally complex region containing repeat elements and transcription factor binding sites. We identified two site-specific alkali-labile regions within oriLyt which flank an alkali-resistant DNA segment. These alkali-sensitive regions were the result of the degradation of two RNA species embedded within oriLyt and covalently

MARK N. PRICHARD; SANJU JAIRATH; MARK E. T. PENFOLD; STEPHEN S. T. JEOR; MARLENE C. BOHLMAN; GREGORY S. PARI

215

Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate  

PubMed Central

Although there is a general consensus on African origin of early modern humans, there is disagreement about how and when they dispersed to Eurasia. This paper reviews genetic and Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic archaeological literature from northeast Africa, Arabia, and the Levant to assess the timing and geographic backgrounds of Upper Pleistocene human colonization of Eurasia. At the center of the discussion lies the question of whether eastern Africa alone was the source of Upper Pleistocene human dispersals into Eurasia or were there other loci of human expansions outside of Africa? The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: (i) from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5), (ii) from a rapid dispersal out of East Africa via the Southern Route (across the Red Sea basin), dating to ~74–60?kya.

Beyin, Amanuel

2011-01-01

216

[The unicorn and the pharmacists. Early modern views on the presumed anti-toxic effects of unicorn horn].  

PubMed

Around 1600, the age-old belief in the anti-toxic effect of unicorn horn began to be called into question. This is evidenced by the views of two well-known French pharmaceutic authorities whose publications are discussed in this paper: the surgeon Ambroise Paré (1510-1590), court physician to four French kings, and the Montpellier pharmacist Laurent Catelan (1568-1647), who owned a famous cabinet de curiosités. Although Paré had to accept, however reluctantly, the existence of the unicorn (since it is mentioned in the Bible), he vehemently denied the supposed medicinal effect of unicorn products. He defended his position by an appeal to ancient and contemporary authorities, by rational argumentation, and by experiment. Paré's arguments failed to convince Catelan, who adhered to an alternative, so-called spagyric, medical theory of neoplatonic inspiration, as propagated by Paracelsus and Ficino. Catelan remained convinced of the efficacity of unicorn horn, which in his view could drain the human body from any poisonous substance. The medical establishment being reluctant to give up a rewarding source of income,'unicorn' remained much in demand as a prescription. PMID:20681192

Gerritsen, W P

2007-01-01

217

Human herpesvirus 6B origin-binding protein: DNA-binding domain and consensus binding sequence.  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated by a DNA-binding assay that the human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) replication origin has a structure similar to those of alphaherpesviruses, although the HHV-6B and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) origin-binding proteins (OBPs) and origins are not interchangeable. Here we describe additional properties of the interaction between HHV-6B OBP and the HHV-6B origin. Competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) with DNA duplexes containing single-base alterations allowed deduction of a consensus DNA sequence for HHV-6B-specific OBP binding, YGWYCWCCY, where Y is T or C and W is T or A, while that for HSV-1-specific binding was reported to be YGYTCGCACT. By EMSA, the HHV-6B OBP DNA-binding domain was mapped to a segment containing amino acids 482 to 770. However, in Southwestern (protein-DNA) blotting, the region sufficient for the DNA binding encompassed only amino acids 657 to 770. Similarly, Southwestern blotting showed that amino acids 689 to 851 of HSV-1 OBP had HSV-1 origin-binding activity, although this region was insufficient for origin binding in the EMSA. Although the longer DNA-binding domains identified by EMSA have marginal overall homology among HHV-6B and alphaherpesvirus OBP homologs, the smaller regions sufficient for the binding observed by Southwestern blotting have significant similarity. From these results, we propose a hypothesis that the DNA-binding domain of herpesvirus OBPs consists of two subdomains, one containing a conserved motif that contacts DNA directly, and another, less well conserved, that may modulate either the conformation or accessibility of the binding domain.

Inoue, N; Pellett, P E

1995-01-01

218

Human Mcm proteins at a replication origin during the G1 to S phase transition  

PubMed Central

Previous work with yeast cells and with Xenopus egg extracts had shown that eukaryotic pre-replication complexes assemble on chromatin in a step-wise manner whereby specific loading factors promote the recruitment of essential Mcm proteins at pre-bound origin recognition complexes (ORC with proteins Orc1p–Orc6p). While the order of assembly—Mcm binding follows ORC binding—seems to be conserved in cycling mammalian cells in culture, it has not been determined whether mammalian Mcm proteins associate with ORC-bearing chromatin sites. We have used a chromatin immunoprecipitation approach to investigate the site of Mcm binding in a genomic region that has previously been shown to contain an ORC-binding site and an origin of replication. Using chromatin from HeLa cells in G1 phase, antibodies against Orc2p as well as antibodies against Mcm proteins specifically immunoprecipitate chromatin enriched for a DNA region that includes a replication origin. However, with chromatin from cells in S phase, only Orc2p-specific antibodies immunoprecipitate the origin-containing DNA region while Mcm-specific antibodies immunoprecipitate chromatin with DNA from all parts of the genomic region investigated. Thus, human Mcm proteins first assemble at or adjacent to bound ORC and move to other sites during genome replication.

Schaarschmidt, Daniel; Ladenburger, Eva-Maria; Keller, Christian; Knippers, Rolf

2002-01-01

219

Evolution and the loss of hierarchies: Dubreuil’s “Human evolution and the origin of hierarchies: the state of nature”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benoit Dubreuil’s Human Evolution and the Origins of Hierarchies, according to the jacket cover, is intended to provide ‘‘a natural history of [human social] hierarchies’’, and in particular to explain two transitions in the history of those hierarchies. The first transition is one that moved humans from social groups characterized by dominance hierarchies (such as those presumably had by our

Catherine Driscoll

220

Preferential transformation of human neuronal cells by human adenoviruses and the origin of HEK 293 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 293 cell line was derived by transformation of primary cultures of human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells with sheared adenovirus (Ad)5 DNA. A combination of immunostaining, immunoblot, and microarray analysis showed that 293 cells express the neurofilament (NF) subunits NF-L, NF-M, NF-H, and ?-internexin as well as many other proteins typically found in neurons. Three other independently derived HEK lines,

Gerry Shaw; Silas Morse; Miguel Ararat; Frank L. Graham

2002-01-01

221

Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans  

PubMed Central

Africa is inferred to be the continent of origin for all modern human populations, but the details of human prehistory and evolution in Africa remain largely obscure owing to the complex histories of hundreds of distinct populations. We present data for more than 580,000 SNPs for several hunter-gatherer populations: the Hadza and Sandawe of Tanzania, and the ?Khomani Bushmen of South Africa, including speakers of the nearly extinct N|u language. We find that African hunter-gatherer populations today remain highly differentiated, encompassing major components of variation that are not found in other African populations. Hunter-gatherer populations also tend to have the lowest levels of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium among 27 African populations. We analyzed geographic patterns of linkage disequilibrium and population differentiation, as measured by FST, in Africa. The observed patterns are consistent with an origin of modern humans in southern Africa rather than eastern Africa, as is generally assumed. Additionally, genetic variation in African hunter-gatherer populations has been significantly affected by interaction with farmers and herders over the past 5,000 y, through both severe population bottlenecks and sex-biased migration. However, African hunter-gatherer populations continue to maintain the highest levels of genetic diversity in the world.

Henn, Brenna M.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Jobin, Matthew; Granka, Julie M.; Macpherson, J. M.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Rodriguez-Botigue, Laura; Ramachandran, Sohini; Hon, Lawrence; Brisbin, Abra; Lin, Alice A.; Underhill, Peter A.; Comas, David; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Feldman, Marcus W.

2011-01-01

222

Human fetal neuroblast and neuroblastoma transcriptome analysis confirms neuroblast origin and highlights neuroblastoma candidate genes  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroblastoma tumor cells are assumed to originate from primitive neuroblasts giving rise to the sympathetic nervous system. Because these precursor cells are not detectable in postnatal life, their transcription profile has remained inaccessible for comparative data mining strategies in neuroblastoma. This study provides the first genome-wide mRNA expression profile of these human fetal sympathetic neuroblasts. To this purpose, small islets of normal neuroblasts were isolated by laser microdissection from human fetal adrenal glands. Results Expression of catecholamine metabolism genes, and neuronal and neuroendocrine markers in the neuroblasts indicated that the proper cells were microdissected. The similarities in expression profile between normal neuroblasts and malignant neuroblastomas provided strong evidence for the neuroblast origin hypothesis of neuroblastoma. Next, supervised feature selection was used to identify the genes that are differentially expressed in normal neuroblasts versus neuroblastoma tumors. This approach efficiently sifted out genes previously reported in neuroblastoma expression profiling studies; most importantly, it also highlighted a series of genes and pathways previously not mentioned in neuroblastoma biology but that were assumed to be involved in neuroblastoma pathogenesis. Conclusion This unique dataset adds power to ongoing and future gene expression studies in neuroblastoma and will facilitate the identification of molecular targets for novel therapies. In addition, this neuroblast transcriptome resource could prove useful for the further study of human sympathoadrenal biogenesis.

De Preter, Katleen; Vandesompele, Jo; Heimann, Pierre; Yigit, Nurten; Beckman, Siv; Schramm, Alexander; Eggert, Angelika; Stallings, Raymond L; Benoit, Yves; Renard, Marleen; Paepe, Anne De; Laureys, Genevieve; Pahlman, Sven; Speleman, Frank

2006-01-01

223

Modern origin of numerous alternatively spliced human introns from tandem arrays  

PubMed Central

Despite the widespread occurrence of spliceosomal introns in the genomes of higher eukaryotes, their origin remains controversial. One model proposes that the duplication of small genomic portions could have provided the boundaries for new introns. If this mechanism has occurred recently, the 5? and 3? boundaries of each resulting intron should display distinctive sequence similarity. Here, we report that the human genome contains an excess of introns with perfect matching sequences at boundaries. One-third of these introns interrupt the protein-coding sequences of known genes. Introns with the best-matching boundaries are invariably found in tandem arrays of direct repeats. Sequence analysis of the arrays indicates that many intron-breeding repeats have disseminated in several genes at different times during human evolution. A comparison with orthologous regions in mouse and chimpanzee suggests a young age for the human introns with the most-similar boundaries. Finally, we show that these human introns are alternatively spliced with exceptionally high frequency. Our study indicates that genomic duplication has been an important mode of intron gain in mammals. The alternative splicing of transcripts containing these intron-breeding repeats may provide the plasticity required for the rapid evolution of new human proteins.

Zhuo, Degen; Madden, Richard; Elela, Sherif Abou; Chabot, Benoit

2007-01-01

224

The Human Genome Retains Relics of Its Prokaryotic Ancestry: Human Genes of Archaebacterial and Eubacterial Origin Exhibit Remarkable Differences  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotes are generally thought to stem from a fusion event involving an archaebacterium and a eubacterium. As a result of this event, contemporaneous eukaryotic genomes are chimeras of genes inherited from both endosymbiotic partners. These two coexisting gene repertoires have been shown to differ in a number of ways in yeast. Here we combine genomic and functional data in order to determine if and how human genes that have been inherited from both prokaryotic ancestors remain distinguishable. We show that, despite being fewer in number, human genes of archaebacterial origin are more highly and broadly expressed across tissues, are more likely to have lethal mouse orthologs, tend to be involved in informational processes, are more selectively constrained, and encode shorter and more central proteins in the protein–protein interaction network than eubacterium-like genes. Furthermore, consistent with endosymbiotic theory, we show that proteins tend to interact with those encoded by genes of the same ancestry. Most interestingly from a human health perspective, archaebacterial genes are less likely to be involved in heritable human disease. Taken together, these results show that more than 2 billion years after eukaryogenesis, the human genome retains at least two somewhat distinct communities of genes.

Alvarez-Ponce, David; McInerney, James O.

2011-01-01

225

The human genome retains relics of its prokaryotic ancestry: human genes of archaebacterial and eubacterial origin exhibit remarkable differences.  

PubMed

Eukaryotes are generally thought to stem from a fusion event involving an archaebacterium and a eubacterium. As a result of this event, contemporaneous eukaryotic genomes are chimeras of genes inherited from both endosymbiotic partners. These two coexisting gene repertoires have been shown to differ in a number of ways in yeast. Here we combine genomic and functional data in order to determine if and how human genes that have been inherited from both prokaryotic ancestors remain distinguishable. We show that, despite being fewer in number, human genes of archaebacterial origin are more highly and broadly expressed across tissues, are more likely to have lethal mouse orthologs, tend to be involved in informational processes, are more selectively constrained, and encode shorter and more central proteins in the protein-protein interaction network than eubacterium-like genes. Furthermore, consistent with endosymbiotic theory, we show that proteins tend to interact with those encoded by genes of the same ancestry. Most interestingly from a human health perspective, archaebacterial genes are less likely to be involved in heritable human disease. Taken together, these results show that more than 2 billion years after eukaryogenesis, the human genome retains at least two somewhat distinct communities of genes. PMID:21795752

Alvarez-Ponce, David; McInerney, James O

2011-07-27

226

Intimal neovascularization in human coronary atherosclerosis: its origin and pathophysiological significance.  

PubMed

To investigate the histopathological characteristics of the newly formed vessels in the atherosclerotic intima of human coronary arteries, we conducted postmortem angiography in 31 cases, including 11 with myocardial infarction. Vessels were examined three-dimensionally under the stereoscope. In addition, we evaluated 25 anterior descending coronary arteries unrelated to the occurrence of myocardial infarction by light microscopy using 3-mm stepwise sections and 5-microns serial sections. Histological alterations were analyzed morphometrically to determine the correlation between the degree of intimal neovascularization and the growth of the endothelium into the atherosclerotic intima from the adventitia or lumen. There was a significant positive correlation between the density of new vessels in the intima and the incidence of luminal stenosis, the extent of chronic inflammatory infiltrate, the formation of granulation tissue, or the atheromatous changes, whereas the vascular density decreased in the extensively hyalinized and calcified intima. The newly formed intimal vessels originated mainly from the adventitial vasa vasorum and also partly from the proper coronary lumen. The intimal vessels that originated from the adventitia occurred approximately 28 times more frequently than those that originated from the luminal side. The frequency of former vessels increased as the luminal stenosis became more severe, whereas the latter vessels were found most frequently in the presence of 40% and 50% stenosis. Vessels originating from the proper lumen were more often associated with fresh or old hemorrhage. We conclude that intimal neovascularization largely originates from the adventitia and is closely associated with the extent of coronary stenosis and the histological inflammatory reaction. PMID:7535741

Kumamoto, M; Nakashima, Y; Sueishi, K

1995-04-01

227

Early-Modern "Speech" Marks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

Blackburn, Nick

2011-01-01

228

Relative hopane content confirming the mineral origin of hydrocarbons contaminating foods and human milk.  

PubMed

Hopanes, triterpenoid hydrocarbons formed under geological conditions, were analysed to confirm the mineral origin of the unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons observed in the gas chromatography with flame ionization detection chromatograms of human milk and certain foodstuffs. The 'relative hopane content' (RHC) is introduced, i.e. it is the area ratio of the sum of the hopanes and the paraffins in the same segment of the chromatogram. The RHC in various mineral oil products (motor oils, hydraulic oils, lubricating oils, Vaseline) was 3.4%, with a relative standard deviation of 19%. The RHC determined in samples of vegetable oils, mussels and clams as well as of human milk containing an unresolved complex mixture of hydrocarbons was in the same range, confirming that these samples were contaminated by mineral oil material. PMID:15666983

Populin, T; Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Moret, S; Conte, L

2004-09-01

229

Protection of Monkeys against Machupo Virus by the Passive Administration of Bolivian Haemorrhagic Fever Immunoglobulin (Human Origin).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bolivian haemorrhagic fever immunoglobulin of human origin, given either prior to or shortly after experimental infection with Machupo virus, protected rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys against initial clinical illness. Some survivors developed severe neurolo...

G. A. Eddy F. S. Wagner S. K. Scott B. J. Mahlandt

1975-01-01

230

The Origins, Driving Forces, and Networks of Non-State Groups' Actions in Southeast Asia: Notes on Human Security Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses non-state groups' actions related to terrorism or terror attacks in Southeast Asia with the study cases of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. They are highlighted from the perspectives of their origins, driving forces, and groups' networks, and understood as a contemporary threat to human security in the region. Concerning their origins, while in the Philippine and Thai

I Ketut Gunawan

231

Selection of homeotic proteins for binding to a human DNA replication origin.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that a cell cycle-dependent nucleoprotein complex assembles in vivo on a 74 bp sequence within the human DNA replication origin associated to the Lamin B2 gene. Here, we report the identification, using a one-hybrid screen in yeast, of three proteins interacting with the 74 bp sequence. All of them, namely HOXA13, HOXC10 and HOXC13, are orthologues of the Abdominal-B gene of Drosophila melanogaster and are members of the homeogene family of developmental regulators. We describe the complete open reading frame sequence of HOXC10 and HOXC13 along with the structure of the HoxC13 gene. The specificity of binding of these two proteins to the Lamin B2 origin is confirmed by both band-shift and in vitro footprinting assays. In addition, the ability of HOXC10 and HOXC13 to increase the activity of a promoter containing the 74 bp sequence, as assayed by CAT-assay experiments, demonstrates a direct interaction of these homeoproteins with the origin sequence in mammalian cells. We also show that HOXC10 expression is cell-type-dependent and positively correlates with cell proliferation. PMID:10835276

de Stanchina, E; Gabellini, D; Norio, P; Giacca, M; Peverali, F A; Riva, S; Falaschi, A; Biamonti, G

2000-06-01

232

Megabase-scale analysis of the origin of N-myc amplicons in human neuroblastomas.  

PubMed Central

In order to elucidate the initiation of the N-myc gene amplification, we have analyzed the original structures of the N-myc amplicons among 38 human neuroblastomas. Nineteen DNAs isolated from the N-myc amplicons recognized a continuous stretch totally encompassing a 5.5 megabase region spanning the normal N-myc gene. The co-amplification profiles with these DNAs showed that two of them, which mapped into a 300 kb region flanking the N-myc gene, were commonly amplified in most specimens, while others were differentially amplified among various subsets. These profiles enabled us to divide the N-myc amplicons into several groups and outline their original domains as a continuous stretches, pointing to the existence of 'consensus sites' for the ends of the initial domains in the original region. In one cell line, the domain was found to be several times larger than that of the derivative amplicon; and the rearranged sites identified within the amplicons, which showed no site specificity, were consistent with those deduced from the domain structure. These results lead to a model in which N-myc gene amplification is initiated at some consensus sites by a preferential mechanism and followed by a random loss of the domain structures during subsequent stages. Images

Akiyama, K; Kanda, N; Yamada, M; Tadokoro, K; Matsunaga, T; Nishi, Y

1994-01-01

233

In vivo protein-DNA interactions at human DNA replication origin.  

PubMed Central

Protein-DNA interactions were studied in vivo at the region containing a human DNA replication origin, located at the 3' end of the lamin B2 gene and partially overlapping the promoter of another gene, located downstream. DNase I treatment of nuclei isolated from both exponentially growing and nonproliferating HL-60 cells showed that this region has an altered, highly accessible, chromatin structure. High-resolution analysis of protein-DNA interactions in a 600-bp area encompassing the origin was carried out by the in vivo footprinting technique based on the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction. In growing HL-60 cells, footprints at sequences homologous to binding sites for known transcription factors (members of the basic-helix-loop-helix family, nuclear respiratory factor 1, transcription factor Sp1, and upstream binding factor) were detected in the region corresponding to the promoter of the downstream gene. Upon conversion of cells to a nonproliferative state, a reduction in the intensity of these footprints was observed that paralleled the diminished transcriptional activity of the genomic area. In addition to these protections, in close correspondence to the replication initiation site, a prominent footprint was detected that extended over 70 nucleotides on one strand only. This footprint was absent from nonproliferating HL-60 cells, indicating that this specific protein-DNA interaction might be involved in the process of origin activation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Dimitrova, D S; Giacca, M; Demarchi, F; Biamonti, G; Riva, S; Falaschi, A

1996-01-01

234

Automatic Extraction of Destinations, Origins and Route Parts from Human Generated Route Directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers from the cognitive and spatial sciences are studying text descriptions of movement patterns in order to examine how humans communicate and understand spatial information. In particular, route directions offer a rich source of information on how cognitive systems conceptualize movement patterns by segmenting them into meaningful parts. Route directions are composed using a plethora of cognitive spatial organization principles: changing levels of granularity, hierarchical organization, incorporation of cognitively and perceptually salient elements, and so forth. Identifying such information in text documents automatically is crucial for enabling machine-understanding of human spatial language. The benefits are: a) creating opportunities for large-scale studies of human linguistic behavior; b) extracting and georeferencing salient entities (landmarks) that are used by human route direction providers; c) developing methods to translate route directions to sketches and maps; and d) enabling queries on large corpora of crawled/analyzed movement data. In this paper, we introduce our approach and implementations that bring us closer to the goal of automatically processing linguistic route directions. We report on research directed at one part of the larger problem, that is, extracting the three most critical parts of route directions and movement patterns in general: origin, destination, and route parts. We use machine-learning based algorithms to extract these parts of routes, including, for example, destination names and types. We prove the effectiveness of our approach in several experiments using hand-tagged corpora.

Zhang, Xiao; Mitra, Prasenjit; Klippel, Alexander; Maceachren, Alan

235

Origin of basement membrane type IV collagen in xenografted human epithelial tumor cell lines.  

PubMed Central

The origin of basement membrane (BM), deposited in epithelial neoplasms, was studied in xenografts of human tumor cell lines in nude mice and rats. Cell lines were chosen that in vitro do (WISH, KB) or do not (5583-E; HT-29) produce BM components, more specifically, type IV collagen. Basement membrane deposition was studied by immunohistochemistry, using species cross-reactive polyclonal anti-human type IV collagen antiserum, mouse- and rat-specific polyclonal anti-mouse type IV collagen antiserum, human-specific monoclonal anti-type-IV collagen antibody, and by in situ hybridization, using a 32S-labeled species cross-reactive cDNA probe, specific for type IV collagen mRNA. In the xenografts, species-cross-reactive anti-type-IV collagen antiserum demonstrated the presence of irregular and discontinuous BM. In 5583-E and HT-29 xenografts, only murine type IV collagen epitopes were detected. In contrast, in WISH and in KB xenografts, the BM stained human as well as murine type IV collagen epitopes. By in situ hybridization, type IV collagen mRNA was detectable in stromal cells only in 5583-E and HT-29 xenografts, but in both epithelial and stromal cells in WISH and KB xenografts. These results indicate that in this model system epithelial tumor cells and stromal (mesenchymal) cells are involved in the production and deposition of a BM. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Cleutjens, J. P.; Havenith, M. G.; Beek, C.; Vallinga, M.; Ten Kate, J.; Bosman, F. T.

1990-01-01

236

Ancient origin of a deletion in human BST2/Tetherin that confers protection against viral zoonoses.  

PubMed

Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2)/Tetherin is an antiviral factor that blocks the release of enveloped virions from infected cells. Recent data suggest that efficient BST2 antagonism was a prerequisite for the global spread of HIV/AIDS. Most simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), including the direct precursors of HIV, use their Nef protein to antagonize BST2 of their respective host species. Human BST2, however, contains a five amino acid deletion in its cytoplasmic domain that confers resistance to Nef. Thus, this antiviral factor constitutes a major barrier to effective zoonotic transmissions of SIVs to humans. Here, we show that this protective deletion has already been present in Neanderthal and Denisovan BST2 and thus evolved at least 800,000 years ago. This ancient origin helps to explain why effectively spreading zoonotic transmissions of SIVs to humans have been rare, although SIVs are widespread in African nonhuman primates and humans must have been exposed to these viruses many times. PMID:21796732

Sauter, Daniel; Vogl, Michael; Kirchhoff, Frank

2011-08-11

237

Origin and primary dispersal of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype: Clues from human phylogeography  

PubMed Central

We suggest that the evolution of the population structure of microbial pathogens is influenced by that of modern humans. Consequently, the timing of hallmark changes in bacterial genomes within the last 100,000 yr may be attempted by comparison with relevant human migrations. Here, we used a lineage within Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a Beijing genotype, as a model and compared its phylogeography with human demography and Y chromosome-based phylogeography. We hypothesize that two key events shaped the early history of the Beijing genotype: (1) its Upper Palaeolithic origin in the Homo sapiens sapiens K-M9 cluster in Central Asia, and (2) primary Neolithic dispersal of the secondary Beijing NTF::IS6110 lineage by Proto-Sino-Tibetan farmers within east Asia (human O-M214/M122 haplogroup). The independent introductions of the Beijing strains from east Asia to northern Eurasia and South Africa were likely historically recent, whereas their differential dissemination within these areas has been influenced by demographic and climatic factors.

Mokrousov, Igor; Ly, Ho Minh; Otten, Tatiana; Lan, Nguyen Ngoc; Vyshnevskyi, Boris; Hoffner, Sven; Narvskaya, Olga

2005-01-01

238

The application of genetics methods to differentiation of three Lactobacillus species of human origin.  

