Sample records for early-modern human origins

  1. East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Christopher A.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Peck, John A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Talbot, Michael R.; Brown, Erik T.; Kalindekafe, Leonard; Amoako, Philip Y. O.; Lyons, Robert P.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Castańeda, Isla S.; Heil, Clifford W.; Forman, Steven L.; McHargue, Lanny R.; Beuning, Kristina R.; Gomez, Jeanette; Pierson, James

    2007-01-01

    The environmental backdrop to the evolution and spread of early Homo sapiens in East Africa is known mainly from isolated outcrops and distant marine sediment cores. Here we present results from new scientific drill cores from Lake Malawi, the first long and continuous, high-fidelity records of tropical climate change from the continent itself. Our record shows periods of severe aridity between 135 and 75 thousand years (kyr) ago, when the lake's water volume was reduced by at least 95%. Surprisingly, these intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the period previously recognized as one of the most arid of the Quaternary. From these cores and from records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa), we document a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions over much of tropical Africa after ?70 kyr ago. This transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with diminished orbital eccentricity, and a reduction in precession-dominated climatic extremes. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but our records provide evidence for dramatically wetter conditions after 70 kyr ago. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations. PMID:17785420

  2. East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Christopher A; Johnson, Thomas C; Cohen, Andrew S; King, John W; Peck, John A; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Talbot, Michael R; Brown, Erik T; Kalindekafe, Leonard; Amoako, Philip Y O; Lyons, Robert P; Shanahan, Timothy M; Castańeda, Isla S; Heil, Clifford W; Forman, Steven L; McHargue, Lanny R; Beuning, Kristina R; Gomez, Jeanette; Pierson, James

    2007-10-16

    The environmental backdrop to the evolution and spread of early Homo sapiens in East Africa is known mainly from isolated outcrops and distant marine sediment cores. Here we present results from new scientific drill cores from Lake Malawi, the first long and continuous, high-fidelity records of tropical climate change from the continent itself. Our record shows periods of severe aridity between 135 and 75 thousand years (kyr) ago, when the lake's water volume was reduced by at least 95%. Surprisingly, these intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the period previously recognized as one of the most arid of the Quaternary. From these cores and from records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa), we document a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions over much of tropical Africa after approximately 70 kyr ago. This transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with diminished orbital eccentricity, and a reduction in precession-dominated climatic extremes. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but our records provide evidence for dramatically wetter conditions after 70 kyr ago. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations. PMID:17785420

  3. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  4. Late Pleistocene Neandertal-Early Modern Human Population Dynamics: The Dental Evidence 

    E-print Network

    Springer, Victoria Suzanne

    2013-04-11

    Recent genetic studies have confirmed that there was admixture between African early modern humans and archaic populations throughout the Old World. In this dissertation, I examine European early modern human dental morphology to assess...

  5. Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Nehlich, Olaf; Liu, Wu; Zhao, Chaohong; Yu, Jincheng; Wang, Changsui; Trinkaus, Erik; Richards, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    We report here on the isotopic analysis of the diet of one of the oldest modern humans found in Eurasia, the Tianyuan 1 early modern human dating to ?40,000 calendar years ago from Tianyuan Cave (Tianyuandong) in the Zhoukoudian region of China. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of the human and associated faunal remains indicate a diet high in animal protein, and the high nitrogen isotope values suggest the consumption of freshwater fish. To confirm this inference, we measured the sulfur isotope values of terrestrial and freshwater animals around the Zhoukoudian area and of the Tianyuan 1 human, which also support the interpretation of a substantial portion of the diet from freshwater fish. This analysis provides the direct evidence for the consumption of aquatic resources by early modern humans in China and has implications for early modern human subsistence and demography. PMID:19581579

  6. The Ob?azowa 1 early modern human pollical phalanx and Late Pleistocene distal thumb proportions.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, E; Haduch, E; Valde-Nowak, P W; Wojtal, P

    2014-02-01

    The human distal thumb phalanx from the earlier Upper Paleolithic of Ob?azowa Cave, southern Poland, exhibits features of its palmar surface that align it morphologically principally with early modern humans. These aspects include the configurations of the proximal palmar fossa, the flexor pollicis longus tendon insertion, the proximal margin of the palmar apical tuft, and especially its low ulnar deviation angle. If it is assumed that it possessed the pollical phalangeal length proportions of an early modern human, it would exhibit modest base and tuft breadths. However, given Late Pleistocene archaic-modern contrasts in relative pollical phalanx lengths, the isolated nature of the phalanx prevents secure assessment of its radioulnar interphalangeal articular and apicaltuft hypertrophy. Similar constraints apply to the assessment of other Pleistocene Homo pollical phalanges. PMID:24616929

  7. Plant foods and the dietary ecology of Neanderthals and early modern humans.

    PubMed

    Henry, Amanda G; Brooks, Alison S; Piperno, Dolores R

    2014-04-01

    One of the most important challenges in anthropology is understanding the disappearance of Neanderthals. Previous research suggests that Neanderthals had a narrower diet than early modern humans, in part because they lacked various social and technological advances that lead to greater dietary variety, such as a sexual division of labor and the use of complex projectile weapons. The wider diet of early modern humans would have provided more calories and nutrients, increasing fertility, decreasing mortality and supporting large population sizes, allowing them to out-compete Neanderthals. However, this model for Neanderthal dietary behavior is based on analysis of animal remains, stable isotopes, and other methods that provide evidence only of animal food in the diet. This model does not take into account the potential role of plant food. Here we present results from the first broad comparison of plant foods in the diets of Neanderthals and early modern humans from several populations in Europe, the Near East, and Africa. Our data comes from the analysis of plant microremains (starch grains and phytoliths) in dental calculus and on stone tools. Our results suggest that both species consumed a similarly wide array of plant foods, including foods that are often considered low-ranked, like underground storage organs and grass seeds. Plants were consumed across the entire range of individuals and sites we examined, and none of the expected predictors of variation (species, geographic region, or associated stone tool technology) had a strong influence on the number of plant species consumed. Our data suggest that Neanderthal dietary ecology was more complex than previously thought. This implies that the relationship between Neanderthal technology, social behavior, and food acquisition strategies must be better explored. PMID:24612646

  8. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C; Stringer, Chris B; Tomlinson, Emma L; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C

    2012-08-21

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

  9. Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972

  10. Sodomy and heresy in early modern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Monter, E W

    The author compares records, from the early modern era, of sodomy trials in two parts of French Switzerland (Geneva, a Protestant city, and Fribourg, A Catholic pastoral area) and presents evidence that: (1) men charged with "sodomy" were prosecuted more often for homosexuality in cities and for bestiality in rural areas, (2) male homosexual subcultures were associated with the growth of large urban centers, (3) sodomy was punished with greater severity than any other crime than infanticide, (4) in both Geneva and Fribourg repression of sodomy increased during periods of religious zeal. With the advent of the Enlightenment, the number of sodomy trials fell as prosecutions for crimes of personal violence declined and prosecutions for crimes against property increased. This is the first English translation of Monter's article, originally written in French. PMID:7042829

  11. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment.

    PubMed

    Nigst, Philip R; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-10-01

    The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages--demonstrably made by modern humans--are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

  12. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world. PMID:20509359

  13. Sodomy and Heresy In Early Modern Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. William Monter

    1981-01-01

    The author compares records, form the early modern era, of sodomy trials in two parts of French Switzerland (Geneva, and Protestant city, and Fribourg, and Catholic pastoral area) and presents evidence that: (1) men charged with “sodomy” were prosecuted more often for homosexuality in cities and for bestiality in rural areas, (2) male homosexual subcultures were associated with the growth

  14. The Construction of Early Modernity in Spanish Film 

    E-print Network

    Zarate Casanova, Miguel Angel

    2011-10-21

    The presence of early modern Spanish history in Spanish film has received only limited scholarly attention. The entire group of Spanish films dealing with the Spanish early modern era has never been placed under study by ...

  15. A review of "Books and Readers in Early Modern England: Material Studies." by J. Anderson and E. Sauer eds.

    E-print Network

    Gary Kuchar

    2004-01-01

    . Afterword by Stephen Orgel. Books and Readers in Early Modern England: Material Studies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. 295 pp. + 22 illus. $55.00. Review by GARY KUCHAR, MCMASTER UNIVERSITY. This ambitious volume of original...

  16. Early Modern Midwifery: Splitting the Profession, Connecting the History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel S. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    “Early Modern Midwifery: Splitting the Profession, Connecting the History” examines the status of midwives in early modern England and makes two substantive claims. First, it argues that while historians have recognized that midwives came from across the social spectrum, they have failed to incorporate this knowledge into their analyses. Work as a midwife was (obviously) medical in nature, but midwives’

  17. Pestera cu Oase 2 and the cranial morphology of early modern Europeans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélčne Rougier; S. Milota; Ricardo Rodrigo; Mircea Gherase; L. Sarcina; Oana Moldovan; J. Zilhao; Silviu Constantin; R. G. Franciscus; C. P. E. Zollikofer; M. Ponce de Leon; Erik Trinkaus

    2007-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2005, the Pe?tera cu Oase, Romania yielded a largely complete early modern human cranium, Oase 2, scattered on the surface of a Late Pleistocene hydraulically displaced bone bed containing principally the remains of Ursus spelaeus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate an age of ?40.5 thousand calendar years before the present (?35 ka ą?C B.P.). Morphological comparison of

  18. Methods of devotional reading in early modern England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mardy Philippian

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how early modern devotional readers defined a text as spiritually efficacious. It considers two methods of reading that recent scholars have identified: the development and influence of the Erasmian, or humanistic method of reading based on the ideas of the Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus; and a Lutheran, or evangelical method of reading. Erasmus set

  19. Outside Bets: Disciplining Gamblers in Early Modern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    The gambling house is one of the most visited places in early modern Spanish fiction, yet it still remains grossly overlooked in contemporary criticism. The first part of this essay provides an interdisciplinary reassessment of the topic by analyzing the economic, moral, and religious parameters that transformed the game of cards into a complex and multivalent issue, fascinating and polemical

  20. Exotic origins: the emblematic biogeographies of early modern scaly mammals

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    through all the houses, and towns, and gets away", when "chased" always "flies at the hunter's breast" to wind him.49 On the other hand, the animal could be a harmless creature in dire need of the protection its scales offered. Travellers such as des... their "Garden" at the Cape of Good Hope from the middle of the century.78 Armadillos travelled on slave ships just as pangolins were auxiliary cargoes on ships carrying valuable freights of spices. Their journeys were subject to the considerations...

  1. What More There Is in Early-Modern Algebra than its Literal Formalism

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    `ete's and Descartes's achievements. Hence, early-modern algebra has to be conceived, in my parlance, as beingWhat More There Is in Early-Modern Algebra than its Literal Formalism Marco Panza CNRS, IHPST (CNRS-modern algebra very often endorsed (either explicitly or implicitly). The former is that in early-modern age

  2. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Gaser, Christian

    in the process of meditation, such as daydreaming, mind-wandering, and projections into past or future. Moreover, curvature, folding, insula, meditation, mindfulness, MRI INTRODUCTION Various brain regions have beenHUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 29 February 2012 doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012

  3. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 01 March 2012 doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00038 Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks Wendy Hasenkamp to examine the effect of meditation experience on brain networks under- lying cognitive actions employed

  4. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    . Keywords: social anxiety, self-view, mindfulness, fMRI, exercise, brain, self, meditation INTRODUCTION SelfHUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 05 November 2012 doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00295 Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction versus aerobic exercise: effects

  5. ‘Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  6. A Review of "Early Modern Women and Transnational Communities of Letters" edited by Julie D. Campbell and Anne R. Larsen

    E-print Network

    Kennedy, Colleen E.

    2011-01-01

    Jesus, is crucified, is original and convincing. As Jonathan Nauman has pointed out, Louise Imogen Guiney?a pioneering student of Vaughan?wrote that ?Whenever [Vaughan] falls to translating, it is time for the sympathetic reader to prick up his ears...? as Vaughan ?seeks often this oblique outlet for his inmost thought.? Paul Davis has ?pricked up his ears? to good purpose. Julie D. Campbell and Anne R. Larsen, eds. Early Modern Women and Transnational Communities of Letters. Surrey, England: Ashgate...

  7. Assessing an early modern Fenland population: Whittlesey (Cambridgeshire).

    PubMed

    Falvey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Improvement writers argued that drainage would bring prosperity and population growth to fenland communities; locals counter-argued that their communities were already thriving. The detailed surviving records from early modern Whittlesey, in the Isle of Ely, are analysed here to test the accuracy of these opposing claims. Using the returns of the 1523 Lay Subsidy, the 1563 ecclesiastical census, the Lady Day 1674 Hearth Tax records and the 1676 Compton Census, together with bishops' transcripts and probate inventories, this article finds that although the population did indeed increase after drainage, the pre-drainage population was also increasing. The Michaelmas 1664 Hearth Tax records are analysed to uncover something of the character of the inhabitants and the 1674 Lady Day returns are then used to test the relative wealth of the community compared with that of sub-regions throughout England identified by Tom Arkell. Finally, there is a discussion of Whittlesey's housing stock. PMID:25080616

  8. A review of "Law and Representation in Early Modern Drama" by Subha Mukherji 

    E-print Network

    Bunker, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    of circles and salons celebrates a mutual criticism between speakers/authors. Furthermore, this social institution of early modern Europe emerges as a significant medium for cultural play between men and women, much like love itself. Subha Mukherji. Law... and Representation in Early Modern Drama. Cambridge University Press, 2006. xii + 286 pp. + 4 illus.+ 3 maps. $95.00. Review by NANCY M. BUNKER, MACON STATE COLLEGE. Law and Representation in Early Modern Drama convincingly argues for the ?nature and extent...

  9. Amazon Health / Human Origins Update

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 47-minute radio broadcast discusses a report by biologists that the types of trees in the inner Amazon rainforest are changing. Increasingly, they've found, larger, faster-growing tree species are crowding out smaller slower tree types - even in areas that have not yet been touched by logging or fires. The researchers suggest that increased carbon dioxide levels could be to blame. The second part of the show takes a look at current research into human origins. There is discussion about several recent research projects, including one which discovered six million-year-old fossils that may have come from one of the earliest known human ancestors and a new genetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA that researchers say shows that humans and Neanderthals did not interbreed. The show discusses the fossils of Ardipithecus kadabba; how temperature affects the extraction of DNA from fossils; how 5-7 million years ago the number of great ape species outnumbered that of monkeys; whether human ancestors had greater ability to form speech than Neanderthals; and how the gap in the fossil record of human ancestors is being filled.

  10. Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damsen, Silver

    2009-01-01

    My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

  11. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    PubMed

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  12. Pe?tera cu Oase 2 and the cranial morphology of early modern Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Rougier, Hélčne; Milota, ?tefan; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Gherase, Mircea; Sarcin?, Lauren?iu; Moldovan, Oana; Zilhăo, Joăo; Constantin, Silviu; Franciscus, Robert G.; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia; Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2005, the Pe?tera cu Oase, Romania yielded a largely complete early modern human cranium, Oase 2, scattered on the surface of a Late Pleistocene hydraulically displaced bone bed containing principally the remains of Ursus spelaeus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate an age of ?40.5 thousand calendar years before the present (?35 ka 14C B.P.). Morphological comparison of the adolescent Oase 2 cranium to relevant Late Pleistocene human samples documents a suite of derived modern human and/or non-Neandertal features, including absence of a supraorbital torus, subrectangular orbits, prominent canine fossae, narrow nasal aperture, level nasal floor, angled and anteriorly oriented zygomatic bones, a high neurocranium with prominent parietal bosses and marked sagittal parietal curvature, superiorly positioned temporal zygomatic root, vertical auditory porous, laterally bulbous mastoid processes, superiorly positioned posterior semicircular canal, absence of a nuchal torus and a suprainiac fossa, and a small occipital bun. However, these features are associated with an exceptionally flat frontal arc, a moderately large juxtamastoid eminence, extremely large molars that become progressively larger distally, complex occlusal morphology of the upper third molar, and relatively anteriorly positioned zygomatic arches. Moreover, the featureless occipital region and small mastoid process are at variance with the large facial skeleton and dentition. This unusual mosaic in Oase 2, some of which is paralleled in the Oase 1 mandible, indicates both complex population dynamics as modern humans dispersed into Europe and significant ongoing human evolution once modern humans were established within Europe. PMID:17227863

  13. A review of "The Ends of Life: Roads to Fulfilment in Early Modern England" by Keith Thomas 

    E-print Network

    Patterson, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    reviews 59 future of the humanities in general and seventeenth-century studies in particular, H?fer?s study reaffirms the centrality of the grand si?cle through a timely return to a larger concept of the humanities, before that other... of Life: Roads to Fulfilment in Early Modern England. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xvi + 393 pp. + 14 illus. $60.00. Review by catherine patterson, university of houston In this wide-ranging and engaging book, Keith Thomas brings...

  14. A review of "Autobiography in Early Modern England" by Adam Smyth 

    E-print Network

    Trettien, Whitney Anne

    2011-01-01

    ;#28;#15;#29;#30;#23;#31;#15;#27;#22;. Annotated almanacs, #14;nancial account records, commonplace books, parish registers: in these four ostensibly mundane sources, Adam Smyth uncovers a network of textual practices through which early modern individuals wrote their own lives. e term.... Autobiography and Early Modern England is divided into four chapters, each of which tackles one of the genres listed above. In the #14;rst, ?Almanacs and annotators,? Smyth discusses printed almanacs, which were ?staggeringly popular? in the early modern...

  15. A review of "Reading, Desire, and the Eucharist in Early Modern Religious Poetry" by Ryan Netzley 

    E-print Network

    Bunker, Nancy Mohrlock

    2012-01-01

    134 #2;#3;#4;#3;#5;#6;#3;#3;#5;#6;#7;-#8;#3;#5;#6; #11; #5;#3;#12;#2; Cross, but those that #24; ourished in the rich sermon culture of post- Reformation Church of England. Ryan Netzley, Reading, Desire, and the Eucharist in Early Modern... on Christian life and devo- tional verse, Netzley argues that early modern religious lyrics teach about the ?appropriate approach to an immanent divinity? and the ?manner and practice of desiring God? (3). Reading, Desire, and the Eucharist in Early Modern...

  16. Risky Business: The Discourse of Credit and Early Modern Female Playwrights Before Defoe 

    E-print Network

    Beggs, Courtney Beth

    2011-10-21

    This dissertation shows that early modern female playwrights were shaped by and helped to shape commercial literary marketplaces that were increasingly affected by the rise of credit, shifting exchange values, and unstable ...

  17. A Review of "Magic and Masculinity in Early Modern English Drama" by Ian McAdam 

    E-print Network

    Tiffany, Grace

    2011-01-01

    that forces readers to reconsider women?s mobility in traversing both physical and culturally sanctioned boundaries. Ian McAdam. Magic and Masculinity in Early Modern English Drama. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2009. v + 466 pp. $60. Review...

  18. A review of "The Challenges of Orpheus: Lyric Poetry and Early Modern England" by Heather Dubrow 

    E-print Network

    Hedley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    animals in Chapter Six, ?Animal Ethics and Radical Justice.? Suturing together discussions of Aristotle, Plutarch, the bible, and early-modern theologians such as John Calvin and Godfrey Goodman, she implies that poets articulate the most effective...

  19. Renaissance Fare: Appetite and Authority on the Early Modern English Stage

    E-print Network

    Behre, Keri Sanburn

    2011-05-31

    The politics of food are naturally central to many early modern plays in part because of unstable supply and means of distribution in London. Food is a type of property that can represent a great deal of power, especially ...

  20. A Review of "Poetry and Parental Bereavement in Early Modern Lutheran Germany" by Anna Linton

    E-print Network

    Boettcher, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    204 seventeenth-century news Anna Linton. Poetry and Parental Bereavement in Early Modern Lutheran Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. xvi + 319 pp. $110.00. Review by susan r. boettcher, university of texas at austin. Anna Linton...

  1. A review of "Framing ‘India’: The Colonial Imaginary in Early Modern Culture." by Shankar Raman 

    E-print Network

    Nagendra Rao

    2003-01-01

    on matters such as literature or music even in the German context, let alone in other national traditions. Brief comparisons to Catholic authors like Bellarmine are tantalizingly under-explored. Some of these matters are examined in Steiger?s rapidly... with comprehensive collections in the areas of theology or German literature and recommended for comparative purposes in libraries with a focus on early modern matters. Shankar Raman. Framing ?India?: The Colonial Imaginary in Early Modern Culture. Stanford...

  2. Early Modern Japanese Art History: An Overview of the State of the Field

    E-print Network

    Graham, Patricia J.

    2002-09-01

    will focus on “Blood in Early Modern Japanese Culture.” If readers would like to organize future panels, please contact Philip Brown at Department of History, 230 West 17th Avenue, Columbus OH 43210 or at brown.113@osu.edu. Early Modern Japanese Art... constructed histories of particular types of Japanese arts, according to media, thematic cohesiveness (for example, the chanoyu tea ceremony), and/or artistic lineages. This methodology follows traditional approaches to the discipline of Japanese art...

  3. A Review of "Plague Writing in Early Modern England" by Ernest Gilman 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, John

    2010-01-01

    166 seventeenth-century news sionally frustrated?albeit with an ineffable sense of having absorbed something significant. Ernest Gilman. Plague Writing in Early Modern England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. xi + 256 pp. index. bibl... and medical tracts, satire and philosophy?all a part of the plague discourse ostensibly designed to help its residents recognize, interpret and survive the epidemic. In Plague Writing in Early Modern England, Ernest Gilman examines the matrix of such texts...

  4. A Review of "Poetry and Parental Bereavement in Early Modern Lutheran Germany" by Anna Linton 

    E-print Network

    Boettcher, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    204 seventeenth-century news Anna Linton. Poetry and Parental Bereavement in Early Modern Lutheran Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. xvi + 319 pp. $110.00. Review by susan r. boettcher, university of texas at austin. Anna Linton?s... among Lutheran authors in early modern Germany. As sources, she uses sixteenth- and seventeenth-century commemorative poetry, books of consolation, and funeral publications found at the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenb...

  5. A review of "Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature" by Bernadette Andrea

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jyotsna G.

    2010-01-01

    . Bernadette Andrea. Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 185 pp. ?45.00. Review by jyotsna g. singh, michigan state university. Women and Islam in Early Modern Literature makes an important con... to the eighteenth century is bold and innovative (1). English engagements with the Islamic world in the period extended into regions of the Mediterranean, Persia, and India, but Andrea?s scope includes the first two regions, to the exclusion of the latter...

  6. The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory.

    PubMed

    Bos, Jacques

    2009-07-01

    Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention. Medical psychology in the ancient world can only be correctly understood by relating it to psychological thought in other fields, such as ethics and rhetoric. The concept that ties these various domains together is character (ęthos), which involves a view of human beings focused on clearly distinguishable psychological types that can be recognized on the basis of external signs. Psychological ideas based on humoral theory remained influential well into the early modern period. Yet, in 17th-century medicine and philosophy, humoral physiology and psychology started to lose ground to other theoretical perspectives on the mind and its relation to the body. This decline of humoralist medical psychology can be related to a broader reorientation of psychological thought in which the traditional concept of character lost its central position. Instead of the focus on types and stable character traits, a perspective emerged that was primarily concerned with individuality and transient passions. PMID:20213950

  7. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-02-10

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons. PMID:25624493

  8. Gene Losses during Human Origins Xiaoxia Wang[

    E-print Network

    Dean, Matthew D.

    or genetic background that altered the threat from or response to sepsis. The identification and analysis)/ simian immunodeficiency virus. With rapid progress in human genetics, comparative genomics, and molecularGene Losses during Human Origins Xiaoxia Wang[ , Wendy E. Grus[ , Jianzhi Zhang* Department

  9. A review of "The Poetics of Melancholy in Early Modern England." by Douglas Trevor 

    E-print Network

    Thomas P. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    that by the seventeenth century melan- choly was both a ?condition and a practice? (7). Where much past work on the topic has understood melancholy in relation to the redemptive or genial sadness associated with Marsilio Ficino?s late medieval accounts, Trevor con- tends... that early modern scholars could be both sad and sick without con- comitant moral or spiritual uprightness. The book?s challenge to the Ficinian model of melancholy is the first of Trevor?s major contributions to recent accounts of early modern melancholy...

  10. Sharing cases: the Observationes in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Pomata, Gianna

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the rise of an epistemic genre, the Observationes, a new form of medical writing that emerged in Renaissance humanistic medicine. The Observationes (collections of case-histories) originated in the second half of the sixteenth century, grew rapidly over the course of the seventeenth, and had become a primary form of medical writing by the eighteenth century. The genre developed initially as a form of self-advertisement by court and town physicians, who stressed success in practice, over and above academic learning, as a core element of their professional identity. This unprecedented emphasis on practice as a source of knowledge remained a key feature of the Observationes in its subsequent development. As the genre evolved, the original emphasis on therapeutic success gave way to a new focus on the descriptive knowledge of disease through detailed observation. The authorial identity projected by the writers of Observationes was increasingly that of the learned and experienced observer, bent on comparing notes and sharing his cases with the fellow members of the res publica medica. This paper charts the development of the genre, examining how its growth contributed to the new epistemological value of observation in the age of the Scientific Revolution. PMID:20695394

  11. A review of "Staging Slander and Gender in Early Modern England" by Ina Habermann 

    E-print Network

    Nancy M. Bunker

    2004-01-01

    , fruitfully I am sure, with this book for a long time. Ina Habermann. Staging Slander and Gender in Early Modern England. Hants: Ashgate, 2003. 202 pp. $79.95. Review by NANCY M. BUNKER, MACON STATE COLLEGE. Breaking new ground in the critical debate...

  12. The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in Early Modern English Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Christina J.

    2010-01-01

    The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…

  13. FROM PRINT TO PATENTS: LIVING ON INSTRUMENTS IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE

    E-print Network

    FROM PRINT TO PATENTS: LIVING ON INSTRUMENTS IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE Mario Biagioli Harvard University Surprisingly, patents are nowhere as central to the history of scientific instruments a comparison of printed patent rolls up to 1800 (which I am making available electronically) and other tactics

  14. A review of "The Renaissance of Lesbianism in Early Modern England." by Valerie Traub 

    E-print Network

    Mario Digangi

    2003-01-01

    ? and its introduction?seems to promise. Valerie Traub. The Renaissance of Lesbianism in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. xvi + 492 pp. + 33 illus. $80.00 cloth. $29.00 paper. Review by MARIO DIGANGI, LEHMAN COLLEGE...

  15. A review of "Women and Race in Early Modern Texts." by Joyce Green MacDonald 

    E-print Network

    Lisa J. Schnell

    2003-01-01

    + 492 pp. + 33 illus. $80.00 cloth. $29.00 paper. Review by MARIO DIGANGI, LEHMAN COLLEGE AND THE GRADUATE CENTER, CUNY. The Renaissance of Lesbianism in Early Modern England pro- vides an encyclopedic account of the transformation of the cul- tural...

  16. A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maffioli, Cesare S.

    2013-01-01

    Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…

  17. Teaching the Past in the Early Modern Era: Two Different Ways to Make Use of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruter, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Were teachers, of the early modern era not longing for the present? Most colleges of that time did not offer a history course. Still, they did teach a lot about the past since the teaching consisted in the reading of the works of ancient writers. This is because ancient science and literature were considered much more advanced than the science and…

  18. Between Charity and Education: Orphans and Orphanages in Early Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    In early modern times orphans have been children who could not expect sufficient support from their family because of lack of at least one parent, in most cases the father. This article will clarify of whom we are talking if we talk about orphans and what have been the conditions of living in a society which was organised by a high variety of…

  19. ‘A Wonderfull Monster Borne in Germany’: Hairy Girls in Medieval and Early Modern German Book, Court and Performance Culture*

    PubMed Central

    Katritzky, MA

    2014-01-01

    Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. Modern investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most early modern European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, modern historians routinely link early modern reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising early modern awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives. One concerns an Italian girl taken to Prague in 1355 by the Holy Roman Empress, Anna von Schweidnitz. Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the ‘Wild Man’ of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the 1580s. The third and fourth cases consider the medieval bearded Sankt Kümmernis (also known as St Wilgefortis or St Uncumber), and the seventeenth-century Bavarian fairground performer Barbara Urslerin. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u.a. genetische Veränderungen und Vererbung, verschiedene Krebserkrankungen und hormonelle Störungen gehören. Die moderne Hirsutismus-Forschung ist im 19. Jh. von deutschen Forschern initiiert worden. Die meisten europäischen frühneuzeitlichen Erscheinungen von Hypertrichose (dem genetisch bedingten Haarwuchs am gesamten Körper und im Gesicht) gehen auf deutschsprachige Eltern oder Förderer zurück und sind in Deutschland in den Druck gelangt. Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des Wilden Mannes zieht die aktuelle geschichtswissenschaftliche Forschung in der Regel Verbindungslinien zwischen der frühneuzeitlichen Wahrnehmung von Hypertrichose-Fällen und Fragen der Ethnizität, ohne jedoch zu beachten, dass in der Frühen Neuzeit die Verbindung zwischen temporärem Hirsutismus und der krankhaften Verknüpfung von Unterernährung und Anorexie bekannt war. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden vier Fälle von an Hirsutismus erkrankten Frauen neu analysiert, unter Einbezug dieser medizinischen Perspektive und unter Beachtung von Texten und Abbildungen, die meine jüngsten Forschungen in der Herzog August Bibliothek und an deutschen Archiven ans Licht gefördert haben. Die hier betrachteten Fälle betreffen ein italienisches Mädchen, das 1355 von Anna von Schweidnitz, Kaiserin des Hl. Römischen Reichs, nach Prag gebracht wurde; Madeleine und Antonietta Gonzalez, die Töchter des ‘Wilden Manns’ von Teneriffa, die in den 1580er Jahren an deutschen Höfen bezeugt sind; die bärtige Sankt Kümmernis (Wilgefortis), und die bayerische Jahrmarktkünstlerin Barbara Urslerin. PMID:25598545

  20. Identifying the seasonal origins of human campylobacteriosis.

    PubMed

    Strachan, N J C; Rotariu, O; Smith-Palmer, A; Cowden, J; Sheppard, S K; O'Brien, S J; Maiden, M C J; Macrae, M; Bessell, P R; Matthews, L; Reid, S W J; Innocent, G T; Ogden, I D; Forbes, K J

    2013-06-01

    Human campylobacteriosis exhibits a distinctive seasonality in temperate regions. This paper aims to identify the origins of this seasonality. Clinical isolates [typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)] and epidemiological data were collected from Scotland. Young rural children were found to have an increased burden of disease in the late spring due to strains of non-chicken origin (e.g. ruminant and wild bird strains from environmental sources). In contrast the adult population had an extended summer peak associated with chicken strains. Travel abroad and UK mainland travel were associated with up to 17% and 18% of cases, respectively. International strains were associated with chicken, had a higher diversity than indigenous strains and a different spectrum of MLST types representative of these countries. Integrating empirical epidemiology and molecular subtyping can successfully elucidate the seasonal components of human campylobacteriosis. The findings will enable public health officials to focus strategies to reduce the disease burden. PMID:22989449

  1. A comparative study of women in early modern England and their contemporaries in the Ottoman Empire 

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Emily Anne

    2013-02-22

    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WOMEN IN EARLY MODERN ENGLAND AND THEIR CONTEMPORARIES IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE A Senior Honors Thesis By EMILY ANNE JACKSON Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas ELM University... By EMILY ANNE JACKSON Submitted to the Oflice of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University In partial fulfillment of the requirements For the Designation of UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW Approved as to style and content...

  2. A review of "Carnival and Literature in Early Modern England" by Jennifer C. Vaught

    E-print Network

    Laam, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    and seasonal temporal markers” (115). Bartholomew Fair, according to Vaught, likewise uses its festival setting (the feast of St. Bartholomew) to lament the replacement of communal festivities by an individualistic market economy. The book’s fourth and final..., analysis of literary appropriations of carnival and festive rituals in early modern England. Vaught sets out to contest the ideological rigidity of prior studies on the subject, namely their tendency to understand carnival as the province of either...

  3. Dance as a Project of the Early Modern Avant-garde

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Drake-Boyt

    2005-01-01

    This investigation presents an analysis of three expressive dance works created between 1900 and 1920 as projects of the Early Modern avant-garde. The dances chosen were Incense (1906) by Ruth St. Denis, Gnossienne (1919) by Ted Shawn, and L’Aprčs-Midi d’un Faune by Vaslav Nijinsky. While Shawn and St. Denis were American dance artists at the forefront of modern dance development,

  4. A review of "Renaissance Tropologies: The Cultural Imagination of Early Modern England" by Jeanne Shami 

    E-print Network

    Stanwood, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    and Carl Schmitt, ?the archconservative German jurist and staunch enemy of liberalism? (65). The essay is fresh and unusual, ending with a brilliant application of political belief and critical theory in an explication of Donne?s ?Ecstasy... contributors so that the volume is coherent. But ?cultural imagination? is obviously not well or fully contained in such loose baggage as these tropologies might wish to hold or embrace. Bernadette Andrea. Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature...

  5. Galley-foists, Lord Mayors' Shows, and Early Modern English Drama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Carnegie

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that the OED’s mistaken definition of a ‘galley-foist’ as ‘a stage barge, esp. that of the lord mayor of London’ has significantly misled readers, editors of Jonson and other early modern drama, and writers on London civic pageantry. Evidence from chronicles, eyewitness accounts, livery company records, and the pictorial record demonstrates that the galley-foist was indeed a

  6. A Review of "Plague Writing in Early Modern England" by Ernest Gilman

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, John

    2010-01-01

    and death, was composed following his recovery from ?the spotted fever? not long before the epidemic of 1625. The second, an unauthorized edition appearing during the epidemic, was published by the opportunistic printer William Stansby, obviously.... $35.00. Review by john gibbs. Bubonic plague?s endemicity in early modern England placed London at perpetual risk of epidemic. In the seventeenth century, the plague appeared annually but with minimal impact in the City and its liberties. However...

  7. A review of "Renaissance Hybrids: Culture and Genre in Early Modern England" by Gary A. Schmidt

    E-print Network

    Swann, Adam

    2014-01-01

    larger under- standing of the literature and culture of the late Elizabethan period through the Restoration. Gary A. Schmidt. Renaissance Hybrids: Culture and Genre in Early Modern England. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2013. vii + 246... pp. + 3 illus. $109.95. Review by adam swann, university of glasgow. The connotations of the term “hybrid” have shifted over the past five centuries, moving from an “early incarnation in Renaissance concepts of boundary violation and the nineteenth...

  8. A review of "Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern England." by Juliet Fleming 

    E-print Network

    Thomas H. Luxon

    2002-01-01

    REVIEWS 225 ship between pastoral theatre and baroque pastoral painting. Sigu maintains that the pastoral genre was at first identified by a plain style, but pastoral theatre and art became more complex and en- joyable as their simplicity... scholarly project that promises to be very useful to art and theatre historians as well as to cultural critics. Juliet Fleming. Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern En- gland. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. vi + 224 pp...

  9. A review of "Reading History in Early Modern England." by D. R. Woolf

    E-print Network

    Michael Mendle

    2004-01-01

    . Woolf. Reading History in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. xvi + 360 pp. + 11 figures + 4 maps + 22 illus. $70.00. Review by MICHAEL MENDLE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA. Anyone interested in the ?history of history books...? (1) will find Dan Woolf ?s fine study a treasury of information and insight. So too will those interested more broadly in the world of the ?big? book (for that is what most of the volumes considered here are? thick quartos and lavish folios...

  10. Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the Early Modern English Household

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this ‘treasury for health.’ Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax ‘family books,’ this essay traces on the process through which early modern recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of early modern recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in early modern households. PMID:23926360

  11. Human Origins Program: In Search of What Makes Us Human

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Human Origins Program at the Smithsonian "is dedicated to understanding the biological and cultural foundations of human life." Their new site gives visitors an accessible and informative tour of the current state of human paleontology. At the heart of the site is a hypertext family tree of early human phylogeny that helps users see not only the relations between various incarnations of human ancestors, but lets them click on parts of the timetable to examine fossil evidence and read about the discovery of and conclusions drawn from crucial skull bones and fragments. Another section allows users to examine three key fossilized skulls with QuickTime, so that one can rotate the skull and zoom in on key features. The What's Hot! in Paleoanthropology section offers readable summaries of key professional articles published in the field in the last three years. Finally, users are invited to ask questions via email of the paleontologists at the Human Origins Program. Some of these will, no doubt, be posted in the yet-to-be completed Frequently Asked Questions portion of the site. Ironically enough, materials for the latest entries in the human family tree, including Homo sapiens, are still under construction.

  12. A review of "Rhetoric and Medicine in Early Modern Europe" edited by Stephen Pender and Nancy S. Struever

    E-print Network

    Fester, Karin Susan

    2013-01-01

    pamphlets in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Stephen Pender and Nancy S. Struever, eds. Rhetoric and Medicine in Early Modern Europe. Farnham, UK and Burlington,VT: Ashgate, #18;#17;#16;#18;. Literary and Scienti#3;c Cultures of Early Modernity... that concen- trates on the intimate relationship between medicine and rhetoric in early modern Europe. Each of the essays?ten in total?in this volume make a valuable contribution to the #3;eld of seventeenth-century stud- ies, medical rhetoric, and scienti...

  13. A review of "The Ends of Life: Roads to Fulfilment in Early Modern England" by Keith Thomas

    E-print Network

    Patterson, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    contradictory mental world of early modern English people. Thomas identifies six major ?roads to fulfillment?: military prow- ess; work and vocation; wealth and possessions; honor and reputation; friendship and sociability; and fame and the afterlife...

  14. A review of "Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England." by Nancy Cox and Karin Dannehl 

    E-print Network

    Hayworth, Gene

    2008-01-01

    collection of digitized historical documents on early modern trade that includes industrial patents, books of rates, probate invento- ries of tradesmen, advertisements from provincial newspapers, trade cards and bill heads, diaries and personal papers...

  15. A review of "The Culture of Capital: Property, Cities, and Knowledge in Early Modern England." by Henry S. Turner ed. 

    E-print Network

    Nicole Greenspan

    2004-01-01

    . Turner, ed. The Culture of Capital: Property, Cities, and Knowledge in Early Modern England. New York: Routledge, 2002. 304 pp. + 14 illus. $30.00. Review by NICOLE GREENSPAN, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. ?Is there a new subject for criticism?? John...

  16. A review of "Radical Religion from Shakespeare to Milton: Figures of Nonconformity in Early Modern England." by Kristen Poole

    E-print Network

    Elizabeth Sauer

    2002-01-01

    early modern radical religion has preoccupied his- torians like B. Reay, Phyllis Mack, Brian Manning, Christopher Hill, and Patrick Collinson for decades, literary scholars, with the exception of critics like Nigel Smith and David Loewenstein, are only...

  17. A review of "Dramatic Difference: Gender, Class, and Genre in the Early Modern Closet Drama." by Karen Raber 

    E-print Network

    Julie D. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    . Karen Raber. Dramatic Difference: Gender, Class, and Genre in the Early Modern Closet Drama. Newark: University of Delaware Press; London: Associated University Presses, 2001. 338 pp. $49.50 cloth. Review by JULIE D. CAMPBELL, EASTERN ILLINOIS...

  18. A review of "Radical Religion from Shakespeare to Milton: Figures of Nonconformity in Early Modern England." by Kristen Poole 

    E-print Network

    Elizabeth Sauer

    2002-01-01

    considerable cultural force in early modern England, but for (past and present) readers of sev- enteenth-century texts, Puritanism is also allied with political revo- lution/rebellion. John Spurr in English Puritanism, 1603-1689 (1998) reminds us...

  19. A review of "The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture." by Brendan Dooley 

    E-print Network

    Laura Cruz

    2002-01-01

    . Brendan Dooley. The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. viii + 213 pp. $42.95. Review by LAURA CRUZ, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY. Brendan...

  20. Men on the road: beggars and vagrants in early modern drama (William Shakespeare, John Fletcher, and Richard Brome) 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Mi-Su

    2004-09-30

    This dissertation examines beggars, gypsies, rogues, and vagrants presented in early modern English drama, with the discussion of how these peripatetic characters represent the discourses of vagrancy of the period. The ...

  1. A review of "Horrid Spectacle: Violation in the Theater of Early Modern England." by Deborah G. Burks 

    E-print Network

    Christopher J. Wheatley

    2005-01-01

    24 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS admit, as I do, that she has opened the way to what should be continuing and fruitful dialogue. Deborah G. Burks. Horrid Spectacle: Violation in the Theater of Early Modern England. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University...

  2. A review of "Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage" by John Considine 

    E-print Network

    Hill, Eugene D.

    2010-01-01

    . To be sure, these considerations add up to a caveat or two, no more. This book richly rewards the scholar?s attention. Jeanne Shami, ed. Renaissance Tropologies: The Cultural Imagination of Early Modern England. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2008...

  3. A review of "Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage" by John Considine

    E-print Network

    Hill, Eugene D.

    2010-01-01

    reviews 1 John Considine. Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. xiv + 393 pp. $99.00. Review by eugene d. hill, mount holyoke college. John Considine?s fine...

  4. Dante, Sanudo and Polo. From the Crusades to the Perpetuation of Early Modern Descriptions of the East as

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    of the first half of the fourteenth century, such as those by Marco Polo and Odorico of Pordenone, which opened1 Dante, Sanudo and Polo. From the Crusades to the Perpetuation of Early Modern Descriptions

  5. A review of "Inventing the Indigenous: Local Knowledge and Natural History in Early Modern Europe" by Alix Cooper 

    E-print Network

    Chamberland, Celeste

    2009-01-01

    . Inventing the Indigenous: Local Knowledge and Natural History in Early Modern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. xiii + 218. $80.00. Review by celeste chamberland, roosevelt university. In the decades since Alfred Crosby first identified... scientific and intellectual culture adapted to such changes within non-colonial areas of Europe. In Inventing the Indigenous: Local Knowledge and Natural History in Early Modern Europe, Alix Cooper judiciously addresses this omission by exploring...

  6. A review of "The Reinvention of Obscenity: Sex, Lies, and Tabloids in Early Modern France." by Joan DeJean 

    E-print Network

    Melissa Mohr

    2003-01-01

    genitalia were talked about, ?moreover, celebrated in a fashion previously reserved for male or- gans. . . . [F]emale genitalia, for the first time in any erotic or REVIEWS 327 transgressive literature, are portrayed not as disgusting but as a source... REVIEWS 325 way toward making early modern grammar texts, considered dry and boring even at the time of their printing, interesting. Joan DeJean. The Reinvention of Obscenity: Sex, Lies, and Tabloids in Early Modern France. Chicago: University...

  7. A review of "Ritual and Conflict: The Social Relations of Childbirth in Early Modern England" Adrian Wilson

    E-print Network

    Weaver, Karol Kovalovich

    2014-01-01

    -century drama, legal history, and the intellectual history of England’s evolution toward royalist and parliamentary polarization. Adrian Wilson. Ritual and Conflict: The Social Relations of Childbirth in Early Modern England. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013. vii + 261... pp. $124.95. Review by karol kovalovich weaver, susquehanna university. Adrian Wilson’s Ritual and Conflict: The Social Relations of Child- birth in Early Modern England considers the social networks that shaped childbirth in seventeenth...

  8. A review of "The Politics of Commonwealth: Citizens and Freemen in Early Modern England." by Phil Withington 

    E-print Network

    Kow, Simon

    2006-01-01

    , and the Americas in the colonial enterprises of the early modern period. Phil Withington. The Politics of Commonwealth: Citizens and Freemen in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. xiv + 298 pp. $75.00. Review by SIMON KOW..., UNIVERSITY OF KING?S COLLEGE. In chapter 29 of Leviathan, Hobbes characterized ?Corporations? as ?many lesser Common-wealths in the bowels of a greater, like wormes in the entrayles of a natural man.? Phil Withington expands upon the implicit assumption...

  9. ‘To[o] much eating stifles the child’: fat bodies and reproduction in early modern England?*

    PubMed Central

    Toulalan, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article examines associations between fat bodies and reproductive dysfunction that were prevalent in medical, midwifery and other literature in early modern England. In a period when fertility and successful reproduction were regarded as hugely important for social, economic and political stability such associations further contributed to negative attitudes towards fat bodies that were fuelled by connection with the vices of sloth and gluttony. Fat bodies were categorized as inherently, constitutionally, less sexual and reproductively successful. Consequently they were perceived as unhealthy and unfit for their primary purpose once they had reached sexual maturity: marriage and the production of children. PMID:25960608

  10. Investigating early modern Ottoman consumer culture in the light of Bursa probate inventories.

    PubMed

    Karababa, Eminegül

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the development of early modern Ottoman consumer culture. In particular, the democratization of consumption, which is a significant indicator of the development of western consumer cultures, is examined in relation to Ottoman society. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century probate inventories of the town of Bursa combined with literary and official sources are used in order to identify democratization of consumption and the macro conditions shaping this development. Findings demonstrate that commercialization, international trade, urbanization which created a fluid social structure, and the ability of the state to negotiate with guilds were possible contextual specificities which encouraged the democratization of consumption in the Bursa context. PMID:22329064

  11. A review of "Playing Spaces in Early Modern Women's Drama" by Alison Findlay

    E-print Network

    Scott, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    REVIEWS 167 AlisonFindlay. Playing Spaces in Early Modern Women?s Drama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. x + 260 pp. + 7 illus. $85.00. Review by SARAH SCOTT, MOUNT ST. MARY?S UNIVERSITY. Alison Findlay?s Playing Spaces in Early... by their authors to imagine the possibility of a home created and man- aged by women. ?Gardens,? the second chapter, leads readers into the world of the pas- toral by examining the spaces and freedoms of gardens, heterotopic places resembling the living art form...

  12. A review of "Sublime Worlds: Early Modern French Literature" by Emma Gilby

    E-print Network

    Sedley, David

    2008-01-01

    are addressed from an art-historical point of view by Elmer Kolfin and Marrigje Rikken, and from a contextualist one by Warren Boutcher. Taking as his subject ?a copy of the 1602 Paris edition of Montaigne?s Essais owned by a Dutch lawyer and painter Pieter... these texts through a revised Longinian lens, one may correct the tendencies of some critics to focus exclusively on the ?grandeur? of sublimity, and of others to impose modern perspectives on its early modern fortune. Gilby also proposes to mitigate...

  13. A review of "Foxe's Book of Martyrs and Early Modern Print Culture" by John N. King

    E-print Network

    Blevins, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    that are made by Findlay are sophisticated and complex. This book provides highly stimulating and rewarding reading for students and scholars of women?s drama. John N. King. Foxe?s Book of Martyrs and Early Modern Print Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge... University Press, 2006. xviii + 351 pp. $110.00. Review by JACOB BLEVINS, MCNEESE STATE UNIVERSITY. Somewhere between old-style bibliographical studies that focus on the physicality of the printed book and post-modern inquires into material cul- ture lies a...

  14. (See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.

    PubMed

    Kraye, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions. PMID:22702173

  15. A word of the Empirics: the ancient concept of observation and its recovery in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Pomata, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    The genealogy of observation as a philosophical term goes back to the ancient Greek astronomical and medical traditions, and the revival of the concept in the Renaissance also happened in the astronomical and medical context. This essay focuses primarily on the medical genealogy of the concept of observation. In ancient Greek culture, an elaboration of the concept of observation (t?r?sis) first emerged in the Hellenistic age with the medical sect of the Empirics, to be further developed by the ancient Sceptics. Basically unknown in the Middle Ages, the Empirics' conceptualisation of t?r?sis trickled back into Western medicine in the fourteenth century, but its meaning seems to have been fully recovered by European scholars only in the 1560s, concomitantly with the first Latin translation of the works of Sextus Empiricus. As a category originally associated with medical Scepticism, observatio was a new entry in early modern philosophy. Although the term gained wide currency in general scholarly usage in the seventeenth century, its assimilation into standard philosophical language was very slow. In fact, observatio does not even appear as an entry in the philosophical dictionaries until the eighteenth century--with one significant exception, the medical lexica, which featured the lemma, reporting its ancient Empiric definition, as early as 1564. PMID:21466002

  16. The human connectome: origins and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sporns, Olaf

    2013-10-15

    The human connectome refers to a map of the brain's structural connections, rendered as a connection matrix or network. This article attempts to trace some of the historical origins of the connectome, in the process clarifying its definition and scope, as well as its putative role in illuminating brain function. Current efforts to map the connectome face a number of significant challenges, including the issue of capturing network connectivity across multiple spatial scales, accounting for individual variability and structural plasticity, as well as clarifying the role of the connectome in shaping brain dynamics. Throughout, the article argues that these challenges require the development of new approaches for the statistical analysis and computational modeling of brain network data, and greater collaboration across disciplinary boundaries, especially with researchers in complex systems and network science. PMID:23528922

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia and mouse brain the experimental-wise false discovery rate. A human acute leukemia dataset corrected from 38 leukemia patients

  18. Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donald Johanson (Arizona State University; )

    2001-05-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents the two theories about the origin of modern humans: 1) they arose in one place -- Africa and and 2) pre-modern humans migrated from Africa to become modern humans in other parts of the world. Most evidence points to the first theory because: fossils of modern-like humans are found in Africa, stone tools and other artifacts support African origin, and DNA studies suggest a founding population in Africa.

  19. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear. PMID:25080642

  20. Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

  1. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    PubMed

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past. PMID:24855872

  2. "This base stallion trade": he-whores and male sexuality on the early modern stage.

    PubMed

    Panek, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarship on early modern male sexuality has stressed the threat that sexual relations with women were believed to pose to manhood. Focusing on such plays as Middleton's Your Five Gallants (c. 1608), Fletcher and Massinger's The Custom of The Country (c.1620), and Davenant's The Just Italian (1630), this paper analyzes representations of male prostitutes for women to argue that cultural attitudes toward male sexual performance were more complex and self-contradictory than generally acknowledged. The patriarchal codes that warned against effeminating sexual desire and advocated parsimonious seminal “spending” are undermined by their own inherent corollary: the most masculine man is one who can demonstrate unlimited seminal capacity. Furthermore, it has been posited that the early modern period marked the beginning of a shift from “reproductive” to “performative” constructions of manhood, in which the manhood-affirming aspects of male sexuality gradually became unmoored from their traditional association with bloodlines and attached instead to penetrative sexual conquest. The class implications of this shift inform patriarchal anxieties about the superior sexual stamina of servant-class men and their bodily “service” to elite women. Representing a fantasy of empowering male sexuality that relies on detaching virile performance from effeminating desire—a physiologically absurd notion—and on providing sexual “service” while leaving intact both class and gender hierarchies, a successful he-whore like Middleton's Tailby or Davenant's Sciolto playfully challenges the dictates of patriarchal masculinity by fulfilling them in absurd and unorthodox ways. Ultimately, he illuminates just how untenable those dictates might be. PMID:21114067

  3. A review of "The State and Social Change in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1640." by Steve Hindle

    E-print Network

    Nicole Greenspan

    2002-01-01

    on military history from throughout Europe. Ultimately, this volume will have great appeal to historians of the military and of the state. Steve Hindle. The State and Social Change in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1640. New York: St. Martin?s Press, 2000.... x + 338 pp. $60.00. Review by NICOLE GREENSPAN, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. In this provocative and well-argued study Steve Hindle calls for a fundamental change in the way historians conceptualize the formation of the early modern English state...

  4. A review of "Early Modern English Lives: Autobiography and Self-Representation 1500 - 1660" by Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly 

    E-print Network

    Oh, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    64 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly. Early Modern English Lives: Autobiography and Self-Representation 1500-1660. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2007. viii + 241 pp. + 5 illus. $99.95. Review... by ELISA OH. Contributing to the conversation on the early modern subject, Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly?s Early Modern English Lives: Autobi- ography and Self-Representation 1500-1660 examines a welcome variety of six- teenth...

  5. Mitochondrial COII Sequences and Modern Human Origins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryellen Ruvolo; Sarah Zehr; Miranda von Dornum; Deborah Pan; Belinda Chang; Jenny Lin

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure human mitochondrial sequence variability in the relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit II (CO11 ) and to estimate when the the human common ancestral mitochondrial type existed. New CO11 gene sequences were determined for five humans (Homo sap- iens), including some of the most mitochondrially divergent humans known; for two

  6. [Human Origins Research 2011; 1:e1] [page 1] Human Origins Research 2011; volume 1:e1

    E-print Network

    Smith, Tanya M.

    - species have been named, largely on the basis of dental metric varia- tion, occlusal morphology[Human Origins Research 2011; 1:e1] [page 1] Human Origins Research 2011; volume 1:e1 Dental tissue, including a trend of dental reduction during the past million years. While studies have documented variation

  7. Origin of trisomies in human spontaneous abortions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Hassold; Aileen Matsuyama

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome heteromorphisms of 34 trisomic abortuses and their parents were compared to determine the origin of the extra chromosome. Fourteen of the trisomies were maternal in origin, ten resulting from a first-meiotic-division error and four from either first- or second-meiotic-division errors. No paternally derived trisomy was identified.

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER A transgenic mouse model engineered to investigate human

    E-print Network

    Devignes, Marie-Dominique

    ORIGINAL PAPER A transgenic mouse model engineered to investigate human brain-derived neurotrophic to study human BDNF gene expression and permit the screening of compounds capable of stimulating its activity. A 145-kb yeast artificial chromosome carrying the human BDNF gene has been engi- neered

  9. The origin and diversity of human retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Martine; D’Arc, Mirela; Delaporte, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), T-cell lymphotrophic viruses (STLV), and foamy viruses (SFV) from non-human primates (NHP) have crossed the species barrier to humans at several occasions, leading to the HIV and HTLV epidemic and to sporadic cases of human infections with simian foamy viruses, respectively. Efficient infection and spread in humans differs between SFV, STLV and SIV, but seems also to differ among the different viruses from the same simian lineage, as illustrated by the different spread of HIV-1 M, N O, P or for the different HIV-2 groups. Among the four HIV-1 groups, only HIV-1 group M has spread worldwide and the actual diversity within HIV-1 M (subtypes, Circulating Recombinants) is the result of subsequent evolution and spread in the human population. HIV-2 did only spread to some extent in West Africa, and similarly as for HIV-1, the nine HIV-2 groups have also a different epidemic spread. Four types of HTLV, type 1 to 4, have been described in humans and for 3 of them simian counterparts (STLV-1, STLV-2, STLV-3) have been identified in multiple NHP species. The majority of human infections are with HTLV-1 which is present throughout the world as clusters of high endemicity. Humans are susceptible to a wide variety of SFVs and seem to acquire these viruses more readily than SIVs or STLVs but no signs of disease in humans nor human-to-human transmission of SFV has been documented yet. The current HIV-1 M epidemic illustrates the impact of a single cross-species transmission. The recent discovery of HIV-1 P, HIV-2 I, new HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 variants as well as SFV infections in humans in Central Africa, show that our knowledge of genetic diversity and cross-species transmissions of simian retroviruses are still incomplete. PMID:24584106

  10. Origin and diversity of human retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Martine; D'Arc, Mirela; Delaporte, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses, simian T?cell lymphotropic viruses, and simian foamy viruses from nonhuman primates have crossed the species barrier to humans at several time points, leading to the HIV and human T lymphotropic virus epidemic and to sporadic cases of human infections with simian foamy viruses, respectively. Efficient infection and spread in humans differs between simian foamy virus, simian lymphotropic virus, and simian immunodeficiency virus, but seems also to differ among the different viruses from the same simian lineage, as illustrated by the different spread of HIV?1 M, N O, P or for the different HIV?2 groups. Among the four HIV?1 groups, only HIV?1 group M has spread worldwide, and the actual diversity within HIV?1 M (subtypes, circulating recombinants) is the result of subsequent evolution and spread in the human population. HIV?2 only spread to some extent in West Africa, and similarly as for HIV?1, the nine HIV?2 groups have also a different epidemic history. Four types of human T lymphotropic virus, type 1 to 4, have been described in humans and for three of them simian counterparts (simian T lymphotropic virus?1, ?2, ?3) have been identified in multiple nonhuman primate species. The majority of human infections are with human T lymphotropic virus?1, which is present throughout the world as clusters of high endemicity. Humans are susceptible to a wide variety of simian foamy viruses and seem to acquire these viruses more readily than simian immunodeficiency viruses or simian T lymphotropic viruses, but neither signs of disease in humans nor human?to?human transmission of simian foamy virus have been documented yet. The current HIV?1 M epidemic illustrates the impact of a single cross?species transmission. The recent discovery of HIV?1 P, HIV?2 I, new human T lymphotropic virus?1 and ?3 variants, as well as simian foamy virus infections in humans in Central Africa, show that our knowledge of genetic diversity and cross?species transmissions of simian retroviruses is still incomplete. PMID:24584106

  11. Genetics and the Origin of Human “Races”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ya. Tetushkin

    2001-01-01

    In the last decades, the concept of human races was considered scientifically unfounded as it was not confirmed by genetic evidence. None of the racial classifications, which strongly differ in the number of races and their composition, reflects actual genetic similarity and genealogy of human populations inferred from variability of classical markers and DNA regions. Moreover, intercontinental (“interracial”) variability was

  12. Origins of the human genome project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cook-Deegan; Robert Mullan Cook-deegan

    1991-01-01

    The Human Genome Project has become a reality. Several genome projects are now in full stride around the world, and more are likely to form in the next several years. The purpose of genome projects is to assemble data on the structure of DNA in human chromosomes and those of other organisms. A second goal is to develop new technologies

  13. Translation de domicile: rethinking sedentarity and mobility in the early modern French countryside.

    PubMed

    Collins, James B

    2006-01-01

    Was the countryside of early modern France marked fundamentally by mobility or sedentarity? Tax rolls suggest the former, high endogamy rates the latter. For the period 1660-1720, a rarely used source, the registers of translation de domicile (change of tax domicile), provide a more comprehensive answer than civil or tax records. They suggest that, first, 60,000-70,000 better-off families moved each year; second, poor migrants, such as day labourers, rarely made declarations; third, those who owned land, moved far less often; fourth, laboureurs typically moved between 10 and 40 kilometres to take on farms of greater importance; fifth, cottagers and day labourers moved to a nearby village, rarely more than 5 kilometres away and finally, men and their families moved for economic gain, whereas women moved because of economic loss, after the death of their husband. Because the laboureurs dominated the villages-for example, paying most of the taxes-their movement shook the village in fundamental ways. The translation de domicile registers indicate villages open to the outside, full of in-migrants, whose economic status often bore a close correlation to the distance of their move (high-long, low-short). PMID:20672481

  14. Origins and rates of aneuploidy in human blastomeres

    E-print Network

    Petrov, Dmitri

    Origins and rates of aneuploidy in human blastomeres Matthew Rabinowitz, Ph.D.,a,b Allison Ryan, Ph with increasing maternal age can be attributed to disjunction errors during meiosis of the oocyte. Chro- mosome transfers result in a live birth (1). Early-stage human embryos have been shown to frequently suffer from

  15. Genomics refutes an exclusively African origin of humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinayak Eswaran; Henry Harpending; Alan R. Rogers

    2005-01-01

    Ten years ago, evidence from genetics gave strong support to the “recent African origin” view of the evolution of modern humans, which posits that Homo sapiens arose as a new species in Africa and subsequently spread, leading to the extinction of other archaic human species. Subsequent data from the nuclear genome not only fail to support this model, they do

  16. ‘Very Sore Nights and Days’: The Child’s Experience of Illness in Early Modern England, c.1580–1720

    PubMed Central

    NEWTON, HANNAH

    2011-01-01

    Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children’s experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfilment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children’s emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors’ casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308

  17. A Review of "Early Modern Women and Transnational Communities of Letters" edited by Julie D. Campbell and Anne R. Larsen 

    E-print Network

    Kennedy, Colleen E.

    2011-01-01

    of income?its production and sale of fine lacework?Tarabotti becomes intermedi - 26 seventeenth-century news ary between the women of the secular and cloistered worlds via her intervening letters. Camilla Russell follows two decades worth...? as Vaughan ?seeks often this oblique outlet for his inmost thought.? Paul Davis has ?pricked up his ears? to good purpose. Julie D. Campbell and Anne R. Larsen, eds. Early Modern Women and Transnational Communities of Letters. Surrey, England: Ashgate...

  18. A review of "The State and Social Change in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1640." by Steve Hindle 

    E-print Network

    Nicole Greenspan

    2002-01-01

    ? through society. On the other hand, social historians commonly view early modern gov- ernment as an essentially local affair and consequently pay scant attention to developments at the center. Finally, the growth of criminal and civil litigation... at the expense of society; rather, it did so as a conse- quence of social need? (16). REVIEWS 105 As Hindle demonstrates, the center and localities, or the ?state? and ?society,? were interdependent in late Tudor and Stuart England and the processes...

  19. A review of "Reading, Society and Politics in Early Modern England." by Kevin Sharpe and S. N. Zwicker eds. 

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey Johnson

    2004-01-01

    in the immense power of metaphor to shape and delimit the imagination? (238). Johns? article, in highlighting the methods of inquiry practiced during the formative years of the Royal Society, suggests that ?what the historian of reading should now be offering... to undo Satanic rhetoric. Kevin Sharpe and Steven N. Zwicker, eds. Reading, Society and Politics in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ix + 363 pp. $70.00. Review by JEFFREY JOHNSON, NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY...

  20. A review of "Worship and the Parish Church in Early Modern Britain" edited by Jessica Martin and Alec Ryrie

    E-print Network

    Landrum, Robert

    2014-01-01

    in Reformation History series. The early modern period witnessed dizzying change in English faith, from Henrician supremacy to Edwardian reform and Marian reaction. Elizabeth’s via media brought comfort to many, but that stability gave way to Laudian finery... by the Prayer Book encroached on predestination, “jeopardising the Church of England’s claims to be a reformed Church” (25). If the liturgy was theologically problematic, the conformity it enjoined was likewise imperfect. In “Special Nationwide Worship...

  1. A review of "Fate, Glory, and Love in Early Modern Gallery Decoration: Visualizing Supreme Power" by Margaretha Rossholm Lagerlöf 

    E-print Network

    Kirch, Miriam Hall

    2015-01-01

    naturali” (2nd edn., 2006). Margaretha Rossholm Lagerlöf. Fate, Glory, and Love in Early Modern Gallery Decoration: Visualizing Supreme Power. Farnham, Surrey and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2013. 276 pp. + 30 color plates and 110 b/w illus.... Ł 70,00. Review by Miriam Hall Kirch, University of North Alabama. This richly illustrated book presents four case studies of galleries, three of them well known: the Gallery of Francis I at Fontainebleau; the Farnese Gallery; and the Hall of Mirrors...

  2. A review of "Heresy, Literature, and Politics in Early Modern English Culture" by David Loewenstein and John Marshall, eds. 

    E-print Network

    Hill, Eugene D.

    2008-01-01

    , to name just a few areas, will find much of value in this work. In this, Consuming Splendor may promote the most valuable exchange of all. David Loewenstein and John Marshall, eds. Heresy, Literature, and Politics in Early Modern English Culture... papers on late seven- teenth-century tolerationist thought. John Marshall provides an exemplary account of the context in which Locke penned his three Letters on Toleration in the period 1685-89, reminding us of how alive virulent earlier views re...

  3. Origins of the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, Robert

    1993-07-01

    The human genome project was borne of technology, grew into a science bureaucracy in the US and throughout the world, and is now being transformed into a hybrid academic and commercial enterprise. The next phase of the project promises to veer more sharply toward commercial application, harnessing both the technical prowess of molecular biology and the rapidly growing body of knowledge about DNA structure to the pursuit of practical benefits. Faith that the systematic analysis of DNA structure will prove to be a powerful research tool underlies the rationale behind the genome project. The notion that most genetic information is embedded in the sequence of CNA base pairs comprising chromosomes is a central tenet. A rough analogy is to liken an organism's genetic code to computer code. The coal of the genome project, in this parlance, is to identify and catalog 75,000 or more files (genes) in the software that directs construction of a self-modifying and self-replicating system -- a living organism.

  4. The origin and distribution of human lice in the world.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Raoult, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Two genera of lice parasitize humans: Pthirus and Pediculus. The latter is of significant public health importance and comprises two ecotypes: the body louse and the head louse. These ecotypes are morphologically and genetically notably similar; the body louse is responsible for three infectious diseases: Louse-borne epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown that there are three obviously divergent clades of head lice (A, B and C), and only one clade of body lice is shared with head lice (clade A). Each clade has a unique geographic distribution. Lice have been parasitizing humans for millions of years and likely dispersed throughout the World with the human migrations out of Africa, so they can be good markers for studying human evolution. Here, we present an overview of the origin of human lice and their role in vector pathogenic bacteria that caused epidemics, and we review the association between lice clades and human migrations. PMID:24524985

  5. A review of "Self-Defense and Religious Strife in Early Modern Europe. England and Germany 1530-1630." by Robert von Friedeburg 

    E-print Network

    Paul M. Dover

    2006-01-01

    . Self-Defense and Religious Strife in Early Modern Europe. England and Germany 1530-1630. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002. xii + 278 pp. $99.95. Review by PAUL M. DOVER, KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY. With the advent of the religious controversies..., strong governmental authority, and a rigid social hierarchy, active resistance raised many dilemmas. It exercised the minds of intellectuals and common- ers alike in both Germany and the British Isles in the early modern period. Open resistance...

  6. Population Structure and Modern Human Origins Alan R. Rogers

    E-print Network

    Rogers, Alan R.

    Population Structure and Modern Human Origins Alan R. Rogers 1997 Abstract This paper reviews statistical methods for inferring population his- tory from mitochondrial mismatch distributions and extends them to the case of geographically structured populations. Inference is based on a geographically

  7. RESEARCH Open Access Inference of human continental origin and

    E-print Network

    Kidd, Kenneth

    RESEARCH Open Access Inference of human continental origin and admixture proportions using a highly the seven continental regions Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Central/ South Asia, East Asia, the Americas be geographically restricted because of evolutionary forces such as mutation, genetic drift, mi- gration and natural

  8. A review of "Performing Maternity in Early Modern England" edited by Kathryn M. Moncrief and Kathryn R. McPherson 

    E-print Network

    Bunker, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    ?s attention. She notes the play?s emphasis on male social bonds and that the mother ?colludes in her excision from the patriarchal narrative? (83). Part II: The Performance of Maternal Authority addresses the reclamation of maternal status in a period...230 s e v e n t e e n t h -c e n t u r y n e w s Kathryn M. Moncrief and Kathryn R. McPherson, eds. Performing Maternity in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England: Ashgate, 2007. 241 pp. + 14 figures. $99.95. Review by na n c y M. Bu n k e r...

  9. A review of "The Reformation of the Landscape: Religion, Identity, & Memory in Early Modern Britain and Ireland" by Alexandra Walsham

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Nicolle

    2012-01-01

    113 #2;#3;#4;#3;#5;#6;#3;#3;#5;#6;#7;-#8;#3;#5;#6; #11; #5;#3;#12;#2; Alexandra Walsham. #2; e Reformation of the Landscape: Religion, Identity, & Memory in Early Modern Britain and Ireland. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. xvi + 637 pp... of the term?s elusive and unstable meaning. #22; e introduction of Alexandra Walsham?s #2; e Reformation of Landscape promises to be attentive to the dizzying and sometimes contradictory array of meanings that accrue to the term. #22; us, she begins...

  10. A review of "Romance for Sale in Early Modern England: The Rise of Prose Fiction" by Steve Mentz

    E-print Network

    Evans, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    172 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Still, I must emphasize that for what it is?and it is a lot?this is a superb study of Foxe?s famous and influential work. Steve Mentz. Romance for Sale in Early Modern England: The Rise of Prose Fiction. Aldershot...: Ashgate, 2006. x + 261 pp. + 1 illus. $89.95. Review by ROBERT C. EVANS, AUBURN UNIVERSITY MONTGOMERY. In this clearly written, substantive, and well-researched book, Steve Mentz makes a strong case for the importance of prose fiction in the literary...

  11. The origin of human multi-modal communication.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Stephen C; Holler, Judith

    2014-09-19

    One reason for the apparent gulf between animal and human communication systems is that the focus has been on the presence or the absence of language as a complex expressive system built on speech. But language normally occurs embedded within an interactional exchange of multi-modal signals. If this larger perspective takes central focus, then it becomes apparent that human communication has a layered structure, where the layers may be plausibly assigned different phylogenetic and evolutionary origins--especially in the light of recent thoughts on the emergence of voluntary breathing and spoken language. This perspective helps us to appreciate the different roles that the different modalities play in human communication, as well as how they function as one integrated system despite their different roles and origins. It also offers possibilities for reconciling the 'gesture-first hypothesis' with that of gesture and speech having evolved together, hand in hand--or hand in mouth, rather--as one system. PMID:25092670

  12. 'He plays on the pillory'. The use of musical instruments for punishment in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era.

    PubMed

    Herzfeld-Schild, Marie Louise

    2013-01-01

    Illustrations by the Dutch renaissance artists Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Jan Wierix both show a man imprisoned on a pillory, a former place of enforcement of judicial sentences, and playing a musical instrument. Taken as legal iconographic sources, these illustrations of the old saying 'He plays on the pillory' can be understood as references to a specific kind of punishment used in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era. Specifically, delinquents had to wear wooden or iron 'neck violins' or 'neck flutes' while being pilloried or chased through the streets in order to be humiliated in public. As well as this historical fact, there also exists an interpretation that takes the illustrations by Bruegel and Wierix literally. It suggests that these punishment practices originally date back to a more ancient use of real instruments in a penal system that was applied and understood as a 'healing punishment' (poena medicinalis) to banish the ill and re-establish the good in the delinquent, the community and the world as a whole due to musical sounds. By means of legal iconographical and historical methods, this article explores the different nuances of punishment that employed real or symbolic musical instruments. Thus, it examines a historical aspect of 'music in detention' where the (symbolic) sounds do not emanate from the punisher but from the punished themselves. PMID:24480889

  13. Subcortical origins of human and monkey neocortical interneurons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tong; Wang, Congmin; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Xing; Tian, Miao; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Yue; Li, Jiwen; Liu, Zhidong; Cai, Yuqun; Liu, Fang; You, Yan; Chen, Chao; Campbell, Kenneth; Song, Hongjun; Ma, Lan; Rubenstein, John L; Yang, Zhengang

    2013-11-01

    Cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons have crucial roles in the development and function of the cerebral cortex. In rodents, nearly all neocortical interneurons are generated from the subcortical ganglionic eminences. In humans and nonhuman primates, however, the developmental origin of neocortical GABAergic interneurons remains unclear. Here we show that the expression patterns of several key transcription factors in the developing primate telencephalon are very similar to those in rodents, delineating the three main subcortical progenitor domains (the medial, lateral and caudal ganglionic eminences) and the interneurons tangentially migrating from them. On the basis of the continuity of Sox6, COUP-TFII and Sp8 transcription factor expression and evidence from cell migration and cell fate analyses, we propose that the majority of primate neocortical GABAergic interneurons originate from ganglionic eminences of the ventral telencephalon. Our findings reveal that the mammalian neocortex shares basic rules for interneuron development, substantially reshaping our understanding of the origin and classification of primate neocortical interneurons. PMID:24097041

  14. Effects of student ontological position on cognition of human origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervin, Jeremy Alan

    In this study, the narratives from a hermeneutical dialectic cycle of three high school students were analyzed to understand the influences of ontological position on the learning of human origins. The interpretation of the narratives provides the reader an opportunity to consider the learning process from the perspective of worldview and conceptual change theories. Questions guiding this research include: Within a context of a worldview, what is the range of ontological positions among a high school AP biology class? To what extent does ontological position influence the learning of scientific concepts about human origins? If a student's ontological position is contradictory to scientific explanation of human origins, how will learning strategies and motivations change? All consenting students in an AP biology class were interviewed in order to select three students who represented three different ontological positions of a worldview: No Supernatural, Supernatural Without Impact, or Supernatural Impact. The issue of worldview is addressed at length in this work. Consenting students had completed the graduation requirements in biology, but were taking an additional biology course in preparation for college. Enrollment in an AP biology course was assumed to indicate that the selected students have an understanding of the concept of human origins at a comprehensive level, but not necessarily at an apprehension level, both being needed for conceptual change. Examination of the narratives reveals that students may alternate between two ontological positions in order to account for inconsistencies within a situation. This relativity enables the range of ontological positions to vary depending on concepts being considered. Not all Supernatural Impact positions conflict with biological understanding of human origins due to the ability of some to create a dichotomy between religion and school. Any comprehended concepts within this dichotomy lead to plagiaristic knowledge rather than conceptual change. When conflicts occur, students employ alternate learning strategies for comprehension, but not apprehension, which result in plagiaristic knowledge. These findings suggest that teachers consider the ontological positions of student worldviews because of the potential influence on knowledge construction and conceptual change, especially about topics involving the theory of evolution.

  15. A review of "Digressive Voices in Early Modern English Literature" by Anne Cotterill

    E-print Network

    McDayter, Mark

    2007-01-01

    course of the debate that he chronicles circumambulates the disappointing space at the centre of the poem vacated by his patron and king, James II. In her treatment of Dryden?s Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire (1693) Cotterill...

  16. Timing the origin of human malarias: the lemur puzzle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Timing the origin of human malarias has been a focus of great interest. Previous studies on the mitochondrial genome concluded that Plasmodium in primates, including those parasitic to humans, radiated relatively recently during a process where host switches were common. Those investigations, however, assumed constant rate of evolution and tightly bound (fixed) calibration points based on host fossils or host distribution. We investigate the effect of such assumptions using different molecular dating methods. We include parasites from Lemuroidea since their distribution provides an external validation to time estimates allowing us to disregard scenarios that cannot explain their introduction in Madagascar. Results We reject the assumption that the Plasmodium mitochondrial genome, as a unit or each gene separately, evolves at a constant rate. Our analyses show that Lemuroidea parasites are a monophyletic group that shares a common ancestor with all Catarrhini malarias except those related to P. falciparum. However, we found no evidence that this group of parasites branched with their hosts early in the evolution of primates. We applied relaxed clock methods and different calibrations points to explore the origin of primate malarias including those found in African apes. We showed that previous studies likely underestimated the origin of malarial parasites in primates. Conclusions The use of fossils from the host as absolute calibration and the assumption of a strict clock likely underestimate time when performing molecular dating analyses on malarial parasites. Indeed, by exploring different calibration points, we found that the time for the radiation of primate parasites may have taken place in the Eocene, a time consistent with the radiation of African anthropoids. The radiation of the four human parasite lineages was part of such events. The time frame estimated in this investigation, together with our phylogenetic analyses, made plausible a scenario where gorillas and humans acquired malaria from a Pan lineage. PMID:21992100

  17. [Strategies of medical self-authorization in early modern medicine: the example of Volcher Coiter (1534-1576)].

    PubMed

    Gross, Dominik; Steinmetzer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Based on the example of Volcher Coiter--a town physician at Nuremberg and one of the leading anatomists in early modern medicine--, this essay points out that the authoritative status of contemporary physicians mainly was predicated on an interplay of self-fashioning and outside perception. It provides ample evidence that Coiter made use of several characteristic rhetorical and discourse-related strategies of self-authorisation such as the participation in social networks, a highly convincing technique of self-fashioning by emphasizing particular erudition, the presentation of academic medicine as a science authorised by god and the concurrent devaluation of non-academic healers. Furthermore, graphic and visual strategies of self-authorisation could be ascertained: Coiter took care for a premium typography of his books. He also used his talent as a graphic artist in his books to visualise his medical concepts. Moreover, the so-called 'Nuremberg Portrait' of Coiter served to illustrate his outstanding authority. PMID:16382689

  18. Step-Dame Study's Purpose: Early Modern Literature and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Emily Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Given what seems a constant barrage of criticism aimed at the academy from politicians and the public--and the great concern for buzz words like accountability and transparency--it has become fairly routine to see a defense of the humanities in opinion pieces in "Inside Higher Education," "The Chronicle of Higher Education," "The New York Times,"…

  19. A review of "Women, Property, and the Letters of the Law in Early Modern England." by Nancy E. Wright Margaret Ferguson A. R. Buck eds. 

    E-print Network

    Nancy M. Bunker

    2005-01-01

    overlooked?ways. Nancy E. Wright, Margaret Ferguson, A. R. Buck, eds. Women, Property, and the Letters of the Law in Early Modern England. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004. ix +304 pp. $65.00. Review by NANCY M. BUNKER, MACON STATE COLLEGE.... Women, Property, and the Letters of the Law in Early Modern England, an inter- disciplinary examination of women?s legal status and property relationships, directs attention away from the ?well-known narrative about women?s legal disabilities...

  20. A review of "Healing, Performing, and Ceremony in the Writings of Three Early Modern Physicians: Hippolytus Guarinonius and the Brothers Felix and Thomas Platter" by M.A. Katrizky 

    E-print Network

    Chamberland, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    , travel literature, and especially diaspora studies. M.A. Katritzky. Healing, Performance, and Ceremony in the Writings of #31;ree Early Modern Physicians: Hippolytus Guarinonius and the Brothers Felix and #31;omas Platter. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing...-documented by theater historians, M.A. Katritzky?s engaging monograph, Healing, Performance, and Ceremony in the writings of #31;ree Early Modern Physicians adds a welcome new dimension to existing knowledge of early modern performance culture. In her assessment...

  1. Banquets Against Boredom: Towards Understanding (Samurai) Cuisine in Early Modern Japan

    E-print Network

    Rath, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    was another dish that spoke of Satsuma’s trade with the Ry#2;ky#2;s. Sweet potatoes called “Satsuma potatos” (Satsuma imo), originated in Central America or southern Mexico and arrived in Kyushu either from China via the Ry#2;ky#2; Islands or from... provide concrete information about the diet of lower-level samurai in the Edo period, and one of these is Record from a Par- rot’s Cage (#4;mur#2; ch#3;ki) by Asahi Monzaemon (1674–1718).72 A samurai of the Tokugawa do- 69 Sakurai Jun’ya, “Kinsei...