PubMed

In recent decades, the interest in probiotics as diet supplements or drugs has increased. In order to determine a specific bacterial isolate to be probiotic, it is necessary to describe precisely its probiotic characteristics and taxonomic properties, including the strain level. Most of the well-known genotyping methods were designed for the commonly-found pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study is to undertake an attempt at standardization of FISH, RAPD and PFGE methods to genotype and identify the bacteria belonging to Lactobacillus fermentum, L. gasseri and L. plantarum species. The FISH probes have been designed and tested for Lactobacillus fermentum, L. gasseri and L. plantarum species and an endeavor has been made at standardization of RAPD and PFGE methods for these bacterial species. Moreover, the MLST method was applied to differentiate Lactobacillus plantarum strains. L. plantarum isolated from humans could not be genetically diversified with the use of RAPD, PFGE or MLST methods; only the strains originating from plants have displayed diversification among themselves and have been different from the strains of human origin. PMID:23144638

Gosiewski, Tomasz; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Strus, Magdalena; Brzychczy-W?och, Monika; Heczko, Piotr B

2011-12-10

239

Interactions of USF and Ku antigen with a human DNA region containing a replication origin.  

PubMed Central

By means of a combination of ion-exchange and sequence-specific affinity chromatography techniques, we have purified to homogeneity two protein complexes binding in a human DNA region (B48) previously recognized to contain a DNA replication origin. The DNA sequence used for the protein purification (B48 binding site) contains a binding site for basic-helix-loop-helix DNA binding proteins. The first complex is composed of two polypeptides of 42- and 44-kDa; its size, heat stability, and target DNA sequence suggest that it corresponds to transcription factor USF; furthermore, the 42-kDa polypeptide is recognized by antibodies raised against 43-kDa-USF. The second complex is represented by equimolar amounts of two proteins of 72 and 87 kDa; microsequencing of the two species indicated that they correspond to the human Ku antigen. In analogy with Ku, they produce a regular pattern of footprints without an apparent sequence-specificity, and their binding can be competed by unspecific DNA provided that it contains free ends. The potential role of B48 binding site and of these cognate proteins in origin activation is discussed. Images

Toth, E C; Marusic, L; Ochem, A; Patthy, A; Pongor, S; Giacca, M; Falaschi, A

1993-01-01

240

Origin and evolution of a placental-specific microRNA family in the human genome  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short regulatory RNAs encoded in the genome of DNA viruses, some single cell organisms, plants and animals. With the rapid development of technology, more and more miRNAs are being discovered. However, the origin and evolution of most miRNAs remain obscure. Here we report the origin and evolution dynamics of a human miRNA family. Results We have shown that all members of the miR-1302 family are derived from MER53 elements. Although the conservation scores of the MER53-derived pre-miRNA sequences are low, we have identified 36 potential paralogs of MER53-derived miR-1302 genes in the human genome and 58 potential orthologs of the human miR-1302 family in placental mammals. We suggest that in placental species, this miRNA family has evolved following the birth-and-death model of evolution. Three possible mechanisms that can mediate miRNA duplication in evolutionary history have been proposed: the transposition of the MER53 element, segmental duplications and Alu-mediated recombination. Finally, we have found that the target genes of miR-1302 are over-represented in transportation, localization, and system development processes and in the positive regulation of cellular processes. Many of them are predicted to function in binding and transcription regulation. Conclusions The members of miR-1302 family that are derived from MER53 elements are placental-specific miRNAs. They emerged at the early stage of the recent 180 million years since eutherian mammals diverged from marsupials. Under the birth-and-death model, the miR-1302 genes have experienced a complex expansion with some members evolving by segmental duplications and some by Alu-mediated recombination events.

2010-01-01

241

Origins of chromosomal rearrangement hotspots in the human genome: evidence from the AZFa deletion hotspots  

PubMed Central

Background The origins of the recombination hotspots that are a common feature of both allelic and non-allelic homologous recombination in the human genome are poorly understood. We have investigated, by comparative sequencing, the evolution of two hotspots of non-allelic homologous recombination on the Y chromosome that lie within paralogous sequences known to sponsor deletions resulting in male infertility. Results These recombination hotspots are characterized by signatures of concerted evolution, which indicate that gene conversion between paralogs has been predominant in shaping their recent evolution. By contrast, the paralogous sequences that surround the hotspots exhibit little evidence of gene conversion. A second feature of these rearrangement hotspots is the extreme interspecific sequence divergence (around 2.5%) that places them among the most divergent orthologous sequences between humans and chimpanzees. Conclusions Several hominid-specific gene conversion events have rendered these hotspots better substrates for chromosomal rearrangements in humans than in chimpanzees or gorillas. Monte Carlo simulations of sequence evolution suggest that extreme sequence divergence is a direct consequence of gene conversion between paralogs. We propose that the coincidence of signatures of concerted evolution and recurrent breakpoints of chromosomal rearrangement (mapped at the sequence level) may enable the identification of putative rearrangement hotspots from analysis of comparative sequences from great apes.

Hurles, Matthew E; Willey, David; Matthews, Lucy; Hussain, Syed Sufyan

2004-01-01

242

ORIGIN OF ANTI-HUMAN BLOOD GROUP B AGGLUTININS IN WHITE LEGHORN CHICKS  

PubMed Central

While anti-human blood group B agglutinins are present in the majority of ordinary White Leghorn chicks by the age of 30 days, none could be demonstrated in germfree chicks up to the age of 60 days. Anti-B agglutinins in trace amounts were first found in germfree chicks 66 days old and increased to an average titer of about 1:2 by 91 days of age. This titer amounts to about 10 per cent of that found in ordinary chicks. The appearance of antibody in low titer is attributed to trace amounts of non-living antigenic contaminants penetrating the germfree barrier. The necessity of appropriate absorption in order to obtain well defined specificities was pointed out. Several means commonly used to differentiate between normal and immune antibodies were employed in this investigation. None showed a difference between anti-B agglutinins from ordinary chicks and from germfree chicks intentionally immunized with blood group B active E. coli O86 or with B active preparations from human meconium. The implications of these findings on the origin of natural agglutinins are discussed. It is concluded, that measurable anti-human blood group B agglutinins in White Leghorn chicks are acquired early in life and are not inherited. The possibilities as well as limitations of present day germfree technique for this kind of immunological research have been considered.

Springer, Georg F.; Horton, Richard E.; Forbes, Martin

1959-01-01

243

Establishment and characterization of cultured human gingival keratinocytes immortalized by Transfection of origin (?) SV40 DNA and c- fos gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  In order to establish human oral epithelial cell lines, secondary cultures of human oral keratinocytes from normal gingival\\u000a tissues obtained from 20–29-yr-old females were transfected with origin (?) SV40 DNA (pRNS-1) and human c-fos gene (pBK 28) using Transfectam reagent® (Promega, WI). Out of 20 cultures transfected with pRNS-1, only one culture escaped senescence. After the transfection with\\u000a origin(?) SV40

Fumiyuki Igarashi; Minoru Uchida; Takeki Tsutsui

1998-01-01

244

Origins and evolutionary genomics of the novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans--past and present perspectives.  

PubMed

Swine influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics claiming the lives of millions from the early history up to the present days. This virus has drawn on a bag of evolutionary tricks to survive in one or another form in both humans and pigs with novel gene constellations through the periodic importation or exportation of viral genes. A prime example is emergence of pandemic novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) in 2009 that have transmitted to and spread among humans, resulting in outbreaks internationally. The phylogenetic analysis of sequences of all genes of the S-OIV, showed that its genome contained six gene segments that were similar to ones previously found in triple-reassortant swine influenza viruses circulating in pigs in North America. The genes encoding neuraminidase and M protein were most closely related to those in influenza A viruses circulating in swine populations in Eurasia. This unique genetic combination of influenza virus gene segments leading to the emergence of novel S-OIV that had not been seen before in the world. Here, it has been used evolutionary analysis to estimate the timescale of the origins and the early development of the S-OIV epidemic. This paper shows that it was derived from several viruses circulating in swine and makes a briefly review over the origins and evolutionary genomics of current S-OIV in humans with historical perspectives with a view to exhibition of evolutionary relationship between past and present origins of swine influenza viruses. PMID:21467795

Mamun, M M A; Huda, A K M N

2011-04-01

245

Viral safety evaluation of biopharmaceuticals and homoeopathic preparations of human or animal origin.  

PubMed

In order to meet the generally high quality requirements for the pharmaceutical manufacturing process, medicaments of animal or human origin specifically have to undergo a substantial viral safety test program. This procedure has been narrowly defined in numerous internationally valid guidelines; in addition, registration authorities are available in an advisory capacity. In order to bring about the experimental evidence, thorough planning, virological expertise and infrastructure, as well as close cooperation between process engineers and virologists, is necessary. Generally, generic studies are not accepted by the registration authorities. However, in coordination with the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medicinal Devices (BfArM), a special arrangement for homoeopathic preparations could be agreed upon and the efficacy of selected production stages proven beyond doubt. Therefore, combined with the careful execution and evaluation of the validation studies, a high technical status for biopharmaceuticals including homoeopathic preparations guarantees a very high degree of viral safety. PMID:17694646

Immelmann, A

2006-08-01

246

Cell cycle modulation of protein-DNA interactions at a human replication origin.  

PubMed Central

We followed the variations of protein-DNA interactions occurring in vivo over the early firing replication origin located near the human lamin B2 gene, in IMR-90 cells synchronized in different moments of the cell cycle. In G0 phase cells no protection is present; as the cells progress in G1 phase an extended footprint covering over 100 bp appears, particularly marked at the G1/S border. As the cells enter S phase the protection shrinks to 70 bp and remains unchanged throughout this phase. In mitosis the protection totally disappears, only to reappear in its extended form as the cells move into the next G1. These variations are reminiscent of those corresponding to the formation of the pre- and post-replicative complexes described in yeast and Xenopus cells.

Abdurashidova, G; Riva, S; Biamonti, G; Giacca, M; Falaschi, A

1998-01-01

247

Spatial dynamics of human-origin H1 influenza A virus in North American swine.  

PubMed

The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003-2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens. PMID:21695237

Nelson, Martha I; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C; Gramer, Marie

2011-06-09

248

Derivation of Smooth Muscle Cells with Neural Crest Origin from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The heterogeneity of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is related to their different developmental origins such as the neural crest and mesoderm. Derivation of SMCs from different origins will provide valuable in vitro models for the investigation of vascular development and diseases. From the perspective of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, an expandable cell source of SMCs is required for the construction of tissue-engineered blood vessels. In this study, we developed a robust protocol to derive neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). NCSCs derived from ESCs and iPSCs were expandable with similar cell doubling times. NCSCs were capable of differentiating into neural and mesenchymal lineages. TGF-?1 induced the expression of SMC markers calponin-1, SM22?, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain and resulted in the assembly of smooth muscle ?-actin, calponin-1, and SM22? into stress fibers. This work provides a basis for using iPSCs to study SMC biology and deriving vascular cells for tissue engineering.

Wang, Aijun; Tang, Zhenyu; Li, Xian; Jiang, Yisu; Tsou, Danielle A.; Li, Song

2011-01-01

249

Rabies immune globulin of human origin: preparation and dosage determination in non-exposed volunteer subjects  

PubMed Central

A clinical study was carried out in volunteer subjects to determine the proper dosage of rabies immune globulin (human) (RIGH) when used in conjunction with rabies vaccine of duck-embryo origin (DEV). Two lots of RIGH were prepared from plasma pools derived from donors with high titres of rabies-neutralizing antibody; both lots had potencies in excess of that accepted for antirabies serum of equine origin. The subjects had never received rabies vaccine but would oridinarily have been given pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Serological results obtained during a period of 90 days after the initiation of the study justify the following conclusions: (1) the half-life obtained with RIGH is in agreement with that estimated for homologous passive immune globulin in man; (2) readily detectable levels of rabies antibody were found in all subjects 24 hours after the administration of 40 and 20 international units per kg of RIGH, but not after the administration of 10 international units/kg; and (3) there was an indication that 40 international units/kg may have interfered with optimal active antibody production by the vaccine, and that interference was absent or minimal after doses of 20 intenational units/kg.

Cabasso, V. J.; Loofbourow, J. C.; Roby, R. E.; Anuskiewicz, W.

1971-01-01

250

Human Neck Finite Element Model Development and Validation against Original Experimental Data.  

PubMed

This study proposes a detailed FEM of a human volunteer's neck and proceeds to an original model validation against experimental data recorded with this human volunteer. In order to evaluate the new model against existing data a successful temporal validation of the model was obtained under frontal, lateral, oblique and rear impact. New validation parameters are based on an experimental test proceeded in the frequency domain in order to extract the volunteer's Head-Neck system's modal characteristics. In depth validation of the head neck FEM is then performed by superposing the numerical and experimental frequency response function. Model optimisation in the frequency domain permitted after significant properties modification to reproduced accurately both, the neck extension mode at 1.4 Hz and the head retraction mode at 8.8 Hz. Finally the "frequency domain optimised" FEM response was superimposed with the temporal corridors provided in the literature. It must be mentioned that the model's response in the temporal domain remains inside existing corridors after this model optimisation in the frequency domain illustrating that the temporal validation is not accurate enough. This study proposes a neck model with improved geometry description and biofidelity with special attention paid to the retraction mode, a phenomenon which is often masked in the temporal domain. PMID:17230266

Meyer, F; Bourdet, N; Deck, C; Willinger, R; Raul, J S

2004-11-01

251

Assembly of the human origin recognition complex occurs through independent nuclear localization of its components.  

PubMed

Initiation of eukaryotic genome duplication begins when a six-subunit origin recognition complex (ORC) binds to DNA. However, the mechanism by which this occurs in vivo and the roles played by individual subunits appear to differ significantly among organisms. Previous studies identified a soluble human ORC(2-5) complex in the nucleus, an ORC(1-5) complex bound to chromatin, and an Orc6 protein that binds weakly, if at all, to other ORC subunits. Here we show that stable ORC(1-6) complexes also can be purified from human cell extracts and that Orc6 and Orc1 each contain a single nuclear localization signal that is essential for nuclear localization but not for ORC assembly. The Orc6 nuclear localization signal, which is essential for Orc6 function, is facilitated by phosphorylation at its cyclin-dependent kinase consensus site and by association with Kpna6/1, nuclear transport proteins that did not co-purify with other ORC subunits. These and other results support a model in which Orc6, Orc1, and ORC(2-5) are transported independently to the nucleus where they can either assemble into ORC(1-6) or function individually. PMID:21555516

Ghosh, Soma; Vassilev, Alex P; Zhang, Junmei; Zhao, Yingming; DePamphilis, Melvin L

2011-05-09

252

An early and enduring advanced technology originating 71,000 years ago in South Africa.  

PubMed

There is consensus that the modern human lineage appeared in Africa before 100,000 years ago. But there is debate as to when cultural and cognitive characteristics typical of modern humans first appeared, and the role that these had in the expansion of modern humans out of Africa. Scientists rely on symbolically specific proxies, such as artistic expression, to document the origins of complex cognition. Advanced technologies with elaborate chains of production are also proxies, as these often demand high-fidelity transmission and thus language. Some argue that advanced technologies in Africa appear and disappear and thus do not indicate complex cognition exclusive to early modern humans in Africa. The origins of composite tools and advanced projectile weapons figure prominently in modern human evolution research, and the latter have been argued to have been in the exclusive possession of modern humans. Here we describe a previously unrecognized advanced stone tool technology from Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 on the south coast of South Africa, originating approximately 71,000 years ago. This technology is dominated by the production of small bladelets (microliths) primarily from heat-treated stone. There is agreement that microlithic technology was used to create composite tool components as part of advanced projectile weapons. Microliths were common worldwide by the mid-Holocene epoch, but have a patchy pattern of first appearance that is rarely earlier than 40,000 years ago, and were thought to appear briefly between 65,000 and 60,000 years ago in South Africa and then disappear. Our research extends this record to ~71,000 years, shows that microlithic technology originated early in South Africa, evolved over a vast time span (~11,000 years), and was typically coupled to complex heat treatment that persisted for nearly 100,000 years. Advanced technologies in Africa were early and enduring; a small sample of excavated sites in Africa is the best explanation for any perceived 'flickering' pattern. PMID:23135405

Brown, Kyle S; Marean, Curtis W; Jacobs, Zenobia; Schoville, Benjamin J; Oestmo, Simen; Fisher, Erich C; Bernatchez, Jocelyn; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Matthews, Thalassa

2012-11-07

253

Human vs. animal outbreaks of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic.  

PubMed

The majority of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, including recently emerging influenza viruses such as the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic. The epidemic that year affected both human and animal populations as it spread globally. In fact, before the end of 2009, 14 different countries reported H1N1 infected swine. In order to better understand the zoonotic nature of the epidemic and the relationship between human and animal disease surveillance data streams, we compared 2009 reports of H1N1 infection to define the temporal relationship between reported cases in animals and humans. Generally, human cases preceded animal cases at a country-level, supporting the potential of H1N1 infection to be a "reverse zoonosis", and the value of integrating human and animal disease report data. PMID:21912985

Scotch, Matthew; Brownstein, John S; Vegso, Sally; Galusha, Deron; Rabinowitz, Peter

2011-09-13

254

Biofilm formation by Mycobacterium avium isolates originating from humans, swine and birds  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium includes the subspecies avium, silvaticum, paratuberculosis and hominissuis, and M. avium subspecies has been isolated from various environments all over the world including from biofilms in water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to examine isolates of M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis of different origin for biofilm formation and to look for correlations between biofilm formation and RFLP-types, and to standardise the method to test for biofilm formation. In order to determine the best screening method, a panel of 14 isolates of M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis, were tested for their ability to form biofilm in microtiter plates under different conditions. Subsequently, 83 additional isolates from humans, swine and birds were tested for biofilm formation. The isolates were tested for the presence of selected genes involved in the synthesis of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) in the cell wall of M. avium, which is believed to be important for biofilm formation. Colony morphology and hsp65 sequvar were also determined. Results Nine isolates from swine produced biofilm. There was a significant higher frequency of porcine isolates forming biofilm compared to human isolates. All isolates were previously characterised by IS1311- and IS1245-RFLP typing. The ability to form biofilm did not correlate with the RFLP-type, hsp65 sequevar, colony morphology or the presence of gene sequences related to GPL synthesis. Conclusion The observed differences in biofilm forming abilities between porcine and human isolates raises questions regarding the importance of biofilm formation for infectious potential. The optimised method worked well for screening of multiple isolates.

2009-01-01

255

Sense transcripts originated from an internal part of the human retrotransposon LINE-1 5' UTR.  

PubMed

L1 (LINE-1) is one of the most abundant families of human transposable elements. Full-length human L1 has an ~900 bp long 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) which harbors an internal promoter for the RNA polymerase II. It is generally accepted that the first 100 bp of the 5' UTR function as a "minimal promoter" which directs transcription of the entire LINE-1 unit from the extreme 5' terminus. We re-investigated promoter activities of the different DNA fragments that cover the whole L1 5' UTR in cultured human cells by using the luciferase reporter system. Analysis of both mRNA expression and luciferase activity levels indicated that the very important region for the effective transcription is located within the internal part of the L1 5' UTR between nucleotide positions +390 and +526. 5' RACE analysis revealed that in the context of the complete 5' UTR, this part drives mRNA synthesis both from the canonical 5'-terminal transcription start site (TSS) and from within the internal region. In the absence of the first 100 bp, the L1 5' UTR efficiently directed transcription from aberrant TSSs located within its 3' proximal part or the ORF1. Finally, we analyzed transcripts originated from endogenous (genomic) L1 elements and identified two novel TSSs located at positions +525 and +570. We propose a model in which the internal part (390-526) of the L1 5' UTR plays a key role for recruitment of transcription initiation complex, which then may be either positioned onto the 5' terminally located "minimal promoter", or used proximately to direct 5' truncated RNA copy. Intriguingly, this internal regulatory element substantially overlaps with the region of the L1 5' UTR that is known to drive transcription in the opposite direction suggesting the existence of a common core for the bidirectional transcription. PMID:22982412

Alexandrova, Elena A; Olovnikov, Ivan A; Malakhova, Galina V; Zabolotneva, Anastasia A; Suntsova, Maria V; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Buzdin, Anton A

2012-09-13

256

Pulse-originated human figurative imagery transferred into dichromate gelatin DCG reflection holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors discuss the transfer of human figurative imagery originated with a pulsed ruby laser into dichromate gelatin (DCG) emulsion. Human figurative imagery (live subject matter) has been recorded holographically with pulse laser systems, most commonly with pulsed ruby and frequency doubled Yag lasers using silver halide emulsion due to the short end reciprocity failure of other recording materials. Since the DCG reflection transfer is exposed at 488 nm and the silver transmission master recording is at 694 nm, two of the major considerations for transfers is frequency shift and image size in the DCG hologram. As a display medium, DCG holography is conventionally produced in small format recordings. The authors discuss methods for reducing the imagery optically to better accommodate a small-scale hologram. A reduced image, where the projected image is compressed can work within the constraints of a broad-banded DCG reflection hologram (white/pink coloration), whose limitation of depth, about 2.5 to 3' or 5 to 8 cm has made recording of one to one scale human figurative imagery prohibitive. DCG reflection holograms, volumetric holograms, tend to exhibit a short depth of field and the more broad banded (white in coloration) the more severe the chromatic aberrations in the z-axis. The reduction methods offer image compression in particular with the lens system between H1 and H2, in which case the image from H1 is compressed in the X and Y axis and most importantly in the Z axis. The longitudinal (z-axis) reduction shrinkage is square to that of the transverse reduction. The authors consider the visual appeal and increased efficiency in the final transfer DCG hologram to be well worth the effort. A practical approach is emphasized.

Unterseher, Fred D.; Muth, August; Deem, Rebecca E.

1999-03-01

257

April 2009: an outbreak of swine-origin influenza A(H1N1) virus with evidence for human-to-human transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A swine-origin influenza A(H1N1) virus is currently responsible for an outbreak of infections in the human population, with laboratory-confirmed cases reported in several countries and clear evidence for human-to-human transmission. We provide a description of the outbreak at the end of April 2009, and a brief review of the zoonotic potential of swine influenza viruses.

Nadia Naffakh; Sylvie van der Werf

2009-01-01

258

Human origins and the transition from promiscuity to pair-bonding  

PubMed Central

A crucial step in recent theories of human origins is the emergence of strong pair-bonding between males and females accompanied by a dramatic reduction in the male-to-male conflict over mating and an increased investment in offspring. How such a transition from promiscuity to pair-bonding could be achieved is puzzling. Many species would, indeed, be much better off evolutionarily if the effort spent on male competition over mating was redirected to increasing female fertility or survivorship of offspring. Males, however, are locked in a “social dilemma,” where shifting one’s effort from “appropriation” to “production” would give an advantage to free-riding competitors and therefore, should not happen. Here, I first consider simple models for four prominent scenarios of the human transition to pair-bonding: communal care, mate guarding, food for mating, and mate provisioning. I show that the transition is not feasible under biologically relevant conditions in any of these models. Then, I show that the transition can happen if one accounts for male heterogeneity, assortative pair formation, and evolution of female choice and faithfulness. This process is started when low-ranked males begin using an alternative strategy of female provisioning. At the end, except for the top-ranked individuals, males invest exclusively in provisioning females who have evolved very high fidelity to their mates. My results point to the crucial importance of female choice and emphasize the need for incorporating between-individual variation in theoretical and empirical studies of social dilemmas and behaviors.

Gavrilets, Sergey

2012-01-01

259

The Dispanins: A Novel Gene Family of Ancient Origin That Contains 14 Human Members  

PubMed Central

The Interferon induced transmembrane proteins (IFITM) are a family of transmembrane proteins that is known to inhibit cell invasion of viruses such as HIV-1 and influenza. We show that the IFITM genes are a subfamily in a larger family of transmembrane (TM) proteins that we call Dispanins, which refers to a common 2TM structure. We mined the Dispanins in 36 eukaryotic species, covering all major eukaryotic groups, and investigated their evolutionary history using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to infer a phylogenetic tree. We identified ten human genes that together with the known IFITM genes form the Dispanin family. We show that the Dispanins first emerged in eukaryotes in a common ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoa, and that the family later expanded in vertebrates where it forms four subfamilies (A–D). Interestingly, we also find that the family is found in several different phyla of bacteria and propose that it was horizontally transferred to eukaryotes from bacteria in the common ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoa. The bacterial and eukaryotic sequences have a considerably conserved protein structure. In conclusion, we introduce a novel family, the Dispanins, together with a nomenclature based on the evolutionary origin.

Sallman Almen, Markus; Bringeland, Nathalie; Fredriksson, Robert; Schioth, Helgi B.

2012-01-01

260

Excess MCM proteins protect human cells from replicative stress by licensing backup origins of replication  

PubMed Central

The six main minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2–7), which presumably constitute the core of the replicative DNA helicase, are present in chromatin in large excess relative to the number of active replication forks. To evaluate the relevance of this apparent surplus of Mcm2–7 complexes in human cells, their levels were down-regulated by using RNA interference. Interestingly, cells continued to proliferate for several days after the acute (>90%) reduction of Mcm2–7 concentration. However, they became hypersensitive to DNA replication stress, accumulated DNA lesions, and eventually activated a checkpoint response that prevented mitotic division. When this checkpoint was abrogated by the addition of caffeine, cells quickly lost viability, and their karyotypes revealed striking chromosomal aberrations. Single-molecule analyses revealed that cells with a reduced concentration of Mcm2–7 complexes display normal fork progression but have lost the potential to activate “dormant” origins that serve a backup function during DNA replication. Our data show that the chromatin-bound “excess” Mcm2–7 complexes play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity under conditions of replicative stress.