  2. A Review of "The Poetry of Religious Sorrow in Early Modern England" by Gary Kuchar 

    E-print Network

    Stanwood, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    of godly sorrow ?as a medium of communication between the human and the divine? (25). The first chapter discusses Robert Southwell and his influential St. Peters Complaint, with Shake- speare?s Richard II and Milton?s Satan as the principal beneficiaries.... Kuchar writes particularly well of ?the sighs and tears? that lead from Southwell?s Complaint to Richard and Satan, who provide a testament to the literary promise of the tradition that Southwell popularized. Subsequent chapters deal with Richard...

  3. Janie Cole - Cultural Clientelism and Brokerage Networks in Early Modern Florence and Rome: New Correspondence between the Barberini and Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger - Renaissance Quarterly 60:3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janie Cole

    2007-01-01

    This study draws on the unpublished correspondence between Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger, a Florentine poet and grandnephew of the artist, and the Barberini family, in an attempt to examine the wider concepts of cultural clientelism and brokerage networks in the early modern process of cultural dissemination (in the areas of literature, music, theater, painting, architecture, and science) in Florence and

  4. A review of "Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830" by Norma Landau and "Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England" by Garthine Walker 

    E-print Network

    Sherman, Donovan

    2010-01-01

    fiction and fact?that propels Walker?s revitalization of the past. Early modernity is, for Walker and the authors of Law, Crime and English Society, a con- stellation of competing discourses that, regardless of how untrue they may seem in hindsight...

  5. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-01-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. PMID:23908781

  6. 75 FR 33651 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965...applications for Early Modern European History in Fellowships, submitted to...applications for Modern European History I in Fellowships, submitted...will review applications for Art and Anthropology,...

  7. Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community-

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community- associated for a Human Pandemic Clone of2013. Laura E. Spoor, Paul R. McAdam, Lucy A. Weinert, et al. aureus StaphylococcusMethicillin-Resistant Community-Associated Pandemic Clone of Livestock Origin for a Human http

  8. AFRICAN GENETIC DIVERSITY: Implications for Human Demographic History, Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael C.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies of ethnically diverse human populations, particularly in Africa, are important for reconstructing human evolutionary history and for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation and complex disease. African populations are characterized by greater levels of genetic diversity, extensive population substructure, and less linkage disequilibrium (LD) among loci compared to non-African populations. Africans also possess a number of genetic adaptations that have evolved in response to diverse climates and diets, as well as exposure to infectious disease. This review summarizes patterns and the evolutionary origins of genetic diversity present in African populations, as well as their implications for the mapping of complex traits, including disease susceptibility. PMID:18593304

  9. The "foul disease" and privacy: the effects of venereal disease and patient demand on the medical marketplace in early modern London.

    PubMed

    Siena, K P

    2001-01-01

    This article examines medical advertisements for venereal disease treatment from late Stuart London. It explores how privacy issues influenced the services provided by early modern venereologists. It shows that practitioners who sought to get ahead in the competitive field of venereology began to offer private treatment at a time when other physicians seem not to have provided that service. Therefore, market forces such as patient demand had an innovatory effect on early modern medical ethics. The same dynamic that caused venereal patients to seek privacy also led them to demand a practitioner of their own sex. Infected women clearly wished to be treated by a female practitioner. Many male practitioners forged partnerships with women in order to attract female clientele. These partnerships were frequently based on familial connections, most often between husband and wife. The presence of widespread VD in London helped sustain a sizable number of female practitioners who specialized in venereology. PMID:11423681

  10. Analysis of the origin of predictability in human communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yani; Wu, Ye; Xiao, Jinghua

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviors in daily life can be traced by their communications via electronic devices. E-mails, short messages and cell-phone calls can be used to investigate the predictability of communication partners’ patterns, because these three are the most representative and common behaviors in daily communications. In this paper, we show that all the three manners have apparent predictability in partners’ patterns, and moreover, the short message users’ sequences have the highest predictability among the three. We also reveal that people with fewer communication partners have higher predictability. Finally, we investigate the origin of predictability, which comes from two aspects: one is the intrinsic pattern in the partners sequence, that is, people have the preference of communicating with a fixed partner after another fixed one. The other aspect is the burst, which is communicating with the same partner several times in a row. The high burst in short message communication pattern is one of the main reasons for its high predictability, the intrinsic pattern in e-mail partners sequence is the main reason for its predictability, and the predictability of cell-phone call partners sequence comes from both aspects.

  11. Human origins and the transition from promiscuity to pair-bonding

    E-print Network

    Gavrilets, Sergey

    in recent theories of human origins is the emergence of strong pair-bonding between males and females species would, indeed, be much better off evolutionarily if the effort spent on male competition overHuman origins and the transition from promiscuity to pair-bonding Sergey Gavrilets1 Department

  12. Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at, or Prior to,

    E-print Network

    Broman, Karl W.

    Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at is sexually dimorphic in most mammalian species, including humans, but the basis for the male recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences

  13. Spatial dynamics of human-origin H1 influenza A v irus in North American swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human...

  14. Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human physical of these traits. In this study, we assessed the relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human received 16 June 2009 Abstract A number of traits have been proposed to be important in human mate choice

  15. Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human origins

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Courtney C.; Warner, Lisa R.; Fedrigo, Olivier; Wall, Christine E.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    There are numerous anthropological analyses concerning the importance of diet during human evolution. Diet is thought to have had a profound influence on the human phenotype, and dietary differences have been hypothesized to contribute to the dramatic morphological changes seen in modern humans as compared with non-human primates. Here, we attempt to integrate the results of new genomic studies within this well-developed anthropological context. We then review the current evidence for adaptation related to diet, both at the level of sequence changes and gene expression. Finally, we propose some ways in which new technologies can help identify specific genomic adaptations that have resulted in metabolic and morphological differences between humans and non-human primates. PMID:21177690

  16. DNA replication origin interference increases the spacing between initiation events in human cells.

    PubMed

    Lebofsky, Ronald; Heilig, Roland; Sonnleitner, Max; Weissenbach, Jean; Bensimon, Aaron

    2006-12-01

    Mammalian DNA replication origins localize to sites that range from base pairs to tens of kilobases. A regular distribution of initiations in individual cell cycles suggests that only a limited number of these numerous potential start sites are converted into activated origins. Origin interference can silence redundant origins; however, it is currently unknown whether interference participates in spacing functional human initiation events. By using a novel hybridization strategy, genomic Morse code, on single combed DNA molecules from primary keratinocytes, we report the initiation sites present on 1.5 Mb of human chromosome 14q11.2. We confirm that initiation zones are widespread in human cells, map to intergenic regions, and contain sequence motifs found at other mammalian initiation zones. Origins used per cell cycle are less abundant than the potential sites of initiation, and their limited use increases the spacing between initiation events. Between-zone interference decreases in proportion to the distance from the active origin, whereas within-zone interference is 100% efficient. These results identify a hierarchical organization of origin activity in human cells. Functional origins govern the probability that nearby origins will fire in the context of multiple potential start sites of DNA replication, and this is mediated by origin interference. PMID:17005913

  17. Mitochondrial DNA and the origin of humans, Douglas WallaceSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    Interviewee: Douglas Wallace DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>migrations>Videos Mitochondrial DNA research pioneer Douglas Wallace speaks about mitochondrial DNA and theories of human evolution.

  18. Original article Treatment of human spermatozoa with follicular

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and the fertilization rate of human in vitro fertilization (Yee and Cummings, 1988; Ghetler et al, 1990). Similarly and motility during in vitro capacitation S Hamamah M Lanson C Barthelemy MA Garrigue J Lansac JP Muh3 D Royere of human follicular fluid (HFF) on the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, we studied the effect of HFF

  19. A review of "The Automaton in English Renaissance Literature: Literary and Scientific Cultures of Early Modernity" edited by Wendy Beth Hyman

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    in this illuminating middle way. Wendy Beth Hyman, ed. #31;e Automaton in English Renaissance Literature: Literary and Scienti#29;c Cultures of Early Modernity. Farnham: Ashgate, #18;#17;#16;#16;. x + #18;#16;#17; pp. $#12;#12;.#12;#14;. Review by ?#28;#29;#29; #23... examining representations of automata in English Renaissance literary texts by Robert Greene (Todd Borlik on Friar Bacon and his speaking head), #2;omas Nashe (Wendy Hyman on mechanical birds in #31;e Unfortunate Traveller and other Elizabethan texts...

  20. A review of "The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton’s Lives." by Mary Jo Kietzman

    E-print Network

    Tim Reinke-Williams

    2005-01-01

    144 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Mary Jo Kietzman. The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton?s Lives. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004. 350 pp. + 12 illus. $79.95. Review by TIM REINKE-WILLIAMS, UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK. Mary Jo... Kietzman?s book is an interdisciplinary study of Mary Carleton, the daughter of a Canterbury fiddler who appeared before the Old Bailey in 1663 charged both with bigamy and with claiming to be Maria von Wolway, a German aristocrat. Carleton?s trial...

  1. Original Research In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human

    E-print Network

    Gorassini, Monica

    ) images of the human cer- vical spinal cord in vivo at a magnetic field strength of 3 T and to optimize- vical spinal cord and delineating internal spinal cord struc- tures such as gray and white matter

  2. Bacillus spp. of Human Origin: A Potential Siderophoregenic Probiotic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayesh J. Ahire; Kanchankumar P. Patil; Bhushan Liladhar Chaudhari; Sudhir B. Chincholkar

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus spp. ST13, isolated from human stool, was evaluated for siderophoregenic and probiotic qualities prior to its possible application\\u000a for iron nutrition in humans and animals. It was tested for siderophore production in iron-limiting conditions and found to\\u000a produce catecholate type of siderophore on the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), FT-IR, NMR, and mass\\u000a spectra analysis. The isolate was

  3. Origins of the Human Pointing Gesture: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Danielle; Behne, Tanya; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance in the development of children's skills of social cognition and communication, very little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the pointing gesture. We report a training study in which mothers gave children one month of extra daily experience with pointing as compared with a control group who had extra experience with…

  4. Coevolution between human's anticancer activities and functional foods from crop origin center in the world.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Jia-Zhen; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death around the world. Anticancer activities from many functional food sources have been reported in years, but correlation between cancer prevalence and types of food with anticancer activities from crop origin center in the world as well as food source with human migration are unclear. Hunger from food shortage is the cause of early human evolution from Africa to Asia and later into Eurasia. The richest functional foods are found in crop origin centers, housing about 70% in the world populations. Crop origin centers have lower cancer incidence and mortality in the world, especially Central Asia, Middle East, Southwest China, India and Ethiopia. Asia and Africa with the richest anticancer crops is not only the most important evolution base of humans and origin center of anticancer functional crop, but also is the lowest mortality and incidence of cancers in the world. Cancer prevention of early human migrations was associated with functional foods from crop origin centers, especially Asia with four centers and one subcenter of crop origin, accounting for 58% of the world population. These results reveal that coevolution between human's anticancer activities associated with functional foods for crop origin centers, especially in Asia and Africa. PMID:25824728

  5. Chimpanzee locomotor energetics and the origin of human bipedalism.

    PubMed

    Sockol, Michael D; Raichlen, David A; Pontzer, Herman

    2007-07-24

    Bipedal walking is evident in the earliest hominins [Zollikofer CPE, Ponce de Leon MS, Lieberman DE, Guy F, Pilbeam D, et al. (2005) Nature 434:755-759], but why our unique two-legged gait evolved remains unknown. Here, we analyze walking energetics and biomechanics for adult chimpanzees and humans to investigate the long-standing hypothesis that bipedalism reduced the energy cost of walking compared with our ape-like ancestors [Rodman PS, McHenry HM (1980) Am J Phys Anthropol 52:103-106]. Consistent with previous work on juvenile chimpanzees [Taylor CR, Rowntree VJ (1973) Science 179:186-187], we find that bipedal and quadrupedal walking costs are not significantly different in our sample of adult chimpanzees. However, a more detailed analysis reveals significant differences in bipedal and quadrupedal cost in most individuals, which are masked when subjects are examined as a group. Furthermore, human walking is approximately 75% less costly than both quadrupedal and bipedal walking in chimpanzees. Variation in cost between bipedal and quadrupedal walking, as well as between chimpanzees and humans, is well explained by biomechanical differences in anatomy and gait, with the decreased cost of human walking attributable to our more extended hip and a longer hindlimb. Analyses of these features in early fossil hominins, coupled with analyses of bipedal walking in chimpanzees, indicate that bipedalism in early, ape-like hominins could indeed have been less costly than quadrupedal knucklewalking. PMID:17636134

  6. Broca's Area and the Origins of Human Vocal Skill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Passingham

    1981-01-01

    Chimpanzees appear to be unable to learn to speak. It is usual to attribute their lack of vocal skill to limitations of their vocal tract, and to the absence in their neocortex of any area corresponding to Broca's area in the human brain. The first signs of Broca's area in hominid endocasts are therefore taken to represent an evolutionary development

  7. Open chromatin encoded in DNA sequence is the signature of 'master' replication origins in human cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Audit; Lamia Zaghloul; C. Vaillant; G. Chevereau; Y. d'Aubenton-Carafa; C. Thermes; A. Arneodo

    2009-01-01

    For years, progress in elucidating the mechanisms underlying replication initiation and its coupling to transcriptional activities and to local chromatin structure has been hampered by the small number (approximately 30) of well-established origins in the human genome and more generally in mammalian genomes. Recent in silico studies of compositional strand asymmetries revealed a high level of organ- ization of human

  8. Original Article The human anger face evolved to enhance cues of strength

    E-print Network

    Cosmides, Leda

    Original Article The human anger face evolved to enhance cues of strength Aaron Sell a,b, , Leda: Initial receipt 9 April 2014 Final revision received 21 May 2014 Available online xxxx Keywords: Anger movements that constitute the human facial expression of anger were selected because they increased others

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER Long-term human impacts on genetic structure of Italian

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Long-term human impacts on genetic structure of Italian walnut inferred by SSR, and human activities can all shape the genetic diversity of a species. In Italy, walnut (Juglans regia L.) has a long history of cultivation both for wood and edible nuts. To better understand the genetic

  10. Built for Speed: Pleistocene Climate Variation and the Origin of Human Culture

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    Built for Speed: Pleistocene Climate Variation and the Origin of Human Culture Peter J. Richerson that the Pleistocene climatic fluctuations are responsible for the evolution of human anatomy and cognition is satisfactory. The "Pleistocene hypothesis", as proposed, does not explain how Pleistocene fluctuations favor

  11. Original Article SORCS1: A Novel Human Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility

    E-print Network

    Yandell, Brian S.

    Original Article SORCS1: A Novel Human Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Gene Suggested by the Mouse diabetes have been identified by candidate gene analysis or positional cloning. Genes found to influence diabetes or related traits in mice are likely to be susceptibility genes in humans. SorCS1 is the gene

  12. Origin of the Ultimobranchial Body and Its Colonizing Cells in Human Embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Mérida-Velasco; J. D. García-García; J. Espín-Ferra; J. Linares

    1989-01-01

    The early development of the ultimobranchial body and its colonizing cells was studied in human embryos (O’Rahilly’s stages 14 and 15). In our studies we have obtained evidence that permits us to propose a new hypothesis on the origin of both the ultimobranchial body and its colonizing cells. Based on our interpretation of the morphogenetic features in human development, we

  13. Human origins family treeSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-10

    DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>our family tree Meet the extended family Until the late 1900s, many researchers believed that humans evolved from an apelike ancestor through a linear series of stages. There are now many different theories about the relationships between species. It appears that we may just be one of the twigs on a vast family tree.

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of human disturbance on the diet composition of wild

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of human disturbance on the diet composition of wild red deer (Cervus online: 25 February 2011 # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Disturbance from human recreational activities may affect the nutrition of free-ranging herbivores due to trade-offs between feeding in preferred

  15. The human socio-cognitive niche and its evolutionary origins

    PubMed Central

    Whiten, Andrew; Erdal, David

    2012-01-01

    Hominin evolution took a remarkable pathway, as the foraging strategy extended to large mammalian prey already hunted by a guild of specialist carnivores. How was this possible for a moderately sized ape lacking the formidable anatomical adaptations of these competing ‘professional hunters’? The long-standing answer that this was achieved through the elaboration of a new ‘cognitive niche’ reliant on intelligence and technology is compelling, yet insufficient. Here we present evidence from a diversity of sources supporting the hypothesis that a fuller answer lies in the evolution of a new socio-cognitive niche, the principal components of which include forms of cooperation, egalitarianism, mindreading (also known as ‘theory of mind’), language and cultural transmission, that go far beyond the most comparable phenomena in other primates. This cognitive and behavioural complex allows a human hunter–gatherer band to function as a unique and highly competitive predatory organism. Each of these core components of the socio-cognitive niche is distinctive to humans, but primate research has increasingly identified related capacities that permit inferences about significant ancestral cognitive foundations to the five pillars of the human social cognitive niche listed earlier. The principal focus of the present study was to review and integrate this range of recent comparative discoveries. PMID:22734055

  16. Electrostatic origin of in vitro aggregation of human ?-crystallin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Benjamin G.; Dobson, Cassidy M.; Garman, Scott C.; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2013-09-01

    The proteins ?-, ?-, and ?-crystallins are the major components of the lens in the human eye. Using dynamic light scattering method, we have performed in vitro investigations of protein-protein interactions in dilute solutions of human ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin. We find that ?-crystallin spontaneously aggregates into finite-sized clusters in phosphate buffer solutions. There are two distinct populations of unaggregated and aggregated ?-crystallins in these solutions. On the other hand, ?-crystallin molecules are not aggregated into large clusters in solutions of ?-crystallin alone. When ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin are mixed in phosphate buffer solutions, we demonstrate that the clusters of ?-crystallin are prevented. By further investigating the roles of temperature, protein concentration, pH, salt concentration, and a reducing agent, we show that the aggregation of ?-crystallin under our in vitro conditions arises from non-covalent electrostatic interactions. In addition, we show that aggregation of ?-crystallin occurs under the dilute in vitro conditions even in the absence of oxidizing agents that can induce disulfide cross-links, long considered to be responsible for human cataracts. Aggregation of ?-crystallin when maintained under reducing conditions suggests that oxidation does not contribute to the aggregation in dilute solutions.

  17. The human socio-cognitive niche and its evolutionary origins.

    PubMed

    Whiten, Andrew; Erdal, David

    2012-08-01

    Hominin evolution took a remarkable pathway, as the foraging strategy extended to large mammalian prey already hunted by a guild of specialist carnivores. How was this possible for a moderately sized ape lacking the formidable anatomical adaptations of these competing 'professional hunters'? The long-standing answer that this was achieved through the elaboration of a new 'cognitive niche' reliant on intelligence and technology is compelling, yet insufficient. Here we present evidence from a diversity of sources supporting the hypothesis that a fuller answer lies in the evolution of a new socio-cognitive niche, the principal components of which include forms of cooperation, egalitarianism, mindreading (also known as 'theory of mind'), language and cultural transmission, that go far beyond the most comparable phenomena in other primates. This cognitive and behavioural complex allows a human hunter-gatherer band to function as a unique and highly competitive predatory organism. Each of these core components of the socio-cognitive niche is distinctive to humans, but primate research has increasingly identified related capacities that permit inferences about significant ancestral cognitive foundations to the five pillars of the human social cognitive niche listed earlier. The principal focus of the present study was to review and integrate this range of recent comparative discoveries. PMID:22734055

  18. Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha I. Nelson; Philippe Lemey; Yi Tan; Amy Vincent; Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam; Susan Detmer; Cécile Viboud; Marc A. Suchard; Andrew Rambaut; Edward C. Holmes; Marie Gramer

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1\\/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This

  19. The Renaissance. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.8. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.8 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and diffusion of the Renaissance," in terms of the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts affected a new interest in humanism; the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of…

  20. The origin of remarkable resilience of human tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Abbott, Paul; Munroe, Paul; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2013-12-01

    The mechanical properties of human tooth enamel depend not only on test locations but also on the indentation depth. However, it remains uncertain what roles the depth-dependant properties play in mechanical performance of enamel. Here we reveal that a change in the mechanical properties of enamel, in particular its strength, with increasing indentation depth promotes inelastic deformation in material. In doing so, the severity and extent of stress concentration is reduced. Furthermore, we observed that following unloading, self-recovery occurs in enamel. These findings improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the remarkable resilience of enamel.

  1. The Developmental Origins of Voice Processing in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Tobias; Oberecker, Regine; Koch, Stefan Paul; Friederici, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In human adults, voices are processed in specialized brain regions in superior temporal cortices. We examined the development of this cortical organization during infancy by using near-infrared spectroscopy. In experiment 1, 7-month-olds but not 4-month-olds showed increased responses in left and right superior temporal cortex to the human voice when compared to nonvocal sounds, suggesting that voice-sensitive brain systems emerge between 4 and 7 months of age. In experiment 2, 7-month-old infants listened to words spoken with neutral, happy, or angry prosody. Hearing emotional prosody resulted in increased responses in a voice-sensitive region in the right hemisphere. Moreover, a region in right inferior frontal cortex taken to serve evaluative functions in the adult brain showed particular sensitivity to happy prosody. The pattern of findings suggests that temporal regions specialize in processing voices very early in development and that, already in infancy, emotions differentially modulate voice processing in the right hemisphere. PMID:20346760

  2. Mutational Heterogeneity in Human Cancers: Origin and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Salk, Jesse J.; Fox, Edward J.; Loeb, Lawrence A.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer recapitulates Darwinian evolution. Mutations acquired during life that provide cells with a growth or survival advantage will preferentially multiply to form a tumor. As a result of The Cancer Genome Atlas project we have now gathered detailed information on the nucleotide sequence changes in a number of human cancers. The sources of mutations in cancer are diverse and the complexity of those found to be clonally present in tumors has increasingly made it difficult to identify key rate-limiting genes for tumor growth that might serve as potential targets for directed therapies. The impact of DNA sequencing on future cancer research and personalized therapy is likely to be profound and merits critical evaluation. PMID:19743960

  3. Embryonic origins of human vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for in vitro modeling and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sanjay; Iyer, Dharini; Granata, Alessandra

    2014-06-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) arise from multiple origins during development, raising the possibility that differences in embryological origins between SMCs could contribute to site-specific localization of vascular diseases. In this review, we first examine the developmental pathways and embryological origins of vascular SMCs and then discuss in vitro strategies for deriving SMCs from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We then review in detail the potential for vascular disease modeling using iPSC-derived SMCs and consider the pathological implications of heterogeneous embryonic origins. Finally, we touch upon the role of human ESC-derived SMCs in therapeutic revascularization and the challenges remaining before regenerative medicine using ESC- or iPSC-derived cells comes of age. PMID:24442477

  4. Introductions and Evolution of Human-Origin Seasonal Influenza A Viruses in Multinational Swine Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wentworth, David E.; Culhane, Marie R.; Vincent, Amy L.; Viboud, Cecile; LaPointe, Matthew P.; Lin, Xudong; Holmes, Edward C.; Detmer, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capacity of influenza A viruses to cross species barriers presents a continual threat to human and animal health. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. We sequenced the genomes of 141 influenza viruses collected from North American swine during 2002 to 2011 and identified a swine virus that possessed all eight genome segments of human seasonal A/H3N2 virus origin. A molecular clock analysis indicates that this virus—A/sw/Saskatchewan/02903/2009(H3N2)—has likely circulated undetected in swine for at least 7 years. For historical context, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of an additional 1,404 whole-genome sequences from swine influenza A viruses collected globally during 1931 to 2013. Human-to-swine transmission occurred frequently over this time period, with 20 discrete introductions of human seasonal influenza A viruses showing sustained onward transmission in swine for at least 1 year since 1965. Notably, human-origin hemagglutinin (H1 and H3) and neuraminidase (particularly N2) segments were detected in swine at a much higher rate than the six internal gene segments, suggesting an association between the acquisition of swine-origin internal genes via reassortment and the adaptation of human influenza viruses to new swine hosts. Further understanding of the fitness constraints on the adaptation of human viruses to swine, and vice versa, at a genomic level is central to understanding the complex multihost ecology of influenza and the disease threats that swine and humans pose to each other. IMPORTANCE The swine origin of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscored the importance of understanding how influenza A virus evolves in these animals hosts. While the importance of reassortment in generating genetically diverse influenza viruses in swine is well documented, the role of human-to-swine transmission has not been as intensively studied. Through a large-scale sequencing effort, we identified a novel influenza virus of wholly human origin that has been circulating undetected in swine for at least 7 years. In addition, we demonstrate that human-to-swine transmission has occurred frequently on a global scale over the past decades but that there is little persistence of human virus internal gene segments in swine. PMID:24965467

  5. On the Origins of Suboptimality in Human Probabilistic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors), in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal). Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the priors, and by variability in the decision process, which we represent as a noisy or stochastic posterior. PMID:24945142

  6. The Role of Transposable Elements in the Origin and Evolution of MicroRNAs in Human

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Sheng; Jin, Ping; Zhou, Xue; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in eukaryotes via targeting gene 3'-untranslated regions. Transposable elements (TEs) are considered as natural origins of some miRNAs. However, what miRNAs are and how these miRNAs originate and evolve from TEs remain unclear. We identified 409 TE-derived miRNAs (386 overlapped with TEs and 23 un-overlapped with TEs) which are derived from TEs in human. This indicates that the TEs play important roles in origin of miRNAs in human. In addition, we found that the proportions of miRNAs derived from TEs (MDTEs) in human are more than other vertebrates especially non-mammal vertebrates. Furthermore, we classified MDTEs into three types and found that TE head or tail sequences along with adjacent genomic sequences contribute to generation of human miRNAs. Our current study will improve the understanding of origin and evolution of human miRNAs. PMID:26115450

  7. Can ends justify the means? Digging deep for human fusion genes of prokaryotic origin.

    PubMed

    Yiting, Yu; Chaturvedi, Iti; Meow, Liew Kim; Kangueane, Pandjassarame; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore

    2004-09-01

    Gene fusion has been described as an important evolutionary phenomenon. This report focuses on identifying, analyzing, and tabulating human fusion proteins of prokaryotic origin. These fusion proteins are found to mimic operons, simulate protein-protein interfaces in prokaryotes, exhibiting multiple functions and alternative splicing in humans. The accredited biological functions for each of these proteins is made available as a database at http://sege.ntu.edu.sg/wester/fusion/ PMID:15353329

  8. A review of "Old Worlds: Egypt, Southwest Asia, India, and Russia in Early Modern English Writing." by John Michael Archer 

    E-print Network

    Galina Yermolenko

    2002-01-01

    . He skillfully combines ample re- search data with his own insights and delights the reader with in- depth discussions of?among other things?the Egyptian sphinx, the etymology of the word ?slave? in various languages, the loca- tion of Eden... through human knowledge about the external world? (91). Moreover, Milton?s poem resists the very culture of con- sumption and commodification that contemporaneous travel ac- counts celebrate (98-99). As the author shows, in the figure of Milton?s Satan...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Novel fusion transcripts in human gastric cancer revealed by

    E-print Network

    Bang, Duhee

    into transcriptional and genetic alterations of gastric cancer: namely, the tumorigenic effects of transcriptional read methods for detecting genetic alterations have been used, it was the advent of next-generation sequencingORIGINAL ARTICLE Novel fusion transcripts in human gastric cancer revealed by transcriptome

  10. The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. UNDERHILL; G. PASSARINO; A. A. LIN; P. SHEN; M. MIRAZON LAHR; R. A. FOLEY; P. J. OEFNER; L. L. CAVALLI-SFORZA

    2001-01-01

    summary Although molecular genetic evidence continues to accumulate that is consistent with a recent common African ancestry of modern humans, its ability to illuminate regional histories remains incomplete. A set of unique event polymorphisms associated with the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome (NRY) addresses this issue by providing evidence concerning successful migrations originating from Africa, which can be interpreted as

  11. A monkey's tale: The origin of Plasmodium vivax as a human malaria parasite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ananias A. Escalante; Omar E. Cornejo; Denise E. Freeland; Amanda C. Poe; Ester Durrego; William E. Collins; Altaf A. Lal

    2005-01-01

    The high prevalence of Duffy negativity (lack of the Duffy blood group antigen) among human populations in sub-Saharan Africa has been used to argue that Plasmodium vivax originated on that continent. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 10 species of Plasmodium that infect primates by using three genes, two nuclear (-tubulin and cell division cycle 2) and a gene

  12. Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

  13. Evolution of Cognition: Towards the Theory of Origin of Human Logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir G. Red'ko

    2000-01-01

    The main problem discussed in this paper is: “Why and how did animal cognition abilities arise?” It is argued that investigations of the evolution of animal cognition abilities are very important from an epistemological point of view. A new direction for interdisciplinary researches – the creation and development of the theory of human logic origin – is proposed. The approaches

  14. Livestock Origin for a Human Pandemic Clone of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Spoor, Laura E.; McAdam, Paul R.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Kearns, Angela M.; Larsen, Anders R.; Skov, Robert L.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The importance of livestock as a source of bacterial pathogens with the potential for epidemic spread in human populations is unclear. In recent years, there has been a global increase in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections of healthy humans, but an understanding of the different evolutionary origins of CA-MRSA clones and the basis for their recent expansion is lacking. Here, using a high-resolution phylogenetic approach, we report the discovery of two emergent clones of human epidemic CA-MRSA which resulted from independent livestock-to-human host jumps by the major bovine S. aureus complex, CC97. Of note, one of the new clones was isolated from human infections on four continents, demonstrating its global dissemination since the host jump occurred over 40 years ago. The emergence of both human S. aureus clones coincided with the independent acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance and human-specific mediators of immune evasion, consistent with an important role for these genetic events in the capacity to survive and transmit among human populations. In conclusion, we provide evidence that livestock represent a reservoir for the emergence of new human-pathogenic S. aureus clones with the capacity for pandemic spread. These findings have major public health implications highlighting the importance of surveillance for early identification of emergent clones and improved transmission control measures at the human-livestock interface. PMID:23943757

  15. URL: http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/hpg/ragh/ccs/Welcome.htmlURL: http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/hpg/ragh/ccs/Welcome.html What is the History of Science the History of? The historian of early modern science

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, N.

    explored this question in the same year (2005) as another historian of science, John Heilbron, gave two as a Collaborator of Science". These are but characteristic of the questions historians of science have routinely://ces.iisc.ernet.in/hpg/ragh/ccs/Welcome.html What is the History of Science the History of? The historian of early modern science Peter Dear

  16. Determining the human origin of fragments of burnt bone: a comparative study of histological, immunological and DNA techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cattaneo; S. DiMartino; S. Scali; O. E. Craig; M. Grandi; R. J. Sokol

    1999-01-01

    In situations where badly burnt fragments of bone are found, identification of their human or non-human origin may be impossible by gross morphology alone and other techniques have to be employed. In order to determine whether histological methods were redundant and should be superseded by biomolecular analyses, small fragments of artificially burnt bone (human and non-human) were examined by quantitative

  17. The origin of representational drawing: a comparison of human children and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Saito, Aya; Hayashi, Misato; Takeshita, Hideko; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    To examine the evolutional origin of representational drawing, two experiments directly compared the drawing behavior of human children and chimpanzees. The first experiment observed free drawing after model presentation, using imitation task. From longitudinal observation of humans (N = 32, 11-31 months), the developmental process of drawing until the emergence of shape imitation was clarified. Adult chimpanzees showed the ability to trace a model, which was difficult for humans who had just started imitation. The second experiment, free drawing on incomplete facial stimuli, revealed the remarkable difference between two species. Humans (N = 57, 6-38 months) tend to complete the missing parts even with immature motor control, whereas chimpanzees never completed the missing parts and instead marked the existing parts or traced the outlines. Cognitive characteristics may affect the emergence of representational drawings. PMID:25376268

  18. Effects of fibroblasts of different origin on long term maintenance of xenotransplanted human epidermal kerationocytes in immunodeficient mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadaki Inokuchi I; Kazuo Shimamura; Hiroko Tohya; Masako Kidokoro; Makiko Tanaka; Yoshito Ueyama; Yuhwsuke Sawada

    1995-01-01

    We examined effects of fibroblasts of different origin on long-term maintenance of xenotransplanted human epidermal keratinocytes. A suspension of cultured epidermal cells, originating from adult human trunk skin, was injected into double mutant immunodeficient (BALB\\/c nu\\/scid) mice subcutaneously, with or without cultured fibroblastic cells of different origin. At one week after transplantation, the epidermal cells generated epidermoid cysts consisting of

  19. Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: the spread of modern humans in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoffecker, John F

    2009-09-22

    The earliest credible evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe is an archaeological proxy in the form of several artifact assemblages (Bohunician) found in South-Central and possibly Eastern Europe, dating to < or =48,000 calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal BP). They are similar to assemblages probably made by modern humans in the Levant (Emiran) at an earlier date and apparently represent a population movement into the Balkans during a warm climate interval [Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI 12)]. A second population movement may be represented by a diverse set of artifact assemblages (sometimes termed Proto-Aurignacian) found in the Balkans, parts of Southwest Europe, and probably in Eastern Europe, and dating to several brief interstadials (GI 11-GI 9) that preceded the beginning of cold Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) (approximately 40,000 cal BP). They are similar to contemporaneous assemblages made by modern humans in the Levant (Ahmarian). The earliest known human skeletal remains in Europe that may be unequivocally assigned to H. sapiens (Peçstera cu Oase, Romania) date to this time period (approximately 42,000 cal BP) but are not associated with artifacts. After the Campanian Ignimbrite volcanic eruption (40,000 cal BP) and the beginning of HE4, artifact assemblages assigned to the classic Aurignacian, an industry associated with modern human skeletal remains that seems to have developed in Europe, spread throughout the continent. PMID:19571003

  20. Emergence of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema Jain; Lyn Finelli; Michael W. Shaw; Stephen Lindstrom; Rebecca J. Garten; Larisa V. Gubareva; Xiyan Xu; Carolyn B. Bridges; Timothy M. Uyeki

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND On April 15 and April 17, 2009, novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified in specimens obtained from two epidemiologically unlinked patients in the United States. The same strain of the virus was identified in Mexico, Canada, and elsewhere. We describe 642 confirmed cases of human S-OIV infection identi- fied from the rapidly evolving U.S. outbreak. METHODS

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Human p16c, a novel transcriptional variant of p16INK4A

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Ming-Daw

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Human p16c, a novel transcriptional variant of p16INK4A , coexpresses with p16INK4, Columbus, OH, USA The INK4A locus encodes two tumor suppressor genes, p16INK4A and p14ARF , transcribed using alternative exons 1a or 1b spliced onto the same exons 2 and 3. Both p16INK4A and p14ARF

  2. Human cytomegalovirus origin of DNA replication (oriLyt) resides within a highly complex repetitive region.

    PubMed Central

    Masse, M J; Karlin, S; Schachtel, G A; Mocarski, E S

    1992-01-01

    A global analysis of the 230-kilobase-pair (kbp) human cytomegalovirus genome revealed three regions that were very rich in repeated sequences. The region with the highest content of inverted and direct repeats lies between 92,100 and 93,500 bp, upstream of the gene encoding the single-stranded DNA binding protein. Cloned restriction fragments containing this region were able to replicate when trans-acting factors were provided by virus infection in a transient replication assay. With this assay, the region between 92,210 and 93,715 bp on the viral genome was defined as the minimal replication origin, oriLyt. The sequence composition and repeats within oriLyt were used to divide the region into two domains that may be important in origin function. Sequences flanking either the left or right side of the minimal oriLyt contributed to efficient replication; however, these sequences were not essential for origin function. Thus, the region of the viral genome with the most striking concentration of direct and inverted repeats corresponds to the oriLyt of human cytomegalovirus. Images PMID:1319057

  3. Human cytomegalovirus origin of DNA replication (oriLyt) resides within a highly complex repetitive region.

    PubMed

    Masse, M J; Karlin, S; Schachtel, G A; Mocarski, E S

    1992-06-15

    A global analysis of the 230-kilobase-pair (kbp) human cytomegalovirus genome revealed three regions that were very rich in repeated sequences. The region with the highest content of inverted and direct repeats lies between 92,100 and 93,500 bp, upstream of the gene encoding the single-stranded DNA binding protein. Cloned restriction fragments containing this region were able to replicate when trans-acting factors were provided by virus infection in a transient replication assay. With this assay, the region between 92,210 and 93,715 bp on the viral genome was defined as the minimal replication origin, oriLyt. The sequence composition and repeats within oriLyt were used to divide the region into two domains that may be important in origin function. Sequences flanking either the left or right side of the minimal oriLyt contributed to efficient replication; however, these sequences were not essential for origin function. Thus, the region of the viral genome with the most striking concentration of direct and inverted repeats corresponds to the oriLyt of human cytomegalovirus. PMID:1319057

  4. Analysis of Drosophila TRPA1 reveals an ancient origin for human chemical nociception.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeongjin; Pulver, Stefan R; Panzano, Vincent C; Chang, Elaine C; Griffith, Leslie C; Theobald, Douglas L; Garrity, Paul A

    2010-03-25

    Chemical nociception, the detection of tissue-damaging chemicals, is important for animal survival and causes human pain and inflammation, but its evolutionary origins are largely unknown. Reactive electrophiles are a class of noxious compounds humans find pungent and irritating, such as allyl isothiocyanate (in wasabi) and acrolein (in cigarette smoke). Diverse animals, from insects to humans, find reactive electrophiles aversive, but whether this reflects conservation of an ancient sensory modality has been unclear. Here we identify the molecular basis of reactive electrophile detection in flies. We demonstrate that Drosophila TRPA1 (Transient receptor potential A1), the Drosophila melanogaster orthologue of the human irritant sensor, acts in gustatory chemosensors to inhibit reactive electrophile ingestion. We show that fly and mosquito TRPA1 orthologues are molecular sensors of electrophiles, using a mechanism conserved with vertebrate TRPA1s. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that invertebrate and vertebrate TRPA1s share a common ancestor that possessed critical characteristics required for electrophile detection. These findings support emergence of TRPA1-based electrophile detection in a common bilaterian ancestor, with widespread conservation throughout vertebrate and invertebrate evolution. Such conservation contrasts with the evolutionary divergence of canonical olfactory and gustatory receptors and may relate to electrophile toxicity. We propose that human pain perception relies on an ancient chemical sensor conserved across approximately 500 million years of animal evolution. PMID:20237474

  5. Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Brenna M.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Jobin, Matthew; Granka, Julie M.; Macpherson, J. M.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Rodríguez-Botigué, Laura; Ramachandran, Sohini; Hon, Lawrence; Brisbin, Abra; Lin, Alice A.; Underhill, Peter A.; Comas, David; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    Africa is inferred to be the continent of origin for all modern human populations, but the details of human prehistory and evolution in Africa remain largely obscure owing to the complex histories of hundreds of distinct populations. We present data for more than 580,000 SNPs for several hunter-gatherer populations: the Hadza and Sandawe of Tanzania, and the ?Khomani Bushmen of South Africa, including speakers of the nearly extinct N|u language. We find that African hunter-gatherer populations today remain highly differentiated, encompassing major components of variation that are not found in other African populations. Hunter-gatherer populations also tend to have the lowest levels of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium among 27 African populations. We analyzed geographic patterns of linkage disequilibrium and population differentiation, as measured by FST, in Africa. The observed patterns are consistent with an origin of modern humans in southern Africa rather than eastern Africa, as is generally assumed. Additionally, genetic variation in African hunter-gatherer populations has been significantly affected by interaction with farmers and herders over the past 5,000 y, through both severe population bottlenecks and sex-biased migration. However, African hunter-gatherer populations continue to maintain the highest levels of genetic diversity in the world. PMID:21383195

  6. Macrophage Stimulating Protein (MSP) evokes superoxide anion production by human macrophages of different origin

    PubMed Central

    Brunelleschi, Sandra; Penengo, Lorenza; Lavagno, Luisa; Santoro, Claudio; Colangelo, Donato; Viano, Ilario; Gaudino, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    Macrophage Stimulating Protein (MSP), a serum factor related to Hepatocyte Growth Factor, was originally discovered to stimulate chemotaxis of murine resident peritoneal macrophages. MSP is the ligand for Ron, a member of the Met subfamily of tyrosine kinase receptors. The effects of MSP on human macrophages and the role played in human pathophysiology have long been elusive.We show here that human recombinant MSP (hrMSP) evokes a dose-dependent superoxide anion production in human alveolar and peritoneal macrophages as well as in monocyte-derived macrophages, but not in circulating human monocytes. Consistently, the mature Ron protein is expressed by the MSP responsive cells but not by the unresponsive monocytes. The respiratory burst evoked by hrMSP is quantitatively higher than the one induced by N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and similar to phorbol myristate acetate-evoked one.To investigate the mechanisms involved in NADPH oxidase activation, leading to superoxide anion production, different signal transduction inhibitors were used. By using the non selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, the selective c-Src inhibitor PP1, the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, the p38 inhibitor SB203580, the MEK inhibitor PD098059, we demonstrate that hrMSP-evoked superoxide production is mediated by tyrosine kinase activity, requires the activation of Src but not of PI 3-kinase. We also show that MAP kinase and p38 signalling pathways are involved.These results clearly indicate that hrMSP induces the respiratory burst in human macrophages but not in monocytes, suggesting for the MSP/Ron complex a role of activator as well as of possible marker for human mature macrophages. PMID:11704649

  7. Identification and analysis of a lytic-phase origin of DNA replication in human herpesvirus 7.

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, N; Dykes, C; Deng, H; Dominguez, G; Nicholas, J; Dewhurst, S

    1997-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) DNA sequences colinear with the HHV-6 lytic-phase origin of DNA replication (oriLyt) were amplified by PCR. Plasmid constructs containing these sequences were replicated in HHV-7-infected cord blood mononuclear cells but not in HHV-6-infected cells. In contrast, plasmids bearing HHV-6 oriLyt were replicated in both HHV-6- and HHV-7-infected cells. Finally, the minimal HHV-7 DNA element necessary for replicator activity was mapped to a 600-bp region which contains two sites with high homology to the consensus binding site for the HHV-6 origin binding protein. At least one of these binding sites was shown to be essential for replicator function of HHV-7 oriLyt. PMID:9060695

  8. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) contains two functional lytic origins of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    AuCoin, David P; Colletti, Kelly S; Xu, Yiyang; Cei, Sylvia A; Pari, Gregory S

    2002-08-01

    We used a transient-transfection replication assay to identify two functional copies of the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) lytic origin of DNA replication (oriLyt). BCLB-1 cells were transfected with HHV8 subgenomic fragments containing the putative lytic origin along with a plasmid expressing viral transactivator open reading frame (ORF) 50. The HHV8 left-end oriLyt (oriLyt-L) lies between ORFs K4.2 and K5 and is composed of a region encoding various transcription factor binding sites and an A+T-rich region and a G+C repeat region. The right-end oriLyt (oriLyt-R) maps between ORF 69 and vFLIP, a region similar to the RRV oriLyt, and is an inverted duplication of oriLyt-L. PMID:12097603

  9. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment

    E-print Network

    Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-09-22

    sea (36) that shows the best agreement with calibrated ages of radiocarbon dates obtained for D1 (Figure 3, SI Appendix, SI Text, Table S1). Similarly, we correlate the Schwallenbach Ia Interstadial (C8-3 and C8-2) with GIS 11 (SI Appendix, SI Text... to particular environments, e.g., seasonally different mobility of populations in the Mediterranean eco-zone and in the cold steppe-type conditions at Willendorf II, when Page 14 of 24   explaining the differences between Proto- and Early Aurignacian (7, 13...

  10. Common variants spanning PLK4 are associated with mitotic-origin aneuploidy in human embryos.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Rajiv C; Demko, Zachary; Ryan, Allison; Banjevic, Milena; Hill, Matthew; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Rabinowitz, Matthew; Fraser, Hunter B; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2015-04-10

    Aneuploidy, the inheritance of an atypical chromosome complement, is common in early human development and is the primary cause of pregnancy loss. By screening day-3 embryos during in vitro fertilization cycles, we identified an association between aneuploidy of putative mitotic origin and linked genetic variants on chromosome 4 of maternal genomes. This associated region contains a candidate gene, Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), that plays a well-characterized role in centriole duplication and has the ability to alter mitotic fidelity upon minor dysregulation. Mothers with the high-risk genotypes contributed fewer embryos for testing at day 5, suggesting that their embryos are less likely to survive to blastocyst formation. The associated region coincides with a signature of a selective sweep in ancient humans, suggesting that the causal variant was either the target of selection or hitchhiked to substantial frequency. PMID:25859044

  11. The distribution of the cortical origin of the corticoreticular pathway in the human brain: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the distribution of the cortical origin of the corticoreticular pathway (CRP) in the human brain. Forty normal subjects were recruited and CRPs from four cortical areas were reconstructed. The first cortical origin area of the CRP was the premotor cortex and the next was the primary motor cortex. Although the CRP fibers also originated from the primary somatosensory cortex and prefrontal cortex, they occupied the smallest portion among four regions of interest. PMID:24915055

  12. Structural Origins of the Functional Divergence of Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I and Insulin,

    E-print Network

    Structural Origins of the Functional Divergence of Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I and InsulinVised Manuscript ReceiVed April 23, 2002 ABSTRACT: Human insulin-like growth factors I and II (hIGF-I, h the A and B chains of insulin but contain an additional connecting C-domain, which reflects their secretion

  13. Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins.

    PubMed

    Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S; Maria Calň, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G; Gaieski, Jill B; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G; Owings, Amanda C; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R Spencer

    2014-01-01

    The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans' place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000-130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS's accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

  14. A rare, human prostate oncocyte cell originates from the prostatic carcinoma (DU145) cell line.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Eze, Nkechinyere; Jamison, James M; McGuire, Karen; Summers, Jack L

    2013-12-01

    DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells are typically poorly differentiated and contain only scantily distributed organelles. However, among numerous tumor cells randomly examined by electron microscopy out of in vitro cultivation, a peculiar, rare oncocyte-like cell type has been observed whose nucleus appears to be of small dimension and with a cytoplasm almost entirely filled with often distorted mitochondria. A few small, dispersed lysosomal bodies, small cisterns of the endoplasmic reticulum and a few glycogen patches can be found among highly osmiophilic contrasted, cytosolic spaces filled by innumerable ribonucleoproteins. The excessive population of mitochondria may have arisen from a more populated tumor cell type wherein the altered mitochondria are found to appear burgeoning into a spherical-like size progeny crowding the tumor cells. Literature cited between 1950 and the present suggests that this rare, oncocytic, benign prostatic tumor cell type is likely appear epigenetically, stemming from an original secretory cell, which is confirmed by the origin of the cell line originally maintained as cell line out of a brain metastatic, adenocarcinoma niche. PMID:23957452

  15. Competence and the Evolutionary Origins of Status and Power in Humans.

    PubMed

    Chapais, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    In this paper I propose an evolutionary model of human status that expands upon an earlier model proposed by Henrich and Gil-White Evolution and Human Behavior, 22,165-196 (2001). According to their model, there are two systems of status attainment in humans-"two ways to the top": the dominance route, which involves physical intimidation, a psychology of fear and hubristic pride, and provides coercive power, and the prestige route, which involves skills and knowledge (competence), a psychology of attraction to experts and authentic pride, and translates mainly into influence. The two systems would have evolved in response to different selective pressures, with attraction to experts serving a social learning function and coinciding with the evolution of cumulative culture. In this paper I argue that (1) the only one way to the top is competence because dominance itself involves competence and confers prestige, so there is no such thing as pure dominance status; (2) dominance in primates has two components: a competitive one involving physical coercion and a cooperative one involving competence-based attraction to high-ranking individuals (proto-prestige); (3) competence grants the same general type of power (dependence-based) in humans and other primates; (4) the attractiveness of high rank in primates is homologous with the admiration of experts in humans; (5) upon the evolution of cumulative culture, the attractiveness of high rank was co-opted to generate status differentials in a vast number of culturally generated domains of activity. I also discuss, in this perspective, the origins of hubristic pride, authentic pride, and nonauthoritarian leadership. PMID:25947621

  16. Human development x: Explanation of macroevolution--top-down evolution materializes consciousness. The origin of metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Ventegodt, Sřren; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we first give a short discussion of the macroevolution viewing life as information-directed, complex, dynamic systems. On this basis, we give our explanation of the origin of life and discuss the top-down evolution of molecules, proteins, and macroevolution. We discuss these subjects according to our new holistic biological paradigm. In view of this, we discuss the macroevolution of the organism, the species, the biosphere, and human society. After this, we discuss the shift in evolution from natural selection to a new proposed process of nature called the "metamorphous top-down" evolution. We discuss the capability of the evolutionary shift to govern some of the processes that lead to the formation of new species. We discuss the mechanisms we think are behind this proposed shift in evolution and conclude that this event is able to explain the huge biological diversity of nature in combination with evolutionary natural selection. We also discuss this event of nature as an isolated, but integrated, part of the universe. We propose the most important genetic and biochemical process that we think is behind the evolutionary shift as a complicated symbiosis of mechanisms leading to metamorphosis in all biological individuals, from bacteria to humans. The energetic superorbital that manifests the consciousness governs all these processes through quantum chemical activity. This is the key to evolutionary shift through the consciousness, and we propose to call this process "adult human metamorphosis". PMID:17173183

  17. Evolutionary, biological origins of morality: implications for research with human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Baschetti, Riccardo

    2005-06-01

    Medical research with human embryonic stem cells, despite its enormous potential to reduce human suffering, is banned in many countries and heavily restricted in others. "Moral reasons" are invoked to justify bans and restrictions on this promising research. Rather surprisingly, while those moral reasons have been extensively discussed and hotly debated in several papers, not a single article on the moral aspects of that research has attempted to answer this fundamental question: What is morality? Considering that a scientifically objective definition of morality is essential to determine whether those moral reasons are justified or groundless, this article focuses on the evolutionary origins of morality and its biological basis. Morality arose as a selectively advantageous product of evolution and preceded all religions and philosophies by millions of years. For the 99% of humankind's evolution, morality was axiomatically aimed at reducing the sufferings of the social members, because pains and afflictions, as expressions of diseases and impairments, tended to hasten the extinction of the small ancestral groups, which characteristically consisted of a few tens of members. Had the therapeutic use of human embryos been available in remote times, our ancestors would have deemed it unquestionably immoral to save amorphous and microscopic agglomerates of insensitive cells representing neither parental nor social investment, at the expense of the lives of the suffering members of their little communities. Unless we venture the untenable thesis that the unlikelihood of extinction of our immense societies entitles us to overturn the meaning of morality, we cannot but conclude that bans and restrictions on research with human embryonic stem cells are patently immoral. PMID:15969618

  18. Spatial dynamics of human-origin H1 influenza A virus in North American swine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C; Gramer, Marie

    2011-06-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003-2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens. PMID:21695237

  19. Dendritic cell ontogeny: a human dendritic cell lineage of myeloid origin.

    PubMed

    Olweus, J; BitMansour, A; Warnke, R; Thompson, P A; Carballido, J; Picker, L J; Lund-Johansen, F

    1997-11-11

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been thought to represent a family of closely related cells with similar functions and developmental pathways. The best-characterized precursors are the epidermal Langerhans cells, which migrate to lymphoid organs and become activated DC in response to inflammatory stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that a large subset of DC in the T cell-dependent areas of human lymphoid organs are nonactivated cells and belong to a separate lineage that can be identified by high levels of the interleukin 3 receptor alpha chain (IL-3Ralphahi). The CD34+IL-3Ralphahi DC progenitors are of myeloid origin and are distinct from those that give rise to Langerhans cells in vitro. The IL-3Ralphahi DC furthermore appear to migrate to lymphoid organs independently of inflammatory stimuli or foreign antigens. Thus, DC are heterogeneous with regard to function and ontogeny. PMID:9356487

  20. Tracing the origins of Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis in humans in the USA to cattle in Mexico using spoligotyping?

    PubMed Central

    Rodwell, Timothy C.; Kapasi, Anokhi J.; Moore, Marisa; Milian-Suazo, Feliciano; Harris, Beth; Guerrero, L.P.; Moser, Kathleen; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To compare genotypes of Mycobacterium bovis strains from humans in Southern California with genotypes of M. bovis strains in cattle in Mexico and the USA to explore the possible origins of human infections. Methods We conducted a descriptive analysis of M. bovis genotypes from a binational population of humans and cattle using spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping). Results One hundred six human M. bovis spoligotypes were compared to spoligotypes from 496 Mexican cattle and 219 US cattle. Twelve spoligotype patterns were identified among human cases and 126 spoligotype patterns were detected in cattle. Over 91% (97/106) of the human M. bovis isolates had spoligotypes that were identical to those found in Mexican cattle. Four human cases had spoligotypes that matched both cattle born in Mexico and in the USA. Nine human cases had spoligotypes that did not match cattle born in Mexico or the USA. Conclusions Our data indicate that the population of M. bovis strains causing human TB disease in Southern California is closely related to the M. bovis strain population found in Mexican cattle and supports existing epidemiological evidence that human M. bovis disease in San Diego likely originated from Mexican cattle. PMID:20399697

  1. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Ĺ movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

  2. Identification of the Common Origins of Osteoclasts, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells in Human Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanling; Zijl, Sebastiaan; Wang, Liqin; de Groot, Daniel C; van Tol, Maarten J; Lankester, Arjan C; Borst, Jannie

    2015-06-01

    Osteoclasts (OCs) originate from the myeloid cell lineage, but the successive steps in their lineage commitment are ill-defined, especially in humans. To clarify OC origin, we sorted cell populations from pediatric bone marrow (BM) by flow cytometry and assessed their differentiation potential in vitro. Within the CD11b(-)CD34(+)c-KIT(+) BM cell population, OC-differentiation potential was restricted to FLT3(+) cells and enriched in an IL3 receptor (R)?(high) subset that constituted less than 0.5% of total BM. These IL3R?(high) cells also generated macrophages (M?s) and dendritic cells (DCs) but lacked granulocyte (GR)-differentiation potential, as demonstrated at the clonal level. The IL3R?(low) subset was re-defined as common progenitor of GR, M?, OC, and DC (GMODP) and gave rise to the IL3R?(high) subset that was identified as common progenitor of M?, OC, and DC (MODP). Unbiased transcriptome analysis of CD11b(-)CD34(+)c-KIT(+)FLT3(+) IL3R?(low) and IL3R?(high) subsets corroborated our definitions of the GMODP and MODP and their developmental relationship. PMID:26004632

  3. Identification of the Common Origins of Osteoclasts, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells in Human Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yanling; Zijl, Sebastiaan; Wang, Liqin; de Groot, Daniel C.; van Tol, Maarten J.; Lankester, Arjan C.; Borst, Jannie

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoclasts (OCs) originate from the myeloid cell lineage, but the successive steps in their lineage commitment are ill-defined, especially in humans. To clarify OC origin, we sorted cell populations from pediatric bone marrow (BM) by flow cytometry and assessed their differentiation potential in vitro. Within the CD11b?CD34+c-KIT+ BM cell population, OC-differentiation potential was restricted to FLT3+ cells and enriched in an IL3 receptor (R)?high subset that constituted less than 0.5% of total BM. These IL3R?high cells also generated macrophages (M?s) and dendritic cells (DCs) but lacked granulocyte (GR)-differentiation potential, as demonstrated at the clonal level. The IL3R?low subset was re-defined as common progenitor of GR, M?, OC, and DC (GMODP) and gave rise to the IL3R?high subset that was identified as common progenitor of M?, OC, and DC (MODP). Unbiased transcriptome analysis of CD11b?CD34+c-KIT+FLT3+ IL3R?low and IL3R?high subsets corroborated our definitions of the GMODP and MODP and their developmental relationship. PMID:26004632

  4. Sulfur volatiles of microbial origin are key contributors to human-sensed truffle aroma.

    PubMed

    Splivallo, Richard; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Truffles are symbiotic fungi in high demand for the aroma of their fruiting bodies which are colonized by a diverse microbial flora. Specific sulfur containing volatiles (thiophene derivatives) characteristic of the white truffle Tuber borchii were recently shown to be derived from the bacterial community inhabiting truffle fruiting bodies. Our aim here was to investigate whether thiophene derivatives contributed to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. Furthermore, we questioned whether the concentration of thiophene volatiles was affected by freezing or whether it differed in truffles from distinct geographical origins. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis revealed that thiophene derivatives were major contributors to the aroma of T. borchii. Of four thiophene derivatives detected in this study, 3-methyl-4,5-dihydrothiophene was the most important one in terms of its contribution to the overall aroma. The relative concentration of thiophene derivatives was unaffected by freezing; however, it differed in samples collected in distinct geographical locations (Italy versus New Zealand). The causes of this variability might be differences in storage conditions and/or in bacterial community composition of the fruiting bodies; however, further work is needed to confirm these hypotheses. Overall, our results demonstrate that thiophene derivatives are major contributors to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. PMID:25573471

  5. A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism of Human Neuropeptide S Gene Originated from Europe Shows Decreased Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Aaron J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Using accumulating SNP (Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism) data, we performed a genome-wide search for polypeptide hormone ligands showing changes in the mature regions to elucidate genotype/phenotype diversity among various human populations. Neuropeptide S (NPS), a brain peptide hormone highly conserved in vertebrates, has diverse physiological effects on anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, food intake, and sleeping time through its cognate receptor-NPSR. Here, we report a SNP rs4751440 (L6-NPS) causing non-synonymous substitution on the 6th position (V to L) of the NPS mature peptide region. L6-NPS has a higher allele frequency in Europeans than other populations and probably originated from European ancestors ?25,000 yrs ago based on haplotype analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Functional analyses indicate that L6-NPS exhibits a significant lower bioactivity than the wild type NPS, with ?20-fold higher EC50 values in the stimulation of NPSR. Additional evolutionary and mutagenesis studies further demonstrate the importance of the valine residue in the 6th position for NPS functions. Given the known physiological roles of NPS receptor in inflammatory bowel diseases, asthma pathogenesis, macrophage immune responses, and brain functions, our study provides the basis to elucidate NPS evolution and signaling diversity among human populations. PMID:24386135

  6. *These Procedures were originally issued as the Columbia University Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Special Operating Procedures on December 21, 2005.

    E-print Network

    Shepard, Kenneth

    by fertilization, parthenogenesis, cloning or any other means from one or more human gametes or human diploid cells____________ *These Procedures were originally issued as the Columbia University Human Embryonic HUMAN EMBRYO AND HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH SPECIAL OPERATING PROCEDURES* I. INTRODUCTION

  7. Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that functional mouse oocytes and sperm can be derived in vitro from somatic cell lines. We hypothesize that in adult human ovaries, mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea (TA) are bipotent progenitors with a commitment for both primitive granulosa and germ cells. We investigated ovaries of twelve adult women (mean age 32.8 ± 4.1 SD, range 27–38 years) by single, double, and triple color immunohistochemistry. We show that cytokeratin (CK)+ mesenchymal cells in ovarian TA differentiate into surface epithelium (SE) cells by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Segments of SE directly associated with ovarian cortex are overgrown by TA, forming solid epithelial cords, which fragment into small (20 micron) epithelial nests descending into the lower ovarian cortex, before assembling with zona pellucida (ZP)+ oocytes. Germ cells can originate from SE cells which cover the TA. Small (10 micron) germ-like cells showing PS1 meiotically expressed oocyte carbohydrate protein are derived from SE cells via asymmetric division. They show nuclear MAPK immunoexpression, subsequently divide symmetrically, and enter adjacent cortical vessels. During vascular transport, the putative germ cells increase to oocyte size, and are picked-up by epithelial nests associated with the vessels. During follicle formation, extensions of granulosa cells enter the oocyte cytoplasm, forming a single paranuclear CK+ Balbiani body supplying all the mitochondria of the oocyte. In the ovarian medulla, occasional vessels show an accumulation of ZP+ oocytes (25–30 microns) or their remnants, suggesting that some oocytes degenerate. In contrast to males, adult human female gonads do not preserve germline type stem cells. This study expands our previous observations on the formation of germ cells in adult human ovaries. Differentiation of primitive granulosa and germ cells from the bipotent mesenchymal cell precursors of TA in adult human ovaries represents a most sophisticated adaptive mechanism created during the evolution of female reproduction. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. An essential mission of such follicular turnover might be elimination of spontaneous or environmentally induced genetic alterations of oocytes in resting primary follicles. PMID:15115550

  8. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clément, Pierre

    2007-10-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our topic to be introduced in teaching. Conceptions were categorised into four successive periods, each of which lasted approximately half a century. We showed that the DTD on human origins was influenced in each period by the conceptions of the curriculum developers, by the educational system and, more generally, by the socio-political context.

  9. Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains of Avian and Human Origin: Link between Phylogenetic Relationships and Common Virulence Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryvonne Moulin-Schouleur; Maryline Reperant; Sylvie Laurent; Annie Bree; Sandrine Mignon-Grasteau; Pierre Germon; Denis Rasschaert; Catherine Schouler

    2007-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains of human and avian origin show similarities that suggest that the avian strains potentially have zoonotic properties. However, the phylogenetic relationships between avian and human ExPEC strains are poorly documented, so this possibility is difficult to assess. We used PCR-based phylotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the phylogenetic relation- ships between 39

  10. by endemic mosquitoes in a human-modified landscape with relatively few native birds. Its original host remains

    E-print Network

    Lahti, David C.

    host remains unknown, but unlike many islands, New Zealand had endemic mosquitoes, which could haveby endemic mosquitoes in a human-modified landscape with relatively few native birds. Its original. THE FUTURE Our understanding of the effects of introduced bird dis- eases on island avifauna has begun

  11. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  12. Defined conditions for the isolation and expansion of basal prostate progenitor cells of mouse and human origin.

    PubMed

    Höfner, Thomas; Eisen, Christian; Klein, Corinna; Rigo-Watermeier, Teresa; Goeppinger, Stephan M; Jauch, Anna; Schoell, Brigitte; Vogel, Vanessa; Noll, Elisa; Weichert, Wilko; Baccelli, Irčne; Schillert, Anja; Wagner, Steve; Pahernik, Sascha; Sprick, Martin R; Trumpp, Andreas

    2015-03-10

    Methods to isolate and culture primary prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells (PESCs) have proven difficult and ineffective. Here, we present a method to grow and expand both murine and human basal PESCs long term in serum- and feeder-free conditions. The method enriches for adherent mouse basal PESCs with a Lin(-)SCA-1(+)CD49f(+)TROP2(high) phenotype. Progesterone and sodium selenite are additionally required for the growth of human Lin(-)CD49f(+)TROP2(high) PESCs. The gene-expression profiles of expanded basal PESCs show similarities to ESCs, and NF-kB function is critical for epithelial differentiation of sphere-cultured PESCs. When transplanted in combination with urogenital sinus mesenchyme, expanded mouse and human PESCs generate ectopic prostatic tubules, demonstrating their stem cell activity in vivo. This novel method will facilitate the molecular, genomic, and functional characterization of normal and pathologic prostate glands of mouse and human origin. PMID:25702639

  13. Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Shi; Hua Zhong; Yi Peng; Yong-Li Dong; Xue-Bin Qi; Feng Zhang; Lu-Fang Liu; Si-Jie Tan; Runlin Z Ma; Chun-Jie Xiao; R Spencer Wells; Li Jin; Bing Su

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the

  14. Selection of homeotic proteins for binding to a human DNA replication origin 1 1 Edited by M. Yaniv

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa de Stanchina; Davide Gabellini; Paolo Norio; Mauro Giacca; Fiorenzo A Peverali; Silvano Riva; Arturo Falaschi; Giuseppe Biamonti

    2000-01-01

    We have previously shown that a cell cycle-dependent nucleoprotein complex assembles in vivo on a 74 bp sequence within the human DNA replication origin associated to the Lamin B2 gene. Here, we report the identification, using a one-hybrid screen in yeast, of three proteins interacting with the 74 bp sequence. All of them, namely HOXA13, HOXC10 and HOXC13, are orthologues

  15. Determination of gallium originated from a gallium-based anticancer drug in human urine using ICP-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darya G. Filatova; Irina F. Seregina; Lidia S. Foteeva; Vladimir V. Pukhov; Andrei R. Timerbaev; Mikhail A. Bolshov

    2011-01-01

    Urine analysis gives an insight into the excretion of the administered drug which is related to its reactivity and toxicity.\\u000a In this work, the capability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure ultratrace metal levels was\\u000a utilized for rapid assaying of gallium originating from the novel gallium anticancer drug, tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (GaQ3), in human urine. Sample dilution with 1%

  16. Origin, persistence, and resolution of the rotational grazing debate: Integrating human dimensions into rangeland research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This synthesis examines the origins of the rotational grazing debate, identifies the major reasons for its persistence, and concludes with an approach for resolution. The debate originated from scientific and institutional responses to rangeland degradation in the US during the late 1800s. Rotationa...

  17. Nucleotide sequence of a region of human mitochondrial DNA containing the precisely identified origin of replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Crews; Deanna Ojala; James Posakony; Jerry Nishiguchi; Giuseppe Attardi

    1979-01-01

    A fragment of HeLa cell mitochondrial DNA containing the origin of replication has been sequenced. The precise position of the origin in this sequence has been identified by determining the nucleotide order in the 5'-end proximal portion of the heavy strand initiation fragment (7S DNA), and by aligning the two sequences.

  18. Identification of DNA of human origin based on amplification of human-specific mitochondrial cytochrome b region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirokazu Matsuda; Yasuhisa Seo; Eiji Kakizaki; Shuji Kozawa; Eri Muraoka; Nobuhiro Yukawa

    2005-01-01

    Species-specific differences in a non-polymorphic region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene appear to be large enough to allow human-specific amplification of forensic DNA samples. We therefore developed a PCR-based method using newly designed primers to amplify a 157-bp portion of the human mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The forward and reverse primers were designed to hybridize to regions of the

  19. The Origins of Human Rights Regimes: Democratic Delegation in Postwar Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Moravcsik

    2000-01-01

    The fiftieth anniversary of the UN Universal Declaration on HumanRightsmarks an appropriate moment to reconsider the reasons whygovernments construct international regimes to adjudicate and enforcehuman rights. Such regimes include those established under the EuropeanConvention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms(ECHR), the Inter-American Convention on Human Rights, and the UNCovenant on Civil and Political Rights.

  20. Origin of human chromosome 2: An ancestral telomere-telomere fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Ijdo; A. Baldini; D. C. Ward; S. T. Reeders; R. A. Wells

    1991-01-01

    The authors identified two allelic genomic cosmids from human chromosome 2, c8.1 and c29B, each containing two inverted arrays of the vertebrate telomeric repeat in a head-to-head arrangement, 5â˛(TTAGGG){sub n}-(CCCTAA){sub m}3â˛. Sequences flanking this telomeric repeat are characteristic of present-day human pretelomeres. BAL-31 nuclease experiments with yeast artificial chromosome clones of human telomeres and fluorescence in situ hybridization reveal that

  1. Mexican-Origin Interregional Migration from the Southwest: Human, Household, and Community Capital Hypotheses 

    E-print Network

    Siordia, Carlos

    2010-01-16

    This research addresses the question of what factors lead Mexican-origin individuals living in the U.S. to seek a new residence outside their Southwestern state of residence. The analysis examines three hypotheses: (1) the ...

  2. The parental origin correlates with the karyotype of human embryos developing from tripronuclear zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Stougaard, Magnus; Kolevraa, Steen; Bolund, Lars; Agerholm, Inge Errebo; Sunde, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Objective It has previously been suggested that embryos developing from intracytoplasmic sperm-injected (ICSI) zygotes with three pronuclei (3PN) are endowed with a mechanism for self-correction of triploidy to diploidy. 3PN are also observed in zygotes after conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). The parental origin, however, differs between the two fertilization methods. Whereas the vast majority of 3PN IVF zygotes are of dispermic origin and thus more likely to have two centrioles, the 3PN ICSI zygotes are digynic in origin and therefore, more likely to have one centriole. In the present study, we examine whether the parental origin of 3PN embryos correlates with the karyotype. Methods The karyotype of each nucleus was estimated using four sequential fluorescence in situ hybridizations-each with two probes-resulting in quantitative information of 8 different chromosomes. The karyotypes were then compared and correlated to the parental origin. Results 3PN ICSI embryos displayed a significantly larger and more coordinated reduction from the assumed initial 3 sets of chromosomes than 3PN IVF embryos. Conclusion The differences in the parental origin-and hence the number of centrioles-between the 3PN IVF and the 3PN ICSI zygotes are likely to be the cause of the differences in karyotypes. PMID:25874169

  3. What Is the Origin of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 398 Isolates from Humans without Livestock Contact? An Epidemiological and Genetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lekkerkerk, W S N; van Wamel, W J B; Snijders, S V; Willems, R J; van Duijkeren, E; Broens, E M; Wagenaar, J A; Lindsay, J A; Vos, M C

    2015-06-01

    Fifteen percent of all methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) human carriers detected in The Netherlands had not been in direct contact with pigs or veal calves. To ensure low MRSA prevalence, it is important to investigate the likely origin of this MRSA of unknown origin (MUO). Recently, it was shown that CC398 strains originating from humans and animals differ in the presence of specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs). We hypothesized that determining these specific MGEs in MUO isolates and comparing them with a set of CC398 isolates of various known origin might provide clues to their origin. MUO CC398 isolates were compared to MRSA CC398 isolates obtained from humans with known risk factors, a MRSA CC398 outbreak isolate, livestock associated (LA) MRSA CC398 isolates from pigs, horses, chickens, and veal calves, and five methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) CC398 isolates of known human origin. All strains were spa typed, and the presence or absence of, scn, chp, ?3 int, ?6 int, ?7 int, rep7, rep27, and cadDX was determined by PCRs. The MRSA CC398 in humans, MUO, or MRSA of known origin (MKO) resembled MRSA CC398 as found in pigs and not MSSA CC398 as found in humans. The distinct human MSSA CC398 spa type, t571, was not present among our MRSA CC398 strains; MRSA CC398 was tetracycline resistant and carried no ?3 bacteriophage with scn and chp. We showed by simple PCR means that human MUO CC398 carriers carried MRSA from livestock origin, suggestive of indirect transmission. Although the exact transmission route remains unknown, direct human-to-human transmission remains a possibility as well. PMID:25809975

  4. Introductions and evolution of human-origin seasonal influenza A viruses in multinational swine populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of influenza A viruses to cross species barriers presents a continual threat to human and animal health. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. We sequenced the genomes of 141 influen...

  5. Gestational Age and Origin of Human Milk Influence Total Lipid and Fatty Acid Contents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Rueda; María Ramírez; José Luis García-Salmerón; José Maldonado; Angel Gil

    1998-01-01

    The human milk composition may be influenced by several factors, such as gestational age or genetic characteristics and dietary habits of different populations. To analyze the total lipid and fatty acid contents of human milk, we have conducted two studies, one on mothers who had delivered preterm and term newborns and another on mothers from two different sociocultural backgrounds (Spain

  6. TP53 Mutations in Human Cancers: Origins, Consequences, and Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Magali; Hollstein, Monica; Hainaut, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the TP53 gene are one of the most frequent alterations in human cancers, and germline mutations are the underlying cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which predisposes to a wide spectrum of early-onset cancers. Most mutations are single-base substitutions distributed throughout the coding sequence. Their diverse types and positions may inform on the nature of mutagenic mechanisms involved in cancer etiology. TP53 mutations are also potential prognostic and predictive markers, as well as targets for pharmacological intervention. All mutations found in human cancers are compiled in the IARC TP53 Database (http://www-p53.iarc.fr/). A human TP53 knockin mouse model (Hupki mouse) provides an experimental model to study mutagenesis in the context of a human TP53 sequence. Here, we summarize current knowledge on TP53 gene variations observed in human cancers and populations, and current clinical applications derived from this knowledge. PMID:20182602

  7. The Myth of a Feminist Humanism: Thomas Salter's "The Mirrhor of Modestie".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Janis Butler

    1985-01-01

    A late sixteenth century work articulates one of the most conservative of Early Modern positions on women's education. It is found to contradict the commonly-held idea that a feminist humanism encouraging women to enter the sphere of arts and letters persisted in this period. (MSE)

  8. Regional variation in the postcranial robusticity of late upper paleolithic humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Shackelford

    2007-01-01

    Early modern humans from the Euro- pean Upper Paleolithic (UP) demonstrate trends in post- cranial biomechanical features that coincide with the last glacial maximum (LGM). These features have been interpreted as evidence that ecological changes of the LGM played a critical role in cultural and biological ad- aptation in European UP populations. In areas outside of Europe, similar environmental changes

  9. First ancient mitochondrial human genome from a prepastoralist southern African.

    PubMed

    Morris, Alan G; Heinze, Anja; Chan, Eva K F; Smith, Andrew B; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2014-10-01

    The oldest contemporary human mitochondrial lineages arose in Africa. The earliest divergent extant maternal offshoot, namely haplogroup L0d, is represented by click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa. Broadly defined as Khoesan, contemporary Khoesan are today largely restricted to the semidesert regions of Namibia and Botswana, whereas archeological, historical, and genetic evidence promotes a once broader southerly dispersal of click-speaking peoples including southward migrating pastoralists and indigenous marine-foragers. No genetic data have been recovered from the indigenous peoples that once sustained life along the southern coastal waters of Africa prepastoral arrival. In this study we generate a complete mitochondrial genome from a 2,330-year-old male skeleton, confirmed through osteological and archeological analysis as practicing a marine-based forager existence. The ancient mtDNA represents a new L0d2c lineage (L0d2c1c) that is today, unlike its Khoe-language based sister-clades (L0d2c1a and L0d2c1b) most closely related to contemporary indigenous San-speakers (specifically Ju). Providing the first genomic evidence that prepastoral Southern African marine foragers carried the earliest diverged maternal modern human lineages, this study emphasizes the significance of Southern African archeological remains in defining early modern human origins. PMID:25212860

  10. [Screening and identification of 36 new STR loci in human Y chromosome].

    PubMed

    Peng, Dong-Bo; Jiang, Zheng-Wen; Sun, Si-Ping; Li, Cai-Hua; Lu, Da-Ru

    2012-11-01

    133 candidate Y-STR loci were selected from NCBI STS database or by bioinformatics analysis in human Y-chromosome sequence, and were screened among 48 DNA samples around the world. Forty-one Y-STRs with high allelic frequency were validated, 36 of which were first reported. Two hundred haplotypes of the 41 STRs were identified among 200 randomly sampled male individuals in Shanghai, indicating 100% inter-individual discrimination. By network analysis of haplotypes of the 41 STRs among nine Jiang-surname male individuals with no consanguinity within 5 generations from a Jiang-surname individual gathering at Jiangshan, Zhejiang Province, and 7 Jiang-surname male individuals from the random shanghai population, 6 Jiang-surname individuals from Jiangshan were close with only 2-4 STR locus difference. These 41 Y-STR loci provide enough information by which individuals from each other with different early modern family origin can be effectively distinguished. This will promote studies on identification of non-lineal relationship in forensics, ancestry location of oversea Chinese, the surname origin and evolution, origin and migration of modern humans and many other studies of Contemporary Anthropology. PMID:23208138

  11. Uterine Vasculature Remodeling in Human Pregnancy Involves Functional Macrochimerism by Endothelial Colony Forming Cells of Fetal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, HÉlčne; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P

    2013-01-01

    The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149–471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health. PMID:23554274

  12. Uterine vasculature remodeling in human pregnancy involves functional macrochimerism by endothelial colony forming cells of fetal origin.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, Hélčne; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P

    2013-07-01

    The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149-471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health. PMID:23554274

  13. Understanding human original actions directed at real-world goals: the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Rosen, Bruce R; Lord, Louis-David; West, W Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive, original actions, which can succeed in multiple contextual situations, require understanding of what is relevant to a goal. Recognizing what is relevant may also help in predicting kinematics of observed, original actions. During action observation, comparisons between sensory input and expected action kinematics have been argued critical to accurate goal inference. Experimental studies with laboratory tasks, both in humans and nonhuman primates, demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) can learn, hierarchically organize, and use goal-relevant information. To determine whether this LPFC capacity is generalizable to real-world cognition, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the human brain during comprehension of original and usual object-directed actions embedded in video-depictions of real-life behaviors. We hypothesized that LPFC will contribute to forming goal-relevant representations necessary for kinematic predictions of original actions. Additionally, resting-state fMRI was employed to examine functional connectivity between the brain regions delineated in the video fMRI experiment. According to behavioral data, original videos could be understood by identifying elements relevant to real-life goals at different levels of abstraction. Patterns of enhanced activity in four regions in the left LPFC, evoked by original, relative to usual, video scenes, were consistent with previous neuroimaging findings on representing abstract and concrete stimuli dimensions relevant to laboratory goals. In the anterior left LPFC, the activity increased selectively when representations of broad classes of objects and actions, which could achieve the perceived overall behavioral goal, were likely to bias kinematic predictions of original actions. In contrast, in the more posterior regions, the activity increased even when concrete properties of the target object were more likely to bias the kinematic prediction. Functional connectivity was observed between contiguous regions along the rostro-caudal LPFC axis, but not between the regions that were not immediately adjacent. These findings generalize the representational hierarchy account of LPFC function to diverse core principles that can govern both production and comprehension of flexible real-life behavior. PMID:25224997

  14. Replicon typing of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 in Enterobacteriaceae of animal, environmental and human origin

    PubMed Central

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Jakobi, Gianna; Stephan, Roger; Hächler, Herbert; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the plasmid replicon profiles of a collection of blaCTX-M-1-positive enterobacterial strains. The isolates originated from chicken in the production pyramid, healthy food-producing animals at slaughter (chicken, calves, and pigs), chicken retail meat, environmental isolates originating from water bodies, and isolates from humans. A selection of IncI and IncN plasmids were characterized by multilocus sequence typing in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness. Methods: Transconjugants of 74 blaCTX-M-1-positive isolates were analyzed by PCR-based replicon typing and by PCR-based plasmid multilocus sequence typing. Results: The incompatibility groups detected among the blaCTX-M-1-harboring plasmids included IncI1, IncN, IncHI1B, IncF, IncFIIS, IncFIB, and IncB/O, with plasmid lineage IncI1/ST3 predominating in isolates from chicken and from humans. Lineage IncN/ST1 was detected mainly in isolates from pigs. For the first time, blaCTX-M-1 genes encoded on IncHI1 plasmids were detected in isolates from cattle and from water bodies. Conclusions: This study identifies plasmid lineages that are contributing to the dissemination of blaCTX-M-1 genes in the food chain, the environment, and humans. PMID:25400623

  15. Original Article The Frequency of Lymphocytic and Reflux Esophagitis in Non-Human Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Rubio; Edward J. Dick Jr; Abiel Orrego; Gene B. Hubbard

    We previously reported in humans a novel histologic phenotype of non-gastro-esophageal reflux disease called lymphocytic esophagitis. In this work, the esophagi of 121 non-human primates (103 baboons and 18 macaques) were investigated. 45 baboons (43.7%) and 9 macaques (50%) had lymphocytic esophagitis. The lymphocytic infiltration in the squamous epithelium involved not only papillary but also inter-papillary fields. Microscopic examination around

  16. Retinal Origins of the Primate Multifocal ERG: Implications for the Human Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald C. Hood; Laura J. Frishman; Shannon Saszik; Suresh Viswanathan

    PURPOSE. To better understand the cellular contributions to the human multifocal ERG (mfERG), rhesus monkey and human mfERGs were recorded using the same stimulus conditions. The monkey mfERGs were recorded before and after injections of pharmacologic agents known to selectively block activity of particular cells and circuits in the retina. METHODS. Photopic mfERGs were recorded with Dawson-Trick- Litzkow (DTL) fiber

  17. Complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): implications for human migrations in Oceania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NYREE J. C. ZEREGA; DIANE RAGONE; TIMOTHY J. MOTLEY

    2004-01-01

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae), a traditional starch crop in Oceania, has enjoyed legendary status ever since its role in the infamous mutiny aboard the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789, yet its origins remain unclear. Breadfruit's closest relatives are A. camansi and A. mariannensis. DNA fingerprinting data (AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphisms) from over 200 breadfruit cultivars, 30 A. camansi, and 24

  18. Factors and their origins in mate selection and choice among humans: implications for individual psychotherapy and counseling.