Ibarra, Arkaitz; Schwob, Etienne; Mendez, Juan

2008-01-01

261

Transcription Factor YY1 Represses Cell-Free Replication from Human Papillomavirus Origins  

PubMed Central

We have established cell-free replication for the human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) origin of replication (ori)-containing DNA by using purified HPV-18 E1 and E2 gene products expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. The transcription factor YY1 has been shown to regulate RNA transcription by binding to a sequence overlapping the putative E1 protein binding site in the HPV-18 ori. We show that exogenously added YY1 fusion protein inhibited HPV-18 ori replication. Cotransfection of YY1 expression vectors also inhibited transient replication in 293 cells. However, inhibition did not appear to be mediated by binding to its cognate site in the ori as YY1 also inhibited the replication of the HPV-11 ori, which does not have a known or suspected YY1 binding site. Moreover, inhibition was not alleviated by the inclusion of YY1 binding oligonucleotides in the replication reaction mixtures. Rather, we demonstrated a direct interaction between purified fusion E2 protein and fusion YY1 protein by the pull-down assay and a partial restoration of replication activity by an elevated E2 protein concentration. These results suggest that YY1 can inhibit HPV ori replication by interfering with E2 protein functions.

Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Broker, Thomas R.; Chow, Louise T.

1998-01-01

262

Physiological origin for the BOLD poststimulus undershoot in human brain: vascular compliance versus oxygen metabolism  

PubMed Central

The poststimulus blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) undershoot has been attributed to two main plausible origins: delayed vascular compliance based on delayed cerebral blood volume (CBV) recovery and a sustained increased oxygen metabolism after stimulus cessation. To investigate these contributions, multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to monitor responses of BOLD, cerebral blood flow (CBF), total CBV, and arterial CBV (CBVa) in human visual cortex after brief breath hold and visual stimulation. In visual experiments, after stimulus cessation, CBVa was restored to baseline in 7.9±3.4?seconds, and CBF and CBV in 14.8±5.0?seconds and 16.1±5.8?seconds, respectively, all significantly faster than BOLD signal recovery after undershoot (28.1±5.5?seconds). During the BOLD undershoot, postarterial CBV (CBVpa, capillaries and venules) was slightly elevated (2.4±1.8%), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) was above baseline (10.6±7.4%). Following breath hold, however, CBF, CBV, CBVa and BOLD signals all returned to baseline in ?20?seconds. No significant BOLD undershoot, and residual CBVpa dilation were observed, and CMRO2 did not substantially differ from baseline. These data suggest that both delayed CBVpa recovery and enduring increased oxidative metabolism impact the BOLD undershoot. Using a biophysical model, their relative contributions were estimated to be 19.7±15.9% and 78.7±18.6%, respectively.

Hua, Jun; Stevens, Robert D; Huang, Alan J; Pekar, James J; van Zijl, Peter CM

2011-01-01

263

An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

2007-01-01

264

An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

2007-01-01

265

Long-Distance Control of Origin Choice and Replication Timing in the Human b-Globin Locus Are Independent of the Locus Control Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA replication in the human b-globin locus is subject to long-distance regulation. In murine and human erythroid cells, the human locus replicates in early S phase from a bidirectional origin located near the b-globin gene. This Hispanic thalassemia deletion removes regulatory sequences located over 52 kb from the origin, resulting in replication of the locus from a different origin, a

DANIEL M. CIMBORA; DIRK SCHUBELER; ANDREAS REIK; JOAN HAMILTON; CLAIRE FRANCASTEL; ELLIOT M. EPNER; MARK GROUDINE

2000-01-01

266

Human embryonic kidney cells: Stable transformation with an origin-defective simian virus 40 DNA and use as hosts for human papovavirus replication  

SciTech Connect

An origin-defective mutant DNA of simian virus 40 immortalized human embryonic kidney cells, maintaining a T protein which could function for human papovavirus BK DNA replication but not for human papovavirus JC DNA replication. Neither BK virions nor capsid proteins were produced in these cells. This may indicate that the simian virus 40 T protein in human embryonic kidney cells is competent for maintaining transformation and initiating and completing DNA replication for BK but is not competent for switching to late gene functions. Furthermore, it appears that the JC DNA replication origin cannot efficiently use the simian virus 40 T protein for its DNA synthesis, as suggested by its DNA sequence data.

Major, E.O.; Matsumura, P.

1984-02-01

267

Susceptibility of five strains of mice to Babesia microti of human origin.  

PubMed

One outbred (CF1) and four inbred (BALB/c, C57, CBA and C3H) strains of mice were tested for susceptibility to Babesia microti of human origin. Of these, intact C3H mice developed higher parasitemia than all other intact mice, while BALB/c mice developed the highest parasitemia among splenectomized mice. Susceptibility was not related to H-2 haplotype in any obvious way. Because C3H and BALB/c mice developed relatively high initial peak parasitemias, the parasite was serially passaged in both of these mouse strains in an attempt to increase parasite virulence. After 30 passages in BALB/c and 49 passages in C3H mice over a period of 12 months, maximum parasitemias were 50 times higher than those observed initially. After the peak parasitemias of these two mouse-adapted parasites had stabilized, the relationship between onset and level of maximum parasitemia and number of parasites inoculated was determined. With both C3H- and BALB/c-adapted parasites, as inoculum size increased, the time required to reach maximum parasitemia decreased and the level of maximum parasitemia increased. Studies involving infection of either mouse strain with parasites adapted to the heterologous mouse strain indicated that C3H mice were more susceptible than BALB/c mice to homologous or heterologous parasites. These data suggest that the virulence of B. microti to the mouse can be increased by prolonged passage in this host. Once adaptation to this host species has occurred, virulence appears to be more dependent on the innate susceptibility of the mouse strain than on adaptation of the parasites to a particular strain of mouse. PMID:480073

Ruebush, M J; Hanson, W L

1979-06-01

268

Human Origin Recognition Complex Binds Preferentially to G-quadruplex-preferable RNA and Single-stranded DNA.  

PubMed

Origin recognition complex (ORC), consisting of six subunits ORC1-6, is known to bind to replication origins and function in the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. In contrast to the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORC recognizes the replication origin in a sequence-specific manner, metazoan ORC has not exhibited strict sequence-specificity for DNA binding. Here we report that human ORC binds preferentially to G-quadruplex (G4)-preferable G-rich RNA or single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). We mapped the G-rich RNA-binding domain in the ORC1 subunit, in a region adjacent to its ATPase domain. This domain itself has an ability to preferentially recognize G4-preferable sequences of ssDNA. Furthermore, we found, by structure modeling, that the G-rich RNA-binding domain is similar to the N-terminal portion of AdoMet_MTase domain of mammalian DNA methyltransferase 1. Therefore, in contrast with the binding to double-stranded DNA, human ORC has an apparent sequence preference with respect to its RNA/ssDNA binding. Interestingly, this specificity coincides with the common signature present in most of the human replication origins. We expect that our findings provide new insights into the regulations of function and chromatin binding of metazoan ORCs. PMID:24003239

Hoshina, Shoko; Yura, Kei; Teranishi, Honami; Kiyasu, Noriko; Tominaga, Ayumi; Kadoma, Haruka; Nakatsuka, Ayaka; Kunichika, Tomoko; Obuse, Chikashi; Waga, Shou

2013-09-03

269

Parental origin of chromatin in human monopronuclear zygotes revealed by asymmetric histone methylation patterns, differs between IVF and ICSI.  

PubMed

In mouse zygotes, many post-translational histone modifications are asymmetrically present in male and female pronuclei. We investigated whether this principle could be used to determine the genetic composition of monopronuclear human zygotes in conventional IVF and ICSI. First we determined whether male female asymmetry is conserved from mouse to human by staining polypronuclear zygotes with antibodies against a subset of histone N-tail post-translational modifications. To analyze human monopronuclear zygotes, a modification, H3K9me3, was selected that is present in the maternal chromatin. After IVF a total of 45 monopronuclear zygotes were obtained. In 39 (87%) of zygotes a nonuniform staining pattern was observed, proof of a bi-parental origin and assumed to result into a diploid conception. Two zygotes showed no staining for the modification, indicating that the single pronucleus was of paternal origin. Four zygotes contained only maternally derived chromatin. ICSI-derived monopronuclear zygotes (n = 33) could also be divided into three groups based on the staining pattern of their chromatin: (1) of maternal origin (n = 15), (2) of paternal origin (n = 8) or (3) consisting of two chromatin domains as dominating in IVF (n = 10). Our data show that monopronuclear zygotes originating from IVF generally arise through fusion of parental chromatin after sperm penetration. Monopronuclear zygotes derived from ICSI in most cases contain uni-parental chromatin. The fact that chromatin was of paternal origin in 24% of ICSI and in 4% of the IVF zygotes confirms earlier results obtained by FISH on cleavage stages. Our findings are of clinical importance in IVF and ICSI practice. PMID:18481364

van der Heijden, G W; van den Berg, I M; Baart, E B; Derijck, A A H A; Martini, E; de Boer, P

2009-01-01

270

Origin, persistence, and resolution of the rotational grazing debate: Integrating human dimensions into rangeland research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This synthesis examines the origins of the rotational grazing debate, identifies the major reasons for its persistence, and concludes with an approach for resolution. The debate originated from scientific and institutional responses to rangeland degradation in the US during the late 1800s. Rotationa...

271

Nucleotide sequence of a region of human mitochondrial DNA containing the precisely identified origin of replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fragment of HeLa cell mitochondrial DNA containing the origin of replication has been sequenced. The precise position of the origin in this sequence has been identified by determining the nucleotide order in the 5'-end proximal portion of the heavy strand initiation fragment (7S DNA), and by aligning the two sequences.

Stephen Crews; Deanna Ojala; James Posakony; Jerry Nishiguchi; Giuseppe Attardi

1979-01-01

272

A significant proportion of myofibroblasts are of bone marrow origin in human liver fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims: Myofibroblasts of bone marrow origin have recently been found in a number of parenchymal organs such as the gut and kidney. We have analyzed the origin of myofibroblasts within fibrotic liver in 2 scenarios: (1) 7 male patients (hepatitis B; hepatitis B and D; Wilson’s disease; hepatitis B, D, and C; and 3 with hepatitis C) who

Stuart J. Forbes; Francesco P. Russo; Virginia Rey; Patrizia Burra; Massimo Rugge; Nicholas A. Wright; Malcolm R. Alison

2004-01-01

273

Formation of noncanonical DNA structures mediated by human ORC4, a protein component of the origin recognition complex.  

PubMed

Many genomic sequences, DNA replication origins included, contain specific structural motifs prone to alternative base pairing. Structural rearrangements of DNA require specific environmental conditions and could be favored by chemical agents or proteins. To improve our understanding of alternative conformations of origins and the manner in which they form, we have investigated the effect of DNA-binding, AAA+ protein human ORC4 on single-stranded origin DNA or various oligonucleotides. Here we demonstrate that human ORC4 stimulated formation of inter- and intramolecular T.A.T triplexes and created novel structures, such as homoadenine duplexes. Adenine-based structures were held together by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds, as demonstrated on 7-deaza-dAMP- or dAMP-containing substrates, and characterized by increased thermal stability. Adenine pairing occurred only in the presence of human ORC4, in a neutral buffer supplemented with ATP and Mg (2+) ions. The protein mutant that could not bind ATP was inactive in this reaction. Since the action of human ORC4 could be biologically important, its potential impact on DNA replication is discussed. PMID:18652488

Stefanovic, Dragana; Kusic, Jelena; Divac, Aleksandra; Tomic, Branko

2008-07-25

274

[Human races and hemato-sero-anthropology. Origin of Chilean natives and natives from Easter Island in the context of human races].  

PubMed

Geographical hematology of Bernard and Ruffie, or Hemato-sero-anthropology, intends to establish relationships between hereditary genetic characters of the blood and human races. Blood groups, haptoglobins, abnormal hemoglobin and other biological traits such as color vision are related to the origin of human races, their geographical distribution, history, settlements, drifts, invasions, customs, religious beliefs, cult to ancestors, dead modifications, culture, language, writing, sculpture, painting and pottery. Our investigations are aimed to locale Chilean natives and natives from Easter Island in the context of human races. PMID:9595800

Etcheverry, R

1997-09-01

275

Original Articles The force of selection on the human life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I present evidence for a robust and quite general force of selection on the human life cycle. The force of selection acts in remarkably invariant ways on human life histories, despite a great abundance of demographic diversity. Human life histories are highly structured, with mortality and fertility changing substantially through the life cycle. This structure necessitates the

James Holland Jones

276

An African origin for the intimate association between humans and Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of the stomach by Helicobacter pylori is ubiquitous among humans. However, although H. pylori strains from different geographic areas are associated with clear phylogeographic differentiation, the age of an association between these bacteria with humans remains highly controversial. Here we show, using sequences from a large data set of bacterial strains that, as in humans, genetic diversity in H.

Bodo Linz; François Balloux; Yoshan Moodley; Andrea Manica; Hua Liu; Philippe Roumagnac; Daniel Falush; Christiana Stamer; Franck Prugnolle; Schalk W. van der Merwe; Yoshio Yamaoka; David Y. Graham; Emilio Perez-Trallero; Torkel Wadstrom; Sebastian Suerbaum; Mark Achtman

2007-01-01

277

Immigrant Wages in the Spanish Labour Market: Does the Origin of Human Capital Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyse the role played by the different components of human capital in the wage determination of recent immigrants within the Spanish labour market. Using microdata from the Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes 2007, the paper examines returns to human capital of immigrants, distinguishing between human capital accumulated in their home countries and in Spain.

Esteve Sanromá; Raul Ramos; Hipólito Simón

2009-01-01

278

Analysis of transcribed human endogenous retrovirus W env loci clarifies the origin of multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus env sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) RNA sequences have been detected in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and are related to the multi-copy human endogenous retrovirus family type W (HERV-W). Only one HERV-W locus (ERVWE1) codes for a complete HERV-W Env protein (Syncytin-1). Syncytin-1 and the putative MSRV Env protein have been involved in the pathogenesis of MS. The origin of

Georg Laufer; Jens Mayer; Benedikt F Mueller; Nikolaus Mueller-Lantzsch; Klemens Ruprecht

2009-01-01

279

Protection of monkeys against Machupo virus by the passive administration of Bolivian haemorrhagic fever immunoglobulin (human origin).  

PubMed

Bolivian haemorrhagic fever immunoglobulin of human origin, given either prior to or shortly after experimental infection with Machupo virus, protected rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys against initial clinical illness. Some survivors developed severe neurological signs 30-47 days after virus inoculation and died 4-6 days later. Results from one of the experiments suggested that the development of neurological signs was associated more frequently with high doses of immunoglobulin than with intermediate or low doses. PMID:182406

Eddy, G A; Wagner, F S; Scott, S K; Mahlandt, B J

1975-01-01

280

Human Origin Recognition Complex Large Subunit Is Degraded by Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteolysis after Initiation of DNA Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells possess overlapping mechanisms to ensure that DNA replication is restricted to the S phase of the cell cycle. The levels of hOrc1p, the largest subunit of the human origin recognition complex, vary during the cell division cycle. In rapidly proliferating cells, hOrc1p is expressed and targeted to chromatin as cells exit mitosis and prereplicative complexes are formed. Later,

Juan Méndez; X. Helena Zou-Yang; So-Young Kim; Masumi Hidaka; William P. Tansey; Bruce Stillman

2002-01-01

281

Presence of erm gene classes in Gram-positive bacteria of animal and human origin in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classification of the different erm gene classes based on published sequences was performed, and specific primers to detect some of these classes designed. The presence of ermA (Tn554), ermB (class IV) and ermC (class VI) was determined by PCR in a total of 113 enterococcal, 77 streptococcal and 68 staphylococcal erythromycin resistant isolates of animal and human origin. At

Lars Bogø Jensen; Niels Frimodt-Møller; Frank M Aarestrup

1999-01-01

282

A second origin of DNA plus-strand synthesis is required for optimal human immunodeficiency virus replication.  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) unintegrated linear DNA displays a discontinuity in its plus strand, precisely defined by a second copy of the polypurine tract (PPT) located near the middle of the genome (P. Charneau and F. Clavel, J. Virol. 65:2415-2421, 1991). This central PPT appears to determine a second initiation site for retrovirus DNA plus-strand synthesis. We show here that mutations replacing purines by pyrimidines in the HIV-1 central PPT, which do not modify the overlapping amino acid sequence, are able to significantly slow down viral growth as they reduce plus-strand origin at the center of the genome. One of these mutations, introducing four pyrimidines, results in a 2-week delay in viral growth in CEM cells and abolishes plus-strand origin at the central PPT. The introduction in this mutant of a wild-type copy of the PPT at a different site creates a new plus-strand origin at that site. This new origin also determines the end of the upstream plus-strand segment, probably as a consequence of limited strand displacement-synthesis. Our findings further demonstrate the role of PPTs as initiation sites for the synthesis of the retroviral DNA plus strand and demonstrate the importance of a second such origin for efficient HIV replication in vitro. Images

Charneau, P; Alizon, M; Clavel, F

1992-01-01

283

Early Origin for Human-Like Precision Grasping: A Comparative Study of Pollical Distal Phalanges in Fossil Hominins  

PubMed Central

Background The morphology of human pollical distal phalanges (PDP) closely reflects the adaptation of human hands for refined precision grip with pad-to-pad contact. The presence of these precision grip-related traits in the PDP of fossil hominins has been related to human-like hand proportions (i.e. short hands with a long thumb) enabling the thumb and finger pads to contact. Although this has been traditionally linked to the appearance of stone tool-making, the alternative hypothesis of an earlier origin—related to the freeing of the hands thanks to the advent of terrestrial bipedalism—is also possible given the human-like intrinsic hand proportion found in australopiths. Methodology/Principal Findings We perform morphofunctional and morphometric (bivariate and multivariate) analyses of most available hominin pollical distal phalanges, including Orrorin, Australopithecus, Paranthropous and fossil Homo, in order to investigate their morphological affinities. Our results indicate that the thumb morphology of the early biped Orrorin is more human-like than that of australopiths, in spite of its ancient chronology (ca. 6 Ma). Moreover, Orrorin already displays typical human-like features related to precision grasping. Conclusions These results reinforce previous hypotheses relating the origin of refined manipulation of natural objects–not stone tool-making–with the relaxation of locomotor selection pressures on the forelimbs. This suggests that human hand length proportions are largely plesiomorphic, in the sense that they more closely resemble the relatively short-handed Miocene apes than the elongated hand pattern of extant hominoids. With the advent of terrestrial bipedalism, these hand proportions may have been co-opted by early hominins for enhanced manipulative capabilities that, in turn, would have been later co-opted for stone tool-making in the genus Homo, more encephalized than the previous australopiths. This hypothesis remains may be further tested by the finding of more complete hands of unequivocally biped early hominins.

Almecija, Sergio; Moya-Sola, Salvador; Alba, David M.

2010-01-01

284

Accelerated Protein Evolution and Origins of Human-Specific Features: FOXP2 as an Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes responsible for human-specific phenotypes may have been under altered selective pressures in human evolution and thus exhibit changes in substitution rate and pattern at the protein sequence level. Using comparative analysis of human, chimpanzee, and mouse protein sequences, we identified two genes (PRM2 and FOXP2) with significantly enhanced evolutionary rates in the hominid lineage. PRM2 is a histone-like protein

Jianzhi Zhang; Ondrej Podlaha

2002-01-01

285

Cumulative impacts of human activities on urban garden soils: origin and accumulation of metals.  

PubMed

The concentration of heavy metals and soil properties in fifty urban garden soils of Szeged (SE Hungary) were determined to evaluate the cumulative impacts of urbanization and cultivation on these soils. Using two enrichment factors (EFs) (based on reference horizon; Ti as reference element) and multivariate statistical analysis (PCA), the origin of the studied elements was defined. According to statistical coincidence of EFs confirmed by t-test, anthropogenic enrichment of Cu (EF = 4), Zn (EF = 2.7) and Pb (EF = 2.5) was significant in topsoils. Moreover, PCA also revealed the geogenic origin of Ni, Co, Cr and As and differentiated two groups of the anthropogenic metals [Pb, Zn] [Cu]. Spatial distribution of the metals visualized by GIS reflected the traffic origin of Pb; while based on ANOVA, the anthropogenic source of Cu is relevant (mainly pesticides) and there is a statistically significant difference in its concentration depending on land use. PMID:23500047

Szolnoki, Zs; Farsang, A; Puskás, I

2013-03-15

286

Origins of human malaria: rare genomic changes and full mitochondrial genomes confirm the relationship of Plasmodium falciparum to other mammalian parasites but complicate the origins of Plasmodium vivax.  

PubMed

Despite substantial work, the phylogeny of malaria parasites remains debated. The matter is complicated by concerns about patterns of evolution in potentially strongly selected genes as well as the extreme AT bias of some Plasmodium genomes. Particularly contentious has been the position of the most virulent human parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whether grouped with avian parasites or within a larger clade of mammalian parasites. Here, we study 3 classes of rare genomic changes, as well as the sequences of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We report 3 lines of support for a clade of mammalian parasites: 1) we find no instances of spliceosomal intron loss in a hypothetical ancestor of P. falciparum and the avian parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, suggesting against a close relationship between those species; 2) we find 4 genomic mitochondrial indels supporting a mammalian clade, but none grouping P. falciparum with avian parasites; and 3) slowly evolving mitochondrial rRNA sequences support a mammalian parasite clade with 100% posterior probability. We further report a large deletion in the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene, which suggests a subclade including both African and Asian parasites within the clade of closely related primate malarias. This contrasts with previous studies that provided strong support for separate Asian and African clades, and reduces certainty about the historical and geographic origins of Plasmodium vivax. Finally, we find a lack of synapomorphic gene losses, suggesting a low rate of ancestral gene loss in Plasmodium. PMID:18359945

Roy, Scott William; Irimia, Manuel

2008-03-21

287

Origins of Human Malaria: Rare Genomic Changes and Full Mitochondrial Genomes Confirm the Relationship of Plasmodium falciparum to Other Mammalian Parasites but Complicate the Origins of Plasmodium vivax  

PubMed Central

Despite substantial work, the phylogeny of malaria parasites remains debated. The matter is complicated by concerns about patterns of evolution in potentially strongly selected genes as well as the extreme AT bias of some Plasmodium genomes. Particularly contentious has been the position of the most virulent human parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whether grouped with avian parasites or within a larger clade of mammalian parasites. Here, we study 3 classes of rare genomic changes, as well as the sequences of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We report 3 lines of support for a clade of mammalian parasites: 1) we find no instances of spliceosomal intron loss in a hypothetical ancestor of P. falciparum and the avian parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, suggesting against a close relationship between those species; 2) we find 4 genomic mitochondrial indels supporting a mammalian clade, but none grouping P. falciparum with avian parasites; and 3) slowly evolving mitochondrial rRNA sequences support a mammalian parasite clade with 100% posterior probability. We further report a large deletion in the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene, which suggests a subclade including both African and Asian parasites within the clade of closely related primate malarias. This contrasts with previous studies that provided strong support for separate Asian and African clades, and reduces certainty about the historical and geographic origins of Plasmodium vivax. Finally, we find a lack of synapomorphic gene losses, suggesting a low rate of ancestral gene loss in Plasmodium.

Irimia, Manuel

2008-01-01

288

Isidore of Seville on the origins and meanings of medical terms.  

PubMed

Early in the 7th century of our era, the prelate and scholar Isidore of Seville compiled a Latin encyclopedia of classical learning that retained its popularity throughout the Middle Ages and into early modern times. This work, called Origines seu Etymologiae, treats many of its topics by tracing (often fancifully and incorrectly) the histories of their terms. From Book IV, which deals with medicine, 3 chapters containing glossaries of acute, chronic, and cutaneous diseases are here translated. PMID:18032959

Dirckx, John H

2007-12-01

289

Archaic human genomics.  

PubMed

For much of the 20th century, the predominant view of human evolutionary history was derived from the fossil record. Homo erectus was seen arising in Africa from an earlier member of the genus and then spreading throughout the Old World and into the Oceania. A regional continuity model of anagenetic change from H. erectus via various intermediate archaic species into the modern humans in each of the regions inhabited by H. erectus was labeled the multiregional model of human evolution (MRE). A contrasting model positing a single origin, in Africa, of anatomically modern H. sapiens with some populations later migrating out of Africa and replacing the local archaic populations throughout the world with complete replacement became known as the recent African origin (RAO) model. Proponents of both models used different interpretations of the fossil record to bolster their views for decades. In the 1980s, molecular genetic techniques began providing evidence from modern human variation that allowed not only the different models of modern human origins to be tested but also the exploration demographic history and the types of selection that different regions of the genome and even specific traits had undergone. The majority of researchers interpreted these data as strongly supporting the RAO model, especially analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Extrapolating backward from modern patterns of variation and using various calibration points and substitution rates, a consensus arose that saw modern humans evolving from an African population around 200,000 years ago. Much later, around 50,000 years ago, a subset of this population migrated out of Africa replacing Neanderthals in Europe and western Asia as well as archaics in eastern Asia and Oceania. mtDNA sequences from more than two-dozen Neanderthals and early modern humans re-enforced this consensus. In 2010, however, the complete draft genomes of Neanderthals and of heretofore unknown hominins from Siberia, called Denisovans, demonstrated gene flow between these archaic human species and modern Eurasians but not sub-Saharan Africans. Although the levels of gene flow may be very limited, this unexpected finding does not fit well with either the RAO model or MRE model. More thorough sampling of modern human diversity, additional fossil discoveries, and the sequencing of additional hominin fossils are necessary to throw light onto our origins and our history. PMID:23124308

Disotell, Todd R

2012-11-02

290

Gestational Age and Origin of Human Milk Influence Total Lipid and Fatty Acid Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human milk composition may be influenced by several factors, such as gestational age or genetic characteristics and dietary habits of different populations. To analyze the total lipid and fatty acid contents of human milk, we have conducted two studies, one on mothers who had delivered preterm and term newborns and another on mothers from two different sociocultural backgrounds (Spain

Ricardo Rueda; María Ramírez; José Luis García-Salmerón; José Maldonado; Angel Gil

1998-01-01

291

ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

292

Intrinsic proportions of the human tarsus: an original approach to tarsal biometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few precise biometrical data on human tarsal bones are available, and those published consist principally of linear and angular measurements made on dried bones or on radiographs. The material consisted of 86 complete adult human tarsi (dried bones). The tarsal proportions were determined using the relative tarsal weights (Weight of each of the seven tarsal bones\\/Weight of the total tarsus×100).