    PubMed

    Pediaditakis, N

    1998-11-01

    A mechanism of mate selection in humans is proposed and elaborated. It is further proposed that this mechanism constitutes one of the important factors for stability and the necessary longevity of the procreational dyad and therefore the procreational success of humans as a species. The concepts and mechanisms of assortative mating (homogamy) and that of complementarity of temperaments of the mates (heterogamy) which guide such selections are described, the relationships between the two are explored, and finally their possible early developmental origins are proposed. Evidence from a small study of 20 married couples' responses in temperament tests is offered as well as some illustrative case histories all pointing to those mechanisms. The argument is based mainly on principles of evolutionary psychology. PMID:9848462

  19. BABAR studies matter-antimatter asymmetry in lepton decays Humans have wondered about the origin of matter since the dawn of history. Physicists

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    difference, or asymmetry, between the properties of matter and antimatter. Since 1999, physicists fromBABAR studies matter-antimatter asymmetry in lepton decays Humans have wondered about the origin for the origin of matter. However, matter is always created in conjunction with the same amount of antimatter

  20. Origins of Human Malaria: Rare Genomic Changes and Full Mitochondrial Genomes Confirm the Relationship of Plasmodium falciparum to Other Mammalian Parasites but Complicate the Origins of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Despite substantial work, the phylogeny of malaria parasites remains debated. The matter is complicated by concerns about patterns of evolution in potentially strongly selected genes as well as the extreme AT bias of some Plasmodium genomes. Particularly contentious has been the position of the most virulent human parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whether grouped with avian parasites or within a larger clade of mammalian parasites. Here, we study 3 classes of rare genomic changes, as well as the sequences of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We report 3 lines of support for a clade of mammalian parasites: 1) we find no instances of spliceosomal intron loss in a hypothetical ancestor of P. falciparum and the avian parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, suggesting against a close relationship between those species; 2) we find 4 genomic mitochondrial indels supporting a mammalian clade, but none grouping P. falciparum with avian parasites; and 3) slowly evolving mitochondrial rRNA sequences support a mammalian parasite clade with 100% posterior probability. We further report a large deletion in the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene, which suggests a subclade including both African and Asian parasites within the clade of closely related primate malarias. This contrasts with previous studies that provided strong support for separate Asian and African clades, and reduces certainty about the historical and geographic origins of Plasmodium vivax. Finally, we find a lack of synapomorphic gene losses, suggesting a low rate of ancestral gene loss in Plasmodium. PMID:18359945

  1. Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Rusińol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Carratalŕ, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet

    2013-01-01

    Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking). In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples. PMID:23762826

  2. The Origin of the Ectodermal Ring in Staged Human Embryos of the First 5 Weeks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O’Rahilly; F. Müller

    1985-01-01

    Seven embryos of stages 10–16 (3–5 weeks) were studied for their external form by means of graphic reconstructions. This is the first systematic report on the general surface anatomy of the early human embryo. The brain has been described and illustrated in a previous publication, and the present article is concerned particularly with an important although neglected feature: the ectodermal

  3. Diverse Genetic Markers Concordantly Identify Bovine Origin Escherichia coli O157 Genotypes Underrepresented in Human Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic markers previously reported to occur at significantly different frequencies in isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 obtained from cattle and from clinically affected humans are congruent and delineate at least five groups. Isolates in three of these groups consistently carry one or more mark...

  4. Evolution of human longevity, population pressure and the origins of warfare.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Robin

    2005-01-01

    In a protected environment, humans have the longest lifespan of all primates. However, during the emergence of Homo sapiens from pre-hominids, the expectation of life at birth would have been quite low. On the basis of reasonable assumptions, an average expectation of life of less than 20 years is sufficient to maintain a population of hunter-gatherers. As individuals became better adapted to their environment, the mortality rate would gradually decrease, and this would result in the survival of more offspring to adulthood. Thus, the population will increase, and one of the consequences in human evolution is the migration of human communities to many new habitats. The development of agriculture provided a more reliable source of food, and stimulated further the increase in population size. Villages became towns, and then cities, states and empires arose which had very large populations, and competed for land and other resources. Armies were raised and were often at war. All this was due to population pressure, as Malthus had realised more than 200 years ago. However, neither he, nor any of the others who discussed warfare, understood that the demographic changes that produced large human populations was a steady increase in the expectation of life at birth. This inevitably occurred at the same time as man gradually gained more control over his environment, and achieved far more reproductive success than is seen in hunter-gatherers living in a harsh, stressful environment. PMID:16463113

  5. extrastriate cortex Visual word processing and experiential origins of functional selectivity in human

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    ; §Massachusetts General Hospital/Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Harvard Medical School Athinoula A Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 Contributed by Nancy Kanwisher, April in human Kanwisher Chris I. Baker, Jia Liu, Lawrence L. Wald, Kenneth K. Kwong, Thomas Benner, and Nancy

  6. The Origins of Sex Differences in Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions versus Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    Explores whether evolved disposition that differs by sex or social structure explains sex differences in human behavior. Illustrates the explanatory power of each theory, and reviews a study (D. Buss, 1989) that supports the social structural theory with respect to mate preference. (SLD)

  7. Genetic absolute dating based on microsatellites and the origin of modern humans.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D B; Ruiz Linares, A; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Feldman, M W

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new genetic distance for microsatellite loci, incorporating features of the stepwise mutation model, and test its performance on microsatellite polymorphisms in humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. We find that it performs well in determining the relations among the primates, but less well than other distance measures (not based on the stepwise mutation model) in determining the relations among closely related human populations. However, the deepest split in the human phylogeny seems to be accurately reconstructed by the new distance and separates African and non-African populations. The new distance is independent of population size and therefore allows direct estimation of divergence times if the mutation rate is known. Based on 30 microsatellite polymorphisms and a recently reported average mutation rate of 5.6 x 10(-4) at 15 dinucleotide microsatellites, we estimate that the deepest split in the human phylogeny occurred about 156,000 years ago. Unlike most previous estimates, ours requires no external calibration of the rate of molecular evolution. We can use such calibrations, however, to test our estimate. PMID:7624310

  8. Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Dong, Yong-Li; Qi, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lu-Fang; Tan, Si-Jie; Ma, Runlin Z; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Wells, R Spencer; Jin, Li; Su, Bing

    2008-01-01

    Background The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the Andaman Islands, is inconsistent with this scenario. Results In this study, we collected more than 5,000 male samples from 73 East Asian populations and reconstructed the phylogeography of the D-M174 lineage. Our results suggest that D-M174 represents an extremely ancient lineage of modern humans in East Asia, and a deep divergence was observed between northern and southern populations. Conclusion We proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages. The Neolithic expansion of Han culture and the last glacial maximum are likely the key factors leading to the current relic distribution of D-M174 in East Asia. The Tibetan and Japanese populations are the admixture of two ancient populations represented by two major East Asian specific Y chromosome lineages, the O and D haplogroups. PMID:18959782

  9. Phylogenetic Classification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains of Human and Bovine Origin Using a Novel Set of Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cattle are a reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157), and are known to harbor subtypes not typically found in clinically-ill humans. Consequently, nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered via isolates originating from human outbreaks may be restricte...

  10. Phylogenetic Classification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates of Human and Bovine Origin Using a Novel Set of Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cattle are a reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157), and are known to harbor subtypes not typically found in clinically-ill humans. Consequently, nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered via isolates originating from human outbreaks may be restricte...

  11. Recent African Origin of Modern Humans Revealed by Complete Sequences of Hominoid Mitochondrial DNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Horai; Kenji Hayasaka; Rumi Kondo; Kazuo Tsugane; Naoyuki Takahata

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of three humans (African, European, and Japanese), three African apes (common and pygmy chimpanzees, and gorilla), and one orangutan in an attempt to estimate most accurately the substitution rates and divergence times of hominoid mtDNAs. Nonsynonymous substitutions and substitutions in RNA genes have accumulated with an approximately clock-like regularity. From these substitutions

  12. Interindividual variability and parent of origin DNA methylation differences at specific human Alu elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ionel Sandovici; Sacha Kassovska-Bratinova; J. Concepcion Loredo-Osti; Mark Leppert; Alexander Suarez; Rae Stewart; F. Dale Bautista; Michael Schiraldi; Carmen Sapienza

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the CpG methylation of 19 specific members of Alu sub-families in human DNA isolated from whole blood, using an assay based on methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease digestion of genomic DNA and 'hot-stop' polymerase chain reaction. We found significant interindividual variability in the level of methylation for specific Alu elements among the members of 48 three-generation families. Surprisingly, some of

  13. Evidence Supporting a Zoonotic Origin of Human Coronavirus Strain NL63

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Jeremy; Li, Shimena; Yount, Boyd; Smith, Alexander; Sturges, Leslie; Olsen, John C.; Nagel, Juliet; Johnson, Joshua B.; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gates, J. Edward; Frieman, Matthew B.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between bats and coronaviruses (CoVs) has received considerable attention since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoV was identified in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae) in 2005. Since then, several bats throughout the world have been shown to shed CoV sequences, and presumably CoVs, in the feces; however, no bat CoVs have been isolated from nature. Moreover, there are very few bat cell lines or reagents available for investigating CoV replication in bat cells or for isolating bat CoVs adapted to specific bat species. Here, we show by molecular clock analysis that alphacoronavirus (?-CoV) sequences derived from the North American tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) are predicted to share common ancestry with human CoV (HCoV)-NL63, with the most recent common ancestor between these viruses occurring approximately 563 to 822 years ago. Further, we developed immortalized bat cell lines from the lungs of this bat species to determine if these cells were capable of supporting infection with HCoVs. While SARS-CoV, mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15), and chimeric SARS-CoVs bearing the spike genes of early human strains replicated inefficiently, HCoV-NL63 replicated for multiple passages in the immortalized lung cells from this bat species. These observations support the hypothesis that human CoVs are capable of establishing zoonotic-reverse zoonotic transmission cycles that may allow some CoVs to readily circulate and exchange genetic material between strains found in bats and other mammals, including humans. PMID:22993147

  14. Regulation of human dioxin receptor function by indolocarbazoles, receptor ligands of dietary origin.

    PubMed

    Kleman, M I; Poellinger, L; Gustafsson, J A

    1994-02-18

    The intracellular basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) dioxin receptor mediates signal transduction by dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). In analogy to nuclear receptors that are members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily the dioxin receptor is a ligand-inducible transcriptional regulator that directly binds to response elements within regulated genes. The most commonly studied dioxin receptor ligands are dioxin itself and structurally related environmental contaminants. A physiological ligand has not yet been identified. Interestingly, however, indolo[3,2-b]carbazole, a compound formed from precursors in the diet, has been shown to bind the murine dioxin receptor with high affinity in vitro. In the present study we show that this compound and its methylated derivative 5,11-dimethylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole very potently activated transcription from a dioxin or xenobiotic response element (XRE)-driven reporter gene in both murine and human hepatoma cells. This effect was not observed in mutant, dioxin-resistant hepatoma cells which are either deficient in expression of dioxin receptor or the bHLH receptor partner factor Arnt. In vitro indolocarbazoles induced XRE binding activity by the human dioxin receptor-Arnt complex in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, both dioxin- and indolocarbazole-activated forms of dioxin receptor regulate target gene expression by the same mechanism involving recruitment of the bHLH factor Arnt and recognition of the XRE element. Finally, the indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-activated human dioxin receptor appeared to generate more stable complexes with the XRE target sequence relative to those produced by the dioxin-activated receptor form, indicating interesting mechanistic differences between different classes of dioxin receptor ligands in their abilities to modulate human dioxin receptor function. PMID:8106494

  15. Somatic mutation/neodifferentiation/selection and the origins of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Lower, G M

    1981-09-01

    For some time, there has been a confusing and often frustrating difference of opinion amongst molecular pathologists and biologists regarding the relative involvement of somatic mutation vs. altered differentiation (neodifferentiation) in human carcinogenesis. This distinction, however, has led to opposing biological viewpoints which have a found alignment with opposing political viewpoints. While this distinction may have historical rationale, it has little biological basis, and it is possible to construct an integrative viewpoint which reconciles the "very different points of view and styles of argument" resulting from its use. The general evidence available suggests that most human epithelial cancers are caused by chemicals and radiations capable of inducing local mutations in regulatory sequences of genomic DNA, leading, perhaps through genetic transposition, to a mis-programming of natural genomic information expression. In this viewpoint, somatic mutation and altered differentiation are not mutually exclusive mechanisms as often implied, but, in all likelihood, are temporally related mechanisms; and human cancer thus becomes fundamentally a disease of cellular differentiation caused by somatic mutations. PMID:7289926

  16. Analysis of human extrachromosomal DNA elements originating from different beta-satellite subfamilies.

    PubMed

    Assum, G; Fink, T; Steinbeisser, T; Fisel, K J

    1993-06-01

    By screening total human DNA with probes derived from the small polydisperse circular (spc) DNA fraction of cultured human cells, we identified three clones that carry long stretches of beta-satellite DNA. Further experiments have shown that the three sequences belong to at least two different beta-satellite subfamilies, which are characterized by different higher order subunits. Members of one of these subfamilies are located in the cytological satellites of all acrocentric chromosomes, whereas members of another are located on the short arms of the acrocentrics on both sides of the stalk regions and also in the centromeric regions of chromosomes 1 and 9. This is the first time that beta-satellite sequences obtained from the spcDNA of human cells have been assigned to beta-satellite subfamilies that are organized as long arrays of tandemly arranged higher order monomers. This indicates that beta-satellite sequences can be excised from their chromosomal loci via intrastrand-recombination processes. PMID:8314563

  17. The humankind genome: from genetic diversity to the origin of human diseases.

    PubMed

    Belizário, Jose E

    2013-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies have failed to establish common variant risk for the majority of common human diseases. The underlying reasons for this failure are explained by recent studies of resequencing and comparison of over 1200 human genomes and 10?000 exomes, together with the delineation of DNA methylation patterns (epigenome) and full characterization of coding and noncoding RNAs (transcriptome) being transcribed. These studies have provided the most comprehensive catalogues of functional elements and genetic variants that are now available for global integrative analysis and experimental validation in prospective cohort studies. With these datasets, researchers will have unparalleled opportunities for the alignment, mining, and testing of hypotheses for the roles of specific genetic variants, including copy number variations, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and indels as the cause of specific phenotypes and diseases. Through the use of next-generation sequencing technologies for genotyping and standardized ontological annotation to systematically analyze the effects of genomic variation on humans and model organism phenotypes, we will be able to find candidate genes and new clues for disease's etiology and treatment. This article describes essential concepts in genetics and genomic technologies as well as the emerging computational framework to comprehensively search websites and platforms available for the analysis and interpretation of genomic data. PMID:24433206

  18. Subjective characteristics of TMS-induced phosphenes originating in human V1 and V2.

    PubMed

    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina; Vanni, Simo; Noreika, Valdas; Valiulis, Vladas; Móró, Levente; Revonsuo, Antti

    2014-10-01

    One way to study the neural correlates of visual consciousness is to localize the cortical areas whose stimulation generates subjective visual sensations, called phosphenes. While there is support for the view that the stimulation of several different visual areas in the occipital lobe may produce phosphenes, it is not clear what the contribution of each area is. Here, we studied the roles of the primary visual cortex (V1) and the adjacent area V2 in eliciting phosphenes by using functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with spherical modeling of the TMS-induced electric field. Reports of the subjective visual features of phosphenes were systematically collected and analyzed. We found that selective stimulation of V1 and V2 are equally capable of generating phosphenes, as demonstrated by comparable phosphene thresholds and similar characteristics of phosphene shape, color, and texture. However, the phosphenes induced by V1 stimulation were systematically perceived as brighter than the phosphenes induced by the stimulation of V2. Thus, these results suggest that V1 and V2 have a similar capability to produce conscious percepts. Nevertheless, V1 and V2 contribute differently to brightness: neural activation originating in V1 generates a more intense sensation of brightness than similar activation originating in V2. PMID:23696280

  19. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN TREPONEMATOSES (PINTA, YAWS, ENDEMIC SYPHILIS AND VENEREAL SYPHILIS).

    PubMed

    HACKETT, C J

    1963-01-01

    A close relationship between the four human treponematoses is suggested by their clinical and epidemiological characteristics and by such limited knowledge of the treponemes as there is at present. No treponeme of this group (except for that of the rabbit) is known other than in man, but the human treponemes probably arose long ago from an animal infection. The long period of infectiousness of pinta suggests that it may have been the earliest human treponematosis. It may have been spread throughout the world by about 15 000 B.C., being subsequently isolated in the Americas when the Bering Strait was flooded. About 10 000 B.C. in the Afro-Asian land mass environmental conditions might have favoured treponeme mutants leading to yaws; from these, about 7000 B.C., endemic syphilis perhaps developed, to give rise to venereal syphilis about 3000 B.C. in south-west Asia as big cities developed there. Towards the end of the fifteenth century A.D. a further mutation may have resulted in a more severe venereal syphilis in Europe which, with European exploration and geographical expansion, was subsequently carried throughout the then treponemally uncommitted world. These suggestions find some tentative support in climatic changes which might have influenced the selection of those treponemes which still survive in humid or arid climates. Venereal transmission would presumably remove the treponeme from the direct influence of climate. The author makes a plea for further investigation of many aspects of this subject while this is still possible. PMID:14043755

  20. Origin of the Scaling Law in Human Mobility: Hierarchical Organization of Traffic Systems

    E-print Network

    Han, Xiaopu; Wang, Binghong; Zhou, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Uncovering the mechanism leading to the scaling law in human trajectories is of fundamental importance in understanding many spatiotemporal phenomena. We propose a hierarchical geographical model to mimic the real traffic system, upon which a random walker will generate a power-law travel displacement distribution with exponent -2. When considering the inhomogeneities of cities' locations and attractions, this model reproduces a power-law displacement distribution with an exponential cutoff, as well as a scaling behavior in the probability density of having traveled a certain distance at a certain time. Our results agree very well with the empirical observations reported in [D. Brockmann et al., Nature 439, 462 (2006)].

  1. Unraveling the origin of exponential law in intra-urban human mobility

    E-print Network

    Liang, Xiao; Dong, Li; Xu, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of travel takes place within cities. Recently, new data has become available which allows for the discovery of urban mobility patterns which differ from established results about long distance travel. Specifically, the latest evidence increasingly points to exponential trip length distributions, contrary to the scaling laws observed on larger scales. In this paper, in order to explore the origin of the exponential law, we propose a new model which can predict individual flows in urban areas better. Based on the model, we explain the exponential law of intra-urban mobility as a result of the exponential decrease in average population density in urban areas. Indeed, both empirical and analytical results indicate that the trip length and the population density share the same exponential decaying rate.

  2. Kinetic Cooperativity in Human Pancreatic Glucokinase Originates from Millisecond Dynamics of the Small Domain.

    PubMed

    Larion, Mioara; Hansen, Alexandar L; Zhang, Fengli; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Tugarinov, Vitali; Miller, Brian G; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    The hallmark of glucokinase (GCK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose during glycolysis, is its kinetic cooperativity, whose understanding at atomic detail has remained open since its discovery over 40?years ago. Herein, by using kinetic CPMG NMR spectroscopic data for 17 isoleucine side chains distributed over all parts of GCK, we show that the origin of kinetic cooperativity is rooted in intramolecular protein dynamics. Residues of glucose-free GCK located in the small domain displayed distinct exchange behavior involving multiple conformers that are substantially populated (p>17?%) with a kex ?value of 509±51?s(-1) , whereas in the glucose-bound form these exchange processes were quenched. This exchange behavior directly competes with the enzymatic turnover rate at physiological glucose concentrations, thereby generating the sigmoidal rate dependence that defines kinetic cooperativity. PMID:26013420

  3. The origin, function, and diagnostic potential of RNA within extracellular vesicles present in human biological fluids

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Douglas D.; Gercel-Taylor, Cicek

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that tumor cells release membranous structures into their extracellular environment, which are termed exosomes, microvesicles or extracellular vesicles depending on specific characteristics, including size, composition and biogenesis pathway. These cell-derived vesicles can exhibit an array of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids derived from the originating tumor. This review focuses of the transcriptome (RNA) of these extracellular vesicles. Based on current data, these vesicular components play essential roles as conveyers of intercellular communication and mediators of many of the pathological conditions associated with cancer development, progression and therapeutic failures. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, signal pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer, chemoresistance, and genetic exchange. These tumor-derived extracellular vesicles not only to represent a central mediator of the tumor microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for tumor biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. PMID:23908664

  4. Elizabethan Theatre as Early Modern Television

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Gras

    2005-01-01

    In Shakespeare’s As You Like It (1600), the following dialogue occurs in act I, scene ii:\\u000aEnter Charles [the court wrestler]\\u000aCha. Good morrow to your worship.\\u000aOli. Good Monsieur Charles! What’s the new news at the new court?\\u000aCha. There’s no news at the court sir, but the old news. This piece\\u000aof dialogue indeed reflects aspects of the

  5. The Early Modern English Dictionaries Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Edited by Ian Lancashire of the Department of English at the University of Toronto this online database offers access to 127,000 word-entries from eleven dictionaries from 1530 to 1657. Several search options are available and users may select individual dictionaries or all of them. Additional resources at the site include a helpful overview of EMEDD, a short piece on Renaissance word-meaning, a select bibliography, and dictionary profiles.

  6. Cytotoxic evaluation of cubic boron nitride in human origin cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Koga, Kenjiro; Kaji, Akira; Hirosaki, Kenichi; Hata, Yukako; Ogura, Tsutomu; Fujishita, Osamu; Shintani, Kazuhiro

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of cubic boron nitride (cBN), a component of surgical cutting tools. The small quantities of cBN that typically remain on implants as a result of the manufacturing process may act as abrasives, injuring tissues surrounding the implant. To determine how cBN affects cells, we treated human neuroblastoma cells (NB-1) and human articular chondrocytes (nHAC-kn) with different concentrations of cBN powder and assessed cell growth and cell survival using the methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and a fluorescence probe assay. We also assessed the effects of tungsten carbide (WC) and cobalt (Co), two common components of joint implants, on cell growth and cell survival. Both cBN and WC moderately inhibited NB-1 and nHAC-kn cell growth. However, cBN and WC did not affect cell survival, even at high concentrations (40 microg/ml). By contrast, Co affected cell survival, inducing cell death in both cell types at increasing concentrations. These results suggest that cBN may be less toxic than WC alloys containing Co. PMID:16890396

  7. On the multiscale origins of fracture resistance in human bone and its biological degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Barth, Holly D.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2012-03-09

    Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length-scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone?s strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length-scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation and disease. Indeed aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length-scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to the initiation and growth of cracks.

  8. A Novel Human-Infection-Derived Bacterium Provides Insights into the Evolutionary Origins of Mutualistic Insect–Bacterial Symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Adam L.; Oakeson, Kelly F.; Gutin, Maria; Pontes, Arthur; Dunn, Diane M.; von Niederhausern, Andrew C.; Weiss, Robert B.; Fisher, Mark; Dale, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive study, little is known about the origins of the mutualistic bacterial endosymbionts that inhabit approximately 10% of the world's insects. In this study, we characterized a novel opportunistic human pathogen, designated “strain HS,” and found that it is a close relative of the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius. Our results indicate that ancestral relatives of strain HS have served as progenitors for the independent descent of Sodalis-allied endosymbionts found in several insect hosts. Comparative analyses indicate that the gene inventories of the insect endosymbionts were independently derived from a common ancestral template through a combination of irreversible degenerative changes. Our results provide compelling support for the notion that mutualists evolve from pathogenic progenitors. They also elucidate the role of degenerative evolutionary processes in shaping the gene inventories of symbiotic bacteria at a very early stage in these mutualistic associations. PMID:23166503

  9. Single cell origin of bigenotypic and biphenotypic B cell proliferations in human follicular lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the possible relatedness of the subpopulations that make up so-called biclonal lymphomas, we examined five bigenotypic and biphenotypic follicular lymphomas using DNA probes specific for the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation, which is a characteristic feature of these neoplasms. On Southern blot analysis, both subpopulations from four of five lymphomas contained comigrating t(14;18) DNA rearrangements, confirming the single cell origins for these neoplasms. No comigrating t(14;18) DNA rearrangements were observed in the fifth lymphoma, but nucleotide sequence analysis of cloned, breakpoint DNA showed identical t(14;18) crossovers in the two subpopulations. The migration differences of both the Ig and chromosome 18 DNA rearrangements were shown to result from somatically acquired mutations of the Ig genes from the fifth lymphoma. These studies indicate that Ig gene rearrangements and idiotope expression are not consistently stable clonal markers since they are subject to variability as a result of somatic mutation. Although translocated chromosome 18 DNA rearrangements are more reliable, they may also vary among cells of some tumors since somatic mutation can affect, as well, DNA of translocated alleles in follicular lymphomas. PMID:3126254

  10. Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young Seok; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Gerstung, Moritz; Martincorena, Inigo; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Davies, Helen R; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Gundem, Gunes; Shlien, Adam; Bolli, Niccolo; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Nangalia, Jyoti; Massie, Charles E; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Vassiliou, George S; Green, Anthony R; Du, Ming-Qing; Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Pimanda, John E; Teh, Bin Tean; Munshi, Nikhil; Greaves, Mel; Vyas, Paresh; El-Naggar, Adel K; Santarius, Tom; Collins, V Peter; Grundy, Richard; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, D Neil; Malkin, David; Foster, Christopher S; Warren, Anne Y; Whitaker, Hayley C; Brewer, Daniel; Eeles, Rosalind; Cooper, Colin; Neal, David; Visakorpi, Tapio; Isaacs, William B; Bova, G Steven; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Futreal, P Andrew; Lynch, Andy G; Chinnery, Patrick F; McDermott, Ultan; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic substitutions, which exhibited dramatic replicative strand bias, predominantly C > T and A > G on the mitochondrial heavy strand. This strand-asymmetric signature differs from those found in nuclear cancer genomes but matches the inferred germline process shaping primate mtDNA sequence content. A number of mtDNA mutations showed considerable heterogeneity across tumor types. Missense mutations were selectively neutral and often gradually drifted towards homoplasmy over time. In contrast, mutations resulting in protein truncation undergo negative selection and were almost exclusively heteroplasmic. Our findings indicate that the endogenous mutational mechanism has far greater impact than any other external mutagens in mitochondria and is fundamentally linked to mtDNA replication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02935.001 PMID:25271376

  11. Molecular and pathogenic characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Bovismorbificans strains of animal, environmental, food, and human origin in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Nógrády, Noémi; Imre, Ariel; Kostyák, Agnes; Tóth, Akos; Nagy, Béla

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we characterized 110 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Bovismorbificans contaminating environment, animals, food of animal origin, and human, to assess their significance along the food chain in Hungary. Additionally, five strains from Germany were tested for comparative purposes. Characterization involved antibiotic susceptibility testing, class 1 integron detection by polymerase chain reaction, plasmid profiling, virulotyping (using virulence gene-specific polymerase chain reactions), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Pathogenic potential of selected strains was tested in orally infected 1-day-old specific pathogen-free chicks. Eighty-two percent of the strains were susceptible to the 16 antibiotics tested, and none of them had class 1 integron. A multidrug-resistant human isolate harbored a bla(SHV5)-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase gene, first reported in this serotype. All the strains possessed avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, spi4, and sopB genes indicating the presence of Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1-5, respectively, missed the phage-related genes sopE and gipA, but retained the phage-related gene sodC1. An approximately 90 kb large plasmid was characteristic to 80% of the strains, all of which carried the spvC gene. In vivo colonization testing of four selected strains in 1-day-old chicks resulted in significantly reduced liver and spleen colonization ability as compared with the Salmonella Enteritidis control strain, whereas their caecal colonization ability differed less from that of Salmonella Enteritidis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis data revealed the dominance of two pulsotypes (C2 and C5) without any specific temporal, geographical, and/or source-related linkages. The results show that Salmonella Bovismorbificans studied here are less invasive than Salmonella Enteritidis, but they may colonize and persist in several animal species and successfully contaminate meat products of different animal origin in Hungary. PMID:20001326

  12. Different sensitivity to apoptosis in cells of monocytic or lymphocytic origin chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Marcello; Biswas, Priscilla; Troiano, Leonarda; Nasi, Milena; Ferraresi, Roberta; Mussini, Cristina; Vecchiet, Jacopo; Esposito, Roberto; Paganelli, Roberto; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2003-12-01

    Apoptotic death of CD4+ T lymphocytes is a major cause of the immunodeficiency caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but it is still unclear how this process precisely occurs. To characterize a potentially useful cellular model, we have analyzed the tendency of chronically HIV-infected CD4+ human cell lines of different origin to undergo apoptosis. We studied ACH-2 and U1 lines, derived from the CD4+ T-cell A301 and the promonocytic U937 cell lines, respectively, and induced apoptosis via several stimuli that trigger different pathways. Their capacity to regulate plasma membrane CD95 expression and to produce soluble CD95 was also analyzed. Using staurosporine, TNF-alpha plus cycloheximide, and gamma-radiations, we observed that ACH-2 were more sensitive to programmed cell death than A301, while U1 were less sensitive than U937. Both infected cell types had a lower sensitivity to CD95-induced apoptosis; the analysis of changes in mitochondrial membrane potential corroborated these observations. Plasma membrane CD95 was similarly regulated in all cell types, which, however, presented a different capacity to produce soluble CD95 molecules. Our in vitro results may offer a new perspective for developing further studies on the pathogenesis of HIV infection. A chronically infected cell line of lymphocytic origin is more susceptible to apoptosis than its parental cell type, while infected monocytic cells are less sensitive than their uninfected counterpart. Thus, it is possible to hypothesize that one of the reasons by which circulating monocytes survive and represent a viral reservoir is the capacity of HIV to decrease the sensitivity to apoptosis of this cell type. However, further studies on ex-vivo collected fresh cells, as well as on other cell lines, are urgently needed to confirm such hypothesis. PMID:14681550

  13. Origin of an 84-kDa protein with ABH blood-typing antigen activity in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Sato, I; Nakamura, A; Yamazaki, K; Sakata, N; Ito, K; Ito, E; Sagi, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the origin of an 84-kDa protein with ABH blood-typing antigen activity (p 84) and its concentration in human seminal plasma, a monoclonal antibody (mAb p 84) was produced. The protein was recognized in breast milk as well as in seminal plasma by an indirect, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using this mAb. mAb p 84 identified 84-kDa and 83-kDa forms of the protein in seminal plasma and breast milk, respectively, on immunoblotting. The mean concentration of p 84 in seminal plasma was 949 microg/ml (n = 54 subjects). There was no significant difference in the concentration of p 84 between individuals who secreted (Se) or did not secrete (non-se) the ABH antigen into their seminal plasma, nor were there any significant correlations between the concentration of p 84 and the total seminal protein concentration. An immunohistochemical study using mAb p 84 with light microscopic detection showed that p 84 was located in the cytoplasm of the inner layer of pseudostratified cuboidal epithelial cells of the seminal vesicles, but no immunoreactivity was found in the prostate. These data indicate that p 84 originates from a single tissue, the seminal vesicles, and suggest that p 84 is an ABH epitope-bearing protein that has not previously been identified but possesses some immunological properties similar to those of lactotransferrin. PMID:10452591

  14. On the Origins of Signal Variance in FMRI of the Human Midbrain at High Field

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Robert L.; Coaster, Mariam; Rogers, Baxter P.; Newton, Allen T.; Moore, Jay; Anderson, Adam W.; Zald, David H.; Gore, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in the midbrain at 7 Tesla suffers from unexpectedly low temporal signal to noise ratio (TSNR) compared to other brain regions. Various methodologies were used in this study to quantitatively identify causes of the noise and signal differences in midbrain fMRI data. The influence of physiological noise sources was examined using RETROICOR, phase regression analysis, and power spectral analyses of contributions in the respiratory and cardiac frequency ranges. The impact of between-shot phase shifts in 3-D multi-shot sequences was tested using a one-dimensional (1-D) phase navigator approach. Additionally, the effects of shared noise influences between regions that were temporally, but not functionally, correlated with the midbrain (adjacent white matter and anterior cerebellum) were investigated via analyses with regressors of ‘no interest’. These attempts to reduce noise did not improve the overall TSNR in the midbrain. In addition, the steady state signal and noise were measured in the midbrain and the visual cortex for resting state data. We observed comparable steady state signals from both the midbrain and the cortex. However, the noise was 2–3 times higher in the midbrain relative to the cortex, confirming that the low TSNR in the midbrain was not due to low signal but rather a result of large signal variance. These temporal variations did not behave as known physiological or other noise sources, and were not mitigated by conventional strategies. Upon further investigation, resting state functional connectivity analysis in the midbrain showed strong intrinsic fluctuations between homologous midbrain regions. These data suggest that the low TSNR in the midbrain may originate from larger signal fluctuations arising from functional connectivity compared to cortex, rather than simply reflecting physiological noise. PMID:23658643

  15. Human exposure to endotoxins and fecal indicators originating from water features.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Heederik, D D J; Leenen, E J T M; de Roda Husman, A M; Spithoven, J J G; van Knapen, F

    2014-03-15

    Exposure to contaminated aerosols and water originating from water features may pose public health risks. Endotoxins in air and water and fecal bacteria in water of water features were measured as markers for exposure to microbial cell debris and enteric pathogens, respectively. Information was collected about wind direction, wind force, distance to the water feature, the height of the water feature and the tangibility of water spray. The mean concentration of endotoxins in air nearby and in water of 31 water features was 10 endotoxin units (EU)/m(3) (Geometric Mean (GM), range 0-85.5 EU/m(3) air) and 773 EU/mL (GM, range 9-18,170 EU/mL water), respectively. Such mean concentrations may be associated with respiratory health effects. The water quality of 26 of 88 water features was poor when compared to requirements for recreational water in the Bathing Water Directive 2006/7/EC. Concentrations greater than 1000 colony forming units (cfu) Escherichia coli per 100 mL and greater than 400 cfu intestinal enterococci per 100 mL increase the probability of acquiring gastrointestinal health complaints. Regression analyses showed that the endotoxin concentration in air was significantly influenced by the concentration of endotoxin in water, the distance to the water feature and the tangibility of water spray. Exposure to air and water near water features was shown to lead to exposure to endotoxins and fecal bacteria. The potential health risks resulting from such exposure to water features may be estimated by a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), however, such QMRA would require quantitative data on pathogen concentrations, exposure volumes and dose-response relationships. The present study provides estimates for aerosolisation ratios that can be used as input for QMRA to quantify exposure and to determine infection risks from exposure to water features. PMID:24231029

  16. Diverse origin and function of cells with endothelial phenotype obtained from adult human blood.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Rajiv; Jevremovic, Dragan; Peterson, Timothy E; Chatterjee, Suvro; Shah, Vijay; Vile, Richard G; Simari, Robert D

    2003-11-28

    Cells with endothelial phenotype generated from adult peripheral blood have emerging diagnostic and therapeutic potential. This study examined the lineage relationship between, and angiogenic function of, early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and late outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) in culture. Culture conditions were established to support the generation of both EPCs and OECs from the same starting population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Utilizing differences in expression of the surface endotoxin receptor CD14, it was determined that the vast majority of EPCs arose from a CD14+ subpopulation of PBMCs but OECs developed exclusively from the CD14- fraction. Human OECs, but not EPCs, expressed key regulatory proteins endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and caveolin-1. Moreover, OECs exhibited a markedly greater capacity for capillary morphogenesis in in vitro and in vivo matrigel models, tube formation by OECs being in part dependent on eNOS function. Collectively, these data indicate lineage and functional heterogeneity in the population of circulating cells capable of assuming an endothelial phenotype and provide rationale for the investigation of new cell-therapeutic approaches to ischemic cardiovascular disease. PMID:14605020

  17. Characterisation of nuclear architectural alterations during in vitro differentiation of human stem cells of myogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Rozwadowska, Natalia; Kolanowski, Tomasz; Wiland, Ewa; Siatkowski, Marcin; Pawlak, Piotr; Malcher, Agnieszka; Mietkiewski, Tomasz; Olszewska, Marta; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Cell differentiation is based on a synchronised orchestra of complex pathways of intrinsic and extrinsic signals that manifest in the induced expression of specific transcription factors and pivotal genes within the nucleus. One cannot ignore the epigenetic status of differentiating cells, comprising not only histones and DNA modifications but also the spatial and temporal intranuclear chromatin organisation, which is an important regulator of nuclear processes. In the present study, we investigated the nuclear architecture of human primary myoblasts and myocytes in an in vitro culture, with reference to global changes in genomic expression. Repositioning of the chromosomal centromeres, along with alterations in the nuclear shape and volume, was observed as a consequence of myotube formation. Moreover, the microarray data showed that during in vitro myogenesis cells tend to silence rather than induce gene expression. The creation of a chromosome map marked with gene expression changes that were at least 2-fold confirmed the observation. Additionally, almost all of the chromosomal centromeres in the differentiated cells preferentially localised near the nuclear periphery when compared to the undifferentiated cells. The exceptions were chromosomes 7 and 11, in which we were unable to confirm the centromere repositioning. In our opinion, this is the first reported observation of the movement of chromosomal centromeres along differentiating myogenic cells. Based on these data we can conclude that the myogenic differentiation with global gene expression changes is accompanied by the spatial repositioning of chromosomes and chromatin remodelling, which are important processes that regulate cell differentiation. PMID:24019912

  18. Neural Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells as an Origin of Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Raivio, Taneli; Cui, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to proliferate in vitro indefinitely without losing their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types upon exposure to appropriate signals. Particularly, the ability of hESCs to differentiate into neuronal subtypes is fundamental to develop cell-based therapies for several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. In this study, we differentiated hESCs to dopaminergic neurons via an intermediate stage, neural progenitor cells (NPCs). hESCs were induced to neural progenitor cells by Dorsomorphin, a small molecule that inhibits BMP signalling. The resulting neural progenitor cells exhibited neural bipolarity with high expression of neural progenitor genes and possessed multipotential differentiation ability. CBF1 and bFGF responsiveness of these hES-NP cells suggested their similarity to embryonic neural progenitor cells. A substantial number of dopaminergic neurons were derived from hES-NP cells upon supplementation of FGF8 and SHH, key dopaminergic neuron inducers. Importantly, multiple markers of midbrain neurons were detected, including NURR1, PITX3, and EN1, suggesting that hESC-derived dopaminergic neurons attained the midbrain identity. Altogether, this work underscored the generation of neural progenitor cells that retain the properties of embryonic neural progenitor cells. These cells will serve as an unlimited source for the derivation of dopaminergic neurons, which might be applicable for treating patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:26064138

  19. The Origin of the Variations of the Hyoid Apparatus in Human.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Verdugo-López, Samuel; Abe, Hiroshi; Murakami, Gen

    2015-08-01

    Currently, theories based on acquired calcification of the stylohyoid ligament are believed to be a pathogenesis of syndromes associated with the hyoid apparatus (HA) and its variations. We studied the development of the HA from Reichert´s cartilage using serial sections of 25 human embryos and 45 fetuses. We ensured a fact that, at the initial stage, the HA appeared as two independent cartilage segments, that is, the cranial or styloid segment and the caudal or hyoid segment of Reichert's cartilage, those are connected by a mesenchymal structure. However, between 8 and 10 weeks of development, the mesenchymal connection was lost. We hypothesize that this disconnection is likely to be one of the major factors to make a descent of the hyoid bone in evolution. The stylohyoid ligament was not observed. The variations of the HA, should be considered variations of the development of Reicherts cartilage. If these variations are maintained in the adult, are likely to explain a major symptom associated with Eagle's syndrome. Anat Rec, 298:1395-1407, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25926274

  20. Ethanol, fruit ripening, and the historical origins of human alcoholism in primate frugivory.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert

    2004-08-01

    Ethanol is a naturally occurring substance resulting from the fermentation by yeast of fruit sugars. The association between yeasts and angiosperms dates to the Cretaceous, and dietary exposure of diverse frugivorous taxa to ethanol is similarly ancient. Ethanol plumes can potentially be used to localize ripe fruit, and consumption of low-concentration ethanol within fruit may act as a feeding stimulant. Ripe and over-ripe fruits of the Neotropical palm Astrocaryum standleyanum contained ethanol within the pulp at concentrations averaging 0.9% and 4.5%, respectively. Fruit ripening was associated with significant changes in color, puncture resistance, sugar, and ethanol content. Natural consumption rates of ethanol via frugivory and associated blood levels are not known for any animal taxon. However, behavioral responses to ethanol may have been the target of natural selection for all frugivorous species, including many primates and the hominoid lineages ancestral to modern humans. Pre-existing sensory biases associating this ancient psychoactive compound with nutritional reward might accordingly underlie contemporary patterns of alcohol consumption and abuse. PMID:21676715

  1. Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Emerging Enteric Picobirnaviruses of Animal Origin and Their Relationship to Human Strains

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Yashpal S.; Kumar, Naveen; Sharma, Kuldeep; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Banyai, Krisztian

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae.” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior. Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated. Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses. Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach. Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains. PMID:25136620

  2. Extended life span of human endometrial stromal cells transfected with cloned origin-defective, temperature-sensitive simian virus 40.

    PubMed Central

    Rinehart, C A; Haskill, J S; Morris, J S; Butler, T D; Kaufman, D G

    1991-01-01

    Human endometrial stromal cells transfected with an origin-defective, temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 recombinant plasmid are dependent on T-antigen function for proliferation and at the permissive temperature have an extended life span in culture. Southern blot analysis indicates that the transfected gene is present in low copy number, possibly at a single integration site. Normal stromal cells are capable of 10 to 20 population doublings in culture. Transfected cultures have been carried at the permissive temperature to 80 population doublings before crisis. In the multistep model of malignant transformation of human cells, these cells represent one of the earliest stages: extended but finite life span. We have used these cells to investigate alterations in signal transduction that may be responsible for this early stage of transformation caused by the large T antigen. Temperature shift experiments indicate that the expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) but not of c-fos is altered by the large T antigen. Induction of c-fos by serum or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate is independent of temperature. However, in the transfected cells, the induction of ODC by asparagine or serum is greatly enhanced at the permissive temperature. This result indicates that the large T antigen acts downstream of c-fos but upstream of ODC expression in the signal-transducing cascade. Images PMID:1847463

  3. Resistance patterns and integron cassette arrays of Enterobacter cloacae complex strains of human origin.

    PubMed

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Pawlowski, Konrad; Kaznowski, Adam

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse the resistance patterns and characterize the distribution and genetic content of resistance integrons within Enterobacter cloacae complex strains originating from hospitalized patients. The strains were included in the E. cloacae complex study following sequence analysis of the hsp60 gene. The determination of resistance towards eight classes of antimicrobials was followed by PCR detection of integrons and analyses of the size and sequences of their variable parts. The majority of 69 clinical strains of the E. cloacae complex were identified as Enterobacter hormaechei. They were isolated from a variety of samples, including urine, wounds, blood and stools. The remaining isolates belonged to E. cloacae clusters III and IV, E. cloacae subsp. cloacae and Enterobacter kobei. Fifty-two isolates (75.4?%) were resistant to more than three unrelated antibiotics. The resistance for each antibiotic, except imipenem, was significantly associated with the presence of integrons. Class 1 integrons were detected in 55?% of isolates: 63.3?% of 'E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii', 50?% of E. cloacae cluster III, 40?% of 'E. hormaechei subsp. oharae', 33?% belonging to E. cloacae cluster IV and 20?% of 'E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei' were intI1-positive. All of the integrons were located on transferable genetic elements. The transferred resistance primarily included that to aminoglycosides, ticarcillin, piperacillin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and tetracycline. Sequence analysis of the variable regions of integrons identified two groups of genes: those encoding aminoglycoside adenylotransferases responsible for resistance to aminoglycosides, and dfr cassettes conferring resistance to trimethoprim. Integrons of the E. cloacae complex showed limited variability of genes encoding resistance to therapeutics and were stable in structure with the following cassette arrays: dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, aadB-aadA2, dfrA1-aadA1 and aacA4-aadA1. Hospital-dependent differences in type and arrays of gene cassettes were observed, which seemed to be conserved and not liable to changes. PMID:21330416

  4. “The city of Hepar”: Rituals, gastronomy, and politics at the origins of the modern names for the liver

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Riva, Enrica; Spicci, Mauro; Strazzabosco, Mario; Giovannini, Marcello; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Medical etymology sometimes provides unexpected information about health concepts and medical practice in different times and cultures. We conducted an etymological analysis of the terms used to indicate “liver” in Germanic and Romance languages. The Greek word “hčpar” was originally connected to the concept of “pleasure”, showing that in antiquity the liver was considered to be the seat of soul and human feelings. In Romance languages, the Latin term “ficatum” was linked to the ancient practice of fattening geese with figs (ficus in Latin) to make their livers more delicious. This relationship between the liver, fat, and carbohydrates seems to indicate that ancient gourmets had clear knowledge of the nutritional mechanisms underlying “fatty liver” in animals. On the other hand, the Germanic term “lifere” was initially connected to “life”, underscoring the relation of the liver to health and existence. In the Early Modern Age, the liver became a recurring image in political reflection, especially within the Elizabethan tradition of the body politic, where the king was frequently described as the “liver” of his country. Finally, the liver was used to indicate courage, or the lack of it: some modern French and English idiomatic expressions derive from the ancient belief that people who had no blood in their liver (“lily-livered”) would thus be cowards or betrayers. PMID:21718666

  5. A Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain of Human Gastrointestinal Microbiota Origin Elicits Killing of Enterovirulent Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by Triggering Lethal Bacterial Membrane Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Helene Coconnier-Polter; Vanessa Lievin-Le Moal; Alain L. Servin

    2005-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal microbiota produces antagonistic activities against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. We undertook a study to investigate the mechanism(s) by which a Lactobacillus acidophilus strain of human microbiota origin antagonizes the gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We showed that the cell-free culture supernatant of L. acidophilus strain LB (LB-CFCS) induced the following effects in S. enterica SL1344: (i)

  6. Identification of the origin of adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers within the superior hypogastric plexus of the human fetus

    PubMed Central

    Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Diallo, Djibril; Benoit, Gérard; Bessede, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Nerve fibers contributing to the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) and the hypogastric nerves (HN) are currently considered to comprise an adrenergic part of the autonomic nervous system located between vertebrae (T1 and L2), with cholinergic aspects originating from the second to fourth sacral spinal segments (S2, S3 and S4). The aim of this study was to identify the origin and the nature of the nerve fibers within the SHP and the HN, especially the cholinergic fibers, using computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). Serial histological sections were performed at the level of the lumbar spine and pelvis in five human fetuses between 14 and 30 weeks of gestation. Sections were treated with histological staining [hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome (TriM)] and with immunohistochemical methods to detect nerve fibers (anti-S100), adrenergic fibers (anti-TH), cholinergic fibers (anti-VAChT) and nitrergic fibers (anti-nNOS). The sections were then digitalized using a high-resolution scanner and the 3D images were reconstructed using winsurf software. These experiments revealed the coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic fibers within the SHP and the HNs. One-third of these cholinergic fibers were nitrergic fibers [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (+)] and potentially pro-erectile, while the others were non-nitrergic [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (?)]. We found these cholinergic fibers arose from the lumbar nerve roots. This study described the nature of the SHP nerve fibers which gives a better understanding of the urinary and sexual dysfunctions after surgical injuries. PMID:23668336

  7. Identification of the origin of adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers within the superior hypogastric plexus of the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Diallo, Djibril; Benoit, Gérard; Bessede, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Nerve fibers contributing to the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) and the hypogastric nerves (HN) are currently considered to comprise an adrenergic part of the autonomic nervous system located between vertebrae (T1 and L2), with cholinergic aspects originating from the second to fourth sacral spinal segments (S2, S3 and S4). The aim of this study was to identify the origin and the nature of the nerve fibers within the SHP and the HN, especially the cholinergic fibers, using computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). Serial histological sections were performed at the level of the lumbar spine and pelvis in five human fetuses between 14 and 30 weeks of gestation. Sections were treated with histological staining [hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome (TriM)] and with immunohistochemical methods to detect nerve fibers (anti-S100), adrenergic fibers (anti-TH), cholinergic fibers (anti-VAChT) and nitrergic fibers (anti-nNOS). The sections were then digitalized using a high-resolution scanner and the 3D images were reconstructed using winsurf software. These experiments revealed the coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic fibers within the SHP and the HNs. One-third of these cholinergic fibers were nitrergic fibers [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (+)] and potentially pro-erectile, while the others were non-nitrergic [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (-)]. We found these cholinergic fibers arose from the lumbar nerve roots. This study described the nature of the SHP nerve fibers which gives a better understanding of the urinary and sexual dysfunctions after surgical injuries. PMID:23668336

  8. Characterization of two distinct neuraminidases from avian-origin human-infecting H7N9 influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Bi, Yuhai; Vavricka, Christopher J; Sun, Xiaoman; Zhang, Yanfang; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Min; Xiao, Haixia; Qin, Chengfeng; He, Jianhua; Liu, Wenjun; Yan, Jinghua; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, George F

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic of an avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus has recently emerged in China, infecting 134 patients of which 45 have died. This is the first time that an influenza virus harboring an N9 serotype neuraminidase (NA) has been known to infect humans. H7N9 viruses are divergent and at least two distinct NAs and hemagglutinins (HAs) have been found, respectively, from clinical isolates. The prototypes of these viruses are A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Shanghai/1/2013. NAs from these two viruses are distinct as the A/Shanghai/1/2013 NA has an R294K substitution that can confer NA inhibitor oseltamivir resistance. Oseltamivir is by far the most commonly used anti-influenza drug due to its potency and high bioavailability. In this study, we show that an R294K substitution results in multidrug resistance with extreme oseltamivir resistance (over 100 000-fold) using protein- and virus-based assays. To determine the molecular basis for the inhibitor resistance, we solved high-resolution crystal structures of NAs from A/Anhui/1/2013 N9 (R294-containing) and A/Shanghai/1/2013 N9 (K294-containing). R294K substitution results in an unfavorable E276 conformation for oseltamivir binding, and consequently loss of inhibitor carboxylate interactions, which compromises the binding of all classical NA ligands/inhibitors. Moreover, we found that R294K substitution results in reduced NA catalytic efficiency along with lower viral fitness. This helps to explain why K294 has predominantly been found in clinical cases of H7N9 infection under the selective pressure of oseltamivir treatment and not in the dominant human-infecting viruses. This implies that oseltamivir can still be efficiently used in the treatment of H7N9 infections. PMID:24165891

  9. Adhesion of Human and Animal Escherichia coli Strains in Association with Their Virulence-Associated Genes and Phylogenetic Origins

    PubMed Central

    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

  10. Adhesion of human and animal Escherichia coli strains in association with their virulence-associated genes and phylogenetic origins.

    PubMed

    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H; Schierack, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

  11. A Set of Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine-Origin Pandemic H1N1 Differentiate Swine H1N1 and Human Seasonal H1N1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) emerged in North America and caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The new pandemic strain is a triple reassortant influenza virus of swine origin containing genes from avian, swine and human influenza viruses. It is genetically ...

  12. First Draft Genome Sequence of a Human Coxiella burnetii Isolate, Originating from the Largest Q Fever Outbreak Ever Reported, the Netherlands, 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Hammerl, J A; Mertens, K; Sprague, L D; Hackert, V H; Buijs, J; Hoebe, C J; Henning, K; Neubauer, H; Al Dahouk, S

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, Coxiella burnetii caused a large regional outbreak of Q fever in South Limburg, the Netherlands. Here, we announce the genome draft sequence of a human C. burnetii isolate, strain NL-Limburg, originating from this outbreak, including a brief summary of the genome's general features. PMID:25953164

  13. Design & Environmental Analysis (DEA) Assessment chart for graduate program Fall 2011 Graduate School Proficiency (ORIGINAL) DEA: PhD in Human Behavior & Design

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Design & Environmental Analysis (DEA) Assessment chart for graduate program Fall 2011 Graduate School Proficiency (ORIGINAL) DEA: PhD in Human Behavior & Design TO BE REPORTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL presentations, attendance at professional meetings, etc. Attendance at DEA grad seminar (DEA 7100) Demonstrate

  14. Efficacy of a human anthrax vaccine in guinea pigs, rabbits, and rhesus macaques against challenge by Bacillus anthracis isolates of diverse geographical origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. Fellows; M. K. Linscott; B. E. Ivins; M. L. M. Pitt; C. A. Rossi; P. H. Gibbs; A. M. Friedlander

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a licensed human anthrax vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA)) was tested in guinea pigs, rabbits, and rhesus macaques against spore challenge by Bacillus anthracis isolates of diverse geographical origin. Initially, groups of Hartley guinea pigs were vaccinated at 0 and 4 weeks with AVA, then challenged intramuscularly at 10 weeks with spores from 33 isolates of B.

  15. Organization of the Antiseptic Resistance Gene qacA and Tn552Related  Lactamase Genes in Multidrug- Resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus Strains of Animal and Human Origins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-L. Anthonisen; M. Sunde; T. M. Steinum; M. S. Sidhu; H. Sorum

    2002-01-01

    A part (12 kb) of a plasmid containing the -lactamase genes of Tn552, the disinfectant resistance gene qacA, and flanking DNA has been cloned from a Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolate and sequenced. This region was used to map the corresponding regions in six other multiresistant S. haemolyticus isolates of human and animal origin. The organizations of the genetic structures were almost

  16. Bat origins of MERS-CoV supported by bat coronavirus HKU4 usage of human receptor CD26.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qihui; Qi, Jianxun; Yuan, Yuan; Xuan, Yifang; Han, Pengcheng; Wan, Yuhua; Ji, Wei; Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Wang, Jianwei; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Yan, Jinghua; Lu, Guangwen; Gao, George F

    2014-09-10

    The recently reported Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is phylogenetically closely related to the bat coronaviruses (BatCoVs) HKU4 and HKU5. However, the evolutionary pathway of MERS-CoV is still unclear. A receptor binding domain (RBD) in the MERS-CoV envelope-embedded spike protein specifically engages human CD26 (hCD26) to initiate viral entry. The high sequence identity in the viral spike protein prompted us to investigate if HKU4 and HKU5 can recognize hCD26 for cell entry. We found that HKU4-RBD, but not HKU5-RBD, binds to hCD26, and pseudotyped viruses embedding HKU4 spike can infect cells via hCD26 recognition. The structure of the HKU4-RBD/hCD26 complex revealed a hCD26-binding mode similar overall to that observed for MERS-RBD. HKU4-RBD, however, is less adapted to hCD26 than MERS-RBD, explaining its lower affinity for receptor binding. Our findings support a bat origin for MERS-CoV and indicate the need for surveillance of HKU4-related viruses in bats. PMID:25211075

  17. Exonuclease mutations in DNA polymerase epsilon reveal replication strand specific mutation patterns and human origins of replication.

    PubMed

    Shinbrot, Eve; Henninger, Erin E; Weinhold, Nils; Covington, Kyle R; Göksenin, A Yasemin; Schultz, Nikolaus; Chao, Hsu; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Sander, Chris; Pursell, Zachary F; Wheeler, David A

    2014-11-01

    Tumors with somatic mutations in the proofreading exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE-exo*) exhibit a novel mutator phenotype, with markedly elevated TCT?TAT and TCG?TTG mutations and overall mutation frequencies often exceeding 100 mutations/Mb. Here, we identify POLE-exo* tumors in numerous cancers and classify them into two groups, A and B, according to their mutational properties. Group A mutants are found only in POLE, whereas Group B mutants are found in POLE and POLD1 and appear to be nonfunctional. In Group A, cell-free polymerase assays confirm that mutations in the exonuclease domain result in high mutation frequencies with a preference for C?A mutation. We describe the patterns of amino acid substitutions caused by POLE-exo* and compare them to other tumor types. The nucleotide preference of POLE-exo* leads to increased frequencies of recurrent nonsense mutations in key tumor suppressors such as TP53, ATM, and PIK3R1. We further demonstrate that strand-specific mutation patterns arise from some of these POLE-exo* mutants during genome duplication. This is the first direct proof of leading strand-specific replication by human POLE, which has only been demonstrated in yeast so far. Taken together, the extremely high mutation frequency and strand specificity of mutations provide a unique identifier of eukaryotic origins of replication. PMID:25228659

  18. Prevalence of quinolone resistance determinants in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from human origin in Extremadura, Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos, Maria Jorge; Palomo, Gonzalo; Hormeńo, Lorena; Herrera-León, Silvia; Domínguez, Lucas; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Quesada, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to the quinolones nalidixic acid (NAL) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) and the occurrence of quinolone resistance determinants have been investigated in 300 non-typhoidal Salmonella from human origin, isolated in the years between 2004 and 2008, in 6 hospitals within Extremadura (Spain). Salmonella Enteritidis was the major serotype found among quinolone-resistant isolates, most of which were clustered by clonal analysis to a single clone, which presented D87 or S83 substitutions in GyrA. Eleven isolates presented the non-classical quinolone resistance phenotype (resistance to CIP and susceptibility to NAL), lacking mutations in the quinolone resistance determinant region of topoisomerase genes. Among them, one Salmonella Typhimurium isolate carried a qnrS1 gene in a low-molecular-weight plasmid, pQnrS1-HLR25, identical to plasmids previously found in the UK, Taiwan, and USA. The occurrence of this genetic element could represent a risk for the horizontal transmission of quinolone resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:24581744

  19. Herpes virus production as a marker of repair in ultraviolet irradiated human skin cells of different origin.

    PubMed

    Coppey, J; Moreno, G; Nocentini, S

    1978-01-01

    When confluent human skin cultures are ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated before infection with Herpes Simplex type 1 virus (HSV), their capacity to support virus growth is impaired. When the time interval between UV-exposure and infection is increased up to 36 hours, different recoveries of HSV production capacity are observed according to the origin of the host cells. 1) Two normal donors: the cells present a dose dependent recovery which is maximal for a dose ( : formula: (see text) at which a plateau level of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) is reached. 2) A mother of two Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) children: in this line which exhibits a normal level of UDS, the extent of recovery is significantly decreased after exposures : formula: (see text) 3) An XP child: these cells have a normal level of UDS (XP variant) whereas they present a low extent of recovery as compared with that of the normal subjects. 4) Five XP children: in these excision deficient lines (UDS less than 15%), HSV production capacity decreases with increasing time intervals after UV exposure for doses greater than or equal to 3 : formula: (see text). For doses less than 3 : formula: (see text), a small recovery with an overshoot of viral production is observed 24 h after UV exposure in the lines (three) which present the highest UDS (10--15%) and not in the two lines which present a very low UDS (1--2%). PMID:214190

  20. Common Virulence Factors and Genetic Relationships between O18:K1:H7 Escherichia coli Isolates of Human and Avian Origin

    PubMed Central

    Moulin-Schouleur, Maryvonne; Schouler, Catherine; Tailliez, Patrick; Kao, Mu-Rong; Brée, Annie; Germon, Pierre; Oswald, Eric; Mainil, Jacques; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) Escherichia coli strains of serotype O18:K1:H7 are mainly responsible for neonatal meningitis and sepsis in humans and belong to a limited number of closely related clones. The same serotype is also frequently isolated from the extraintestinal lesions of colibacillosis in poultry, but it is not well known to what extent human and avian strains of this particular serotype are related. Twenty-two ExPEC isolates of human origin and 33 isolates of avian origin were compared on the basis of their virulence determinants, lethality for chicks, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, and classification in the main phylogenetic groups. Both avian and human isolates were lethal for chicks and harbored similar virulence genotypes. A major virulence pattern, identified in 75% of the isolates, was characterized by the presence of F1 variant fimbriae; S fimbriae; IbeA; the aerobactin system; and genomic fragments A9, A12, D1, D7, D10, and D11 and by the absence of P fimbriae, F1C fimbriae, Afa adhesin, and CNF1. All but one of the avian and human isolates also belonged to major phylogenetic group B2. However, various subclonal populations could be distinguished by PFGE in relation to animal species and geographical origin. These results demonstrate that very closely related clones can be recovered from extraintestinal infections in humans and chickens and suggest that avian pathogenic E. coli isolates of serotype O18:K1:H7 are potential human pathogens. PMID:17021071

  1. Human Origins: Problems in the Interpretation of New Evidence. Third Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almquist, Alan J.; Cronin, John E.

    This Chautauqua-type short course in human evolution is divided into two parts: The Biochemical Evidence for Human Evolution, and the Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution. The first part covers the comparison of macromolecular differences between species. This includes comparison of DNA base-ratios and amino acid substitution in enzymes and other…

  2. Chromatin Association of Human Origin Recognition Complex, Cdc6, and Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins during the Cell Cycle: Assembly of Prereplication Complexes in Late Mitosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUAN MENDEZ; BRUCE STILLMAN

    2000-01-01

    Evidence obtained from studies with yeast and Xenopus indicate that the initiation of DNA replication is a multistep process. The origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6p, and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins are required for establishing prereplication complexes, upon which initiation is triggered by the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases and the Dbf4p-dependent kinase Cdc7p. The identification of human homologues of these replication

  3. Genome-wide mapping of human DNA-replication origins: Levels of transcription at ORC1 sites regulate origin selection and replication timing

    PubMed Central

    Dellino, Gaetano Ivan; Cittaro, Davide; Piccioni, Rossana; Luzi, Lucilla; Banfi, Stefania; Segalla, Simona; Cesaroni, Matteo; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Giacca, Mauro; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We report the genome-wide mapping of ORC1 binding sites in mammals, by chromatin immunoprecipitation and parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). ORC1 binding sites in HeLa cells were validated as active DNA replication origins (ORIs) using Repli-seq, a method that allows identification of ORI-containing regions by parallel sequencing of temporally ordered replicating DNA. ORC1 sites were universally associated with transcription start sites (TSSs) of coding or noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Transcription levels at the ORC1 sites directly correlated with replication timing, suggesting the existence of two classes of ORIs: those associated with moderate/high transcription levels (?1 RNA copy/cell), firing in early S and mapping to the TSSs of coding RNAs; and those associated with low transcription levels (<1 RNA copy/cell), firing throughout the entire S and mapping to TSSs of ncRNAs. These findings are compatible with a scenario whereby TSS expression levels influence the efficiency of ORC1 recruitment at G1 and the probability of firing during S. PMID:23187890

  4. Evaluation of the Lytic Origins of Replication of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Virus/Human Herpesvirus 8 in the Context of the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yiyang; Rodriguez-Huete, Alicia; Pari, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    The lytic origins of DNA replication for human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), oriLyt-L and oriLyt-R, are located between open reading frames K4.2 and K5 and ORF69 and vFLIP, respectively. These lytic origins were elucidated using a transient replication assay. Although this assay is a powerful tool for identifying many herpesvirus lytic origins, it is limited in its ability to evaluate the activity of replication origins in the context of the viral genome. To this end, we investigated the ability of a recombinant HHV8 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to replicate in the absence of oriLyt-R, oriLyt-L, or both oriLyt regions. We generated the HHV8 BAC recombinants (BAC36-?Ori-R, BAC36-?Ori-L, and BAC36-?Ori-RL), which removed one or all of the identified lytic origins. An evaluation of these recombinant BACs revealed that oriLyt-L was sufficient to propagate the viral genome, whereas oriLyt-R alone failed to direct the amplification of viral DNA. PMID:16973596

  5. Evaluation of the lytic origins of replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated virus/human herpesvirus 8 in the context of the viral genome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiyang; Rodriguez-Huete, Alicia; Pari, Gregory S

    2006-10-01

    The lytic origins of DNA replication for human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), oriLyt-L and oriLyt-R, are located between open reading frames K4.2 and K5 and ORF69 and vFLIP, respectively. These lytic origins were elucidated using a transient replication assay. Although this assay is a powerful tool for identifying many herpesvirus lytic origins, it is limited in its ability to evaluate the activity of replication origins in the context of the viral genome. To this end, we investigated the ability of a recombinant HHV8 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to replicate in the absence of oriLyt-R, oriLyt-L, or both oriLyt regions. We generated the HHV8 BAC recombinants (BAC36-DeltaOri-R, BAC36-DeltaOri-L, and BAC36-DeltaOri-RL), which removed one or all of the identified lytic origins. An evaluation of these recombinant BACs revealed that oriLyt-L was sufficient to propagate the viral genome, whereas oriLyt-R alone failed to direct the amplification of viral DNA. PMID:16973596

  6. Human antibodies recognizing the envelope glycoprotein of the baboon endogenous virus BaEV are of heterophil origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothee Wernicke; Reinhard Kurth

    1981-01-01

    Human sera were previously shown to possess antibodies capable of recognizing purified retrovirus envelope glycoproteins. In an extension of earlier studies we investigated sera from various groups of patients for an immune reaction against purified glycoprotein of the baboon endogenous virus BaEV. Reproducible demonstrations of oncovirus-like particles in human teratocarcinomas focused our main interest on sera from patients with testicular

  7. CROSS-SPECIES TRANSMISSION OF GIARDIA: INOCULATION OF BEAVERS AND MUSKRATS WITH CYSTS OF HUMAN, BEAVER, MOUSE, AND MUSKRAT ORIGIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia cysts isolated from humans, beavers, mice and muskrats were tested in cross-species transmission experiments for their ability to infect either beavers or muskrats. iardia cysts, derived from multiple symptomatic human donors and used for inoculation of beavers ormuskrats...

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of 100% Type-I collagen membrane of bovine origin in the treatment of human gingival recession: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Nitin; Sikri, Poonam; Kapoor, Daljit; Soni, Bhavita Wadhwa; Jain, Rachna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various treatment modalities have been devised for gingival recession, which is one of the most common signs of periodontal disease. The present study evaluates the efficacy of bioresorbable 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin in the treatment of human gingival recession. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of Miller's class I or class II localized gingival recession defects on the facial surface were treated with 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin in conjunction with coronally positioned flap. Pre-operative and post-operative assessments were performed with respect to probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and clinical recession at 12, 24 and 36 weeks. The data thus collected were analyzed statistically. Results: Statistically significant improvement based on Student's t test was found in all the three clinical parameters. Conclusion: Bioresorbable 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin has given inspiring results in the treatment of human gingival recession defects, thereby justifying the use of this material wherever indicated. PMID:25565742

  9. Germ cell development in the human and marmoset fetal testis and the origins of testicular germ cell tumours 

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Roderick T.

    2010-01-01

    Normal germ cell development in the human testis is crucial for subsequent fertility and reproductive health. Disruption of testis development in fetal life can result in deleterious health consequences such as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS...

  10. A glimpse into the early origins of medieval anatomy through the oldest conserved human dissection (Western Europe, 13th c. A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Poupon, Joël; Lancelot, Eloďse; Campos, Paula F.; Favier, Dominique; Jeannel, Gaël-François; Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Medieval autopsy practice is very poorly known in Western Europe, due to a lack of both descriptive medico-surgical texts and conserved dissected human remains. This period is currently considered the dark ages according to a common belief of systematic opposition of Christian religious authorities to the opening of human cadavers. Material and methods The identification in a private collection of an autopsied human individual dated from the 13th century A.D. is an opportunity for better knowledge of such practice in this chrono-cultural context, i.e. the early origins of occidental dissections. A complete forensic anthropological procedure was carried out, completed by radiological and elemental analyses. Results The complete procedure of this body opening and internal organs exploration is explained, and compared with historical data about forensic and anatomical autopsies from this period. During the analysis, a red substance filling all arterial cavities, made of mercury sulfide (cinnabar) mixed with vegetal oil (oleic and palmitic acids) was identified; it was presumably used to highlight vascularization by coloring in red such vessels, and help in the preservation of the body. Conclusions Of particular interest for the description of early medical and anatomical knowledge, this “human preparation” is the oldest known yet, and is particularly important for the fields of history of medicine, surgery and anatomical practice. PMID:24904674

  11. Original Contribution The induction of human superoxide dismutase and catalase in vivo: A fundamentally new approach to antioxidant therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally K. Nelson; Swapan K. Bose; Gary K. Grunwald; Paul Myhill; Joe M. McCord

    A composition consisting of extracts of five widely studied medicinal plants (Protandim) was administered to healthy human subjects ranging in age from 20 to 78 years. Individual ingredients were selected on the basis of published findings of induction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and\\/or catalase in rodents in vivo, combined with evidence of decreasing lipid peroxidation. Each ingredient was present at

  12. Evolutionary Genetics of Human Enterovirus 71: Origin, Population Dynamics, Natural Selection, and Seasonal Periodicity of the VP1 Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kok Keng Tee; Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam; Yoke Fun Chan; Jon M. Bible; Adeeba Kamarulzaman; C. Y. William Tong; Yutaka Takebe; Oliver G. Pybus

    2010-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is one of the major etiologic causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children worldwide, with fatal instances of neurological complications becoming increasingly common. Global VP1 capsid sequences (n = 628) sampled over 4 decades were collected and subjected to comprehensive evolutionary analysis using a suite of phylogenetic and population genetic methods. We

  13. Potential prognostic value in human breast cancer of cytosolic Nme1 protein detection using an original hen specific antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Toulas, C.; Mihura, J.; de Balincourt, C.; Marques, B.; Marek, E.; Soula, G.; Roche, H.; Favre, G.

    1996-01-01

    The metastasis-suppressor nme gene (also called nm23), first identified in murine melanoma cells, exists as two forms in human: nme1 and nme2. However, only the lack of expression of nme1 has been related to distant metastasis appearance in human breast cancer. The aim of this work was first to raise specific antibodies to allow the analysis of Nme1 and then, with this specific tool, to evaluate the predictive value of Nme1 detection in cytosolic extracts of human breast tumours. We obtained a hen antibody that specifically reacts with Nme1 without any cross-reaction with Nme2. We analysed the expression of the protein in 59 human breast tumours and found a significant relationship between this expression and oestrogen receptor status (P<0.001). Moreover, Nme1 expression is related to metastasis-free survival (P<0.001) and survival of patients (P<0.001). The determination of Nme1 expression in primary tumours using our antibody should be an interesting predictive test of the metastasis for clinical investigations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8605098

  14. Structure of the NS1 Protein N-Terminal Origin Recognition/Nickase Domain from the Emerging Human Bocavirus

    E-print Network

    Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Zhao, Haiyan; Shen, Weiran; Qiu, Jianming; Tang, Liang

    2013-08-21

    of the viral single-stranded DNA genome and DNA packaging and may play versatile roles in virus-host interactions. Here, we report the structure of the human bocavirus NS1 N-terminal domain, the first for any autonomous parvovirus. The structure shows...

  15. Current Biology 17, 16631668, October 9, 2007 2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2007.08.033 The Evolutionary Origins of Human

    E-print Network

    Stevens, Jeffrey

    Current Biology 17, 1663­1668, October 9, 2007 Ş2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2007.08.033 Report The Evolutionary Origins of Human Patience: Temporal Preferences in Chimpanzees, Bonobos, and Human Adults Alexandra G. Rosati,1,* Jeffrey R. Stevens,2,3 Brian Hare,1 and Marc D. Hauser3

  16. The origin of the indigenous grasslands of southeastern South Island in relation to pre-human woody ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. McGlone

    2001-01-01

    Immediately before human settlement, dense tall podocarp-angiosperm forest dominated the moist Southland and southern coastal Otago districts. Open, discontinuous podocarp-angiosperm forest bordered the central Otago dry interior, extending along the north Otago coast. Grassland was mostly patchy within these woody ecosystems, occurring on limited areas of droughty or low-nutrient soils and wetlands, or temporarily after infrequent fire or other disturbance.