J. M. Le Minor; J. Wolff

2004-01-01

293

Origin of human chromosome 2: An ancestral telomere-telomere fusion  

SciTech Connect

The authors identified two allelic genomic cosmids from human chromosome 2, c8.1 and c29B, each containing two inverted arrays of the vertebrate telomeric repeat in a head-to-head arrangement, 5{prime}(TTAGGG){sub n}-(CCCTAA){sub m}3{prime}. Sequences flanking this telomeric repeat are characteristic of present-day human pretelomeres. BAL-31 nuclease experiments with yeast artificial chromosome clones of human telomeres and fluorescence in situ hybridization reveal that sequences flanking these inverted repeats hybridize both to band 2q13 and to different, but overlapping, subsets of human chromosome ends. They conclude that the locus cloned in cosmids c8.1 and c29B is the relic of an ancient telomere-telomere fusion and marks the point at which two ancestral ape chromosomes fused to give rise to human chromosome 2.

Ijdo, J.W.; Baldini, A.; Ward, D.C.; Reeders, S.T.; Wells, R.A. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-10-15

294

Complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): implications for human migrations in Oceania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae), a traditional starch crop in Oceania, has enjoyed legendary status ever since its role in the infamous mutiny aboard the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789, yet its origins remain unclear. Breadfruit's closest relatives are A. camansi and A. mariannensis. DNA fingerprinting data (AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphisms) from over 200 breadfruit cultivars, 30 A. camansi, and 24

NYREE J. C. ZEREGA; DIANE RAGONE; TIMOTHY J. MOTLEY

2004-01-01

295

Structure of the NS1 Protein N-Terminal Origin Recognition/Nickase Domain from the Emerging Human Bocavirus.  

PubMed

Human bocavirus is a newly identified, globally prevalent, parvovirus that is associated with respiratory infection in infants and young children. Parvoviruses encode a large nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) that is essential for replication of the viral single-stranded DNA genome and DNA packaging and may play versatile roles in virus-host interactions. Here, we report the structure of the human bocavirus NS1 N-terminal domain, the first for any autonomous parvovirus. The structure shows an overall fold that is canonical to the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, which integrates two distinct DNA-binding sites: (i) a positively charged region mediated by a surface hairpin (residues 190 to 198) that is responsible for recognition of the viral origin of replication of the double-stranded DNA nature and (ii) the nickase active site that binds to the single-stranded DNA substrate for site-specific cleavage. The structure reveals an acidic-residue-rich subdomain that is present in bocavirus NS1 proteins but not in the NS1 orthologs in erythrovirus or dependovirus, which may mediate bocavirus-specific interaction with DNA or potential host factors. These results provide insights into recognition of the origin of replication and nicking of DNA during bocavirus genome replication. Mapping of variable amino acid residues of NS1s from four human bocavirus species onto the structure shows a scattered pattern, but the origin recognition site and the nuclease active site are invariable, suggesting potential targets for antivirals against this clade of highly diverse human viruses. PMID:23966383

Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Zhao, Haiyan; Shen, Weiran; Qiu, Jianming; Tang, Liang

2013-08-21

296

PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile isolates originating from human and animal sources.  

PubMed

Molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates from animals and humans may be useful for evaluation of the possibility for interspecies transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate C. difficile isolates from domestic animals and humans using PCR ribotyping. Isolates were also tested using PCR for the presence of genes encoding toxins A and B. One hundred and thirty-three isolates of C. difficile from dogs (n = 92), horses (n = 21) and humans (n = 20), plus one each from a cat and a calf, were evaluated. Overall, 23 ribotypes were identified. Of these, nine were identified from dogs, 12 from horses, seven from humans and one each from the cat and calf. In dogs, humans and horses, one or two different ribotypes predominated. Overall, 25 % of isolates from humans were indistinguishable from isolates from one or more animal species. Genes encoding C. difficile toxins A and B were detected in all human, equine and bovine isolates, and in 69 % of canine isolates. While different ribotypes appear to predominate in different mammalian species, several indistinguishable strains may be found in multiple species. This suggests that there is a potential for interspecies transmission of C. difficile and epidemiological studies are warranted. PMID:15673511

Arroyo, Luis G; Kruth, Stephen A; Willey, Barbara M; Staempfli, Henry R; Low, Don E; Weese, J Scott

2005-02-01

297

Interaction of the Retinoblastoma Protein with Orc1 and Its Recruitment to Human Origins of DNA Replication  

PubMed Central

Background The retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a crucial regulator of cell cycle progression by binding with E2F transcription factor and repressing the expression of a variety of genes required for the G1-S phase transition. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that Rb and E2F1 directly participate in the control of initiation of DNA replication in human HeLa, U2OS and T98G cells by specifically binding to origins of DNA replication in a cell cycle regulated manner. We show that, both in vitro and inside the cells, the largest subunit of the origin recognition complex (Orc1) specifically binds hypo-phosphorylated Rb and that this interaction is competitive with the binding of Rb to E2F1. The displacement of Rb-bound Orc1 by E2F1 at origins of DNA replication marks the progression of the G1 phase of the cell cycle toward the G1-S border. Conclusions/Significance The participation of Rb and E2F1 in the formation of the multiprotein complex that binds origins of DNA replication in mammalian cells appears to represent an effective mechanism to couple the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression to the activation of DNA replication.

Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Paolinelli, Roberta; Galbiati, Laura; Giadrossi, Sara; Giacca, Mauro

2010-01-01

298

Origin and evolution of candidate mental retardation genes on the human X chromosome (MRX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The human X chromosome has a biased gene content. One group of genes that is over-represented on the human X are those expressed in the brain, explaining the large number of sex-linked mental retardation (MRX) syndromes. RESULTS: To determine if MRX genes were recruited to the X, or whether their brain-specific functions were acquired after relocation to the mammalian

Margaret L Delbridge; Daniel A McMillan; Ruth J Doherty; Janine E Deakin; Jennifer A Marshall Graves

2008-01-01

299

A revised timeline for the origin of Plasmodium falciparum as a human pathogen.  

PubMed

While Plasmodium falciparum is known to have had a strong effect on human evolution, the time period when P. falciparum first infected ancestors of modern humans has remained uncertain. Recent advances demonstrated that P. falciparum evolved from ancestors of gorilla parasites via host switching. Here, we estimate the range of dates during which this host switch may have occurred. DNA sequences of portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene obtained from gorilla parasites closely related to human P. falciparum were aligned and compared against similar sequences from human P. falciparum. Time estimates were calculated by applying a previously established parasite cytochrome b gene mutation rate (0.012 mutations per site per million years) and by modeling uncertainty in a Monte-Carlo simulation. We estimate a 95% confidence interval for when P. falciparum first infected ancestors of modern humans to be 112,000 and 1,036,000 years ago (median estimate, 365,000 years ago). This confidence interval suggests that P. falciparum first infected human ancestors much more recently than the previous recognized estimate of 2.5 million years ago. The revised estimate may inform our understanding of certain aspects of human-malaria co-evolution. For example, this revised date suggests a closer relationship between the entry of P. falciparum in humans and the appearance of many red blood cell polymorphisms considered to be genetic adaptations to malaria. In addition, the confidence interval lies within the timeframe dating the dawn of Homo sapiens, suggesting that P. falciparum may have undergone host switching as a Plasmodia adaptation specific for our species. PMID:22183792

Baron, Jason M; Higgins, John M; Dzik, Walter H

2011-12-20

300

Overcoming Physicophobia – Forests as the Sacred Source of Our Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many philosophers have written about the forests and their relation to human nature. The great modern philosopher and rationalist\\u000a Rene Descartes saw the forest as a realm of chaos and disorder and, therefore, alien to the ordered, rational human being.\\u000a In other words, we have a “psychophobia” attitude to the forest. Yet, he believed, Man can conquer the forest and

Roy Jackson

301

Divergent patterns of integration and reduced constraint in the human hip and the origins of bipedalism.  

PubMed

When compared to other hominids--great apes including humans--the human pelvis reveals a fundamental reorganization of bony morphology comprised of multiple trait-level changes, many of which are associated with bipedal locomotion. Establishing how patterns of integration--correlations and covariances among traits--within the pelvis have evolved in concert with morphology is essential to explaining this evolutionary transition because integration may facilitate or constrain morphological evolution. Here, we show that the human hip bone has significantly lower levels of integration and constraint overall when compared to other hominids, that the focus of these changes is on traits hypothesized to play major functional roles in bipedalism, and we provide evidence that the human hip was reintegrated in a pattern distinct from other members of this group. Additionally, the evolutionary transition from a nonhuman great ape-like to human hip bone morphology was significantly easier to traverse using the human integration pattern in each comparison, which suggests hominin patterns may have evolved to facilitate this transition. Our results suggest natural selection for bipedalism broke down earlier hominid integration patterns, allowing relevant traits to respond to separate selection pressures to a greater extent than was previously possible, and reintegrated traits in a way that could have facilitated evolution along the vector specifying ancestral hominid and hominin morphological differences. PMID:21521191

Grabowski, Mark W; Polk, John D; Roseman, Charles C

2011-02-07

302

A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans  

PubMed Central

Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named “Melaka virus”) isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family members developed similar symptoms ?1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus. Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house ?1 week before the onset of the father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans.

Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; Yu, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2007-01-01

303

Short Tandem-Repeat Polymorphism/Alu Haplotype Variation at the PLAT Locus: Implications for Modern Human Origins  

PubMed Central

Two dinucleotide short tandem-repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and a polymorphic Alu element spanning a 22-kb region of the PLAT locus on chromosome 8p12-q11.2 were typed in 1,287–1,420 individuals originating from 30 geographically diverse human populations, as well as in 29 great apes. These data were analyzed as haplotypes consisting of each of the dinucleotide repeats and the flanking Alu insertion/deletion polymorphism. The global pattern of STRP/Alu haplotype variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is informative for the reconstruction of human evolutionary history. Sub-Saharan African populations have high levels of haplotype diversity within and between populations, relative to non-Africans, and have highly divergent patterns of LD. Non-African populations have both a subset of the haplotype diversity present in Africa and a distinct pattern of LD. The pattern of haplotype variation and LD observed at the PLAT locus suggests a recent common ancestry of non-African populations, from a small population originating in eastern Africa. These data indicate that, throughout much of modern human history, sub-Saharan Africa has maintained both a large effective population size and a high level of population substructure. Additionally, Papua New Guinean and Micronesian populations have rare haplotypes observed otherwise only in African populations, suggesting ancient gene flow from Africa into Papua New Guinea, as well as gene flow between Melanesian and Micronesian populations.

Tishkoff, S. A.; Pakstis, A. J.; Stoneking, M.; Kidd, J. R.; Destro-Bisol, G.; Sanjantila, A.; Lu, R.-b.; Deinard, A. S.; Sirugo, G.; Jenkins, T.; Kidd, K. K.; Clark, A. G.

2000-01-01

304

Ig V region restrictions in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia suggest some cases have a common origin  

PubMed Central

The factors that contribute to the development of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) are unknown, and the groups of individuals at the greatest risk for developing this common leukemia are not well defined. Molecular features are important for classifying cases of B-CLL, and it is now apparent that similarities among Ig rearrangements between patients may give important clues to the origin of this disease.

Kolar, Grant R.; Capra, J. Donald

2004-01-01

305

Uterine vasculature remodeling in human pregnancy involves functional macrochimerism by endothelial colony forming cells of fetal origin.  

PubMed

The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149-471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health. PMID:23554274

Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, Hélène; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P

2013-07-01

306

The origins of animal domestication and husbandry: a major change in the history of humanity and the biosphere.  

PubMed

This article aims to summarize the present archaeo(zoo)logical knowledge and reflections on the origins of Neolithic animal domestication. It targets the main characteristics of early Neolithic animal domestication set against a backdrop of two complementary scales, namely the global and macro-regional scales (the latter using the example of the Near East). It discusses the conceptual and methodological issues, arguing in favor of an anthropozoological approach taking into account the intentions and the dynamics of human societies and critically analyzes the reductionist neo-Darwinian concepts of co-evolution and human niche construction. It also provides a brief discussion on the birth of ungulate domestication and its roots, as well as appropriate bibliographic references to enlighten the current status of domestication research. PMID:21377611

Vigne, Jean-Denis

2011-02-02

307

Intraspecific Genotypic Characterization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Intended for Probiotic Use and Isolates of Human Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 118 strains of the species Lactobacillus rhamnosus was collected, including probiotic strains, research strains with potential probiotic properties, food starter cultures, and human isolates. The majority of the strains were collected from companies, hospitals, or culture collections or were obtained after contacting authors who reported clinical case studies in the literature. The present work aimed to reveal

M. Vancanneyt; G. Huys; K. Lefebvre; V. Vankerckhoven; H. Goossens; J. Swings

2006-01-01

308

Recently Recovered Kenyapithecus Mandible and Its Implications for Great Ape and Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here a Kenyapithecus africanus juvenile mandible recovered from middle Miocene (ca. 14-16 million years) deposits of Maboko Island (Lake Victoria), Kenya. Symphyseal and dental attributes of the mandible distinguish K. africanus, a species widely regarded as the earliest known member of the great ape and human clade, from other Miocene large-bodied hominoids. The Maboko Island mandible exhibits a

Monte L. McCrossin; Brenda R. Benefit

1993-01-01

309

Porcine-Origin Gentamicin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Humans, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2001-2002, high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) Enterococcus faecalis isolates were detected in 2 patients in Denmark who had infective endocarditis and in pigs and pork. Our results demonstrate that these isolates belong to the same clonal group, which suggests that pigs are a source of HLGR E. faecalis infection in humans.

Jesper Larsen; Henrik C. Schønheyder; Camilla H. Lester; Stefan S. Olsen; Lone J. Porsbo; Lourdes Garcia-Migura; Lars B. Jensen; Magne Bisgaard; Anette M. Hammerum

2010-01-01

310

The extent of codon usage bias in human RNA viruses and its evolutionary origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revealing the determinants of codon usage bias is central to the understanding of factors governing viral evolution. Herein, we report the results of a survey of codon usage bias in a wide range of genetically and ecologically diverse human RNA viruses. This analysis showed that the overall extent of codon usage bias in RNA viruses is low and that there

Gareth M Jenkins; Edward C Holmes

2003-01-01

311

Human genes involved in copy number variation: mechanisms of origin, functional effects and implications for disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copy number variants (CNVs) overlap over 7000 genes, many of which are pivotal in biological pathways. The implications of this are profound, with consequences for evolutionary studies, population genetics, gene function and human phenotype, including elucidation of genetic susceptibility to major common diseases, the heritability of which has thus far defied full explanation. Even though this research is still in

A. J. de Smith; R. G. Walters; P. Froguel; A. I. Blakemore

2008-01-01

312

Inhibition of in vitro growth of enteropathogens by new Lactobacillus isolates of human intestinal origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three human Lactobacillus strains, coded B21060, B21070 and B21190, have recently been isolated. The strains show a series of features (acid and bile resistance, adhesion to various types of mucosal cell) which make them particularly promising for the preparation of probiotic products. In the present study, the ability of the strains to inhibit the growth of pathogens in coculture was

Lorenzo Drago; Maria Rita Gismondo; Alessandra Lombardi; Christoph de Haën; Luigia Gozzini

1997-01-01

313

Diverse Genetic Markers Concordantly Identify Bovine Origin Escherichia coli O157 Genotypes Underrepresented in Human Disease? †  

PubMed Central

Genetic markers previously reported to occur at significantly different frequencies in isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 obtained from cattle and from clinically affected humans concordantly delineate at least five genetic groups. Isolates in three of these groups consistently carry one or more markers rarely found among clinical isolates.

Whitworth, Joshua; Zhang, Yubei; Bono, James; Pleydell, Eve; French, Nigel; Besser, Thomas

2010-01-01

314

Subjective Characteristics of TMS-Induced Phosphenes Originating in Human V1 and V2.  

PubMed

One way to study the neural correlates of visual consciousness is to localize the cortical areas whose stimulation generates subjective visual sensations, called phosphenes. While there is support for the view that the stimulation of several different visual areas in the occipital lobe may produce phosphenes, it is not clear what the contribution of each area is. Here, we studied the roles of the primary visual cortex (V1) and the adjacent area V2 in eliciting phosphenes by using functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with spherical modeling of the TMS-induced electric field. Reports of the subjective visual features of phosphenes were systematically collected and analyzed. We found that selective stimulation of V1 and V2 are equally capable of generating phosphenes, as demonstrated by comparable phosphene thresholds and similar characteristics of phosphene shape, color, and texture. However, the phosphenes induced by V1 stimulation were systematically perceived as brighter than the phosphenes induced by the stimulation of V2. Thus, these results suggest that V1 and V2 have a similar capability to produce conscious percepts. Nevertheless, V1 and V2 contribute differently to brightness: neural activation originating in V1 generates a more intense sensation of brightness than similar activation originating in V2. PMID:23696280

Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina; Vanni, Simo; Noreika, Valdas; Valiulis, Vladas; Móró, Levente; Revonsuo, Antti

2013-05-21

315

A new Late Miocene great ape from Kenya and its implications for the origins of African great apes and humans  

PubMed Central

Extant African great apes and humans are thought to have diverged from each other in the Late Miocene. However, few hominoid fossils are known from Africa during this period. Here we describe a new genus of great ape (Nakalipithecus nakayamai gen. et sp. nov.) recently discovered from the early Late Miocene of Nakali, Kenya. The new genus resembles Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (9.6–8.7 Ma, Greece) in size and some features but retains less specialized characters, such as less inflated cusps and better-developed cingula on cheek teeth, and it was recovered from a slightly older age (9.9–9.8 Ma). Although the affinity of Ouranopithecus to the extant African apes and humans has often been inferred, the former is known only from southeastern Europe. The discovery of N. nakayamai in East Africa, therefore, provides new evidence on the origins of African great apes and humans. N. nakayamai could be close to the last common ancestor of the extant African apes and humans. In addition, the associated primate fauna from Nakali shows that hominoids and other non-cercopithecoid catarrhines retained higher diversity into the early Late Miocene in East Africa than previously recognized.

Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Masayuki; Hyodo, Hironobu; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Nakaya, Hideo; Saegusa, Haruo; Mazurier, Arnaud; Saneyoshi, Mototaka; Tsujikawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ayumi; Mbua, Emma

2007-01-01

316

Quantification of human and animal viruses to differentiate the origin of the fecal contamination present in environmental samples.  

PubMed

Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking). In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples. PMID:23762826

Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Girones, Rosina

2013-05-15

317

Bacteriocin-like activity of group B and group C streptococci of human and of animal origin.  

PubMed Central

An inhibitor "fingerprinting' technique was used to test 120 group B and 50 group C streptococcus strains for production of inhibitory activity. The incidence of inhibitor production was low. Five of 70 group B streptococci of animal origin and one of 50 from human sources consistently produced inhibitory activity. Six of 20 animal strains and three of 30 human strains of group C streptococci were inhibitor producers. These included two Streptococcus dysgalactiae, three S. equisimilis and four S. zooepidemicus. The temperature of incubation and species of origin of the blood used in the culture medium were critical determinants of inhibitor production. Investigation of inhibitors for their spectrum of activity, heat stability, sensitivity to trypsin, dialysability and mode of action indicated that five of the group B and seven of the group C streptococci produced inhibitors that had bacteriocin-line properties. Three bovine strains of group B streptococci produced very similar inhibitory activity. A greater variety of bacteriocin-like substances was detected in the group C streptococcus strains. Two of the S. zooepidemicus strains were each found to produce more than one inhibitory substance.

Schofield, C. R.; Tagg, J. R.

1983-01-01

318

Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations  

PubMed Central

Background The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the Andaman Islands, is inconsistent with this scenario. Results In this study, we collected more than 5,000 male samples from 73 East Asian populations and reconstructed the phylogeography of the D-M174 lineage. Our results suggest that D-M174 represents an extremely ancient lineage of modern humans in East Asia, and a deep divergence was observed between northern and southern populations. Conclusion We proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages. The Neolithic expansion of Han culture and the last glacial maximum are likely the key factors leading to the current relic distribution of D-M174 in East Asia. The Tibetan and Japanese populations are the admixture of two ancient populations represented by two major East Asian specific Y chromosome lineages, the O and D haplogroups.

Shi, Hong; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Dong, Yong-Li; Qi, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lu-Fang; Tan, Si-Jie; Ma, Runlin Z; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Wells, R Spencer; Jin, Li; Su, Bing

2008-01-01

319

An ancestry informative marker set for determining continental origin: validation and extension using human genome diversity panels  

PubMed Central

Background Case-control genetic studies of complex human diseases can be confounded by population stratification. This issue can be addressed using panels of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) that can provide substantial population substructure information. Previously, we described a panel of 128 SNP AIMs that were designed as a tool for ascertaining the origins of subjects from Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Americas, and East Asia. Results In this study, genotypes from Human Genome Diversity Panel populations were used to further evaluate a 93 SNP AIM panel, a subset of the 128 AIMS set, for distinguishing continental origins. Using both model-based and relatively model-independent methods, we here confirm the ability of this AIM set to distinguish diverse population groups that were not previously evaluated. This study included multiple population groups from Oceana, South Asia, East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North and South America, and Europe. In addition, the 93 AIM set provides population substructure information that can, for example, distinguish Arab and Ashkenazi from Northern European population groups and Pygmy from other Sub-Saharan African population groups. Conclusion These data provide additional support for using the 93 AIM set to efficiently identify continental subject groups for genetic studies, to identify study population outliers, and to control for admixture in association studies.

Nassir, Rami; Kosoy, Roman; Tian, Chao; White, Phoebe A; Butler, Lesley M; Silva, Gabriel; Kittles, Rick; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Gregersen, Peter K; Belmont, John W; De La Vega, Francisco M; Seldin, Michael F

2009-01-01

320

On the origin of scatter in results of human bone strenght tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the more recent studies into the compressive and tensile strengths of small human bone samples are discussed. The\\u000a scatter of results is compared to that for tests on cement which, like bone, is a composite material. A list of factors which\\u000a may influence the result of strength tests on bone is given and discussed. It is suggested that

J. C. Wall; S. Chatterji; J. W. Jeffery

1970-01-01

321

Ethnographic and Linguistic Evidence for the Origins of Human Trophy Taking in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Scalps were taken in the greater part of California, brought home in triumph, and celebrated over, usually by a dance around\\u000a a pole” (Kroeber 1976:843); thus concluded the great California ethnographer Alfred Kroeber on the human trophy taking in\\u000a his lengthy treatise, Handbook of the Indians of California. At the time of his study of the cultural elements of California’s

PATRICIA LAMBERT

322

Automatic Extraction of Destinations, Origins and Route Parts from Human Generated Route Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Researchers from the cognitive and spatial sciences are studying text descriptions of movement patterns in order to examine\\u000a how humans communicate and understand spatial information. In particular, route directions offer a rich source of information\\u000a on how cognitive systems conceptualize movement patterns by segmenting them into meaningful parts. Route directions are composed\\u000a using a plethora of cognitive spatial organization principles:

Xiao Zhang; Prasenjit Mitra; Alexander Klippel; Alan M. MacEachren

2010-01-01

323

Soluble phosphate glasses: in vitro studies using human cells of hard and soft tissue origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the short-term response of two typical cellular components of a hard\\/soft tissue interface such as the periodontal ligament\\/mandible and patellar tendon\\/tibia. Tissue engineering of such interfaces requires a contiguous scaffold system with at least two cell types associated with it. Human oral osteoblasts, oral fibroblasts and hand flexor tendon fibroblasts were seeded on phosphate-based glasses of different

Malak Bitar; Vehid Salih; Vivek Mudera; Jonathan C. Knowles; Mark P. Lewis

2004-01-01

324

Recent African Origin of Modern Humans Revealed by Complete Sequences of Hominoid Mitochondrial DNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of three humans (African, European, and Japanese), three African apes (common and pygmy chimpanzees, and gorilla), and one orangutan in an attempt to estimate most accurately the substitution rates and divergence times of hominoid mtDNAs. Nonsynonymous substitutions and substitutions in RNA genes have accumulated with an approximately clock-like regularity. From these substitutions

Satoshi Horai; Kenji Hayasaka; Rumi Kondo; Kazuo Tsugane; Naoyuki Takahata

1995-01-01

325

Human motor unit recordings: Origins and insight into the integrated motor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soon after Edward Liddell [1895–1981] and Charles Sherrington [1857–1952] introduced the concept of a motor unit in 1925 and the necessary technology was developed, the recording of single motor unit activity became feasible in humans. It was quickly discovered by Edgar Adrian [1889–1977] and Detlev Bronk [1897–1975] that the force exerted by muscle during voluntary contractions was the result of

Jacques Duchateau; Roger M. Enoka

2011-01-01

326

Origins and functional impact of copy number variation in the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural variations of DNA greater than 1 kilobase in size account for most bases that vary among human genomes, but are still relatively under-ascertained. Here we use tiling oligonucleotide microarrays, comprising 42 million probes, to generate a comprehensive map of 11,700 copy number variations (CNVs) greater than 443 base pairs, of which most (8,599) have been validated independently. For 4,978

Donald F. Conrad; Dalila Pinto; Richard Redon; Lars Feuk; Omer Gokcumen; Yujun Zhang; Jan Aerts; T. Daniel Andrews; Chris Barnes; Peter Campbell; Tomas Fitzgerald; Min Hu; Chun Hwa Ihm; Kati Kristiansson; Daniel G. MacArthur; Jeffrey R. MacDonald; Ifejinelo Onyiah; Andy Wing; Chun Pang; Sam Robson; Kathy Stirrups; Armand Valsesia; Klaudia Walter; John Wei; Chris Tyler-smith; Nigel P Carter; Charles Lee; Stephen W Scherer; Matthew E Hurles

2010-01-01

327

Evidence supporting a zoonotic origin of human coronavirus strain NL63.  