  17. Thiocyanate levels of mainly dietary origin in serum and urine from a human population sample in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Eminedoki; M. O. Monanu; E. O. Anosike

    1994-01-01

    Thiocyanate levels were determined in serum and urine samples obtained from a human population sample of healthy non-smoking volunteers (aged between 14 and 30 years) of both sexes known to eat gari-based meals at least once a day. The samples were collected before and 3–4 hours after a gari- or rice-based meal. The values obtained before the test meals showed

  18. Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Garten; C. Todd Davis; Colin A. Russell; Bo Shu; Stephen Lindstrom; Amanda Balish; Wendy M. Sessions; Xiyan Xu; Eugene Skepner; Varough Deyde; Margaret Okomo-Adhiambo; Larisa Gubareva; John Barnes; Catherine B. Smith; Shannon L. Emery; Michael J. Hillman; Pierre Rivailler; James Smagala; Miranda de Graaf; David F. Burke; Ron A. M. Fouchier; Claudia Pappas; Celia M. Alpuche-Aranda; Hugo López-Gatell; Hiram Olivera; Irma López; Christopher A. Myers; Dennis Faix; Patrick J. Blair; Cindy Yu; Kimberly M. Keene; P. David Dotson; David Boxrud; Anthony R. Sambol; Syed H. Abid; Kirsten St. George; Tammy Bannerman; Amanda L. Moore; David J. Stringer; Patricia Blevins; Gail J. Demmler-Harrison; Michele Ginsberg; Paula Kriner; Steve Waterman; Sandra Smole; Hugo F. Guevara; Edward A. Belongia; Patricia A. Clark; Sara T. Beatrice; Ruben Donis; Jacqueline Katz; Lyn Finelli; Carolyn B. Bridges; Michael Shaw; Daniel B. Jernigan; Timothy M. Uyeki; Derek J. Smith; Alexander I. Klimov; Nancy J. Cox

    2009-01-01

    Since its identification in April 2009, an A(H1N1) virus containing a unique combination of gene segments from both North American and Eurasian swine lineages has continued to circulate in humans. The lack of similarity between the 2009 A(H1N1) virus and its nearest relatives indicates that its gene segments have been circulating undetected for an extended period. Its low genetic diversity

  19. Practical identification of human originated Lactobacillus species by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) for probiotic use.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Meterelliyöz, Merve

    2015-08-01

    Probiotics are gaining popularity and increasing the importance of their accurate speciation. Lactobacillus species are commonly used as probiotic strains mostly of clinical importance. Present knowledge indicates that at least 14 Lactobacillus species are associated with the human intestinal tract. Currently, researchers are interested in developing efficient techniques for screening and selecting probiotics bacteria, but unfortunately most of these methods are time-consuming, labor-intensive and costly. The aim of this study is to develop reliable, rapid and accurate method to identify 14 references Lactobacillus species that could have been found in the human alimentary tract by 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. In this study, to develop an effective method for the genotype-based identification of the reference Lactobacillus species, 1.5 kb of 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences of 14 Lactobacillus were collected from the Gene Bank aligned, in silico restricted and analyzed in respect to their 16S-rRNA restriction fragment polymorphism. In silico restriction profiles of 16S-rRNA indicated that FspBI, HinfI and DraI restriction enzymes (RE) are convenient for differentiation of 14 Lactobacillus species in human intestinal tract except Lb. casei and Lb. paracasei. The patterns of our experimental findings obtained from 16S PCR-ARDRA completely confirmed our in silico patterns. The present work demonstrated that 16S PCR-ARDRA method with FspBI, HinfI and DraI RE is a rapid, accurate and reliable method for the identification of Lactobacillus species from human alimentary tract, especially during the identification of large numbers of isolates and any laboratory equipped with a thermo cycler for probiotic use. PMID:25860079

  20. Sensitivity to the visual field origin of natural image patches in human low-level visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetries in the response to visual patterns in the upper and lower visual fields (above and below the centre of gaze) have been associated with ecological factors relating to the structure of typical visual environments. Here, we investigated whether the content of the upper and lower visual field representations in low-level regions of human visual cortex are specialised for visual patterns that arise from the upper and lower visual fields in natural images. We presented image patches, drawn from above or below the centre of gaze of an observer navigating a natural environment, to either the upper or lower visual fields of human participants (n = 7) while we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the magnitude of evoked activity in the visual areas V1, V2, and V3. We found a significant interaction between the presentation location (upper or lower visual field) and the image patch source location (above or below fixation); the responses to lower visual field presentation were significantly greater for image patches sourced from below than above fixation, while the responses in the upper visual field were not significantly different for image patches sourced from above and below fixation. This finding demonstrates an association between the representation of the lower visual field in human visual cortex and the structure of the visual input that is likely to be encountered below the centre of gaze. PMID:26131378

  1. Human microRNA-24 modulates highly pathogenic avian-origin H5N1 influenza A virus infection in A549 cells by targeting secretory pathway furin.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Emma-Kate; Diederich, Sandra; Pasick, John; Jean, François

    2015-01-01

    A common critical cellular event that many human enveloped viruses share is the requirement for proteolytic cleavage of the viral glycoprotein by furin in the host secretory pathway. For example, the furin-dependent proteolytic activation of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A (infA) H5 and H7 haemagglutinin precursor (HA0) subtypes is critical for yielding fusion-competent infectious virions. In this study, we hypothesized that viral hijacking of the furin pathway by HP infA viruses to permit cleavage of HA0 could represent a novel molecular mechanism controlling the dynamic production of fusion-competent infectious virus particles during the viral life cycle. We explored the biological role of a newly identified furin-directed human microRNA, miR-24, in this process as a potential post-transcriptional regulator of the furin-mediated activation of HA0 and production of fusion-competent virions in the host secretory pathway. We report that miR-24 and furin are differentially expressed in human A549 cells infected with HP avian-origin infA H5N1. Using miR-24 mimics, we demonstrated a robust decrease in both furin mRNA levels and intracellular furin activity in A549 cells. Importantly, pretreatment of A549 cells with miR-24 mimicked these results: a robust decrease of H5N1 infectious virions and a complete block of H5N1 virus spread that was not observed in A549 cells infected with low-pathogenicity swine-origin infA H1N1 virus. Our results suggest that viral-specific downregulation of furin-directed microRNAs such as miR-24 during the life cycle of HP infA viruses may represent a novel regulatory mechanism that governs furin-mediated proteolytic activation of HA0 glycoproteins and production of infectious virions. PMID:25234642

  2. Origin and Expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae): A Mixture of Historical Natural Expansion and Contemporary Human-Mediated Relocation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats. PMID:25372458

  3. Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Originating from the Bilateral Inferior Turbinate in Humans with Nasal Septal Deviation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin; Lee, Dong Chang; Oh, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Nasal septal deviation (NSD) is often associated with overgrowth of the unilateral inferior turbinate. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into multiple cell types, including osteoblasts. We tested the hypothesis that turbinate size affects human turbinate-derived MSC (hTMSCs) quantity, proliferation, and differentiation into osteogenic lineages, and that hypertrophic turbinates may predispose to NSD on the contralateral side. Subjects and Methods The hypertrophic and contralateral inferior turbinate tissues used in our study were obtained and cultured from the tissue discarded from 10 patients who underwent septoplasty and partial turbinectomy. After isolating the hTMSCs from both turbinates, the cells were enumerated using an automated cell counter. The expression of surface markers for MSCs over four passages was assessed by fluorescent-activated cell sorting analysis (FACS), and cell proliferation was assessed using a cell counting kit (CCK)-8 according to turbinate size. In addition, osteogenic differentiation of hTMSCs was identified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red S staining, after which osteoblastic gene expression was evaluated. Results There was no significant difference in the number of hTMSCs. FACS analysis revealed that the hTMSCs were negative for CD14, CD19, CD34, and HLA-DR, and positive for CD29, CD73, and CD90, representing a characteristic MSC phenotype, with no significant difference between the two groups. The cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of the hTMSCs were also not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions We conclude that turbinate size does not affect the characterization, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation potential of hTMSCs in vitro test, and therefore should not affect the clinical decision of whether to use autologous or allogenic hTMSCs. However, more experiments are required to definitively state the relationship of hTMSCs with turbinate size or the process NSD in humans. PMID:24926874

  4. Thermodynamic origins of protein folding, allostery, and capsid formation in the human hepatitis B virus core protein

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Crispin G.; Jürgens, Maike C.; Shepherd, Dale A.; Freund, Stefan M. V.; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Ferguson, Neil

    2013-01-01

    HBc, the capsid-forming “core protein” of human hepatitis B virus (HBV), is a multidomain, ?-helical homodimer that aggressively forms human HBV capsids. Structural plasticity has been proposed to be important to the myriad functions HBc mediates during viral replication. Here, we report detailed thermodynamic analyses of the folding of the dimeric HBc protomer under conditions that prevented capsid formation. Central to our success was the use of ion mobility spectrometry–mass spectrometry and microscale thermophoresis, which allowed folding mechanisms to be characterized using just micrograms of protein. HBc folds in a three-state transition with a stable, dimeric, ?-helical intermediate. Extensive protein engineering showed thermodynamic linkage between different structural domains. Unusual effects associated with mutating some residues suggest structural strain, arising from frustrated contacts, is present in the native dimer. We found evidence of structural gatekeepers that, when mutated, alleviated native strain and prevented (or significantly attenuated) capsid formation by tuning the population of alternative native conformations. This strain is likely an evolved feature that helps HBc access the different structures associated with its diverse essential functions. The subtle balance between native and strained contacts may provide the means to tune conformational properties of HBc by molecular interactions or mutations, thereby conferring allosteric regulation of structure and function. The ability to trap HBc conformers thermodynamically by mutation, and thereby ablate HBV capsid formation, provides proof of principle for designing antivirals that elicit similar effects. PMID:23824290

  5. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): Understanding the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic context of human origins through continental drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Campisano, Christopher; Asrat, Asfawossen; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Deino, Alan; Feibel, Craig; Hill, Andrew; Kingston, John; Lamb, Henry; Lowenstein, Tim; Olago, Daniel; Bernhart Owen, R.; Renaut, Robin; Schabitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The influence of climate and environmental history on human evolution is an existential question that continues to be hotly debated, in part because of the paucity of high resolution records collected in close proximity to the key fossil and archaeological evidence. To address this issue and transform the scientific debate, the HSPDP was developed to collect lacustrine sediment drill cores from basins in Kenya and Ethiopia that collectively encompass critical time intervals and locations for Plio-Quaternary human evolution in East Africa. After a 17 month campaign, drilling was completed in November, 2014, with over 1750m of core collected from 11 boreholes from five areas (1930m total drilling length, avg. 91% recovery). The sites, from oldest to youngest, include 1) N. Awash, Ethiopia (~3.5-2.9Ma core interval); 2) Baringo-Tugen Hills, Kenya (~3.3-2.5Ma); 3) West Turkana, Kenya (~1.9-1.4Ma); L. Magadi, Kenya (0.8-0Ma) and the Chew Bahir Basin, Ethiopia (~0.5-0Ma). Initial core description (ICD) and sampling for geochronology, geochemistry and paleoecology studies had been completed by mid2014, with the two remaining sites (Magadi and Chew Bahir) scheduled for ICD work in early 2015. Whereas the primary scientific targets were the lacustrine deposits from the hominin-bearing basin depocenters, many intervals of paleosols (representative of low lake stands and probable arid periods) were also encountered in drill cores. Preliminary analyses of drill core sedimentology and geochemistry show both long-term lake level changes and cyclic variability in lake levels, both of which may be indicative of climatic forcing events of interest to paleoanthropologists. Authors of this abstract also include the entire HSPDP field team.

  6. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water. PMID:23680749

  7. Origin and prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) among indigenous populations in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events. PMID:25651320

  8. A new algorithm to diagnose atrial ectopic origin from multi lead ECG systems--insights from 3D virtual human atria and torso.

    PubMed

    Alday, Erick A Perez; Colman, Michael A; Langley, Philip; Butters, Timothy D; Higham, Jonathan; Workman, Antony J; Hancox, Jules C; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Rapid atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) predispose to ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and stroke. Identifying the origin of atrial ectopic activity from the electrocardiogram (ECG) can help to diagnose the early onset of AF in a cost-effective manner. The complex and rapid atrial electrical activity during AF makes it difficult to obtain detailed information on atrial activation using the standard 12-lead ECG alone. Compared to conventional 12-lead ECG, more detailed ECG lead configurations may provide further information about spatio-temporal dynamics of the body surface potential (BSP) during atrial excitation. We apply a recently developed 3D human atrial model to simulate electrical activity during normal sinus rhythm and ectopic pacing. The atrial model is placed into a newly developed torso model which considers the presence of the lungs, liver and spinal cord. A boundary element method is used to compute the BSP resulting from atrial excitation. Elements of the torso mesh corresponding to the locations of the placement of the electrodes in the standard 12-lead and a more detailed 64-lead ECG configuration were selected. The ectopic focal activity was simulated at various origins across all the different regions of the atria. Simulated BSP maps during normal atrial excitation (i.e. sinoatrial node excitation) were compared to those observed experimentally (obtained from the 64-lead ECG system), showing a strong agreement between the evolution in time of the simulated and experimental data in the P-wave morphology of the ECG and dipole evolution. An algorithm to obtain the location of the stimulus from a 64-lead ECG system was developed. The algorithm presented had a success rate of 93%, meaning that it correctly identified the origin of atrial focus in 75/80 simulations, and involved a general approach relevant to any multi-lead ECG system. This represents a significant improvement over previously developed algorithms. PMID:25611350

  9. A New Algorithm to Diagnose Atrial Ectopic Origin from Multi Lead ECG Systems - Insights from 3D Virtual Human Atria and Torso

    PubMed Central

    Alday, Erick A. Perez; Colman, Michael A.; Langley, Philip; Butters, Timothy D.; Higham, Jonathan; Workman, Antony J.; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Rapid atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) predispose to ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and stroke. Identifying the origin of atrial ectopic activity from the electrocardiogram (ECG) can help to diagnose the early onset of AF in a cost-effective manner. The complex and rapid atrial electrical activity during AF makes it difficult to obtain detailed information on atrial activation using the standard 12-lead ECG alone. Compared to conventional 12-lead ECG, more detailed ECG lead configurations may provide further information about spatio-temporal dynamics of the body surface potential (BSP) during atrial excitation. We apply a recently developed 3D human atrial model to simulate electrical activity during normal sinus rhythm and ectopic pacing. The atrial model is placed into a newly developed torso model which considers the presence of the lungs, liver and spinal cord. A boundary element method is used to compute the BSP resulting from atrial excitation. Elements of the torso mesh corresponding to the locations of the placement of the electrodes in the standard 12-lead and a more detailed 64-lead ECG configuration were selected. The ectopic focal activity was simulated at various origins across all the different regions of the atria. Simulated BSP maps during normal atrial excitation (i.e. sinoatrial node excitation) were compared to those observed experimentally (obtained from the 64-lead ECG system), showing a strong agreement between the evolution in time of the simulated and experimental data in the P-wave morphology of the ECG and dipole evolution. An algorithm to obtain the location of the stimulus from a 64-lead ECG system was developed. The algorithm presented had a success rate of 93%, meaning that it correctly identified the origin of atrial focus in 75/80 simulations, and involved a general approach relevant to any multi-lead ECG system. This represents a significant improvement over previously developed algorithms. PMID:25611350

  10. Orc1 Binding to Mitotic Chromosomes Precedes Spatial Patterning during G1 Phase and Assembly of the Origin Recognition Complex in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Kara, Nihan; Hossain, Manzar; Prasanth, Supriya G; Stillman, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Replication of eukaryotic chromosomes occurs once every cell division cycle in normal cells and is a tightly controlled process that ensures complete genome duplication. The origin recognition complex (ORC) plays a key role during the initiation of DNA replication. In human cells, the level of Orc1, the largest subunit of ORC, is regulated during the cell division cycle, and thus ORC is a dynamic complex. Upon S phase entry, Orc1 is ubiquitinated and targeted for destruction, with subsequent dissociation of ORC from chromosomes. Time lapse and live cell images of human cells expressing fluorescently tagged Orc1 show that Orc1 re-localizes to condensing chromatin during early mitosis and then displays different nuclear localization patterns at different times during G1 phase, remaining associated with late replicating regions of the genome in late G1 phase. The initial binding of Orc1 to mitotic chromosomes requires C-terminal amino acid sequences that are similar to mitotic chromosome-binding sequences in the transcriptional pioneer protein FOXA1. Depletion of Orc1 causes concomitant loss of the mini-chromosome maintenance (Mcm2-7) helicase proteins on chromatin. The data suggest that Orc1 acts as a nucleating center for ORC assembly and then pre-replication complex assembly by binding to mitotic chromosomes, followed by gradual removal from chromatin during the G1 phase. PMID:25784553

  11. The essentiality of alpha-2-macroglobulin in human salivary innate immunity against new H1N1 swine origin influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Hsuan; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Lo, Chih-Wei; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Gallo, Richard L.; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Schooley, Robert T.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2010-01-01

    A novel strain of influenza A H1N1 emerged in the spring of 2009 and has spread rapidly throughout the world. Although vaccines have recently been developed that are expected to be protective, their availability was delayed until well into the influenza season. While anti-influenza drugs such as neuraminidase inhibitors can be effective, resistance to these drugs has already been reported. Although human saliva was known to inhibit viral infection and may thus prevent viral transmission, the components responsible for this activity on influenza virus, in particular, influenza A swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV), have not yet been defined. By using a proteomics approach in conjunction with beads that bind alpha 2,6-sialylated glycoprotein, we determined that an alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) and a A2M-like protein are essential components in salivary innate immunity against hemagglutination mediated by a clinical isolate of S-OIV [San Diego/01/09 (SD/H1N1-S-OIV)]. A model of an A2M-based “double-edged sword” on competition of alpha 2,6-sialylated glycoprotein receptors and inactivation of host proteases is proposed. We emphasize that endogenous A2M in human innate immunity functions as a natural inhibitor against S-OIV. PMID:20391540

  12. Irish Cepaea nemoralis Land Snails Have a Cryptic Franco-Iberian Origin That Is Most Easily Explained by the Movements of Mesolithic Humans

    PubMed Central

    Grindon, Adele J.; Davison, Angus

    2013-01-01

    The origins of flora and fauna that are only found in Ireland and Iberia, but which are absent from intervening countries, is one of the enduring questions of biogeography. As Southern French, Iberian and Irish populations of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis sometimes have a similar shell character, we used mitochondrial phylogenies to begin to understand if there is a shared “Lusitanian” history. Although much of Europe contains snails with A and D lineages, by far the majority of Irish individuals have a lineage, C, that in mainland Europe was only found in a restricted region of the Eastern Pyrenees. A past extinction of lineage C in the rest of Europe cannot be ruled out, but as there is a more than 8000 year continuous record of Cepaea fossils in Ireland, the species has long been a food source in the Pyrenees, and the Garonne river that flanks the Pyrenees is an ancient human route to the Atlantic, then we suggest that the unusual distribution of the C lineage is most easily explained by the movements of Mesolithic humans. If other Irish species have a similarly cryptic Lusitanian element, then this raises the possibility of a more widespread and significant pattern. PMID:23840368

  13. Organization of the Antiseptic Resistance Gene qacA and Tn552-Related ?-Lactamase Genes in Multidrug- Resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus Strains of Animal and Human Origins

    PubMed Central

    Anthonisen, I.-L.; Sunde, M.; Steinum, T. M.; Sidhu, M. S.; Sřrum, H.

    2002-01-01

    A part (12 kb) of a plasmid containing the ?-lactamase genes of Tn552, the disinfectant resistance gene qacA, and flanking DNA has been cloned from a Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolate and sequenced. This region was used to map the corresponding regions in six other multiresistant S. haemolyticus isolates of human and animal origin. The organizations of the genetic structures were almost identical in all isolates studied. The ?-lactamase and qacA genes from S. haemolyticus have >99.9% identities at the nucleotide level with the same genes from S. aureus, demonstrating that various staphylococcal species able to colonize animal and human hosts can exchange the genetic elements involved in resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. The use of antibiotics and disinfectants in veterinary practice and animal husbandry may also contribute to the selection and maintenance of resistance factors among the staphylococcal species. Different parts of the 12-kb section analyzed had high degrees of nucleotide identity with regions from several other different Staphylococcus aureus plasmids. This suggests the contribution of interplasmid recombination in the evolutionary makeup of this 12-kb section involving plasmids that can intermingle between various staphylococcal species. The lateral spread of resistance genes between various staphylococcal species is probably facilitated by the generation of large multiresistance plasmids and the subsequent interspecies exchange of them. PMID:12384372

  14. A Lactobacillus acidophilus strain of human gastrointestinal microbiota origin elicits killing of enterovirulent Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by triggering lethal bacterial membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Coconnier-Polter, Marie-Hélčne; Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2005-10-01

    The human gastrointestinal microbiota produces antagonistic activities against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. We undertook a study to investigate the mechanism(s) by which a Lactobacillus acidophilus strain of human microbiota origin antagonizes the gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We showed that the cell-free culture supernatant of L. acidophilus strain LB (LB-CFCS) induced the following effects in S. enterica SL1344: (i) a decrease in intracellular ATP that paralleled bacterial death, (ii) the release of lipopolysaccharide, (iii) permeabilization of the bacterial membrane, and (iv) an increase in the sensitivity of Salmonella to the lytic action of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Finally, we showed using two mutant strains of Salmonella, PhoP MS7953s and PmrA JKS1170, that the two-component regulatory systems PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB that regulate the mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial agents in Salmonella did not influence the anti-Salmonella effect of LB-CFCS. PMID:16204528

  15. Use of an autonomous parvovirus vector for selective transfer of a foreign gene into transformed human cells of different tissue origins and its expression therein.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, F; Tenenbaum, L; Guo, L P; Spegelaere, P; Zeicher, M; Rommelaere, J

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we report the transduction of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene into a variety of normal and transformed human cells of various tissue origins. The vector used was MVM/P38cat, a recombinant of the prototype strain of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp). The CAT gene was inserted into the capsid-encoding region of the infectious molecular clone of MVMp genome, under the control of the MVM P38 promoter. When used to transfect permissive cells, the MVM/P38cat DNA was efficiently replicated and expressed the foreign CAT gene at high levels. By cotransfecting with a helper plasmid expressing the capsid proteins, it was possible to produce mixed virus stocks containing MVM/P38cat infectious particles and variable amounts of recombinant MVM. MVM/P38cat viral particles were successfully used to transfer the CAT gene and to express it in a variety of human cells. Both viral DNA replication and P38-driven CAT expression were achieved in fibroblasts, epithelial cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages in a transformation-dependent way, but with an efficiency depending on the cell type. In transformed B lymphocytes, however, the vector was not replicated, nor did it express the CAT gene. Images PMID:8107203

  16. Influence of Oxygen Tension on Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Fetal Stem Cells of Midbrain and Forebrain Origin

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, Christina; Bak, Sara Thornby; Jensen, Pia; von Linstow, Christian; Martínez Serrano, Alberto; Hansen, Claus; Meyer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease (PD), but protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation are not yet available. Here we investigated the influence of oxygen on dopaminergic differentiation of human fetal NSCs derived from the midbrain and forebrain. Cells were differentiated for 10 days in vitro at low, physiological (3%) versus high, atmospheric (20%) oxygen tension. Low oxygen resulted in upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and increased the proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in both types of cultures (midbrain: 9.1±0.5 and 17.1±0.4 (P<0.001); forebrain: 1.9±0.4 and 3.9±0.6 (P<0.01) percent of total cells). Regardless of oxygen levels, the content of TH-ir cells with mature neuronal morphologies was higher for midbrain as compared to forebrain cultures. Proliferative Ki67-ir cells were found in both types of cultures, but the relative proportion of these cells was significantly higher for forebrain NSCs cultured at low, as compared to high, oxygen tension. No such difference was detected for midbrain-derived cells. Western blot analysis revealed that low oxygen enhanced ?-tubulin III and GFAP expression in both cultures. Up-regulation of ?-tubulin III was most pronounced for midbrain cells, whereas GFAP expression was higher in forebrain as compared to midbrain cells. NSCs from both brain regions displayed less cell death when cultured at low oxygen tension. Following mictrotransplantation into mouse striatal slice cultures predifferentiated midbrain NSCs were found to proliferate and differentiate into substantial numbers of TH-ir neurons with mature neuronal morphologies, particularly at low oxygen. In contrast, predifferentiated forebrain NSCs microtransplanted using identical conditions displayed little proliferation and contained few TH-ir cells, all of which had an immature appearance. Our data may reflect differences in dopaminergic differentiation capacity and region-specific requirements of NSCs, with the dopamine-depleted striatum cultured at low oxygen offering an attractive micro-environment for midbrain NSCs. PMID:24788190

  17. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli O1:K1:H7/NM from human and avian origin: detection of clonal groups B2 ST95 and D ST59 with different host distribution

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains of serotype O1:K1:H7/NM are frequently implicated in neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections and septicemia in humans. They are also commonly isolated from colibacillosis in poultry. Studies to determine the similarities of ExPEC from different origins have indicated that avian strains potentially have zoonotic properties. Results A total of 59 ExPEC O1:K1:H7/NM isolates (21 from avian colibacillosis, 15 from human meningitis, and 23 from human urinary tract infection and septicemia) originated from four countries were characterized by phylogenetic PCR grouping, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and genotyping based on several genes known for their association with ExPEC or avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) virulence. APEC and human ExPEC isolates differed significantly in their assignments to phylogenetic groups, being phylogroup B2 more prevalent among APEC than among human ExPEC (95% vs. 53%, P = 0.001), whereas phylogroup D was almost exclusively associated with human ExPEC (47% vs. 5%, P = 0.0000). Seven virulence genes showed significant differences, being fimAvMT78 and sat genes linked to human isolates, while papGII, tsh, iron, cvaC and iss were significantly associated to APEC. By MLST, 39 of 40 ExPEC belonging to phylogroup B2, and 17 of 19 belonging to phylogroup D exhibited the Sequence Types (STs) ST95 and ST59, respectively. Additionally, two novel STs (ST1013 and ST1006) were established. Considering strains sharing the same ST, phylogenetic group, virulence genotype and PFGE cluster to belong to the same subclone, five subclones were detected; one of those grouped six strains of human and animal origin from two countries. Conclusion Present results reveal that the clonal group B2 O1:K1:H7/NM ST95, detected in strains of animal and human origin, recovered from different dates and geographic sources, provides evidence that some APEC isolates may act as potential pathogens for humans and, consequently, poultry as a foodborne source, suggesting no host specificity for this type of isolates. A novel and important finding has been the detection of the clonal group D O1:K1:H7/NM ST59 almost exclusively in humans, carrying pathogenic genes linked to the phylogenetic group D. This finding would suggest D O1:K1:H7/NM ST59 as a host specific pathotype for humans. PMID:19583828

  18. Cryptosporidium parvum:PCR-RFLP Analysis of the TRAP-C1 (Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein of Cryptosporidium1) Gene Discriminates between Two Alleles Differentially Associated with Parasite Isolates of Animal and Human Origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Furio Spano; Lorenza Putignani; Serena Guida; Andrea Crisanti

    1998-01-01

    Spano, F., Putignani, L., Guida, S., Crisanti, A. 1998.Cryptosporidium parvum: PCR-RFLP analysis of the TRAP-C1 (thrombospondin-related adhesive protein ofCryptosporidium-1) gene discriminates between two alleles differentially associated with parasite isolates of animal and human origin.Experimental Parasitology90,195–198.

  19. * This Policy was originally issued as the Columbia University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2005 and

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    for human reproductive cloning. This Policy only applies to human embryos and human embryonic stem cells as a human subject under 45 C.F.R. Part 46, that is derived by fertilization, parthenogenesis, cloning or any University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8

  20. * This Policy was originally issued as the Columbia University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2005 and

    E-print Network

    Grishok, Alla

    reproductive cloning. This Policy only applies to human embryos and human embryonic stem cells and does University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2013. August 5, 2013 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY POLICY ON THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH WITH HUMAN EMBRYOS AND HUMAN

  1. Demethylation of the RORC2 and IL17A in human CD4+ T lymphocytes defines Th17 origin of nonclassic Th1 cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Alessio; Santarlasci, Veronica; Maggi, Laura; Capone, Manuela; Rossi, Maria Caterina; Querci, Valentina; De Palma, Raffaele; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Thiel, Andreas; Cimaz, Rolando; Liotta, Francesco; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Maggi, Enrico; Radbruch, Andreas; Romagnani, Sergio; Dong, Jun; Annunziato, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Th17-derived Th1 lymphocytes, termed nonclassic, differ from classic Th1 cells because of the presence of retinoic acid orphan receptor (ROR)C2 and the surface expression of CD161 and CCR6. We demonstrate in this article that nonclassic Th1 cells, like Th17 cells, have a marked RORC2 and IL17A demethylation, whereas classic Th1 cells exhibit a complete methylation of these genes. The analysis of RORC2 DNA methylation in the CD4(+)CD161(+) and CD4(+)CD161(-) naive Th subsets from umbilical cord blood surprisingly revealed comparable hypermethylation levels. PCR analysis at the single-cell level revealed that RORC2 mRNA was expressed by none of the CD4(+)CD161(-) and present only in a minority of CD4(+)CD161(+) naive Th cells. These findings provide two important novel observations on the physiology of human Th17 cells: 1) they confirm at the epigenetic level the origin of nonclassic Th1 cells from Th17 cells, also identifying in the RORC2 and IL17A methylation status a novel tool for their distinction from classic Th1 cells, and 2) they demonstrate that RORC2-expressing cells are only a minority in the subset of CD4(+)CD161(+) naive Th cells, which are known to contain all Th17 cell precursors. PMID:25740946

  2. Holocene landscape and land-use change under human impact. Examples from Central Europe (Lower Rhine Embayment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Protze, Jens; Gerlach, Renate

    2015-04-01

    In the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), as in other parts of Central Europe, several main periods of colluvial deposition (mainly Metal Ages, Roman time, Medieval time) and four main periods of alluvial and overbank deposition in the floodplains (Early Holocene, Metal Ages, partially Roman time, Medieval, Early Modern time) can be divided. The summary of colluvial sedimentation can be shown by using interdisciplinary methods, consisting of sedimentological, geochemical and archaeological methods. This allowed reconstructing a detailed land-use history. To clarify the origin of the colluvial deposits loess-sequences also have been studied geochemically and were compared to loess- and loess-like deposits from adjacent areas, such as the Northern Eifel Mountains or the Middle Rhine. The results clearly show that only the combination of methods of natural sciences and the humanities allow optimal processing of these complex findings. To sum up these results the following cycles cause by human activities can be found in the LRE: 8 periods with soil formation (P = pedogenesis), followed by a phase with mainly stable land surfaces but some rill / gully erosion (R) and succeeded by intensive erosion and colluviation (E) caused by mainly sheet floods in an more open landscape. Especially during the Metal Ages and High Middle Ages erosion is clearly detectable. In the woodlands strong deforestation took place especially due to the production of charcoal and firewood as well as grazing activities. In addition, the development of mining and related industries in the 15th to 16th centuries and further increase in 19th century produced a strong contamination of floodplain deposits. Different periods of an increasing grassland since Medieval time cause by socio-economic effects that results in a reduction of soil erosion can be distinguished.

  3. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Braun, Jochen

    Kovacs1,2,3 * 1 Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary 2 Research Group of Cognitive Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary 3 Department of Cognitive Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary 4 Cognitive Biology, University

  4. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Weidemann, Christoph

    individuals with DP and a group of controls using an R/K paradigm while recording electroencephalogram (EEG, electroencephalogram (EEG) INTRODUCTION Prosopagnosia is a selective face perception disorder character- ized

  5. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Curran, Tim

    the own face N250 effect generalizes to other highly familiar objects, specifically, images of the participant's own dog and own car. In our experiments, partici- pants were asked to monitor for a pre-experimentally unfamiliar target face (Joe), a target dog (Experiment 1: Joe's Dog) or a target car (Experiment 2: Joe's Car

  6. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    .00098 How do we see art: an eye-tracker study Rodrigo Quian Quiroga1,2 * and Carlos Pedreira1 1 Department the eye-tracker technology gives a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art. Keywords: eye made by our brain can trick or bias our perception, even if we are fully aware that this is happening

  7. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    .00694 Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers Grace E. Giles caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring-habitual (Experi- ment 1; N = 36, M = 42.5 ± 28.7 mg/day caffeine) and habitual (Experiment 2; N = 34, M = 579

  8. Transmuting Sericon: Alchemy as "Practical Exegesis" in Early Modern England.

    PubMed

    Rampling, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    An influential strand of English alchemy was the pursuit of the "vegetable stone," a medicinal elixir popularized by George Ripley (d. ca. 1490), made from a metallic substance, "sericon." Yet the identity of sericon was not fixed, undergoing radical reinterpretation between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries as Ripley's lead-based practice was eclipsed by new methods, notably the antimonial approach of George Starkey (1628-65). Tracing "sericonian" alchemy over 250 years, I show how alchemists fed their practical findings back into textual accounts, creating a "feedback loop" in which the authority of past adepts was maintained by exegetical manipulations--a process that I term "practical exegesis." PMID:26103745

  9. Economy and Rhetoric of Exchange in Early Modern Spain

    E-print Network

    Ruiz, Eduardo German

    2010-01-01

    decay, ruins, and old age lead the reader to the vision andage,” “appetite, passion, or nature” and, on the other, his “true feeling and repentance… knowledge and conscience” (“Al Lector” „To the Reader?).

  10. The Construction of Early Modernity in Spanish Film

    E-print Network

    Zarate Casanova, Miguel Angel

    2011-10-21

    Duque de Olivares by Diego Vel?zquez (1624) and an a captured frame of the Count Duke Olivares from El Rey Pasmado (1991). ............................................................................. 216 7 Comparison of a captured frame from...

  11. Reformation and Revolution in Early Modern England History 418

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    QCAT Search QCAT to find books, government documents and the location of newspaper and journal titles. A. Search by Subject or Keyword You can locate items in the library by searching QCAT by doing To find these collections in QCAT, search by author: Great Britain Royal Commission on Historical

  12. The Bloody Shouldered Arabian and Early Modern English Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L ANDRY

    2004-01-01

    “THEY C ANNOT R EPRESENT themselves, they must be represented.” 1 Marx’s formula regarding French peasants in The Eighteenth Brumaire is uncannily applicable to animals, who cannot create their own documents, oral or written, or author their own historical accounts. 2 Like women in Virginia Woolf ’s account of male-authored history in A Room of One’s Own, animals require the

  13. African Origin of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 (HTLV-2) Supported by a Potential New HTLV-2d Subtype in Congolese Bambuti Efe Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Salemi, Marco; Van Brussel, Marianne; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Van Laethem, Kristel; Van Ranst, Marc; Michels, Ludovic; Desmyter, Jan; Goubau, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    We identified a potential new subtype within human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), HTLV-2d, present in members of an isolated Efe Bambuti Pygmy tribe. Two of 23 Efe Pygmies were HTLV-2 seropositive, with HTLV-2 Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivities. From one of them the entire genome of the HTLV-2 strain Efe2 could be amplified and sequenced. In all gene regions analyzed, this strain was the most divergent HTLV-2 strain, differing by 2.4% (tax/rex) to 10.7% (long terminal repeat) from both subtypes HTLV-2a and HTLV-2b, yet major functional elements are conserved. The similarity between the HTLV-2 Efe2 Gag and Env proteins and the corresponding HTLV-2a and -2b proteins is consistent with the observed serological reactivity. In the proximal pX region, one of the two alternative splice acceptor sites is abolished in HTLV-2 Efe2. Another interesting feature of this potential new subtype is that it has a Tax protein of 344 amino acids (aa), which is intermediate in length between the HTLV-2a Tax protein (331 aa) and the HTLV-2b and -2c Tax proteins (356 aa) and similar to the simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (STLV-2) PP1664 Tax protein. Together these two findings suggest a different phenotype for the HTLV-2 Efe2 strain. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the Pygmy Efe2 strain potentially belonged to a new and quite divergent subtype, HTLV-2d. When the STLV-2 bonobo viruses PP1664 and PanP were used as an outgroup, it was clear that the Pygmy HTLV-2 Efe2 strain had the longest independent evolution and that HTLV-2 evolution is consistent with an African origin. PMID:9557723

  14. Molecular instability in the COII-tRNA(Lys) intergenic region of the human mitochondrial genome: multiple origins of the 9-bp deletion and heteroplasmy for expanded repeats.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, M G; Cook, C E; Miller, K W; Waring, M J; Hagelberg, E

    1998-01-01

    We have identified two individuals from Glasgow in Scotland who have a deletion of one of two copies of the intergenic 9-bp sequence motif CCCCCTCTA, located between the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and lysine tRNA (tRNA(Lys)) genes of the human mitochondrial genome. Although this polymorphism is common in Africa and Asia, it has not been reported in Northern Europe. Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of these two individuals suggests that they belong to a lineage that originated independently of the previously characterized African and Asian 9-bp deleted lineages. Among the Scottish population we have also identified a maternal lineage of three generations exhibiting heteroplasmy for two, three and four copies of the CCCCCTCTA motif. Polymerase chain reaction amplification across the COII-tRNA(Lys) intergenic region of these individuals gives different ratios of the three product lengths that are dependent on the concentration of the DNA-binding dye crystal violet. To investigate whether changes in repeat number were generated de novo, we constructed clones containing known numbers of the CCCCCTCTA motif. In the presence of high concentrations of crystal violet we obtained two, three and four copies of this motif when the amplification template contained only four copies. Various DNA-binding drugs are known to stabilize bulged structures in DNA and contribute to the process of slipped-strand mispairing during DNA replication. These results suggest that the COII-tRNA(Lys) intergenic region is unstable owing to slipped-strand mispairing. Although sequences containing four copies of the CCCCCTCTA motif are less stable in vitro, we observed an increase in the proportion of mitochondrial genomes with four repeats between-a mother and a daughter in the heteroplasmic lineage. From this we conclude that drift in the germ-line lineage is a main factor in the maintenance or loss of heteroplasmy. PMID:9684291

  15. The Origin of Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Darwin

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys place in the world that is still controversial today. It is both a brilliant

  16. * This Policy was originally issued as the Columbia University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2005 and

    E-print Network

    Shepard, Kenneth

    technology or somatic cell nuclear transfer for human reproductive cloning. Columbia University recognizes, that is derived by fertilization, parthenogenesis, cloning or any other means from one or more human gametes University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8

  17. Original Misunderstanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  18. The interplanetary superhighway and the Origins Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    The origin of the universe and of life itself have been central to human inquiries since the dawn of consciousness. To develop and use the technologies to answer these timeless and profound questions is the mission of NASA's Origins Program.

  19. Back to the Origin

    PubMed Central

    Evertts, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    In bacteria, replication is a carefully orchestrated event that unfolds the same way for each bacterium and each cell division. The process of DNA replication in bacteria optimizes cell growth and coordinates high levels of simultaneous replication and transcription. In metazoans, the organization of replication is more enigmatic. The lack of a specific sequence that defines origins of replication has, until recently, severely limited our ability to define the organizing principles of DNA replication. This question is of particular importance as emerging data suggest that replication stress is an important contributor to inherited genetic damage and the genomic instability in tumors. We consider here the replication program in several different organisms including recent genome-wide analyses of replication origins in humans. We review recent studies on the role of cytosine methylation in replication origins, the role of transcriptional looping and gene gating in DNA replication, and the role of chromatin’s 3-dimensional structure in DNA replication. We use these new findings to consider several questions surrounding DNA replication in metazoans: How are origins selected? What is the relationship between replication and transcription? How do checkpoints inhibit origin firing? Why are there early and late firing origins? We then discuss whether oncogenes promote cancer through a role in DNA replication and whether errors in DNA replication are important contributors to the genomic alterations and gene fusion events observed in cancer. We conclude with some important areas for future experimentation. PMID:23634256

  20. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25–10?kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  1. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Streptococcus canis Confirms the Zoonotic Origin of Human Infections and Reveals Genetic Exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, M. D.; Matos, S. C.; Pomba, C.; Lübke-Becker, A.; Wieler, L. H.; Preziuso, S.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection. PMID:23345291

  2. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Capsid Antigens Derived from Viruses of Human and Swine Origin Are Equally Efficient for Detecting Anti-HEV by Enzyme Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Engle; C. Yu; S. U. Emerson; X.-J. Meng; R. H. Purcell

    2002-01-01

    The recombinant truncated ORF2 (capsid) antigen derived from the Meng strain of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) differs from that of the Sar-55 strain of human HEV by approximately 5% at the amino acid level. Serial serum samples from two chimpanzees and six rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with HEV were tested with one enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based on the Sar-55

  3. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolá?, Jan; Hajnalová, Mária; Abraham, Vojt?ch; Macek, Martin; Tká?, Peter; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-01

    The post-glacial fate of central European grasslands has stimulated palaeoecological debates for a century. Some argued for the continuous survival of open land, while others claimed that closed forest had developed during the Middle Holocene. The reasons behind stability or changes in the proportion of open land are also unclear. We aim to reconstruct regional vegetation openness and test the effects of climate and human impact on vegetation change throughout the Holocene. We present a newly dated pollen record from north-western fringes of the Pannonian Plain, east-central Europe, and reconstruct Holocene regional vegetation development by the REVEALS model for 27 pollen-equivalent taxa. Estimated vegetation is correlated in the same area with a human activity model based on all available archaeological information and a macrophysical climate model. The palaeovegetation record indicates the continuous presence of open land throughout the Holocene. Grasslands and open woodlands were probably maintained by local arid climatic conditions during the early Holocene delaying the spread of deciduous (oak) forests. Significantly detectable human-made landscape transformation started only after 2000 BC. Our analyses suggest that Neolithic people spread into a landscape that was already open. Humans probably contributed to the spread of oak, and influenced the dynamics of hazel and hornbeam.

  4. Z:\\oas\\Common\\FACT SHEETS -DO NOT DELETE\\Academic Fact Sheets\\on Humanities.doc Originally Written: July 1996

    E-print Network

    ) courses in the humanities and/or social sciences. Each course must be at least 3.0 credits in weight. One higher than the equivalent two high school years of that language. One year of a foreign language in high school is equivalent to one semester in college. The following matrix is used to determine where to begin

  5. Intraspecies diversity of SARS-like coronaviruses in Rhinolophus sinicus and its implications for the origin of SARS coronaviruses in humans.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Junfa; Hon, Chung-Chau; Li, Yan; Wang, Dingming; Xu, Gelin; Zhang, Huajun; Zhou, Peng; Poon, Leo L M; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Shi, Zhengli

    2010-04-01

    The Chinese rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus) has been suggested to carry the direct ancestor of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SCoV), and the diversity of SARS-like CoVs (SLCoV) within this Rhinolophus species is therefore worth investigating. Here, we demonstrate the remarkable diversity of SLCoVs in R. sinicus and identify a strain with the same pattern of phylogenetic incongruence (i.e. an indication of recombination) as reported previously in another SLCoV strain. Moreover, this strain possesses a distinctive 579 nt deletion in the nsp3 region that was also found in a human SCoV from the late-phase epidemic. Phylogenetic analysis of the Orf1 region suggested that the human SCoVs are phylogenetically closer to SLCoVs in R. sinicus than to SLCoVs in other Rhinolophus species. These findings reveal a closer evolutionary linkage between SCoV in humans and SLCoVs in R. sinicus, defining the scope of surveillance to search for the direct ancestor of human SCoVs. PMID:20016037

  6. Universe Origins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This video segment from Swift: Eyes through Time introduces gamma ray bursts and how studying these distant objects in the universe help scientists look back in time. Swift scientists hope to discover or develop better theories of how the universe all began. The segment covers the origins of the study of the stars; the geocentric and heliocentric models; and, how culture influences the interpretation of scientific data.