PubMed

The relationship between bats and coronaviruses (CoVs) has received considerable attention since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoV was identified in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae) in 2005. Since then, several bats throughout the world have been shown to shed CoV sequences, and presumably CoVs, in the feces; however, no bat CoVs have been isolated from nature. Moreover, there are very few bat cell lines or reagents available for investigating CoV replication in bat cells or for isolating bat CoVs adapted to specific bat species. Here, we show by molecular clock analysis that alphacoronavirus (?-CoV) sequences derived from the North American tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) are predicted to share common ancestry with human CoV (HCoV)-NL63, with the most recent common ancestor between these viruses occurring approximately 563 to 822 years ago. Further, we developed immortalized bat cell lines from the lungs of this bat species to determine if these cells were capable of supporting infection with HCoVs. While SARS-CoV, mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15), and chimeric SARS-CoVs bearing the spike genes of early human strains replicated inefficiently, HCoV-NL63 replicated for multiple passages in the immortalized lung cells from this bat species. These observations support the hypothesis that human CoVs are capable of establishing zoonotic-reverse zoonotic transmission cycles that may allow some CoVs to readily circulate and exchange genetic material between strains found in bats and other mammals, including humans. PMID:22993147

Huynh, Jeremy; Li, Shimena; Yount, Boyd; Smith, Alexander; Sturges, Leslie; Olsen, John C; Nagel, Juliet; Johnson, Joshua B; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gates, J Edward; Frieman, Matthew B; Baric, Ralph S; Donaldson, Eric F

2012-09-19

328

Original Contribution Cytotoxicity studies of chromium(III) complexes on human dermal fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxicity of certain Cr(III) complexes, such as (Cr(salen)(H2O)2) + , (Cr(edta)(H2O)) , (Cr(en)3) 3+ , (Cr(ox)3) 3 , (Cr(pic)3), and CrCl3, which differ in ionic character and ligand environment in human dermal skin fibroblasts, has been studied. After 72 h of exposure to 100 AM doses of chromium(III) complexes, the order in which the complexes had an inhibitory effect

H. Yamini Shrivastava; T. Ravikumar; Mary Babu; Balachandran Unni Naira

329

The Circuitous Origins of the Gender Perspective in Human Rights Advocacy: A Challenge for Transnational Feminisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article pieces together a complex genealogy of the multiple contexts that helped reshape women’s international organizing and create a global women’s human rights movement following the United Nations (UN) Decade for Women, 1975–85. It maps a multilayered history consisting of many different strands of women’s activities around the globe that increasingly converged in the 1970s, although in unanticipated ways.

Jean H. Quataert

2011-01-01

330

Interindividual variability and parent of origin DNA methylation differences at specific human Alu elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the CpG methylation of 19 specific members of Alu sub-families in human DNA isolated from whole blood, using an assay based on methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease digestion of genomic DNA and 'hot-stop' polymerase chain reaction. We found significant interindividual variability in the level of methylation for specific Alu elements among the members of 48 three-generation families. Surprisingly, some of

Ionel Sandovici; Sacha Kassovska-Bratinova; J. Concepcion Loredo-Osti; Mark Leppert; Alexander Suarez; Rae Stewart; F. Dale Bautista; Michael Schiraldi; Carmen Sapienza

2005-01-01

331

Origin of Fluorescence Lifetimes in Human Serum Albumin. Studies on Native and Denatured Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human serum albumin consists of a single polypeptide of 585 amino acid residues with 1 Trp residue. In the present work, we\\u000a measured fluorescence lifetimes of the protein in both native and denatured states. The results indicate that Trp emission\\u000a occurs with three lifetimes in both states. Lifetimes values and contribution to the global emission decay differ between\\u000a the two

Megdouda Amiri; Kristina Jankeje; Jihad René Albani

2010-01-01

332

Somatic mutation/neodifferentiation/selection and the origins of human cancers.  

PubMed

For some time, there has been a confusing and often frustrating difference of opinion amongst molecular pathologists and biologists regarding the relative involvement of somatic mutation vs. altered differentiation (neodifferentiation) in human carcinogenesis. This distinction, however, has led to opposing biological viewpoints which have a found alignment with opposing political viewpoints. While this distinction may have historical rationale, it has little biological basis, and it is possible to construct an integrative viewpoint which reconciles the "very different points of view and styles of argument" resulting from its use. The general evidence available suggests that most human epithelial cancers are caused by chemicals and radiations capable of inducing local mutations in regulatory sequences of genomic DNA, leading, perhaps through genetic transposition, to a mis-programming of natural genomic information expression. In this viewpoint, somatic mutation and altered differentiation are not mutually exclusive mechanisms as often implied, but, in all likelihood, are temporally related mechanisms; and human cancer thus becomes fundamentally a disease of cellular differentiation caused by somatic mutations. PMID:7289926

Lower, G M

1981-09-01

333

Unraveling the origin of exponential law in intra-urban human mobility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of travel takes place within cities. Recently, new data has become available which allows for the discovery of urban mobility patterns which differ from established results about long distance travel. Specifically, the latest evidence increasingly points to exponential trip length distributions, contrary to the scaling laws observed on larger scales. In this paper, in order to explore the origin of the exponential law, we propose a new model which can predict individual flows in urban areas better. Based on the model, we explain the exponential law of intra-urban mobility as a result of the exponential decrease in average population density in urban areas. Indeed, both empirical and analytical results indicate that the trip length and the population density share the same exponential decaying rate.

Liang, Xiao; Zhao, Jichang; Dong, Li; Xu, Ke

2013-10-01

334

Unraveling the origin of exponential law in intra-urban human mobility  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of travel takes place within cities. Recently, new data has become available which allows for the discovery of urban mobility patterns which differ from established results about long distance travel. Specifically, the latest evidence increasingly points to exponential trip length distributions, contrary to the scaling laws observed on larger scales. In this paper, in order to explore the origin of the exponential law, we propose a new model which can predict individual flows in urban areas better. Based on the model, we explain the exponential law of intra-urban mobility as a result of the exponential decrease in average population density in urban areas. Indeed, both empirical and analytical results indicate that the trip length and the population density share the same exponential decaying rate.

Liang, Xiao; Zhao, Jichang; Dong, Li; Xu, Ke

2013-01-01

335

Unraveling the origin of exponential law in intra-urban human mobility.  

PubMed

The vast majority of travel takes place within cities. Recently, new data has become available which allows for the discovery of urban mobility patterns which differ from established results about long distance travel. Specifically, the latest evidence increasingly points to exponential trip length distributions, contrary to the scaling laws observed on larger scales. In this paper, in order to explore the origin of the exponential law, we propose a new model which can predict individual flows in urban areas better. Based on the model, we explain the exponential law of intra-urban mobility as a result of the exponential decrease in average population density in urban areas. Indeed, both empirical and analytical results indicate that the trip length and the population density share the same exponential decaying rate. PMID:24136012

Liang, Xiao; Zhao, Jichang; Dong, Li; Xu, Ke

2013-10-18

336

Origin and propagation of human gastric slow-wave activity defined by high-resolution mapping  

PubMed Central

Slow waves coordinate gastric motility, and abnormal slow-wave activity is thought to contribute to motility disorders. The current understanding of normal human gastric slow-wave activity is based on extrapolation from data derived from sparse electrode recordings and is therefore potentially incomplete. This study employed high-resolution (HR) mapping to reevaluate human gastric slow-wave activity. HR mapping was performed in 12 patients with normal stomachs undergoing upper abdominal surgery, using flexible printed circuit board (PCB) arrays (interelectrode distance 7.6 mm). Up to six PCBs (192 electrodes; 93 cm2) were used simultaneously. Slow-wave activity was characterized by spatiotemporal mapping, and regional frequencies, amplitudes, and velocities were defined and compared. Slow-wave activity in the pacemaker region (mid to upper corpus, greater curvature) was of greater amplitude (mean 0.57 mV) and higher velocity (8.0 mm/s) than the corpus (0.25 mV, 3.0 mm/s) (P < 0.001) and displayed isotropic propagation. A marked transition to higher amplitude and velocity activity occurred in the antrum (0.52 mV, 5.9 mm/s) (P < 0.001). Multiple (3–4) wavefronts were found to propagate simultaneously in the organoaxial direction. Frequencies were consistent between regions (2.83 ± 0.35 cycles per min). HR mapping has provided a more complete understanding of normal human gastric slow-wave activity. The pacemaker region is associated with high-amplitude, high-velocity activity, and multiple wavefronts propagate simultaneously. These data provide a baseline for future HR mapping studies in disease states and will inform noninvasive diagnostic strategies.

Du, Peng; Cheng, Leo K.; Egbuji, John U.; Lammers, Wim J. E. P.; Windsor, John A.; Pullan, Andrew J.

2010-01-01

337

ON THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN TREPONEMATOSES (PINTA, YAWS, ENDEMIC SYPHILIS AND VENEREAL SYPHILIS).  

PubMed

A close relationship between the four human treponematoses is suggested by their clinical and epidemiological characteristics and by such limited knowledge of the treponemes as there is at present. No treponeme of this group (except for that of the rabbit) is known other than in man, but the human treponemes probably arose long ago from an animal infection. The long period of infectiousness of pinta suggests that it may have been the earliest human treponematosis. It may have been spread throughout the world by about 15 000 B.C., being subsequently isolated in the Americas when the Bering Strait was flooded. About 10 000 B.C. in the Afro-Asian land mass environmental conditions might have favoured treponeme mutants leading to yaws; from these, about 7000 B.C., endemic syphilis perhaps developed, to give rise to venereal syphilis about 3000 B.C. in south-west Asia as big cities developed there. Towards the end of the fifteenth century A.D. a further mutation may have resulted in a more severe venereal syphilis in Europe which, with European exploration and geographical expansion, was subsequently carried throughout the then treponemally uncommitted world. These suggestions find some tentative support in climatic changes which might have influenced the selection of those treponemes which still survive in humid or arid climates. Venereal transmission would presumably remove the treponeme from the direct influence of climate. The author makes a plea for further investigation of many aspects of this subject while this is still possible. PMID:14043755

HACKETT, C J

1963-01-01

338

Origin of the scaling law in human mobility: Hierarchy of traffic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncovering the mechanism leading to the scaling law in human trajectories is of fundamental importance in understanding many spatiotemporal phenomena. We propose a hierarchical geographical model to mimic the real traffic system, upon which a random walker will generate a power-law-like travel displacement distribution with tunable exponent, and display a scaling behavior in the probability density of having traveled a certain distance at a certain time. The simulation results, analytical results, and empirical observations reported in D. Brockmann [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature04292 439, 462 (2006)] agree very well with each other.

Han, Xiao-Pu; Hao, Qiang; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao

2011-03-01

339

Sequence analyses of herpesviral enzymes suggest an ancient origin for human sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the deoxythymidine kinases of herpes simplex (HSV) and of marmoset herpes viruses (MHV) suggests a divergence time of 8 to 10 million years ago for HSV-1 and -2. Like MHV, HSV-1 and -2 cause local infections in their natural hosts, and direct contact between two individuals during the brief period of infectivity is needed for transmission. Because B virus, a nearer relative of HSV, depends on both oral and genital routes of transmission, we postulate that ancestral HSV (aHSV) was similar, and that for HSV-1 and -2 to diverge, genital and oral sites had to become microbiologically somewhat isolated from each other, while oral--oral and genital--genital contact had to be facilitated to maintain both aHSV strains. We propose that acquisition of continual sexual attractiveness by the ancestral human female and the adoption of close face-to-face mating, two hallmarks of human sexual behavior, provided the conditions for the divergence. PMID:3128793

Gentry, G A; Lowe, M; Alford, G; Nevins, R

1988-04-01

340

New insights on the origin and relevance of aneuploidy in human spermatozoa.  

PubMed

In humans, the most common chromosomal abnormality is aneuploidy. Because the majority of aneuploid conceptuses die during the early stages of embryonic development, an accurate estimate of the frequency of aneuploidy at conception can only be assessed by directly studying the gametes. The vast majority of aneuploidies arise de novo as a result of sporadic chromosome missegregation in paternal or maternal meiosis. In this review, we present the basic current knowledge about the incidence of aneuploidy in human spermatozoa in the general population and in patient populations where elevated levels of sperm aneuploidy are observed. These include infertile patients, patients with abnormal somatic karyotypes, and individuals exposed to certain environmental/lifestyle hazards. The clinical impact of increased levels of aneuploidy is discussed. We then focus on the non-disjunction mechanisms that cause aneuploidy during spermatogenesis and the factors that predispose to non-disjunction in male germ cells followed by an analysis of the sex differences in the incidence of gamete aneuploidy. Recent meiotic studies using multiplex-FISH on three fertile men have revealed that the frequency of conservative aneuploidy of metaphase II spermatocytes is similar to that observed in non-inseminated oocytes of young women. These findings suggest that the differences in the incidence of aneuploidy between spermatozoa and oocytes are not due to differences in chromosome segregation errors but rather to more effective checkpoint mechanisms in spermatogenesis than in oogenesis. PMID:23720770

Templado, C; Uroz, L; Estop, A

2013-05-28

341

Evolutionary origins of human apoptosis and genome-stability gene networks.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is essential for complex multicellular organisms and its failure is associated with genome instability and cancer. Interactions between apoptosis and genome-maintenance mechanisms have been extensively documented and include transactivation-independent and -dependent functions, in which the tumor-suppressor protein p53 works as a 'molecular node' in the DNA-damage response. Although apoptosis and genome stability have been identified as ancient pathways in eukaryote phylogeny, the biological evolution underlying the emergence of an integrated system remains largely unknown. Here, using computational methods, we reconstruct the evolutionary scenario that linked apoptosis with genome stability pathways in a functional human gene/protein association network. We found that the entanglement of DNA repair, chromosome stability and apoptosis gene networks appears with the caspase gene family and the antiapoptotic gene BCL2. Also, several critical nodes that entangle apoptosis and genome stability are cancer genes (e.g. ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and TP53), although their orthologs have arisen in different points of evolution. Our results demonstrate how genome stability and apoptosis were co-opted during evolution recruiting genes that merge both systems. We also provide several examples to exploit this evolutionary platform, where we have judiciously extended information on gene essentiality inferred from model organisms to human. PMID:18832373

Castro, Mauro A A; Dalmolin, Rodrigo J S; Moreira, José C F; Mombach, José C M; de Almeida, Rita M C

2008-10-02

342

Sequence analyses of herpesviral enzymes suggest an ancient origin for human sexual behavior.  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the deoxythymidine kinases of herpes simplex (HSV) and of marmoset herpes viruses (MHV) suggests a divergence time of 8 to 10 million years ago for HSV-1 and -2. Like MHV, HSV-1 and -2 cause local infections in their natural hosts, and direct contact between two individuals during the brief period of infectivity is needed for transmission. Because B virus, a nearer relative of HSV, depends on both oral and genital routes of transmission, we postulate that ancestral HSV (aHSV) was similar, and that for HSV-1 and -2 to diverge, genital and oral sites had to become microbiologically somewhat isolated from each other, while oral--oral and genital--genital contact had to be facilitated to maintain both aHSV strains. We propose that acquisition of continual sexual attractiveness by the ancestral human female and the adoption of close face-to-face mating, two hallmarks of human sexual behavior, provided the conditions for the divergence.

Gentry, G A; Lowe, M; Alford, G; Nevins, R

1988-01-01

343

Investigation of the Causes of Breast Cancer at the Cellular Level: Isolation of In Vivo Binding Sites of the Human Origin Recognition Complex.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our goal is to understand the process of DNA replication at the molecular level in human cells. We are specifically trying to identify human replicator sequences and to characterize the pre-replicative complexes at the origins of replication. In this repo...

J. Mendez B. Stillman

2001-01-01

344

Evolution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157: eight major lineages of human and cattle origin strain signature genotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cattle are a major reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) and harbor genetic subtypes that do not all associate with human disease. STEC O157 evolved from an E. coli O55:H7 progenitor, however, depauperate nucleotide polymorphism discovery from cattle and human origin...

345

Src-kinase inhibitors sensitize human cells of myeloid origin to Toll-like-receptor-induced interleukin 12 synthesis.  

PubMed

Src-kinase inhibitors hold great potential as targeted therapy against malignant cells. However, such inhibitors may also affect nonmalignant cells and cause pronounced off-target effects. We investigated the role of the dual kinase inhibitor dasatinib on human myeloid cells. Dasatinib is clinically used for the treatment of bcr/abl(+) leukemias because it blocks the mutated tyrosine kinase abl. To understand its effect on the development of antigen-specific T-cell responses, we assessed antigen-specific priming of human, naïve T cells. In surprising contrast to the direct inhibition of T-cell activation by dasatinib, pretreatment of maturing dendritic cells (DCs) with dasatinib strongly enhanced their stimulatory activity. This effect strictly depended on the activating DC stimulus and led to enhanced interleukin 12 (IL-12) production and T-cell responses of higher functional avidity. Src-kinase inhibitors, and not conventional tyrosine kinase inhibitors, increased IL-12 production in several cell types of myeloid origin, such as monocytes and classical or nonclassical DCs. Interestingly, only human cells, but not mouse or macaques DCs, were affected. These data highlight the potential immunostimulatory capacity of a group of novel drugs, src-kinase inhibitors, thereby opening new opportunities for chemoimmunotherapy. These data also provide evidence for a regulatory role of src kinases in the activation of myeloid cells. PMID:23836556

Wölfl, Matthias; Schwinn, Stefanie; Yoo, Young-Eun; Reß, Marie L; Braun, Matthias; Chopra, Martin; Schreiber, Susanne C; Ayala, Victor I; Ohlen, Claes; Eyrich, Matthias; Beilhack, Andreas; Schlegel, Paul G

2013-07-08

346

Spontaneous origin from human embryonic stem cells of liver cells displaying conjoint meso-endodermal phenotype with hepatic functions  

PubMed Central

Understanding the identity of lineage-specific cells arising during manipulations of stem cells is necessary for developing their potential applications. For instance, replacement of crucial functions in organ failure by transplantation of suitable stem-cell-derived cells will be applicable to numerous disorders, but requires insights into the origin, function and fate of specific cell populations. We studied mechanisms by which the identity of differentiated cells arising from stem cells could be verified in the context of natural liver-specific stem cells and whether such differentiated cells could be effective for supporting the liver following cell therapy in a mouse model of drug-induced acute liver failure. By comparing the identity of naturally occurring fetal human liver stem cells, we found that cells arising in cultures of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) recapitulated an early fetal stage of liver cells, which was characterized by conjoint meso-endoderm properties. Despite this fetal stage, hESC-derived cells could provide liver support with appropriate metabolic and ammonia-fixation functions, as well as cytoprotection, such that mice were rescued from acute liver failure. Therefore, spontaneous or induced differentiation of human embryonic stem cells along the hepatic endoderm will require transition through fetal-like stages. This offers opportunities to prospectively identify whether suitable cells have been generated through manipulation of stem cells for cell therapy and other applications.

Bandi, Sriram; Cheng, Kang; Joseph, Brigid; Gupta, Sanjeev

2012-01-01

347

Molecular Origins for the Dominant Negative Function of Human Glucocorticoid Receptor Beta  

PubMed Central

This study molecularly elucidates the basis for the dominant negative mechanism of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform hGR?, whose overexpression is associated with human glucocorticoid resistance. Using a series of truncated hGR? mutants and sequential mutagenesis to generate a series of hGR?/? hybrids, we find that the absence of helix 12 is neither necessary nor sufficient for the GR dominant negative phenotype. Moreover, we have localized the dominant negative activity of hGR? to two residues and found that nuclear localization, in addition to heterodimerization, is a critical feature of the dominant negative activity. Molecular modeling of wild-type and mutant hGR? and hGR? provides structural insight and a potential physical explanation for the lack of hormone binding and the dominant negative actions of hGR?.

Yudt, Matthew R.; Jewell, Christine M.; Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Cidlowski, John A.

2003-01-01

348

The Multiscale Origins of Fracture Resistance in Human Bone and Its Biological Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone's strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation, and disease. Indeed, aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to initiation and growth of cracks.

Zimmermann, E. A.; Barth, H. D.; Ritchie, R. O.

2012-04-01

349

On the multiscale origins of fracture resistance in human bone and its biological degradation  

SciTech Connect

Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length-scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone?s strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length-scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation and disease. Indeed aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length-scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to the initiation and growth of cracks.

Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Barth, Holly D.; Ritchie, Robert O.

2012-03-09

350

Origins of power-law degree distribution in the heterogeneity of human activity in social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probability distribution of number of ties of an individual in a social network follows a scale-free power-law. However, how this distribution arises has not been conclusively demonstrated in direct analyses of people's actions in social networks. Here, we perform a causal inference analysis and find an underlying cause for this phenomenon. Our analysis indicates that heavy-tailed degree distribution is causally determined by similarly skewed distribution of human activity. Specifically, the degree of an individual is entirely random - following a ``maximum entropy attachment'' model - except for its mean value which depends deterministically on the volume of the users' activity. This relation cannot be explained by interactive models, like preferential attachment, since the observed actions are not likely to be caused by interactions with other people.

Muchnik, Lev; Pei, Sen; Parra, Lucas C.; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Andrade, José S., Jr.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

2013-05-01

351

Origin, diversity, and maturation of human antiviral antibodies analyzed by high-throughput sequencing.  

PubMed

Our understanding of how antibodies are generated and function could help develop effective vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against viruses such as HIV-1, SARS coronavirus (SARS CoV), and Hendra and Nipah viruses (henipaviruses). Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against the HIV-1 were observed in patients, elicitation of such bnAbs remains a major challenge when compared to other viral targets. We previously hypothesized that HIV-1 could have evolved a strategy to evade the immune system due to absent or very weak binding of germline antibodies to the conserved epitopes that may not be sufficient to initiate and/or maintain an effective immune response. To further explore our hypothesis, we used the 454 sequence analysis of a large naïve library of human IgM antibodies which had been used for selecting antibodies against SARS CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD), and soluble G proteins (sG) of henipaviruses. We found that the human IgM repertoires from the 454 sequencing have diverse germline usages, recombination patterns, junction diversity, and a lower extent of somatic mutation. In this study, we identified antibody maturation intermediates that are related to bnAbs against the HIV-1 and other viruses as observed in normal individuals, and compared their genetic diversity and somatic mutation level along with available structural and functional data. Further computational analysis will provide framework for understanding the underlying genetic and molecular determinants related to maturation pathways of antiviral bnAbs that could be useful for applying novel approaches to the design of effective vaccine immunogens and antibody-based therapeutics. PMID:22876240

Prabakaran, Ponraj; Zhu, Zhongyu; Chen, Weizao; Gong, Rui; Feng, Yang; Streaker, Emily; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

2012-08-02

352

Origin, diversity, and maturation of human antiviral antibodies analyzed by high-throughput sequencing  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of how antibodies are generated and function could help develop effective vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against viruses such as HIV-1, SARS coronavirus (SARS CoV), and Hendra and Nipah viruses (henipaviruses). Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against the HIV-1 were observed in patients, elicitation of such bnAbs remains a major challenge when compared to other viral targets. We previously hypothesized that HIV-1 could have evolved a strategy to evade the immune system due to absent or very weak binding of germline antibodies to the conserved epitopes that may not be sufficient to initiate and/or maintain an effective immune response. To further explore our hypothesis, we used the 454 sequence analysis of a large naïve library of human IgM antibodies which had been used for selecting antibodies against SARS CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD), and soluble G proteins (sG) of henipaviruses. We found that the human IgM repertoires from the 454 sequencing have diverse germline usages, recombination patterns, junction diversity, and a lower extent of somatic mutation. In this study, we identified antibody maturation intermediates that are related to bnAbs against the HIV-1 and other viruses as observed in normal individuals, and compared their genetic diversity and somatic mutation level along with available structural and functional data. Further computational analysis will provide framework for understanding the underlying genetic and molecular determinants related to maturation pathways of antiviral bnAbs that could be useful for applying novel approaches to the design of effective vaccine immunogens and antibody-based therapeutics.

Prabakaran, Ponraj; Zhu, Zhongyu; Chen, Weizao; Gong, Rui; Feng, Yang; Streaker, Emily; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

2012-01-01

353

Lipoprotein Particles of Intraocular Origin in Human Bruch Membrane: An Unusual Lipid Profile  

PubMed Central

Purpose Throughout adulthood, Bruch membrane (BrM) accumulates esterified cholesterol (EC) associated with abundant 60- to 80-nm-diameter lipoprotein-like particles (LLP), putative apolipoprotein B (apoB) lipoproteins secreted by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In the present study, neutral lipid, phospholipids, and retinoid components of human BrM-LLP were assayed. Methods Particles isolated from paired choroids of human donors were subjected to comprehensive lipid profiling (preparative liquid chromatography [LC] gas chromatography [GC]), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Western blot analysis, and negative stain electron microscopy. Results were compared to plasma lipoproteins isolated from normolipemic volunteers and to conditioned medium from RPE-J cells supplemented with palmitate to induce particle synthesis and secretion. Results EC was the largest component (32.4 ± 7.9 mol%) of BrM-LLP lipids. EC was 11.3-fold more abundant than triglyceride (TG), unlike large apoB lipoproteins in plasma. Of the fatty acids (FA) esterified to cholesterol, linoleate (18:2n6) was the most abundant (41.7 ± 4.7 mol%). Retinyl ester (RE) was detectable at picomolar levels in BrM-LLP. Notably scarce in any BrM-LLP lipid class was the photoreceptor-abundant FA docosahexaenoate (DHA, 22:6n3). RPE-J cells synthesized apoB and numerous EC-rich spherical particles. Conclusions BrM-LLP composition resembles plasma LDL more than it does photoreceptors. An EC-rich core is possible for newly synthesized lipoproteins as well as those processed in plasma. Abundant EC could contribute to a transport barrier in aging and lesion formation in age-related maculopathy (ARM). Analysis of BrM-LLP composition has revealed new aspects of retinal cholesterol and retinoid homeostasis.

Wang, Lan; Li, Chuan-Ming; Rudolf, Martin; Belyaeva, Olga V.; Chung, Byung Hong; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.; Curcio, Christine A.

2009-01-01

354

Origin of sound-evoked EMG responses in human masseter muscles.  

PubMed

Sound is a natural stimulus for both cochlear and saccular receptors. At high intensities it evokes in active masseter muscles of healthy subjects two overlapping reflexes: p11/n15 and p16/n21 waves, whose origin has not yet been demonstrated. Our purpose was to test which receptor in the inner ear is responsible for these reflexes. We compared masseter EMG responses induced in normal subjects (n = 9) by loud clicks (70-100 dB normal hearing level (NHL), 0.1 ms, 3 Hz) to those evoked in subjects with a selective lesion of the cochlea (n = 5), of the vestibule (n = 1) or with mixed cochlear-vestibular failure (n = 5). In controls, 100 dB clicks induced bilaterally, in the unrectified mean EMG (unrEMG), a clear p11 wave followed by a less clear n15 wave and a subsequent n21 wave. Lowering the intensity to 70 dB clicks abolished the p11/n15 wave, while a p16 wave appeared. Rectified mean EMG (rectEMG) showed, at all intensities, an inhibitory deflection corresponding to the p16/n21 wave in the unrEMG. Compared to controls, all deaf subjects had a normal p11 wave, together with more prominent n15 wave; however, the p16/n21 waves, and their corresponding inhibition in the rectEMG, were absent. The vestibular patient had bilaterally clear p11 waves only when 100 dB clicks were delivered bilaterally or to the unaffected ear. Stimulation of the affected ear induced only p16/n21 waves. Data from mixed patients were consistent with those of deaf and vestibular patients. We conclude that click-induced masseter p11/n15 waves are vestibular dependent, while p16/n21 waves depend on cochlear integrity. PMID:17234698

Deriu, Franca; Ortu, Enzo; Capobianco, Saverio; Giaconi, Elena; Melis, Francesco; Aiello, Elena; Rothwell, John C; Tolu, Eusebio

2007-01-18

355

On the Origins of Signal Variance in FMRI of the Human Midbrain at High Field  

PubMed Central

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in the midbrain at 7 Tesla suffers from unexpectedly low temporal signal to noise ratio (TSNR) compared to other brain regions. Various methodologies were used in this study to quantitatively identify causes of the noise and signal differences in midbrain fMRI data. The influence of physiological noise sources was examined using RETROICOR, phase regression analysis, and power spectral analyses of contributions in the respiratory and cardiac frequency ranges. The impact of between-shot phase shifts in 3-D multi-shot sequences was tested using a one-dimensional (1-D) phase navigator approach. Additionally, the effects of shared noise influences between regions that were temporally, but not functionally, correlated with the midbrain (adjacent white matter and anterior cerebellum) were investigated via analyses with regressors of ‘no interest’. These attempts to reduce noise did not improve the overall TSNR in the midbrain. In addition, the steady state signal and noise were measured in the midbrain and the visual cortex for resting state data. We observed comparable steady state signals from both the midbrain and the cortex. However, the noise was 2–3 times higher in the midbrain relative to the cortex, confirming that the low TSNR in the midbrain was not due to low signal but rather a result of large signal variance. These temporal variations did not behave as known physiological or other noise sources, and were not mitigated by conventional strategies. Upon further investigation, resting state functional connectivity analysis in the midbrain showed strong intrinsic fluctuations between homologous midbrain regions. These data suggest that the low TSNR in the midbrain may originate from larger signal fluctuations arising from functional connectivity compared to cortex, rather than simply reflecting physiological noise.

Barry, Robert L.; Coaster, Mariam; Rogers, Baxter P.; Newton, Allen T.; Moore, Jay; Anderson, Adam W.; Zald, David H.; Gore, John C.

2013-01-01

356

Studies of the properties of human origin recognition complex and its Walker A motif mutants.  

PubMed

The eukaryotic six-subunit origin recognition complex (ORC) governs the initiation site of DNA replication and formation of the prereplication complex. In this report we describe the isolation of the wild-type Homo sapiens (Hs)ORC and variants containing a Walker A motif mutation in the Orc1, Orc4, or Orc5 subunit using the baculovirus-expression system. Coexpression of all six HsORC subunits yielded a stable complex containing HsOrc subunits 1-5 (HsORC1-5) with virtually no Orc6 protein (Orc6p). We examined the ATPase, DNA-binding, and replication activities of these complexes. Similar to other eukaryotic ORCs, wild-type HsORC1-5 possesses ATPase activity that is stimulated only 2-fold by single-stranded DNA. HsORC1-5 with a mutated Walker A motif in Orc1p contains no ATPase activity, whereas a similar mutation of either the Orc4 or Orc5 subunit did not affect this activity. The DNA-binding activity of HsORC1-5, using lamin B2 DNA as substrate, is stimulated by ATP 3- to 5-fold. Mutations in the Walker A motif of Orc1p, Orc4p, or Orc5p reduced the binding efficiency of HsORC1-5 modestly (2- to 5-fold). Xenopus laevis ORC-depleted extracts supplemented with HsORC1-5 supported prereplication complex formation and X. laevis sperm DNA replication, whereas the complex with a mutation in the Walker A motif of the Orc1, Orc4, or Orc5 subunit did not. These studies indicate that the ATP-binding motifs of Orc1, Orc4, and Orc5 are all essential for the replication activity associated with HsORC. PMID:15618391

Giordano-Coltart, Jennifer; Ying, Carol Y; Gautier, Jean; Hurwitz, Jerard

2004-12-23

357

Mouse and human homologues of the yeast origin of replication recognition complex subunit ORC2 and chromosomal localization of the cognate human gene ORC2L  

SciTech Connect

ORC2 is a subunit of the origin recognition complex in yeast and has been implicated in the initiation of DNA replication and transcriptional silencing. We have isolated mouse and human cDNA clones encoding proteins with 47.9 and 46.3% similarity, respectively, to yeast ORC2. This degree of similarity and the alignment of sequences suggest that these clones may represent a mammalian ORC2 homologue. The existence of such a homologue would, in turn, suggest the existence of a mammalian origin recognition complex, similar to that found in yeast. Although Northern blot analysis of various adult mouse tissues found the highest levels of expression of ORC2-like (ORC2L) RNA in testes, strong signals did not always correspond to tissues in which high levels of DNA replication would be expected. This finding may reflect functional roles of ORC2L distinct from those that it may play in DNA replication. Analyses of somatic cell hybrid DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization were employed to map the human ORC2L gene to chromosome 2q33. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Takahara, Kazuhiko; Bong, M.; Brevard, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

1996-01-01

358

Characterisation of Nuclear Architectural Alterations during In Vitro Differentiation of Human Stem Cells of Myogenic Origin.  

PubMed

Cell differentiation is based on a synchronised orchestra of complex pathways of intrinsic and extrinsic signals that manifest in the induced expression of specific transcription factors and pivotal genes within the nucleus. One cannot ignore the epigenetic status of differentiating cells, comprising not only histones and DNA modifications but also the spatial and temporal intranuclear chromatin organisation, which is an important regulator of nuclear processes. In the present study, we investigated the nuclear architecture of human primary myoblasts and myocytes in an in vitro culture, with reference to global changes in genomic expression. Repositioning of the chromosomal centromeres, along with alterations in the nuclear shape and volume, was observed as a consequence of myotube formation. Moreover, the microarray data showed that during in vitro myogenesis cells tend to silence rather than induce gene expression. The creation of a chromosome map marked with gene expression changes that were at least 2-fold confirmed the observation. Additionally, almost all of the chromosomal centromeres in the differentiated cells preferentially localised near the nuclear periphery when compared to the undifferentiated cells. The exceptions were chromosomes 7 and 11, in which we were unable to confirm the centromere repositioning. In our opinion, this is the first reported observation of the movement of chromosomal centromeres along differentiating myogenic cells. Based on these data we can conclude that the myogenic differentiation with global gene expression changes is accompanied by the spatial repositioning of chromosomes and chromatin remodelling, which are important processes that regulate cell differentiation. PMID:24019912

Rozwadowska, Natalia; Kolanowski, Tomasz; Wiland, Ewa; Siatkowski, Marcin; Pawlak, Piotr; Malcher, Agnieszka; Mietkiewski, Tomasz; Olszewska, Marta; Kurpisz, Maciej

2013-09-03

359

The human milk microbiota: origin and potential roles in health and disease.  

PubMed

Human milk has been traditionally considered sterile; however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal, mutualistic and/or potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Culture-dependent and -independent techniques have revealed the dominance of staphylococci, streptococci, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in this biological fluid, and their role on the colonization of the infant gut. These bacteria could protect the infant against infections and contribute to the maturation of the immune system, among other functions. Different studies suggest that some bacteria present in the maternal gut could reach the mammary gland during late pregnancy and lactation through a mechanism involving gut monocytes. Thus, modulation of maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy and lactation could have a direct effect on infant health. On the other hand, mammary dysbiosis may lead to mastitis, a condition that represents the first medical cause for undesired weaning. Selected strains isolated from breast milk can be good candidates for use as probiotics. In this review, their potential uses for the treatment of mastitis and to inhibit mother-to-infant transfer of HIV are discussed. PMID:22974824

Fernández, Leónides; Langa, Susana; Martín, Virginia; Maldonado, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Martín, Rocío; Rodríguez, Juan M

2012-09-10

360

A Novel Human-Infection-Derived Bacterium Provides Insights into the Evolutionary Origins of Mutualistic Insect-Bacterial Symbioses  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive study, little is known about the origins of the mutualistic bacterial endosymbionts that inhabit approximately 10% of the world's insects. In this study, we characterized a novel opportunistic human pathogen, designated “strain HS,” and found that it is a close relative of the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius. Our results indicate that ancestral relatives of strain HS have served as progenitors for the independent descent of Sodalis-allied endosymbionts found in several insect hosts. Comparative analyses indicate that the gene inventories of the insect endosymbionts were independently derived from a common ancestral template through a combination of irreversible degenerative changes. Our results provide compelling support for the notion that mutualists evolve from pathogenic progenitors. They also elucidate the role of degenerative evolutionary processes in shaping the gene inventories of symbiotic bacteria at a very early stage in these mutualistic associations.

Clayton, Adam L.; Oakeson, Kelly F.; Gutin, Maria; Pontes, Arthur; Dunn, Diane M.; von Niederhausern, Andrew C.; Weiss, Robert B.; Fisher, Mark; Dale, Colin

2012-01-01

361

Relationships between hair growth rate and morphological parameters of human straight hair: a same law above ethnical origins?  

PubMed

After measurement of individual growth rates, natural hair fibres from Asian and Caucasian subjects were analysed using scanning electron microscopy. In total, more than 1000 hairs were analysed. Measurements of diameter, medulla and interscale distance (average distance between two successive cuticle scales) show these parameters strongly correlated with hair growth rate. A thicker hair fibre corresponds to a faster growth rate, a shorter interscale distance and greater probability to have a medulla, and vice versa, a thin hair fibre shows slower growth rate, a larger interscale distance and a lower probability to have a medulla. Very interestingly, this finding appears to be unrelated to the ethnic origin of the subjects, suggesting a common characteristic of human hair, at least for the straight or semi-straight hair studied. From a practical viewpoint, this finding clearly suggests an alternative method for measuring hair growth rates, by measuring the interscale distance, which appears easier than using common laboratory equipments. PMID:21951315

Baque, C Saint Olive; Zhou, J; Gu, W; Collaudin, C; Kravtchenko, S; Kempf, J Y; Saint-Léger, D

2011-10-21

362

Single-Reaction Genomic Amplification Accelerates Sequencing and Vaccine Production for Classical and Swine Origin Human Influenza A Viruses ?  

PubMed Central

Pandemic influenza A viruses that emerge from animal reservoirs are inevitable. Therefore, rapid genomic analysis and creation of vaccines are vital. We developed a multisegment reverse transcription-PCR (M-RTPCR) approach that simultaneously amplifies eight genomic RNA segments, irrespective of virus subtype. M-RTPCR amplicons can be used for high-throughput sequencing and/or cloned into modified reverse-genetics plasmids via regions of sequence identity. We used these procedures to rescue a contemporary H3N2 virus and a swine origin H1N1 virus directly from human swab specimens. Together, M-RTPCR and the modified reverse-genetics plasmids that we designed streamline the creation of vaccine seed stocks (9 to 12 days).

Zhou, Bin; Donnelly, Matthew E.; Scholes, Derek T.; St. George, Kirsten; Hatta, Masato; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Wentworth, David E.

2009-01-01

363

Transcriptional activation of the human papillomavirus type 5 and 16 long control region in cells from cutaneous and mucosal origin  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) infects mucosal epithelium and is the most common type found in cervical cancer. HPV-5 infects cornified epithelium and is the most common type found on normal skin and belongs to the types frequently associated with skin cancers of Epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. One factor by which this anatomical tropism could be determined is the regulation of HPV gene expression in the host cell. The HPV long control region (LCR) contains cis-responsive elements that regulate HPV transcription and the epithelial tropism of HPV is determined by epithelial specific constitutive enhancers in the LCR. Since HPV-16 and other types infecting the mucosa differ in host cell from HPV types infecting skin, it has been hypothesized that it is the combination of ubiquitous transcription factors working in concert in the host cell that determines the cell-type-specific expression. To study if HPV tropism could be determined by differences in transcriptional regulation we have cloned the transcriptional regulating region, LCR, from HPV-16 and HPV-5 and studied the activation of a reporter gene in cell lines with different origin. To analyse promoter activity we transfected the plasmids into four different cell lines; HaCaT, C33A, NIKS and W12E and the efficiency of HPV-5 and HPV-16 LCR in the different cell lines was compared. In HaCaT cells, with a skin origin, the HPV-5 LCR was two-fold more efficient in transcriptional activation compared to the HPV-16 LCR. In cervical W12E cells the HPV-16 LCR was almost 2-fold more effective in activating transcription compared to the HPV-5 LCR. The ability to initiate transcription in the other cell lines was independent on cell origin and HPV-type.

Mistry, Nitesh; Simonsson, Monika; Evander, Magnus

2007-01-01

364

Transcriptional activation of the human papillomavirus type 5 and 16 long control region in cells from cutaneous and mucosal origin.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) infects mucosal epithelium and is the most common type found in cervical cancer. HPV-5 infects cornified epithelium and is the most common type found on normal skin and belongs to the types frequently associated with skin cancers of Epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. One factor by which this anatomical tropism could be determined is the regulation of HPV gene expression in the host cell. The HPV long control region (LCR) contains cis-responsive elements that regulate HPV transcription and the epithelial tropism of HPV is determined by epithelial specific constitutive enhancers in the LCR. Since HPV-16 and other types infecting the mucosa differ in host cell from HPV types infecting skin, it has been hypothesized that it is the combination of ubiquitous transcription factors working in concert in the host cell that determines the cell-type-specific expression. To study if HPV tropism could be determined by differences in transcriptional regulation we have cloned the transcriptional regulating region, LCR, from HPV-16 and HPV-5 and studied the activation of a reporter gene in cell lines with different origin. To analyse promoter activity we transfected the plasmids into four different cell lines; HaCaT, C33A, NIKS and W12E and the efficiency of HPV-5 and HPV-16 LCR in the different cell lines was compared. In HaCaT cells, with a skin origin, the HPV-5 LCR was two-fold more efficient in transcriptional activation compared to the HPV-16 LCR. In cervical W12E cells the HPV-16 LCR was almost 2-fold more effective in activating transcription compared to the HPV-5 LCR. The ability to initiate transcription in the other cell lines was independent on cell origin and HPV-type. PMID:17352804

Mistry, Nitesh; Simonsson, Monika; Evander, Magnus

2007-03-12

365

Biosecurity interceptions of an invasive lizard: origin of stowaways and human-assisted spread within New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Globalization, and the resultant movement of animals beyond their native range, creates challenges for biosecurity agencies. Limited records of unintentional introductions inhibit our understanding of the trade pathways, transport vectors and mechanisms through which hitchhiker organisms are spread as stowaways. Here, we adopt a phylogeographic approach to determine the source and human-mediated dispersal pathways of New Zealand's only invasive lizard, the delicate skink (Lampropholis delicata), intercepted by biosecurity agencies in New Zealand. Biosecurity agencies correctly predicted the source region of 77% of stowaways, which were usually solitary adults, arriving via air or sea pathways during the cooler months, evading initial border checks and alive when detected. New arrivals from Australia comprised 16% of detections originating from the region between Brisbane and Sydney. Our analyses indicate human-mediated dispersal has driven the post-border spread of L. delicata within New Zealand. Propagule pressure was substantially greater for L. delicata compared with the noninvasive, congeneric Lampropholis guichenoti. Our results highlight the transport pathways, spread mechanisms, and stowaway characteristics of Lampropholis lizards entering New Zealand, which could enhance current biosecurity protocols and prevent the establishment of additional lizard species.

Chapple, David G; Whitaker, Anthony H; Chapple, Stephanie N J; Miller, Kimberly A; Thompson, Michael B

2013-01-01

366

BROADER UTILIZATION OF ORIGINS OF DNA REPLICATION IN CANCER CELL LINES ALONG A 78 KB REGION OF HUMAN CHROMOSOME 2q34  

PubMed Central

Human DNA replication depends on the activation of thousands of origins distributed within the genome. The actual distribution of origins is not known, nor whether this distribution is unique to a cell type, or if it changes with the proliferative state of the cell. In this study we have employed a real time PCR-based nascent strand DNA abundance assay, to determine the location of origins along a 78 kb region on Ch2q34. Preliminary studies using nascent DNA strands isolated from either HeLa and normal skin fibroblast cells showed that in both cell lines peaks of high origin activity mapped in similar locations. However, the overall origin profile in HeLa cells corresponded to broad origin activation zones, whereas in fibroblasts a more punctuated profile of origin activation was observed. To investigate the relevance of this differential origin profile, we compared the origin distribution profiles in breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, BT-474, and MCF-7, to their normal counterpart MCF-10A. In addition, the CRL7250 cell line was also used as a normal control. Our results validated our earlier observation and showed that the origin profile in normal cell lines exhibited a punctuated pattern, in contrast to broader zone profiles observed in the cancer cell lines. A quantitative analysis of origin peaks revealed that the number of activated origins in cancer cells is statistically larger than that obtained in normal cells, suggesting that the flexibility of origin usage is significantly increased in cancer cells compared to their normal counterparts.

Valenzuela, Manuel S.; Hu, Lan; Lueders, John; Walker, Robert; Meltzer, Paul S.

2011-01-01

367

Miracles, Early Modern Science, and Rational Religion  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Introduction]: Readers of the New Testament could be excused for thinking that there is little consistency in the manner in which miracles are represented in the Gospels. Those events typically identified as miracles are variously described as \\

Peter Harrison

2006-01-01

368

Early Modern Language Learning: Conditions of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language education specialist who has studied elementary school second language programs, primarily in France but also in other European countries, outlines the factors he has found contributing to program success and makes recommendations for further development of second language education in Europe. Seven conditions for effective programs of…

Girard, Denis

369

Globalism and Tolerance in Early Modern Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geography's voice within the debates on cosmopolitan citizenship initiated by Martha Nussbaum's 1994 restatement of Stoic cosmopolitanism has been strangely muted, especially given the significance of spatiality and cultural specificity within recent geographical theory. David Harvey's (2000) contribution is an exception, but while his argument that geographical education should be propaedeutic to cosmopolitanism is politically powerful and timely, his presentation

Denis Cosgrove

2003-01-01

370

Of Enlightenment and Alaska Early Moderns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines transformations of status-capital in the modern history of the Alaska Native Alutiiq. I redevelop Pierre Bourdieu's forms of capital and habitus to analyze how Alutiiq elites stay on course during massive changes in their social structure. By drawing attention to citizenship statuses of the nineteenth century Russian and American colonial periods, I explore how local structural inequalities

Arthur Mason

2010-01-01

371

Testing the Hypothesis of Fire Use for Ecosystem Management by Neanderthal and Upper Palaeolithic Modern Human Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt has been proposed that a greater control and more extensive use of fire was one of the behavioral innovations that emerged in Africa among early Modern Humans, favouring their spread throughout the world and determining their eventual evolutionary success. We would expect, if extensive fire use for ecosystem management were a component of the modern human technical and cognitive

Anne-Laure Daniau; Francesco D'Errico; Maria Fernanda Sánchez Goñi; James Holland Jones

2010-01-01

372

Identification of the origin of adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers within the superior hypogastric plexus of the human fetus.  

PubMed

Nerve fibers contributing to the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) and the hypogastric nerves (HN) are currently considered to comprise an adrenergic part of the autonomic nervous system located between vertebrae (T1 and L2), with cholinergic aspects originating from the second to fourth sacral spinal segments (S2, S3 and S4). The aim of this study was to identify the origin and the nature of the nerve fibers within the SHP and the HN, especially the cholinergic fibers, using computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). Serial histological sections were performed at the level of the lumbar spine and pelvis in five human fetuses between 14 and 30 weeks of gestation. Sections were treated with histological staining [hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome (TriM)] and with immunohistochemical methods to detect nerve fibers (anti-S100), adrenergic fibers (anti-TH), cholinergic fibers (anti-VAChT) and nitrergic fibers (anti-nNOS). The sections were then digitalized using a high-resolution scanner and the 3D images were reconstructed using winsurf software. These experiments revealed the coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic fibers within the SHP and the HNs. One-third of these cholinergic fibers were nitrergic fibers [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (+)] and potentially pro-erectile, while the others were non-nitrergic [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (-)]. We found these cholinergic fibers arose from the lumbar nerve roots. This study described the nature of the SHP nerve fibers which gives a better understanding of the urinary and sexual dysfunctions after surgical injuries. PMID:23668336

Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Diallo, Djibril; Benoit, Gérard; Bessede, Thomas

2013-05-14

373

Diagnosis and origin determination of malignant pleural effusions through the use of the breast cancer marker human mammaglobin.  

PubMed

As was reported that human mammaglobin (hMAM) may be expressed in malignant pleural effusions (PEs), we investigated the relevance of hMAM reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for their diagnosis and determination of primary origin. Two hundred and twenty-eight malignant (132 male, 96 female) and 185 benign (132 male, 53 female) PEs were investigated. Statistical analyses evaluated the diagnostic performance parameters in all PEs and in cytologically negative malignant PEs, the association between hMAM and benign or malignant status by the direct index of correlation [diagnostic odds ratio (DOR)], chi test, and P value (P). In addition, the discriminative diagnostic power of hMAM expression, independently in breast cancer, lung cancer (LC), malignant mesothelioma (MM), and other cancers was evaluated. In the entire patient population, hMAM was detected in 45.6% and 5.4% of malignant and benign PEs, respectively, in the male group in 41.7% and 4.5% and in the female group in 51.0% and 7.5% of malignant and benign PEs, respectively. A statistically significant correlation between hMAM and malignancy was found in the entire population (DOR=14.68, P<0.001) and in the male (DOR=15.00, P<0.001) or female (DOR=12.77, P<0.001) groups. hMAM RT-PCR increased the diagnostic rate of malignant PEs as it allowed us to detect as malignant 32.1% of cytologically negative PEs. In female patients the positivity of hMAM indicated with higher probability (50.8%) the origin of PEs from breast cancer but lower probability from LC (17%), MM (9.4%), or other cancers (15.1%), whereas in male patients it indicated with similar probability (about 40%) the origin from LC or MM. Our results suggest that hMAM RT-PCR may provide information both in the diagnosis of PE and in the search for the primary site of neoplasia, either in male or female patients. PMID:20502186

Roncella, Silvio; Ferro, Paola; Franceschini, Maria Cristiana; Bacigalupo, Bartolomeo; Dessanti, Paolo; Sivori, Massimiliano; Carletti, Anna Maria; Fontana, Vincenzo; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Fedeli, Franco

2010-06-01

374

Transferable class 1 and 2 integrons in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates of human and animal origin in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli (n?=?191) and Salmonella enterica (n?=?87) isolates of human and animal origin obtained in Lithuania during 2005-2008 were characterized for the presence and diversity of class 1 and 2 integrons. E. coli isolates were obtained from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) (n?=?59) and both healthy and diseased farm animals, including poultry (n?=?54), swine (n?=?35), and cattle (n?=?43). Isolates of non-typhoidal S. enterica were recovered from salmonellosis patients (n?=?37) and healthy animals, including poultry (n?=?31) and swine (n?=?19). The presence of integrons, their gene cassette structure, and genome location were investigated by polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment-length polymorphism, DNA sequencing, Southern blot hybridization, and conjugation experiments. Forty percent of the E. coli and 11% of the S. enterica isolates carried class 1 integrons, whereas class 2 integrons were found in E. coli isolates (9%) only. The incidence of integrons in human UTIs and cattle isolates was most frequent (p?human infections and for one or more groups of animal isolates. The most prevalent integron types contained arrays dfrA1-aadA1 (36%), dfrA17-aadA5 (23%), and dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 (78%). Two E. coli isolates from humans with UTIs harbored class 1 integron on conjugative plasmid with the novel array type of 4800 bp/dfrA17-aadA5?-IS26-?intI1-aadB-aadA1-cmlA residing on the Tn21-like transposon. Three S. enterica isolates from swine contained class 1 integron with the newly observed array type of 1800 bp/aadA7-aadA7. Integrons of 10 different types of both classes were located on transferable plasmids in E. coli and S. enterica. Our study demonstrated the existence of a considerable and common pool of transferable integrons in E. coli and S. enterica present in clinical and livestock environment in Lithuania. PMID:20578916

Povilonis, Justas; Šeputien?, Vaida; Ružauskas, Modestas; Šiugždinien?, Rita; Virgailis, Marius; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Sužied?lien?, Edita

2010-10-01

375

"The city of Hepar": Rituals, gastronomy, and politics at the origins of the modern names for the liver  

PubMed Central

Summary Medical etymology sometimes provides unexpected information about health concepts and medical practice in different times and cultures. We conducted an etymological analysis of the terms used to indicate “liver” in Germanic and Romance languages. The Greek word “hèpar” was originally connected to the concept of “pleasure”, showing that in antiquity the liver was considered to be the seat of soul and human feelings. In Romance languages, the Latin term “ficatum” was linked to the ancient practice of fattening geese with figs (ficus in Latin) to make their livers more delicious. This relationship between the liver, fat, and carbohydrates seems to indicate that ancient gourmets had clear knowledge of the nutritional mechanisms underlying “fatty liver” in animals. On the other hand, the Germanic term “lifere” was initially connected to “life”, underscoring the relation of the liver to health and existence. In the Early Modern Age, the liver became a recurring image in political reflection, especially within the Elizabethan tradition of the body politic, where the king was frequently described as the “liver” of his country. Finally, the liver was used to indicate courage, or the lack of it: some modern French and English idiomatic expressions derive from the ancient belief that people who had no blood in their liver (“lily-livered”) would thus be cowards or betrayers.

Riva, Michele Augusto; Riva, Enrica; Spicci, Mauro; Strazzabosco, Mario; Giovannini, Marcello; Cesana, Giancarlo

2013-01-01

376

The origin, evolution, and functional impact of short insertion-deletion variants identified in 179 human genomes  

PubMed Central

Short insertions and deletions (indels) are the second most abundant form of human genetic variation, but our understanding of their origins and functional effects lags behind that of other types of variants. Using population-scale sequencing, we have identified a high-quality set of 1.6 million indels from 179 individuals representing three diverse human populations. We show that rates of indel mutagenesis are highly heterogeneous, with 43%–48% of indels occurring in 4.03% of the genome, whereas in the remaining 96% their prevalence is 16 times lower than SNPs. Polymerase slippage can explain upwards of three-fourths of all indels, with the remainder being mostly simple deletions in complex sequence. However, insertions do occur and are significantly associated with pseudo-palindromic sequence features compatible with the fork stalling and template switching (FoSTeS) mechanism more commonly associated with large structural variations. We introduce a quantitative model of polymerase slippage, which enables us to identify indel-hypermutagenic protein-coding genes, some of which are associated with recurrent mutations leading to disease. Accounting for mutational rate heterogeneity due to sequence context, we find that indels across functional sequence are generally subject to stronger purifying selection than SNPs. We find that indel length modulates selection strength, and that indels affecting multiple functionally constrained nucleotides undergo stronger purifying selection. We further find that indels are enriched in associations with gene expression and find evidence for a contribution of nonsense-mediated decay. Finally, we show that indels can be integrated in existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS); although we do not find direct evidence that potentially causal protein-coding indels are enriched with associations to known disease-associated SNPs, our findings suggest that the causal variant underlying some of these associations may be indels.

Montgomery, Stephen B.; Goode, David L.; Kvikstad, Erika; Albers, Cornelis A.; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Ananda, Guruprasad; Howie, Bryan; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Smith, Kevin S.; Anaya, Vanessa; Richardson, Rhea; Davis, Joe; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Sidow, Arend; Duret, Laurent; Gerstein, Mark; Makova, Kateryna D.; Marchini, Jonathan; McVean, Gil; Lunter, Gerton

2013-01-01

377

Association of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Hemolysin with Serotypes of Shiga-Like-Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli of Human and Bovine Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated whether the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) hemolysin gene ehxA could be used as an indicator of pathogenicity in Shiga-like-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (SLTEC) isolates. The isolates in a collection of 770 SLTEC strains of human and bovine origins were assigned to group 1 (230 human and 138 bovine SLTEC isolates belonging to serotypes frequently implicated in

CARLTON GYLES; ROGER JOHNSON; ANLI GAO; KIM ZIEBELL; DENIS PIERARD; STOJANKA ALEKSIC; PATRICK BOERLIN

1998-01-01

378

Religion: Origins and Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present the purpose of study of the origins and development of affect-relevant and religion-relevant hypotheses, and conjectured prediction of proto-religious sequences in pre-human anthropoids and primitive human cultures. We anticipate more comprehensive study of modern cultural outcomes of these origins and developments.|

Meyer, John K.

2004-01-01

379

Expression of Neuroendocrine Cell Markers L-Dopa Decarboxylase, Chromogranin A, and Dense Core Granules in Human Tumors of Endocrine and Nonendocrine Origin1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the usefulness of L-dopa decarboxylase (DIX) as a tumor marker of neuroendocrine (NE) cell differentiation by measuring its expression in 432 human tumors of diverse types and origins. A subset of these tumors and cell lines derived from them also were studied for expression of two other general NE cell markers, chromogranin A (CgA) and dense core granules

Adi F. Gazdar; Lee J. Helman; Mark A. Israel; Edward K. Russell; R. Ilona Linnoila; James L. Mulshine; Hildegard M. Schuller; Jae-Gahb Park

1988-01-01

380

Organization of the Antiseptic Resistance Gene qacA and Tn552Related  Lactamase Genes in Multidrug- Resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus Strains of Animal and Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A part (12 kb) of a plasmid containing the -lactamase genes of Tn552, the disinfectant resistance gene qacA, and flanking DNA has been cloned from a Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolate and sequenced. This region was used to map the corresponding regions in six other multiresistant S. haemolyticus isolates of human and animal origin. The organizations of the genetic structures were almost

I.-L. Anthonisen; M. Sunde; T. M. Steinum; M. S. Sidhu; H. Sorum

2002-01-01

381

A Set of Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine-Origin Pandemic H1N1 Differentiate Swine H1N1 and Human Seasonal H1N1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) emerged in North America and caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The new pandemic strain is a triple reassortant influenza virus of swine origin containing genes from avian, swine and human influenza viruses. It is genetically ...

382

Origin of d- and l-pipecolic acid in human physiological fluids: a study of the catabolic mechanism to pipecolic acid using the lysine loading test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipecolic acid, a metabolite of lysine, is found in human physiological fluids. It is known that plasma pipecolic acid levels are elevated in patients with Zellweger syndrome, a genetic disorder, and chronic liver diseases. However, it is uncertain if this acid originates directly from food intake or from mammalian or intestinal bacterial enzyme metabolism. To characterize the relationship between plasma

Toru Fujita; Toshikazu Hada; Kazuya Higashino

1999-01-01

383

Efficacy of a human anthrax vaccine in guinea pigs, rabbits, and rhesus macaques against challenge by Bacillus anthracis isolates of diverse geographical origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of a licensed human anthrax vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA)) was tested in guinea pigs, rabbits, and rhesus macaques against spore challenge by Bacillus anthracis isolates of diverse geographical origin. Initially, groups of Hartley guinea pigs were vaccinated at 0 and 4 weeks with AVA, then challenged intramuscularly at 10 weeks with spores from 33 isolates of B.

P. F. Fellows; M. K. Linscott; B. E. Ivins; M. L. M. Pitt; C. A. Rossi; P. H. Gibbs; A. M. Friedlander

2001-01-01

384

Genome-wide mapping of human DNA-replication origins: levels of transcription at ORC1 sites regulate origin selection and replication timing.  

PubMed

We report the genome-wide mapping of ORC1 binding sites in mammals, by chromatin immunoprecipitation and parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). ORC1 binding sites in HeLa cells were validated as active DNA replication origins (ORIs) using Repli-seq, a method that allows identification of ORI-containing regions by parallel sequencing of temporally ordered replicating DNA. ORC1 sites were universally associated with transcription start sites (TSSs) of coding or noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Transcription levels at the ORC1 sites directly correlated with replication timing, suggesting the existence of two classes of ORIs: those associated with moderate/high transcription levels (?1 RNA copy/cell), firing in early S and mapping to the TSSs of coding RNAs; and those associated with low transcription levels (<1 RNA copy/cell), firing throughout the entire S and mapping to TSSs of ncRNAs. These findings are compatible with a scenario whereby TSS expression levels influence the efficiency of ORC1 recruitment at G(1) and the probability of firing during S. PMID:23187890

Dellino, Gaetano Ivan; Cittaro, Davide; Piccioni, Rossana; Luzi, Lucilla; Banfi, Stefania; Segalla, Simona; Cesaroni, Matteo; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Giacca, Mauro; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

2012-11-27

385

Genome-wide mapping of human DNA-replication origins: Levels of transcription at ORC1 sites regulate origin selection and replication timing  

PubMed Central

We report the genome-wide mapping of ORC1 binding sites in mammals, by chromatin immunoprecipitation and parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). ORC1 binding sites in HeLa cells were validated as active DNA replication origins (ORIs) using Repli-seq, a method that allows identification of ORI-containing regions by parallel sequencing of temporally ordered replicating DNA. ORC1 sites were universally associated with transcription start sites (TSSs) of coding or noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Transcription levels at the ORC1 sites directly correlated with replication timing, suggesting the existence of two classes of ORIs: those associated with moderate/high transcription levels (?1 RNA copy/cell), firing in early S and mapping to the TSSs of coding RNAs; and those associated with low transcription levels (<1 RNA copy/cell), firing throughout the entire S and mapping to TSSs of ncRNAs. These findings are compatible with a scenario whereby TSS expression levels influence the efficiency of ORC1 recruitment at G1 and the probability of firing during S.

Dellino, Gaetano Ivan; Cittaro, Davide; Piccioni, Rossana; Luzi, Lucilla; Banfi, Stefania; Segalla, Simona; Cesaroni, Matteo; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Giacca, Mauro; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

2013-01-01

386

Preferential Localization of Human Origins of DNA Replication at the 5?-Ends of Expressed Genes and at Evolutionarily Conserved DNA Sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Replication of mammalian genomes requires the activation of thousands of origins which are both spatially and temporally regulated by as yet unknown mechanisms. At the most fundamental level, our knowledge about the distribution pattern of origins in each of the chromosomes, among different cell types, and whether the physiological state of the cells alters this distribution is at present very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We have used standard ?-exonuclease resistant nascent DNA preparations in the size range of 0.7–1.5 kb obtained from the breast cancer cell line MCF–7 hybridized to a custom tiling array containing 50–60 nt probes evenly distributed among genic and non-genic regions covering about 1% of the human genome. A similar DNA preparation was used for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Array experiments were also performed with DNA obtained from BT-474 and H520 cell lines. By determining the sites showing nascent DNA enrichment, we have localized several thousand origins of DNA replication. Our major findings are: (a) both array and DNA sequencing assay methods produced essentially the same origin distribution profile; (b) origin distribution is largely conserved (>70%) in all cell lines tested; (c) origins are enriched at the 5?ends of expressed genes and at evolutionarily conserved intergenic sequences; and (d) ChIP on chip experiments in MCF-7 showed an enrichment of H3K4Me3 and RNA Polymerase II chromatin binding sites at origins of DNA replication. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the program for origin activation is largely conserved among different cell types. Also, our work supports recent studies connecting transcription initiation with replication, and in addition suggests that evolutionarily conserved intergenic sequences have the potential to participate in origin selection. Overall, our observations suggest that replication origin selection is a stochastic process significantly dependent upon local accessibility to replication factors.

Davis, Sean; Yang, Fan; Walker, Robert L.; Bilke, Sven; Lueders, John; Martin, Melvenia M.; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Massion, Pierre P.; Meltzer, Paul S.

2011-01-01

387

Genomic Study of Replication Initiation in Human Chromosomes Reveals the Influence of Transcription Regulation and Chromatin Structure on Origin Selection  

PubMed Central

DNA replication in metazoans initiates from multiple chromosomal loci called origins. Currently, there are two methods to purify origin-centered nascent strands: lambda exonuclease digestion and anti-bromodeoxyuridine immunoprecipitation. Because both methods have unique strengths and limitations, we purified nascent strands by both methods, hybridized them independently to tiling arrays (1% genome) and compared the data to have an accurate view of genome-wide origin distribution. By this criterion, we identified 150 new origins that were reproducible across the methods. Examination of a subset of these origins by chromatin immunoprecipitation against origin recognition complex (ORC) subunits 2 and 3 showed 93% of initiation peaks to localize at/within 1 kb of ORC binding sites. Correlation of origins with functional elements of the genome revealed origin activity to be significantly enriched around transcription start sites (TSSs). Consistent with proximity to TSSs, we found a third of initiation events to occur at or near the RNA polymerase II binding sites. Interestingly, ?50% of the early origin activity was localized within 5 kb of transcription regulatory factor binding region clusters. The chromatin signatures around the origins were enriched in H3K4-(di- and tri)-methylation and H3 acetylation modifications on histones. Affinity of origins for open chromatin was also reiterated by their proximity to DNAse I-hypersensitive sites. Replication initiation peaks were AT rich, and >50% of the origins mapped to evolutionarily conserved regions of the genome. In summary, these findings indicate that replication initiation is influenced by transcription initiation and regulation as well as chromatin structure.

Karnani, Neerja; Taylor, Christopher M.; Malhotra, Ankit

2010-01-01

388

Replacement of a Phenylalanine by a Tyrosine in the Active Site Confers Fructose-6-phosphate Aldolase Activity to the Transaldolase of Escherichia coli and Human Origin*S?  

PubMed Central

Based on a structure-assisted sequence alignment we designed 11 focused libraries at residues in the active site of transaldolase B from Escherichia coli and screened them for their ability to synthesize fructose 6-phosphate from dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate using a newly developed color assay. We found one positive variant exhibiting a replacement of Phe178 to Tyr. This mutant variant is able not only to transfer a dihydroxyacetone moiety from a ketose donor, fructose 6-phosphate, onto an aldehyde acceptor, erythrose 4-phosphate (14 units/mg), but to use it as a substrate directly in an aldolase reaction (7 units/mg). With a single amino acid replacement the fructose-6-phosphate aldolase activity was increased considerably (>70-fold compared with wild-type). Structural studies of the wild-type and mutant protein suggest that this is due to a different H-bond pattern in the active site leading to a destabilization of the Schiff base intermediate. Furthermore, we show that a homologous replacement has a similar effect in the human transaldolase Taldo1 (aldolase activity, 14 units/mg). We also demonstrate that both enzymes TalB and Taldo1 are recognized by the same polyclonal antibody.

Schneider, Sarah; Sandalova, Tatyana; Schneider, Gunter; Sprenger, Georg A.; Samland, Anne K.

2008-01-01

389

Comparison of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers typing and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins  

PubMed Central

Background Animal mycobacterioses are regarded as a potential zoonotic risk and cause economical losses world wide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis is a slow-growing subspecies found in mycobacterial infected humans and pigs and therefore rapid and discriminatory typing methods are needed for epidemiological studies. The genetic similarity of M. avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins using two different typing methods have not been studied earlier. The objective of this study was to compare the IS1245 RFLP pattern and MIRU-VNTR typing to study the genetic relatedness of M. avium strains isolated from slaughter pigs and humans in Finland with regard to public health aspects. Methods A novel PCR-based genotyping method, variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing of eight mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs), was evaluated for its ability to characterize Finnish Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis strains isolated from pigs (n = 16) and humans (n = 13) and the results were compared with those obtained by the conventional IS1245 RFLP method. Results The MIRU-VNTR results showed a discriminatory index (DI) of 0,92 and the IS1245 RFLP resulted in DI 0,98. The combined DI for both methods was 0,98. The MIRU-VNTR test has the advantages of being simple, reproducible, non-subjective, which makes it suitable for large-scale screening of M. avium strains. Conclusions Both typing methods demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains of human and porcine origin. The parallel application of the methods adds epidemiological value to the comparison of the strains and their origins. The present approach and results support the hypothesis that there is a common source of M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection for pigs and humans or alternatively one species may be the infective source to the other.

2010-01-01

390

Human Origins: Problems in the Interpretation of New Evidence. Third Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Chautauqua-type short course in human evolution is divided into two parts: The Biochemical Evidence for Human Evolution, and the Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution. The first part covers the comparison of macromolecular differences between species. This includes comparison of DNA base-ratios and amino acid substitution in enzymes and other…

Almquist, Alan J.; Cronin, John E.

391

Differentiation between Streptococcus gallolyticus Strains of Human Clinical and Veterinary Origins and Streptococcus bovis Strains from the Intestinal Tracts of Ruminants  

PubMed Central

Strains formerly identified as Streptococcus bovis were allotted to two groups by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of whole-cell proteins. Strains from humans with infections, mostly patients with endocarditis, and strains from pigeons with septicemia clustered with the recently described species Streptococcus gallolyticus. The original S. bovis type strain and strains exclusively from ruminants formed the second cluster. The findings indicate that S. gallolyticus is more likely to be involved in human and animal infections than S. bovis. Growth characteristics and several biochemical reactions were found to be useful in the differentiation of S. gallolyticus from S. bovis.

Devriese, Luc A.; Vandamme, Peter; Pot, Bruno; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Kersters, Karel; Haesebrouck, Freddy

1998-01-01

392

Genetically Matched Human iPS Cells Reveal that Propensity for Cartilage and Bone Differentiation Differs with Clones, not Cell Type of Origin  

PubMed Central

Background For regenerative therapy using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, cell type of origin to be reprogrammed should be chosen based on accessibility and reprogramming efficiency. Some studies report that iPSCs exhibited a preference for differentiation into their original cell lineages, while others did not. Therefore, the type of cell which is most appropriate as a source for iPSCs needs to be clarified. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetically matched human iPSCs from different origins were generated using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) of the same donor, and global gene expression profile, DNA methylation status, and differentiation properties into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineage of each clone were analyzed. Although genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation suggested tissue memory in iPSCs, genes expressed differentially in BMSCs and DFs were equally silenced in our bona fide iPSCs. After cell-autonomous and induced differentiation, each iPSC clone exhibited various differentiation properties, which did not correlate with cell-of-origin. Conclusions/Significance The reprogramming process may remove the difference between DFs and BMSCs at least for chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Qualified and genetically matched human iPSC clone sets established in this study are valuable resources for further basic study of clonal differences.

Nasu, Akira; Ikeya, Makoto; Yamamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Akira; Jin, Yonghui; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Amano, Naoki; Sato, Shingo; Osafune, Kenji; Aoyama, Tomoki; Nakamura, Takashi; Kato, Tomohisa; Toguchida, Junya

2013-01-01

393

Interdisciplinary review for correlation between the plant origin capsaicinoids, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gastrointestinal mucosal damage and prevention in animals and human beings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The plant origin capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, norcapsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin)\\u000a are well known and used as nutritional additive agents in the every day nutritional practice from the last 9,500 years; however,\\u000a we had have a very little scientifically based knowledge on their chemistry, physiology and pharmacology in animal observations,\\u000a and in humans up to the mid-twentieth century. Our knowledge about their

Gyula Mózsik; Tibor Past; Omar M. E. Abdel Salam; Mónika Kuzma; Pál Perjési

2009-01-01

394

Bubble-chip analysis of human origin distributions demonstrates on a genomic scale significant clustering into zones and significant association with transcription  

PubMed Central

We have used a novel bubble-trapping procedure to construct nearly pure and comprehensive human origin libraries from early S- and log-phase HeLa cells, and from log-phase GM06990, a karyotypically normal lymphoblastoid cell line. When hybridized to ENCODE tiling arrays, these libraries illuminated 15.3%, 16.4%, and 21.8% of the genome in the ENCODE regions, respectively. Approximately half of the origin fragments cluster into zones, and their signals are generally higher than those of isolated fragments. Interestingly, initiation events are distributed about equally between genic and intergenic template sequences. While only 13.2% and 14.0% of genes within the ENCODE regions are actually transcribed in HeLa and GM06990 cells, 54.5% and 25.6% of zonal origin fragments overlap transcribed genes, most with activating chromatin marks in their promoters. Our data suggest that cell synchronization activates a significant number of inchoate origins. In addition, HeLa and GM06990 cells activate remarkably different origin populations. Finally, there is only moderate concordance between the log-phase HeLa bubble map and published maps of small nascent strands for this cell line.

Mesner, Larry D.; Valsakumar, Veena; Karnani, Neerja; Dutta, Anindya; Hamlin, Joyce L.; Bekiranov, Stefan

2011-01-01

395

Parental origin of chromatin in human monopronuclear zygotes revealed by asymmetric histone methylation patterns, differs between IVF and ICSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mouse zygotes, many post-translational histone modifications are asymmetrically present in male and female pronuclei. We investigated whether this principle could be used to determine the genetic composition of monopronuclear human zygotes in conventional IVF and ICSI. First we determined whether male female asymmetry is conserved from mouse to human by staining polypronuclear zygotes with antibodies against a subset of

G. W. van der Heijden; I. M. van den Berg; E. B. Baart; A. A. H. A. Derijck; E. Martini; P. de Boer

2009-01-01

396

Detection and remediation of human-origin pollution at two public beaches in Virginia using multiple source tracking methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two public beaches (Anderson and Hilton) in Newport News, Virginia, were frequently closed to swimming in 2004 due to high Enterococcus spp. counts that exceeded the regulatory standard. The microbial source tracking (MST) methods of antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) and fluorometry (to detect optical brighteners) were used in the summer of 2004 to determine the origins of fecal pollution at

J. W. Dickerson Jr.; C. Hagedorn; A. Hassall

2007-01-01

397

Identification of the origin of double minutes in normal human cells by laser-based chromosome microdissection approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single copies of tiny chromosome fragments, appearing as double minutes, were observed in a high proportion of cells from amniotic fluid cultures of two mothers undergoing prenatal testing because of advanced age. We applied a laser-based chromosome microdissection method to diagnose the origin of the double minutes. The diagnostic procedures consisted of microdissection of double minutes from a single cell,

Evica Rajcan-Separovic; Hung-Shu Wang; Marsha D. Speevak; Lynn Janes; Robert G. Korneluk; Kyo Wakasa; Joh-E. Ikeda

1995-01-01

398

Differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro of islets from human, nonhuman primate, and porcine origin.  

PubMed

Porcine islet xenotransplantation is considered a potential cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes. It is currently being evaluated in diabetic nonhuman primates (NHP) to assess safety and efficacy of the islet product. However, due to a variety of distinct differences between the respective species, including the insulin secretory characteristics of islets, the suitability and predictive value of the preclinical model in the extrapolation to the clinical setting remain a critical issue. Islets isolated from human (n = 3), NHP (n = 2), adult pig (AP, n = 3), and juvenile pig (JP, n = 4) pancreata were perifused with medium at basal glucose (2.5 mm) followed by high glucose (16.7 mm) concentrations. The total glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was calculated from generated insulin secretion profiles. Nonhuman primate islets exhibited GSIS 3-fold higher than AP islets, while AP and JP islets exhibited GSIS 1/3 and 1/30 of human islets, respectively. The insulin content of NHP and AP islets was similar to that of human islets, whereas that of JP islets was 1/5 of human islets. Despite the fact that human, NHP, and AP islets contain similar amounts of insulin, the much higher GSIS for NHP islets than for AP and JP islets suggests the need for increased dosing of islets from JP and AP in pig-to-NHP transplantation. Porcine islet xenotransplantation to humans may require significantly higher dosing given the lower GSIS of AP islets compared to human islets. PMID:23384163

Mueller, Kate R; Balamurugan, A N; Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Hooper, Rebecca L; Weegman, Bradley P; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Taylor, Michael J; Graham, Melanie L; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Papas, Klearchos K

2013-02-05

399

Human Bertiella studeri (family Anoplocephalidae) infection of probable Southeast Asian origin in Mauritian children and an adult.  

PubMed

Morphologic studies on preserved and recently collected Bertiella specimens obtained from Mauritian children and an adult indicate that human infection is caused by Bertiella studeri instead of B. mucronata. This cestode might have been accidentally introduced onto the island of Mauritius from the Southeast Asia along with monkeys in the 17th century. We present information that will help identify B. studeri and provide a correct diagnosis. The case reports indicate gastrointestinal disturbances in human bertiellosis. Human infection with Bertiella studeri is reported for the first time in a Mauritian adult. PMID:14993637

Bhagwant, S

2004-02-01

400

The origins of human gene mapping. With particular reference to the contributions of J. B. S. Haldane.  

PubMed

Methods in human gene mapping, including those developed by Bell and Haldane, Morton, and the more recent ones using somatic cell fusion, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and multipoint linkage, are briefly reviewed. PMID:3328738

Dronamraju, K R

1987-11-01

401

Expression of the RET proto-oncogene in normal human tissues, pheochromocytomas, and other tumors of neural crest origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the roles of the RET proto-oncogene in normal human tissues and tumors derived from the neural crest cells, we examined the expression of RET in a variety of adult human tissues, pheochromocytomas, medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs), ganglioneuromas, and a neurinoma.\\u000a Northern blot analysis demonstrated that RET is normally expressed in the adrenal medulla and cerebellum among

K. Takaya; T. Yoshimasa; H. Arai; N. Tamura; Y. Miyamoto; H. Itoh; K. Nakao

1996-01-01

402

The Orc4p and Orc5p subunits of the Xenopus and human origin recognition complex are related to Orc1p and Cdc6p.  

PubMed

The location of origins of DNA replication within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome is primarily determined by the origin recognition complex (ORC) interacting with specific DNA sequences. The analogous situation in vertebrate cells is far less clear, although ORC subunits have been identified in several vertebrate organisms including Xenopus laevis. Monoclonal antibodies were raised against Xenopus Orc1p and used for single-step immunoaffinity purification of the entire ORC from an egg extract. Six polypeptides ( approximately 110, 68, 64, 48, 43, and 27 kDa) copurified with Xenopus Orc1p. Protein sequencing also showed the 64-kDa protein to be the previously identified Xenopus Orc2p. Microsequencing of the 43- and 48-kDa proteins that copurified with Orc1p and Orc2p led to their identification as the Orc4p and Orc5p subunits, respectively. Peptide sequences from the 43-kDa protein also allowed the isolation of cDNAs encoding the Xenopus, mouse, and human ORC4 subunits. Human ORC5 was also cloned; its sequence displayed extensive homology to both Drosophila and yeast ORC5. Surprisingly, comparison of the amino acid sequences of Orc1p, Orc4p, and Orc5p suggests that they are structurally related to each other and to the replication initiation protein, Cdc6p. Finally, we present the sequence of the putative Xenopus and human Orc3p. PMID:9829972

Tugal, T; Zou-Yang, X H; Gavin, K; Pappin, D; Canas, B; Kobayashi, R; Hunt, T; Stillman, B

1998-12-01

403

The origins of animal domestication and husbandry: A major change in the history of humanity and the biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to summarize the present archaeo(zoo)logical knowledge and reflections on the origins of Neolithic animal domestication. It targets the main characteristics of early Neolithic animal domestication set against a backdrop of two complementary scales, namely the global and macro-regional scales (the latter using the example of the Near East). It discusses the conceptual and methodological issues, arguing in

Jean-Denis Vigne

2011-01-01

404

Ethnic divergence and linkage disequilibrium of novel SNPs in the human NLI-IF gene: evidence of human origin and lack of association with tuberculosis susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence variation in the human genome has been used as a tool in studying human diseases and the evolutionary history of\\u000a man. A human inherited predisposition to tuberculosis has been suggested and studied; however, genetic mechanisms are still\\u000a ambiguous. In the present study, we scanned the regulatory and coding region of Nuclear LIM Interactor-Interacting Factor\\u000a gene (NLI-IF), which is physically

Xin Ma; John Wright; Shujun Dou; Paul Olsen; Larry Teeter; Gerald Adams; Edward Graviss

2002-01-01

405

Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Attaches to Epithelium in Both Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract of Humans.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses from animal reservoirs have the capacity to adapt to humans and cause influenza pandemics. The occurrence of an influenza pandemic requires efficient virus transmission among humans, which is associated with virus attachment to the upper respiratory tract. Pandemic severity depends on virus ability to cause pneumonia, which is associated with virus attachment to the lower respiratory tract. Recently, a novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus with unknown pandemic potential emerged in humans. We determined the pattern of attachment of two genetically engineered viruses containing the hemagglutinin of either influenza virus A/Shanghai/1/13 or A/Anhui/1/13 to formalin-fixed human respiratory tract tissues using histochemical analysis. Our results show that the emerging H7N9 virus attached moderately or abundantly to both upper and lower respiratory tract, a pattern not seen before for avian influenza A viruses. With the caveat that virus attachment is only the first step in the virus replication cycle, these results suggest that the emerging H7N9 virus has the potential both to transmit efficiently among humans and to cause severe pneumonia. PMID:24029490

van Riel, Debby; Leijten, Lonneke M E; de Graaf, Miranda; Siegers, Jurre Y; Short, Kirsty R; Spronken, Monique I J; Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

2013-09-10

406

Inhibitory effect of lactone fractions and individual components from three species of the Achillea millefolium complex of Bulgarian origin on the human neutrophils respiratory burst activity.  

PubMed

Achillea species are widely used in folk medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The inhibitory effect on the human neutrophils respiratory burst activity of total extracts, their fractions and some main constituents of the flower heads from Achillea asplenifolia, A. collina and A. distans belonging to A. millefolium complex of Bulgarian origin, were tested by the modified method of Tan and Berridge. Seven from the investigated fractions showed activity similar or higher than that of indomethacine and might be evaluated as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:17691054

Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Jalil, Saima; Todorova, M; Trendafilova, A; Mikhova, B; Duddeck, H; Atta-ur-Rahman

2007-09-01

407

Experimental transmission of an autosomal dominant spongiform encephalopathy: does the infectious agent originate in the human genome?  

PubMed Central

Marmosets inoculated intracerebrally with brain tissue from a woman with Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome (an autosomal dominant dementia associated with spongiform change and amyloid deposition) developed an encephalopathy indistinguishable from that seen in marmosets inoculated with brain tissue from a typical case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. As in Huntington's disease, in the pedigree of the patient with Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome women who subsequently developed the illness had increased fecundity. The pathogen in human transmissible dementia may arise from a sequence (which itself sometimes confers a selective advantage) located within the human genome.

Baker, H F; Ridley, R M; Crow, T J

1985-01-01

408

Molecular identification by RNA-RNA hybridization of a human rotavirus that is closely related to rotaviruses of feline and canine origin.  

PubMed

With a few exceptions subgroup I group A human rotavirus strains have short RNA patterns, whereas most animal rotavirus strains belong to subgroup I and have long RNA patterns. Thus, new isolates of subgroup I human rotaviruses with long RNA patterns are considered to have a high likelihood of being animal rotaviruses. A group of human rotaviruses represented by the AU-1 strain has recently been shown to be genetically related to a feline rotavirus (FRV-1) isolated in Japan. A human rotavirus, strain Ro1845, which is similar to the AU-1 strain in its subgroup (I), serotype (3), and electropherotype (long), was compared with various human and animal strains by RNA-RNA hybridization to determine its genogroup, a term proposed to classify rotaviruses based on their gene homology. The Ro1845 strain did not show a significant level of homology with AU-1, FRV-1, or other human strains, indicating that the Ro1845 strain is different in its genogroup not only from the AU-1 strain but also from other human strains. However, the Ro1845 strain showed a high degree of homology with another feline rotavirus (Cat97) isolated previously in Australia, suggesting that the Ro1845 strain might originate from a feline rotavirus that is genetically distinct from the Japanese FRV-1 strain. Furthermore, the Ro1845 strain as well as the Cat97 strain were related genetically to the canine rotavirus RS15 strain. Taken together, these results indicate that at least two genogroups are present in feline rotaviruses, one resembling the AU-1 strain and the other resembling the Ro1845 strain as well as canine rotaviruses. PMID:2166076

Nakagomi, O; Ohshima, A; Aboudy, Y; Shif, I; Mochizuki, M; Nakagomi, T; Gotlieb-Stematsky, T

1990-06-01

409

Characterization of a Shiga Toxin 2e-Converting Bacteriophage from an Escherichia coli Strain of Human Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infectious Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e-converting bacteriophage (fP27) was isolated from Stx2e-producing Escherichia coli ONT:H2 isolate 2771\\/97 originating from a patient with diarrhea. The phage could be transduced to E. coli laboratory strain DH5a, and we could show that lysogens were able to produce biologically active toxin in a recA-dependent manner. By DNA sequence analysis of a 6,388-bp HindIII restriction

MAITE MUNIESA; JURGEN RECKTENWALD; MARTINA BIELASZEWSKA; HELGE KARCH; HERBERT SCHMIDT

2000-01-01

410

Transcriptional activation of the human papillomavirus type 5 and 16 long control region in cells from cutaneous and mucosal origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) infects mucosal epithelium and is the most common type found in cervical cancer. HPV-5 infects cornified epithelium and is the most common type found on normal skin and belongs to the types frequently associated with skin cancers of Epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. One factor by which this anatomical tropism could be determined is the regulation of HPV

Nitesh Mistry; Monika Simonsson; Magnus Evander

2007-01-01

411

Support from the relationship of genetic and geographic distance in human populations for a serial founder effect originating in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium models of isolation by distance predict an increase in genetic differentiation with geographic distance. Here we find a linear relationship between genetic and geographic distance in a worldwide sample of human populations, with major deviations from the fitted line explicable by admixture or extreme isolation. A close relationship is shown to exist between the correlation of geographic distance and

Sohini Ramachandran; Omkar Deshpande; Charles C. Roseman; Noah A. Rosenberg; Marcus W. Feldman; L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza

2005-01-01

412

Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants.  

PubMed

Establishing the age of each mutation segregating in contemporary human populations is important to fully understand our evolutionary history and will help to facilitate the development of new approaches for disease-gene discovery. Large-scale surveys of human genetic variation have reported signatures of recent explosive population growth, notable for an excess of rare genetic variants, suggesting that many mutations arose recently. To more quantitatively assess the distribution of mutation ages, we resequenced 15,336 genes in 6,515 individuals of European American and African American ancestry and inferred the age of 1,146,401 autosomal single nucleotide variants (SNVs). We estimate that approximately 73% of all protein-coding SNVs and approximately 86% of SNVs predicted to be deleterious arose in the past 5,000-10,000?years. The average age of deleterious SNVs varied significantly across molecular pathways, and disease genes contained a significantly higher proportion of recently arisen deleterious SNVs than other genes. Furthermore, European Americans had an excess of deleterious variants in essential and Mendelian disease genes compared to African Americans, consistent with weaker purifying selection due to the Out-of-Africa dispersal. Our results better delimit the historical details of human protein-coding variation, show the profound effect of recent human history on the burden of deleterious SNVs segregating in contemporary populations, and provide important practical information that can be used to prioritize variants in disease-gene discovery. PMID:23201682

Fu, Wenqing; O'Connor, Timothy D; Jun, Goo; Kang, Hyun Min; Abecasis, Goncalo; Leal, Suzanne M; Gabriel, Stacey; Rieder, Mark J; Altshuler, David; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Akey, Joshua M

2012-11-28

413

Nature and origin of the neointima in whole vessel wall organ culture of the human saphenous vein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intimal proliferation is a characteristic feature of arteriosclerosis. Whole vessel wall organ culture systems have been developed to study the early stages of neointima formation. We have cultured a large number of explants of human saphenous vein specimens for several weeks, and have identified the nature of the cells in the newly formed intima by a panel of monoclonal antibodies

J. Slomp; A. C. Gittenberger-de Groot; J. C. Munsteren; R. E. Poelmann; H. A. Huysmans; J. H. Bockel; V. W. M. Hinsbergh

1996-01-01

414

Early Holocene human skeletal remains from Cerca Grande, Lagoa Santa, Central Brazil, and the origins of the first Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of comparative multivariate morphological analyses based on nine skulls from Cerca Grande. The site is in the Lagoa Santa karst in Central Brazil, a key area for understanding the peopling of the Americas. The region has several archaeological sites with excellent preservation of late Pleistocene and early Holocene material culture and human skeletal remains. Stratigraphic association

Walter A. Neves; Rolando González-José; Mark Hubbe; Renato Kipnis; Astolfo G. M. Araujo; Oldemar Blasi

2004-01-01

415

Original Article Regulation of intracellular calcium in cortical neurons transgenic for human A?40 and A?42 following nutritive challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is not fully understood. Amyloid plaques could be causally linked to neuronal loss in AD. Two proteolytic products of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), Amyloid ?40 (A?40) and Amyloid ?42 (A?42), are considered to be critical in the neurodegeneration seen in AD. However, in transgenic mice that overexpress human A?40 or A?42, it was

Najeeb A Shirwany; Jun Xie; Qing Guo

416

Return of fear in a human differential conditioning paradigm caused by a return to the original acquistion context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a differential human fear conditioning paradigm evidence for ABA-renewal was obtained manipulating the lighting in the experimental room. During acquisition in either a dark or illuminated room, one neutral slide was sometimes paired with a loud aversive noise whereas another slide was not. Subsequently, extinction took place in the opposite lighting context. When afterwards the participants were tested again

Debora Vansteenwegen; Dirk Hermans; Bram Vervliet; Geert Francken; Tom Beckers; Frank Baeyens; Paul Eelen

2005-01-01

417

Heterogeneity among Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Profiles of Extraintestinal Escherichia coli Isolates of Animal and Human Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) isolates collected from different infected animals and from human patients with extraintestinal infections in 2001 were characterized for their phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, genotypes, and key virulence factors. Among the 10 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfonamides was most frequent. Multiresistant strains were found in both the animal and the

Christine Maynard; Sadjia Bekal; Francois Sanschagrin; Roger C. Levesque; Roland Brousseau; Luke Masson; Serge Lariviere; Josee Harel; Pavillon C.-E. Marchand

2004-01-01

418

A Microhomology-Mediated Break-Induced Replication Model for the Origin of Human Copy Number Variation  

PubMed Central

Chromosome structural changes with nonrecurrent endpoints associated with genomic disorders offer windows into the mechanism of origin of copy number variation (CNV). A recent report of nonrecurrent duplications associated with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease identified three distinctive characteristics. First, the majority of events can be seen to be complex, showing discontinuous duplications mixed with deletions, inverted duplications, and triplications. Second, junctions at endpoints show microhomology of 2–5 base pairs (bp). Third, endpoints occur near pre-existing low copy repeats (LCRs). Using these observations and evidence from DNA repair in other organisms, we derive a model of microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) for the origin of CNV and, ultimately, of LCRs. We propose that breakage of replication forks in stressed cells that are deficient in homologous recombination induces an aberrant repair process with features of break-induced replication (BIR). Under these circumstances, single-strand 3? tails from broken replication forks will anneal with microhomology on any single-stranded DNA nearby, priming low-processivity polymerization with multiple template switches generating complex rearrangements, and eventual re-establishment of processive replication.

Hastings, P. J.; Ira, Grzegorz; Lupski, James R.

2009-01-01

419

Cross-Reaction between the Crude Hydatid Cyst Fluid Antigens of Human and Animals Origin in Response to Human IgG Class and Subclasses.  

PubMed

The current work aimed to evaluate the cross-reactivity of human immune sera against crude hydatid fluid antigens of sheep, human, mouse, cattle, as well as B fraction of cystic fluid antigen. 30?balb/c mice were infected with sheep hydatid cyct fluid antigen containing protoscolex after the viability of these protoscolices was assessed. ANOVA was used to test the difference of themean of optical density (OD) values among case and control groups. The highest human IgG class antibody was against antigen B (0.93) and the lowest against cattle HCF antigen (0.32). The differences between responses to these antigens were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test used for evaluating the responses of human total IgG to different hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens among the case and control groups were 100 and 95.8%, respectively. Cross-reaction of human IgG class and subclasses responses was found almost for all the antigens with the best reaction against human and cattle (HCF) antigens and antigen B using a ratio of mean OD value to each antigen divided by the cut-off point value for the same antigen. Human sera showed a considerable cross-reactivity against all antigens by using ELISA. PMID:22523645

Khosravi, Afra; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Shamsi, Morteza; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Maleki, Abbas; Babaahmadi, Ebrahim

2012-03-13

420

Human de novo papillary renal-cell carcinomas in a kidney graft: evidence of recipient origin with adenoma-carcinoma sequence.  

PubMed

Papillary renal-cell carcinoma (pRCC) is unusual for its occurrence in kidneys with chronic dysfunction, for its frequent multifocality and for its common association with papillary adenoma, a benign renal lesion morphologically indistinguishable from pRCC. Concomitant development of papillary adenoma and pRCC in five transplanted kidneys, where donor and recipient characteristics are well established, provided a unique opportunity for molecular studies of de novo pRCC carcinogenesis. We aimed to study this tumor type to determine whether or not the different papillary tumors have the same origin, and whether or not papillary adenomas are precursor lesions of pRCC. We performed XY-FISH in sex-mismatched kidney transplants, and polymorphic microsatellite DNA and high-resolution melting of mitochondrial DNA analyzes in all five patients on laser-microdissected tumor cells, then compared these molecular profiles to donor and recipient profiles. This study (i) identified the recipient origin of de novo papillary adenomas and pRCCs in a kidney transplant, (ii) demonstrated an identical origin for precursor cells of papillary adenomas and pRCCs and (iii) showed additional genetic alterations in pRCCs compared to papillary adenomas. This molecular approach of papillary tumors developed in transplanted kidney identified successive steps in carcinogenesis of human de novo papillary renal-cell carcinoma. PMID:23425311

Verine, J; Varna, M; Ratajczak, P; El-Bouchtaoui, M; Leboeuf, C; Plassa, L-F; Soliman, H; Sandid, W; Abboud, I; Bousquet, G; Verneuil, L; Peraldi, M-N; Mongiat-Artus, P; Janin, A

2013-02-20

421

Using genetic evidence to evaluate four palaeoanthropological hypotheses for the timing of Neanderthal and modern human origins.  

PubMed

A better understanding of the evolutionary relationship between modern humans and Neanderthals is essential for improving the resolution of hominin phylogenetic hypotheses. Currently, four distinct chronologies for the timing of population divergence are available, ranging from the late Middle Pleistocene to the late Early Pleistocene, each based on different interpretations of hominin taxonomy. Genetic data can present an independent estimate of the evolutionary timescale involved, making it possible to distinguish between these competing models of hominin evolution. We analysed five dated Neanderthal mitochondrial genomes, together with those of 54 modern humans, and inferred a genetic chronology using multiple age calibrations. Our mean date estimates are consistent with a process of genetic divergence within an ancestral population, commencing approximately 410-440 ka. These results suggest that a reappraisal of key elements in the Pleistocene hominin fossil record may now be required. PMID:20510437

Endicott, Phillip; Ho, Simon Y W; Stringer, Chris

2010-05-26

422

The 200-kb segmental duplication on human chromosome 21 originates from a pericentromeric dissemination involving human chromosomes 2, 18 and 13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regions close to human centromeres contain DNA fragments spanning hundreds of kilobases that exhibit a high degree of sequence identity (>95%). Here we report the genomic structure and evolution of a family of four paralogous regions related to a 220-kb genomic fragment present on the long arm of human chromosome 21 (21q22.1). Phylogenetic classification of the paralogous sequences obtained from

Geoffroy Golfier; Frédéric Chibon; Alain Aurias; Xiao-Ning Chen; Julie Korenberg; Jean Rossier; Marie-Claude Potier

2003-01-01

423

Interaction of the Retinoblastoma Protein with Orc1 and Its Recruitment to Human Origins of DNA Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a crucial regulator of cell cycle progression by binding with E2F transcription factor and repressing the expression of a variety of genes required for the G1-S phase transition.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere we show that Rb and E2F1 directly participate in the control of initiation of DNA replication in human HeLa, U2OS and T98G cells by specifically binding

Ramiro Mendoza-Maldonado; Roberta Paolinelli; Laura Galbiati; Sara Giadrossi; Mauro Giacca; Mary Bryk

2010-01-01

424

Immunoregulatory properties and LP-pattern of human ovarian carcinoma ascites and pleural effusions of nonmalignant origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The immunoregulatory activity of ascitic fluids obtained from patients with ovarian carcinoma, and pleural effusions collected from patients with various nonmalignant diseases, was tested. The following assays were performed:in vivo, PFC-response of mouse splenocytes to SRBC;in vitro, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and phagocytic activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMoC). The migration ability of mouse splenocytes in the

T. Marotti; J. Gabrilovac; B. Salzer; J. Kruši?

1983-01-01

425

Original Research Report Peripherally Administered Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Reduce Parenchymal and Vascular ? Amyloid Deposits in Alzheimer Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modulation of immune\\/inflammatory responses by diverse strategies including amyloid-? (A? ) im- munization, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and manipulation of microglial activation states has been shown to reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology and cognitive deficits in AD trans- genic mouse models. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) have unique immunomodulatory potential. We wished to test whether these cells might alter AD-like

WILLIAM V. NIKOLIC; HUAYAN HOU; TERRENCE TOWN; YUYAN ZHU; BRIAN GIUNTA; CYNDY D. SANBERG; JIN ZENG; DEYAN LUO; JARED EHRHART; TAKASHI MORI; PAUL R. SANBERG; JUN TAN

2008-01-01

426

Simian immunodeficiency viruses of diverse origin can use CXCR4 as a coreceptor for entry into human cells.  

PubMed

Primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm [n = 6]), stumptail (SIVstm [n = 1]), mandrill (SIVmnd [n = 1]), and African green (SIVagm [n = 1]) primates were examined for their ability to infect human cells and for their coreceptor requirements. All isolates infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a CCR5(+/+) donor, and seven of eight isolates tested also infected CCR5(-/-) PBMCs. Analysis of coreceptor utilization using GHOST and U87 cell lines revealed that all of the isolates tested used CCR5 and the orphan receptors STRL33 and GPR15. Coreceptors such as CCR2b, CCR3, CCR8, and CX3CR1 were also utilized by some primary SIV isolates. More importantly, we found that CXCR4 was used as a coreceptor by the SIVstm, the SIVagm, and four of the SIVsm isolates in GHOST and U87 cells. These data suggest that primary SIV isolates from diverse primate species can utilize CXCR4 for viral entry, similar to what has been described for human immunodeficiency viruses. PMID:10823878

Owen, S M; Masciotra, S; Novembre, F; Yee, J; Switzer, W M; Ostyula, M; Lal, R B

2000-06-01

427

Original Misunderstanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high…

Holtzman, Alexander

2009-01-01

428

Structure-function relationship studies in human cholinesterases reveal genomic origins for individual variations in cholinergic drug responses.  

PubMed

1. Due to their involvement in the termination of neurotransmission at cholinergic synapses and neuromuscular junctions, cholinesterases are the target proteins for numerous drugs of neuro-psychopharmacology importance. 2. In order to perform structure-function relationship studies on human cholinesterases with respect to such drugs, a set of expression vectors was engineered, all of which include cloned cDNA inserts encoding various forms of human acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. These vectors were designed to be transcribed in vitro into their corresponding mRNA products which, when microinjected into Xenopus oocytes, are efficiently translated to yield their catalytically active enzymes, each with its distinct substrate specificity and sensitivity to selective inhibitors. 3. A fully automated microtiter plate assay for evaluating the inhibition of said enzymes by tested cholinergic drugs and/or poisons has been developed, in conjunction with computerized data analysis, which offers prediction of such inhibition data on the authentic human enzymes and their natural or mutagenized variants. 4. Thus, it was found that asp70-->gly substitution renders butyrylcholinesterase succinylcholine insensitive and resistant to oxime reactivation while ser 425-->Pro with gly70 gives rise to the "atypical" butyrylcholinesterase phenotype, abolishing dibucaine binding. 5. Furthermore, differences in cholinesterase affinities to physostigmine, ecothiophate and bambuterol were shown in these natural variants. 6. Definition of key residues important for drug interactions may initiate rational design of more specific cholinesterase inhibitors, with fewer side effects. This, in turn, offers therapeutic potential in the treatment of clinical syndromes such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, glaucoma and myasthenia gravis. PMID:8278601

Loewenstein, Y; Gnatt, A; Neville, L F; Zakut, H; Soreq, H

1993-11-01