  7. RTVP-1, a novel human gene with sequence similarity to genes of diverse species, is expressed in tumor cell lines of glial but not neuronal origin.

    PubMed

    Rich, T; Chen, P; Furman, F; Huynh, N; Israel, M A

    1996-11-21

    A novel gene, RTVP-1, which shows significant sequence identity to the mammalian testis-specific proteins, a family of plant pathogenesis-related proteins and the vespid venom allergen, antigen-5, has been isolated from a cDNA library of the human glioblastoma brain tumor cell line, U-251 MG. The highest degree of sequence identity was with the human testis-specific protein, TPX1 (38.7% over 119 amino acids). Northern hybridization analysis revealed that in fetal tissue RTVP-1 RNA was detected only in the kidney, but its expression was ubiquitous in adult tissues including brain. Multiple mRNAs encoded by RTVP-1 were highly expressed in a panel of cell lines from nervous system tumors arising from glia, although expression was low or absent in nonglial-derived nervous system tumor cell lines. PMID:8973356

  8. Differential effects of prenatal and postnatal expressions of mutant human DISC1 on neurobehavioral phenotypes in transgenic mice: evidence for neurodevelopmental origin of major psychiatric disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Ayhan; B Abazyan; J Nomura; R Kim; B Ladenheim; I N Krasnova; A Sawa; R L Margolis; J L Cadet; S Mori; M W Vogel; C A Ross; M V Pletnikov

    2011-01-01

    Strong genetic evidence implicates mutations and polymorphisms in the gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) as risk factors for both schizophrenia and mood disorders. Recent studies have shown that DISC1 has important functions in both brain development and adult brain function. We have described earlier a transgenic mouse model of inducible expression of mutant human DISC1 (hDISC1) that acts in a dominant-negative manner

  9. The Human Stress-Activated Protein kin17 Belongs to the Multiprotein DNA Replication Complex and Associates In Vivo with Mammalian Replication Origins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Miccoli; Isabelle Frouin; Olivia Novac; Domenic Di Paola; Francis Harper; Maria Zannis-Hadjopoulos; Giovanni Maga; Denis S. F. Biard; Jaime F. Angulo

    2005-01-01

    The human stress-activated protein kin17 accumulates in the nuclei of proliferating cells with predominant colocalization with sites of active DNA replication. The distribution of kin17 protein is in equilibrium between chromatin-DNA and the nuclear matrix. An increased association with nonchromatin nuclear structure is observed in S-phase cells. We demonstrated here that kin17 protein strongly associates in vivo with DNA fragments

  10. Glycopeptide Susceptibility among DanishEnterococcus faeciumand Enterococcus faecalisIsolates of Animal and Human Origin and PCR Identification of Genes within the VanA Cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK MŘLLER AARESTRUP; PETER AHRENS; MOGENS MADSEN; LARS V. PALLESEN; RIKKE LYKKE POULSEN; ANDHENRIK WESTH; Statens Seruminstitut

    1996-01-01

    The MICs of vancomycin and avoparcin were determined for isolates ofEnterococcus faeciumand isolates of Enterococcus faecalisrecovered from the feces of humans and animals in Denmark. Two hundred twenty-one of 376 (59%) isolates ofE. faeciumand 2 of 133 (1.5%) isolates ofE. faecaliswere resistant to vancomycin (MICs, 128 to >256 mg\\/ml), and all vancomycin-resistant isolates were resistant to avoparcin (MICs, 64 to

  11. Multiple Ethnic Origins of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages for the Population of Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Calaon, Diego; ?aval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa. PMID:24676463

  12. Multiple ethnic origins of mitochondrial DNA lineages for the population of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; Seetah, Krish; Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M; ?aval, Diego; Caval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa. PMID:24676463

  13. Intracellular Locations of Replication Proteins and the Origin of Replication during Chromosome Duplication in the Slowly Growing Human Pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Atul; Kamran, Mohammad; Verma, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    We followed the position of the replication complex in the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori using antibodies raised against the single-stranded DNA binding protein (HpSSB) and the replicative helicase (HpDnaB). The position of the replication origin, oriC, was also localized in growing cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with fluorescence-labeled DNA sequences adjacent to the origin. The replisome assembled at oriC near one of the cell poles, and the two forks moved together toward the cell center as replication progressed in the growing cell. Termination and resolution of the forks occurred near midcell, on one side of the septal membrane. The duplicated copies of oriC did not separate until late in elongation, when the daughter chromosomes segregated into bilobed nucleoids, suggesting sister chromatid cohesion at or near the oriC region. Components of the replication machinery, viz., HpDnaB and HpDnaG (DNA primase), were found associated with the cell membrane. A model for the assembly and location of the H. pylori replication machinery during chromosomal duplication is presented. PMID:24363345

  14. Comparative adherence to human A549 cells, plant fibronectin-like protein, and polystyrene surfaces of four Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from different ecological origin.

    PubMed

    Cossard, Elisabeth; Gallet, Olivier; Di Martino, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the adherence properties of four Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates from different ecological niches (human tissue, rhizosphere, drinking water, and cow milk). The substrates used to test P. fluorescens adherence were as follows: cultured human respiratory epithelial cells A549, immobilized plant fibronectin-like protein, and polystyrene. For all the experiments, bacteria were grown at 27 degrees C. The adherence assay to human cells was performed at 37 degrees C, whereas adherence to fibronectin and polystyrene was done at 27 degrees C. The four strains tested adhered to A549 cells but showed different adherence patterns. At 3 h, the milk isolate showed an aggregative adherence phenotype, whereas the three other isolates showed a diffuse adherence pattern. With a longer incubation time of 24 h, the aggregative pattern of the milk isolate disappeared, the adherence of the clinical strain increased, the adherence of the water isolate decreased, and morphological changes in A549 cells were observed with the clinical, water, and soil isolates. The four strains tested formed biofilms on polystyrene dishes. The clinical and milk isolates were the more efficient colonizers of polystyrene surfaces and also the more adherent to immobilized plant fibronectin-like protein. There was no relation between bacterial surface hydrophobicity and P. fluorescens adherence to the substrates tested. The main conclusions of these results are that P. fluorescens is an adherent bacterium, that no clear correlation exists between adherence and ecological habitat, and that P. fluorescens can adhere well to substrates not present in its natural environment. PMID:16391662

  15. ?-Secretase binding sites in aged and Alzheimer’s disease human cerebrum: The choroid plexus as a putative origin of CSF A?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Xue, Zhi-Qin; Deng, Si-Hao; Kun, Xiong; Luo, Xue-Gang; Patrylo, Peter R.; Rose, Gregory M.; Cai, Huaibin; Struble, Robert G.; Cai, Yan; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides, cleavage products of ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ?-secretase-1 (BACE1) and ?-secretase, is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). ?-Secretase inhibition is a therapeutical anti-A? approach, although less is clear about the change of the enzyme’s activity in AD brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A? peptides are considered to derive from brain parenchyma, thus may serve as biomarkers for assessing cerebral amyloidosis and anti-A? efficacy. The present study compared active ?-secretase binding sites with A? deposition in aged and AD human cerebrum, and explored a possibility of A? production and secretion by the choroid plexus (CP). Specific binding density of [3H]-L-685,458, a radiolabeled high affinity ?-secretase inhibitor, in the temporal neocortex and hippocampal formation was similar for AD and control cases with comparable ages and postmortem delays. The CP in postmortem samples exhibited exceptionally high [3H]-L-685,458 binding density, with the estimated maximal binding sites (Bmax) reduced in the AD relative to control groups. Surgically resected human CP exhibited APP, BACE1 and presenilin-1 immunoreactivity, and ?-site APP cleavage enzymatic activity. In primary culture, human CP cells also expressed these amyloidogenic proteins but released A?40 and A?42 into the medium. These results suggest that ?-secretase activity appears not altered in the cerebrum in AD related to aged control, nor correlated with regional amyloid plaque pathology. The choroid plexus appears to represent a novel non-neuronal source in the brain that may contribute A? into cerebrospinal fluid, probably at reduced levels in AD. PMID:23432732

  16. Simultaneous detection of human mitochondrial DNA and nuclear-inserted mitochondrial-origin sequences (NumtS) using forensic mtDNA amplification strategies and pyrosequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Bintz, Brittania J; Dixon, Groves B; Wilson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies enable the identification of minor mitochondrial DNA variants with higher sensitivity than Sanger methods, allowing for enhanced identification of minor variants. In this study, mixtures of human mtDNA control region amplicons were subjected to pyrosequencing to determine the detection threshold of the Roche GS Junior(®) instrument (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, IN). In addition to expected variants, a set of reproducible variants was consistently found in reads from one particular amplicon. A BLASTn search of the variant sequence revealed identity to a segment of a 611-bp nuclear insertion of the mitochondrial control region (NumtS) spanning the primer-binding sites of this amplicon (Nature 1995;378:489). Primers (Hum Genet 2012;131:757; Hum Biol 1996;68:847) flanking the insertion were used to confirm the presence or absence of the NumtS in buccal DNA extracts from twenty donors. These results further our understanding of human mtDNA variation and are expected to have a positive impact on the interpretation of mtDNA profiles using deep-sequencing methods in casework. PMID:24738853

  17. Is there any Association Between Human Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I) Infection and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? An Original Research and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Shirdel, Abbas; Hashemzadeh, Kamila; Sahebari, Maryam; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Hatef, MohammadReza; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Mirfeizi, Zahra; FaridHosseini, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology. Some environmental factors can induce SLE in genetically susceptible individuals; for example, sun exposure and some viral infections may emerge the disease manifestations. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) can dysregulate the human immune system, and the role of this virus in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is under investigation. There are conflicting data about the role of HTLV-I in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases such as SLE. In this study, we have focused on the correlation between HTLV-I infection and SLE in the northeast of Iran, an endemic area for the virus. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty women with SLE and 915 healthy controls were screened for HTLV-I by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot method was used for confirmation of the positive results done by ELISA in the patients and the control group. Results: Two (1.5%) of the patients and 23 (2.5%) of the healthy controls were HTLV-I seropositive. There was not a statistical difference between patients and controls in the number of HTLV-I seropositive samples (P=0.49). Conclusion: This cross-sectional case-control study did not find any association between HTLV-I and SLE. With regard to the previous studies, these controversies may stem from differences in ethnic background. Geographical and environmental factors should also be taken into account. PMID:24470872

  18. Nondisjunction in trisomy 21: Origin and mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Petersen; M. Mikkelsen

    2000-01-01

    Chromosomal aneuploidy is a fundamental characteristic of the human species. In this review we summarize the knowledge about the origin and mechanisms of nondisjunction in human trisomy 21 that has accumulated during the last decade by using DNA polymorphism analysis. The first molecular correlate of nondisjunction in humans is altered recombination, meiosis I errors being associated with reduced recombination and

  19. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51–46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ?63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic–modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ?50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. PMID:22908291

  20. Bioenergetics in human evolution and disease: implications for the origins of biological complexity and the missing genetic variation of common diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Two major inconsistencies exist in the current neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory that random chromosomal mutations acted on by natural selection generate new species. First, natural selection does not require the evolution of ever increasing complexity, yet this is the hallmark of biology. Second, human chromosomal DNA sequence variation is predominantly either neutral or deleterious and is insufficient to provide the variation required for speciation or for predilection to common diseases. Complexity is explained by the continuous flow of energy through the biosphere that drives the accumulation of nucleic acids and information. Information then encodes complex forms. In animals, energy flow is primarily mediated by mitochondria whose maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) codes for key genes for energy metabolism. In mammals, the mtDNA has a very high mutation rate, but the deleterious mutations are removed by an ovarian selection system. Hence, new mutations that subtly alter energy metabolism are continuously introduced into the species, permitting adaptation to regional differences in energy environments. Therefore, the most phenotypically significant gene variants arise in the mtDNA, are regional, and permit animals to occupy peripheral energy environments where rarer nuclear DNA (nDNA) variants can accumulate, leading to speciation. The neutralist–selectionist debate is then a consequence of mammals having two different evolutionary strategies: a fast mtDNA strategy for intra-specific radiation and a slow nDNA strategy for speciation. Furthermore, the missing genetic variation for common human diseases is primarily mtDNA variation plus regional nDNA variants, both of which have been missed by large, inter-population association studies. PMID:23754818

  1. Time lag dependent multimodal processing of concurrent fMRI and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data suggests a global circulatory origin for low-frequency oscillation signals in human brain

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yunjie; Frederick, Blaise deB.

    2010-01-01

    Low frequency oscillations (LFOs), characterized by frequencies in the range 0.01~0.1 Hz are commonly observed in blood-related brain functional measurements such as near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). While their physiological origin and implications are not fully understood, these signals are believed to reflect some types of neuronal signaling, systemic hemodynamics, and/or cerebral vascular auto-regulation processes. Here, we examine a new method of integrated processing of concurrent NIRS and fMRI data collected on six human subjects during a whole brain resting state acquisition. The method combines the high spatial resolution offered by fMRI (~3 mm) and the high temporal resolution offered by NIRS (~ 80 ms) to allow for the quantitative assessment of temporal relationships between the LFOs observed at different spatial locations in fMRI data. This temporal relationship allowed us to infer that the origin of a large proportion of the LFOs is independent of the baseline neural activity. The spatio-temporal pattern of LFOs detected by NIRS and fMRI evolves temporally through the brain in a way that resembles cerebral blood flow dynamics. Our results suggest that a major component of the LFOs arise from fluctuations in the blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation at a global circulatory system level. PMID:20600975

  2. In Silico Docking to Explicate Interface between Plant-Originated Inhibitors and E6 Oncogenic Protein of Highly Threatening Human Papillomavirus 18.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Sahoo, Maheswata; Kakde, Mrunmayi; Daf, Sangeeta; Varma, Ashok K

    2015-06-01

    The leading cause of cancer mortality globally amongst the women is due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. There is need to explore anti-cancerous drugs against this life-threatening infection. Traditionally, different natural compounds such as withaferin A, artemisinin, ursolic acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, berberin, resveratrol, jaceosidin, curcumin, gingerol, indol-3-carbinol, and silymarin have been used as hopeful source of cancer treatment. These natural inhibitors have been shown to block HPV infection by different researchers. In the present study, we explored these natural compounds against E6 oncoprotein of high risk HPV18, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor p53 protein. E6, a high throughput protein model of HPV18, was predicted to anticipate the interaction mechanism of E6 oncoprotein with these natural inhibitors using structure-based drug designing approach. Docking analysis showed the interaction of these natural inhibitors with p53 binding site of E6 protein residues 108-117 (CQKPLNPAEK) and help reinstatement of normal p53 functioning. Further, docking analysis besides helping in silico validations of natural compounds also helped elucidating the molecular mechanism of inhibition of HPV oncoproteins. PMID:26175664

  3. A tunable Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture model mimicking variable permeabilities of the human intestine obtained by an original seeding procedure.

    PubMed

    Béduneau, Arnaud; Tempesta, Camille; Fimbel, Stéphane; Pellequer, Yann; Jannin, Vincent; Demarne, Frédéric; Lamprecht, Alf

    2014-07-01

    Standard monoculture models utilizing Caco-2 monolayers were extensively used to mimic the permeability of the human intestinal barrier. However, they exhibit numerous limitations such as the lack of mucus layer, an overestimation of the P-gp-mediated efflux and a low paracellular permeability. Here, we suggest a new procedure to set up an in vitro model of intestinal barrier to adjust gradually the properties of the absorption barrier. Mucin-secreting HT29-MTX cells were added to Caco-2 absorptive cells in a Transwell® at different time intervals. Effects of seeding day of HT29-MTX on the paracellular permeability of lucifer yellow (LY) and on the P-gp-mediated efflux of rhodamine 123 were investigated. Apparent permeability of the rhodamine 123 in the secretory direction was highly dependent on the seeding day of goblet cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance values and LY transport across the co-cultures in the apical-to-basolateral direction were intermediary between single Caco-2 and HT29-MTX models. Early seeding days of HT29-MTX allowed increasing the fraction of goblet cells in the co-culture. Co-culture permeability was unchanged between 21 and 30 days after Caco-2 seeding, corresponding to the period of use for Caco-2-based cell models. Thus, the HT29-MTX seeding day was a key factor to set up an in vitro intestinal model with tailor-made barrier properties in terms of P-gp expression and paracellular permeability. PMID:24704198

  4. Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 2a Strains Among HIV Type 1-Coinfected Patients from Brazil Have Originated Mostly from Brazilian Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Brigido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The human T cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) is found mainly in Amerindians and in intravenous drug users (IDUs) from urban areas of the United States, Europe, and Latin America. Worldwide, HTLV-2a and HTLV-2b subtypes are the most prevalent. Phylogenetic analysis of HTLV-2 isolates from Brazil showed the HTLV-2a subtype, variant -2c, which spread from Indians to the general population and IDUs. The present study searched for the types of HTLV-2 that predominate among HIV-1-coinfected patients from southern and southeastern Brazil. Molecular characterization of the LTR, env, and tax regions of 38 isolates confirmed the HTLV-2c variant in 37 patients, and one HTLV-2b in a patient from Paraguay. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences showed different clades of HTLV-2 associated with risk factors and geographic region. These clades could represent different routes of virus transmission and/or little diverse evolutionary rates of virus. Taking into account the results obtained in the present study and the lack of the prototypic North American HTLV-2a strain and HTLV-2b subtypes commonly detected among HIV-coinfected individuals worldwide, we could speculate on the introduction of Brazilian HTLV-2 strains in such populations before the introduction of HIV. PMID:23484539

  5. Intramuscular Delivery of Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vector Expressing Humanized Protective Antigen Induces Rapid Protection against Anthrax That May Bypass Intranasally Originated Preexisting Adenovirus Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shipo; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ying; Song, Xiaohong; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Ju; Chen, Jianqin; Yin, Ying; Xu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a single dose of 108 infectious units of Ad5-PAopt achieved 100% protection from challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of anthrax lethal toxin 7 days after vaccination. Although preexisting intranasally induced immunity to Ad5 slightly weakened the humoral and cellular immune responses to Ad5-PAopt via intramuscular inoculation, 100% protection was achieved 15 days after vaccination in Fisher 344 rats. The protective efficacy conferred by intramuscular vaccination in the presence of preexisting intranasally induced immunity was significantly better than that of intranasal delivery of Ad5-PAopt and intramuscular injection with recombinant PA and aluminum adjuvant without preexisting immunity. As natural Ad5 infection often occurs via the mucosal route, the work here largely illuminates that intramuscular inoculation with Ad5-PAopt can overcome the negative effects of immunity induced by prior adenovirus infection and represents an efficient approach for protecting against emerging anthrax. PMID:24307239

  6. In Silico Docking to Explicate Interface between Plant-Originated Inhibitors and E6 Oncogenic Protein of Highly Threatening Human Papillomavirus 18

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Lingaraja; Sahoo, Maheswata; Kakde, Mrunmayi; Daf, Sangeeta; Varma, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    The leading cause of cancer mortality globally amongst the women is due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. There is need to explore anti-cancerous drugs against this life-threatening infection. Traditionally, different natural compounds such as withaferin A, artemisinin, ursolic acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, berberin, resveratrol, jaceosidin, curcumin, gingerol, indol-3-carbinol, and silymarin have been used as hopeful source of cancer treatment. These natural inhibitors have been shown to block HPV infection by different researchers. In the present study, we explored these natural compounds against E6 oncoprotein of high risk HPV18, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor p53 protein. E6, a high throughput protein model of HPV18, was predicted to anticipate the interaction mechanism of E6 oncoprotein with these natural inhibitors using structure-based drug designing approach. Docking analysis showed the interaction of these natural inhibitors with p53 binding site of E6 protein residues 108-117 (CQKPLNPAEK) and help reinstatement of normal p53 functioning. Further, docking analysis besides helping in silico validations of natural compounds also helped elucidating the molecular mechanism of inhibition of HPV oncoproteins. PMID:26175664

  7. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  8. Identification of Human IKK-2 Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part I): Modeling of the IKK-2 Kinase Domain, Virtual Screening and Activity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Esther; Guasch, Laura; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Mulero, Miquel; Salvadó, Maria-Josepa; Pinent, Montserrat; Zoete, Vincent; Grosdidier, Aurélien; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Michielin, Olivier; Pujadas, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Background Their large scaffold diversity and properties, such as structural complexity and drug similarity, form the basis of claims that natural products are ideal starting points for drug design and development. Consequently, there has been great interest in determining whether such molecules show biological activity toward protein targets of pharmacological relevance. One target of particular interest is hIKK-2, a serine-threonine protein kinase belonging to the IKK complex that is the primary component responsible for activating NF-?B in response to various inflammatory stimuli. Indeed, this has led to the development of synthetic ATP-competitive inhibitors for hIKK-2. Therefore, the main goals of this study were (a) to use virtual screening to identify potential hIKK-2 inhibitors of natural origin that compete with ATP and (b) to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening protocol by experimentally testing the in vitro activity of selected natural-product hits. Methodology/Principal Findings We thus predicted that 1,061 out of the 89,425 natural products present in the studied database would inhibit hIKK-2 with good ADMET properties. Notably, when these 1,061 molecules were merged with the 98 synthetic hIKK-2 inhibitors used in this study and the resulting set was classified into ten clusters according to chemical similarity, there were three clusters that contained only natural products. Five molecules from these three clusters (for which no anti-inflammatory activity has been previously described) were then selected for in vitro activity testing, in which three out of the five molecules were shown to inhibit hIKK-2. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated that our virtual-screening protocol was successful in identifying lead compounds for developing new inhibitors for hIKK-2, a target of great interest in medicinal chemistry. Additionally, all the tools developed during the current study (i.e., the homology model for the hIKK-2 kinase domain and the pharmacophore) will be made available to interested readers upon request. PMID:21390216

  9. [Comparison of immunosuppressive effects between human placental MSCs derived from fetal and maternal origins on the rejection of allogenic skin grafts in mice].

    PubMed

    Hao, Guiliang; Wang, Libin; Chen, Dongmei; Liang, Xueyun; Wang, Qiong; Zhu, Yongzhao; Ma, Xiaona; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Yukui

    2015-05-01

    Objective To compare the immunosuppressive effects of maternal and fetal placental mesenchymal stem cells (mPMSCs and fPMSCs, respectively) on the rejection of allogenic skin transplants in mice, and further to investigate the mechanism underlying this suppression. Methods The mPMSCs and fPMSCs were isolated from human term placentas. The expressions of cell surface markers were detected by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation capacity was characterized by MTT colorimetric assay. CD200 protein expressed on fPMSCs was neutralized with streaming monoclonal antibodies, and mPMSCs were infected with adenovirus expression vector carrying CD200 cDNA. For skin transplantation, 60 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 6 groups as skin transplant recipients, and ICR mice served as skin donors. After establishment of the allogenic skin transplants, recipient mice of the 6 groups were intravenous injected respectively with PBS, mPMSCs, fPMSCs, fPMSCs combined with anti-CD200 antibodies, mPMSCs with CD200 expressing vectors, and mPMSCs with empty vectors. The conditions and survival time of the skin grafts were inspected daily, and the expressions of interleukin 17 (IL-17), interferon ? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) in blood and spleen were measured at the end of the study by ELISA and reverse transcription PCR. Results The majority (>70%) of fPMSCs were detected CD200 positive, while only a minor fraction (about 2%) of CD-200 positive cells were seen in mPMSCs. In the allogenic skin graft mice, the graft survival time in both mPMSCs- and fPMSCs-treated groups were significantly longer than that in PBS group [(5.6±1.17) days], while the fPMSCs group [(10.6±1.43) days] was more dominant than mPMSCs group [(7.7±1.42) days]. Neutralizing anti-CD200 antibody reduced the graft survival [(8.2±1.14) days] of the fPMSCs group to the level of that in mPMSCs group, while enforced expression of CD200 increased the graft survival [(10.7±1.34) days] of the mPMSCs group to the level of the fPMSCs group. The empty vector-transfected mPMSCs showed a similar effect on graft survival [(7.8±1.32) days] as that in mPMSCs group, longer than PBS group but shorter than fPMSCs and mPMSCs combined with CD200 groups. Comparing with PBS group, the expressions of IL-17, IFN-? and TNF-? were significantly reduced in mPMSCs and fPMSCs groups. The reduction of these cytokine expressions in the fPMSCs group was neutralized when anti-CD200 antibody was applied, while this reduction in the mPMSCs-treated mice was further enhanced when the mPMSCs were enforced to express CD200. Conclusion The immunosuppressive effect of fPMSCs on the rejection of allogenic skin transplantation was higher than that of mPMSCs, and this difference was partially contributed by CD200 signaling pathway. The mechanism of this suppression may mediate the inhibition of IL-17, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-12 expressions. The fPMSCs may be a suitable choice for immunosuppression on skin transplantation. PMID:25940286

  10. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G.?glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G.?glabra. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25779384

  11. NEUROROBOTICS ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and accuracy of human action. We report on results from a human­human cooperation experiment demonstrating that engages in the same cooperative interaction. The subsequent human­robot experiments demonstrate reach faster when I see you look: gaze effects in human­human and human­robot face-to-face cooperation

  12. Population Structure and Modern Human Origins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan R. Rogers

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews statistical methods for inferring population his- tory from mitochondrial mismatch distributions and extends them to the case of geographically structured populations. Inference is based on a geographically structured version of the coalescent algorithm that allows for temporal variation in population size, in the number of subdivisions, and in the rate of migration between subdivisions. Confidence regions are

  13. Patenting Stem Cells of Human Origin 

    E-print Network

    Laurie, Graeme

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses the impact of the European Union's Directive for the legal protection of biotechnological inventions (Directive 98/44/EC of 6 July 1998. Specific attention is given to the absence from provisions of ...

  14. On the Origin of Human Basophilic Granulocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Parwaresch; L.-D. Leder; K. E. G. Dannenberg

    1971-01-01

    By a combined application of toluidine blue stain and naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase reaction on normal bone marrow smears metachromic and promyelocytic granules were demonstrated on the same cell. Precursors of basophils contain NASDCl-esterase activity, the intensity of which depended on the maturity of the cells. All transitional cells were found between non metachromatic promyelocytes with strong NASDCl-esterase activity and

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Why Humans Have Sex

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    the context of an ongoing romantic relationship or long-term mateship. Sexual strategies theory (Buss differences in sexual strategies. Discussion focused on the complexity of sexual motivation and directions and simple in nature­to reproduce, to experience pleasure, or to relieve sexual tension. Several theoretical

  16. Transcriptomic Characterization of the Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus: Specific Host Response and Responses Intermediate between Avian (H5N1 and H7N7) and Human (H3N2) Viruses and Implications for Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Josset, Laurence; Zeng, Hui; Kelly, Sara M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Katze, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus (IAV) emerged in China in 2013, causing mild to lethal human respiratory infections. H7N9 originated with multiple reassortment events between avian viruses and carries genetic markers of human adaptation. Determining whether H7N9 induces a host response closer to that with human or avian IAV is important in order to better characterize this emerging virus. Here we compared the human lung epithelial cell response to infection with A/Anhui/01/13 (H7N9) or highly pathogenic avian-origin H5N1, H7N7, or human seasonal H3N2 IAV. The transcriptomic response to H7N9 was highly specific to this strain but was more similar to the response to human H3N2 than to that to other avian IAVs. H7N9 and H3N2 both elicited responses related to eicosanoid signaling and chromatin modification, whereas H7N9 specifically induced genes regulating the cell cycle and transcription. Among avian IAVs, the response to H7N9 was closest to that elicited by H5N1 virus. Host responses common to H7N9 and the other avian viruses included the lack of induction of the antigen presentation pathway and reduced proinflammatory cytokine induction compared to that with H3N2. Repression of these responses could have an important impact on the immunogenicity and virulence of H7N9 in humans. Finally, using a genome-based drug repurposing approach, we identified several drugs predicted to regulate the host response to H7N9 that may act as potential antivirals, including several kinase inhibitors, as well as FDA-approved drugs, such as troglitazone and minocycline. Importantly, we validated that minocycline inhibited H7N9 replication in vitro, suggesting that our computational approach holds promise for identifying novel antivirals. PMID:24496798

  17. Who were the earliest humans?, Chris StringerSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    Interviewee: Chris Stringer DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>our family tree>The earliest humans? Human origins expert Chris Stringer talks about the earliest Homo species and his view of their relationships with apes and humans.

  18. Isolation and molecular characterization of a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II), subtype B, from a healthy Pygmy living in a remote area of Cameroon: an ancient origin for HTLV-II in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Gessain, A; Mauclčre, P; Froment, A; Biglione, M; Le Hesran, J Y; Tekaia, F; Millan, J; de Thé, G

    1995-01-01

    We report characterization of a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) isolated from an interleukin 2-dependent CD8 T-cell line derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy, HTLV-II-seropositive female Bakola Pygmy, aged 59, living in a remote equatorial forest area in south Cameroon. This HTLLV-II isolate, designated PYGCAM-1, reacted in an indirect immunofluorescence assay with HTLV-II and HTLV-I polyclonal antibodies and with an HTLV-I/II gp46 monoclonal antibody but not with HTLV-I gag p19 or p24 monoclonal antibodies. The cell line produced HTLV-I/II p24 core antigen and retroviral particles. The entire env gene (1462 bp) and most of the long terminal repeat (715 bp) of the PYGCAM-1 provirus were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using HTLV-II-specific primers. Comparison with the long terminal repeat and envelope sequences of prototype HTLV-II strains indicated that PYGCAM-1 belongs to the subtype B group, as it has only 0.5-2% nucleotide divergence from HTLV-II B strains. The finding of antibodies to HTLV-II in sera taken from the father of the woman in 1984 and from three unrelated members of the same population strongly suggests that PYGCAM-1 is a genuine HTLV-II that has been present in this isolated population for a long time. The low genetic divergence of this African isolate from American isolates raises questions about the genetic variability over time and the origin and dissemination of HTLV-II, hitherto considered to be predominantly a New World virus. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7732027

  19. Characterization of a newly established human acinic cell adenocarcinoma cell line (HACC) originating from the salivary gland: morphological features and role of various growth factors on the growth of the HACC cell line.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, T; Tominaga, K; Abe, M; Kusakabe, T; Yamaki, T; Hiraki, H; Itoh, S; Suzuki, T

    1998-10-01

    Human acinic cell adenocarcinoma cell (HACC) line was established from the pleural effusion that contains metastatic tumor cells of acinic cell adenocarcinoma of papillary and microcystic type originating from the parotid gland. The HACC cells grew in an adherent monolayer with a doubling time of 66 h. Implanted tumor of SCID mice revealed similar histological findings to that of the primary tumor. The HACC cells produced mucin and expressed epithelial markers as well as alpha1-antitrypsin and lysozyme, whereas salivary peptide P-C was expressed in cultured HACC cells but not in the primary and implanted HACC cell tumors. S-100 protein was also expressed in both the primary tumor and HACC cell line. Neither amplification of common oncogenes nor expression of p53 was observed. The receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) was expressed, indicating EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) enhanced the growth of the HACC line. Unexpectedly, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-alpha) also enhanced the growth of the HACC line significantly. However, there was no evidence of autocrine growth using these growth factors. In contrast, TGF-beta1 inhibited the growth of the HACC cell line through apoptosis. The HACC cell line has features similar to both acinar and intercalated ductal cells of the salivary gland. Epidermal growth factor, TGF-alpha and TNF-alpha are potential growth factors for the HACC cell line. The HACC cell line may be a good model for studying the biological behavior of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:9788263

  20. Human Evolution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    2002-01-01

    The first Web site is an article from the New York Times (1) detailing some recent fossil discoveries that are shaking the paleontological world (free registration is required). Another relatively recent article from Guardian Unlimited (2) discusses a scientific debate surrounding the question of whether "a Western lifestyle now protects humanity from the forces that used to shape Homo sapiens." The third resource (3) includes a likely timeline of events in the history of hominids and a tour of the fossil record. A second timeline from the Huntarian Museum and Art Gallery at the University of Glasgow (4) is less detailed, but links to many major fossil discoveries of human and pre-human history. An "overview of the study of human evolution, and of the currently accepted fossil evidence" (5) is used to inform arguments for creationists and evolutionists. An interesting site from the University of California Santa Barbara (6) (last mentioned in the December 1, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences) presents 3-dimensional views of "modern primate relatives and fossil ancestors of humans." The interactive documentary from the Institute of Human Origins (7) (last mentioned in the April 20, 2001 Scout Report) is a great resource for those with the Flash plug-in and a high speed connection. Lastly, a resource from PBS.org (8) focuses on human evolution in a format aimed at kids.

  1. Pashto Reader Originals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    The "Pashto Reader Originals" is one component of the "Pashto Reader," a set of materials designed to enable the student of Pashto to read modern written Pashto. These originals are computer scans of most of the passages in the Pashto Reader, authentic written Pashto passages. They are presented in their original published or photographed forms to…

  2. Originally: an Mathematical

    E-print Network

    Louvet, Violaine

    ||k C N-k . #12;Granada­ 2006 T. Dumont, Institut Camille Jordan Originally: an industrial problemGranada­ 2006 T. Dumont, Institut Camille Jordan Originally: an industrial problem Physical context;Granada­ 2006 T. Dumont, Institut Camille Jordan Originally: an industrial problem Physical context

  3. Genetic Origins: Mitochondrial Control Region

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dolan DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory presents this multi-faceted educational Web site as part of the online feature "Genetic Origins: The study of human evolution begins with your own DNA." The Mitochondrial Control Region Web pages provides a comprehensive introduction (including first-hand lab experience) to the same methods researchers use to retrace the common maternal lineage of modern humans and our relationship to Neandertal. The site includes detailed introductory material (complete with animations and a video interview with the director of the Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute); procedures for DNA isolation, amplification, and analysis; in-depth lab exercises; and much more. College level or advanced high school biology classes with sufficient time and resources shouldn't hesitate to take full advantage of the challenging activities and opportunities offered through this Web site.

  4. Genetic Origins: Mitochondrial Control Region

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    The Dolan DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory presents this multi-faceted educational Web site as part of the online feature "Genetic Origins: The study of human evolution begins with your own DNA." The Mitochondrial Control Region Web pages provides a comprehensive introduction (including first-hand lab experience) to the same methods researchers use to retrace the common maternal lineage of modern humans and our relationship to Neandertal. The site includes detailed introductory material (complete with animations and a video interview with the director of the Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute); procedures for DNA isolation, amplification, and analysis; in-depth lab exercises; and much more. College level or advanced high school biology classes with sufficient time and resources shouldn't hesitate to take full advantage of the challenging activities and opportunities offered through this Web site.

  5. Extraembryonic Origin of Circulating Endothelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc Pardanaud; Anne Eichmann; Costanza Emanueli

    2011-01-01

    Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are contained in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of adult humans and participate to the revascularization of ischemic tissues. These cells represent attractive targets for cell or gene therapy aimed at improving ischemic revascularization or inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The embryonic origin of CEC has not been addressed previously. Here we use quail-chick chimeras to

  6. Original article Production of monoclonal antibodies against

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Production of monoclonal antibodies against equine influenza : application 1988) Summary ― Monoclonal antibodies (Mo Abs) were prepared against influenza/A/equine/Prague/1. These monoclonals were tested against the 2 reference strains, 8 field strains of equine influenza virus, 3 human

  7. Epigenome maps offer clues to disease origins.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    The Roadmap Epigenomics Program has published the first comprehensive maps and analyses of human epigenomes across more than 100 tissues and cell types, providing a window into the links between DNA and disease. One study using data from the program found that it's possible to pinpoint where a cancer originated by examining the distribution of mutations along its genome. PMID:25829423

  8. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed.

  9. [ Home | Blogs | Events | Robots | Humans | Projects | Podcasts | About | Account ] All content copyright by author. Unless otherwise noted, original content is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution, Share-Alike v3.0 license. See the about page for

    E-print Network

    Stryk, Oskar von

    : Team IHMC, Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola, Fla. (52 points) 1. WPI Robotics, TORC / TU Darmstadt / Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Va. (27 points)6. Team K, Japan (25 points)7. TROOPER

  10. Chemical Origins of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  11. The Growth of Originalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    The latest episode in the long-running struggle for control of the Constitution, and the political power that goes with it, is playing out in the federal courts in California. The contending philosophies are originalism, which holds that the Constitution should be read as it was originally understood by the framers and ratifiers, and the congeries…

  12. DNA Replication Origins

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alan C.; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The onset of genomic DNA synthesis requires precise interactions of specialized initiator proteins with DNA at sites where the replication machinery can be loaded. These sites, defined as replication origins, are found at a few unique locations in all of the prokaryotic chromosomes examined so far. However, replication origins are dispersed among tens of thousands of loci in metazoan chromosomes, thereby raising questions regarding the role of specific nucleotide sequences and chromatin environment in origin selection and the mechanisms used by initiators to recognize replication origins. Close examination of bacterial and archaeal replication origins reveals an array of DNA sequence motifs that position individual initiator protein molecules and promote initiator oligomerization on origin DNA. Conversely, the need for specific recognition sequences in eukaryotic replication origins is relaxed. In fact, the primary rule for origin selection appears to be flexibility, a feature that is modulated either by structural elements or by epigenetic mechanisms at least partly linked to the organization of the genome for gene expression. PMID:23838439

  13. The East India Company: Agent of Empire in the Early Modern Capitalist Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The world economy and political map changed dramatically between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Unprecedented trade linked the continents together and set off a European scramble to discover new resources and markets. European ships and merchants reached across the world, and their governments followed after them, inaugurating the…

  14. Civil death in early modern Europe from Jack Cade to Luther, Hamlet, and Raleigh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brady J Spangenberg

    2011-01-01

    Civil death is a legal designation used to nullify a malefactor's social presence or body (corpus politicum), even if his or her natural body continues to exist. Civil death occurs in two main contexts, one criminal and the other religious. In both cases the affected individual's public or civil existence was understood to have \\

  15. A review of "The Culture of Equity in Early Modern England" By Mark Fortier 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    associated with it, in political and religious debate, in poetics, in law? in practically every domain of intellectual pursuit, the reader might respond: ?yes, it?s obvious.? To Fortier?s credit, and as a result of the clarity and range of this study... ?roguish thing,? an idea that is elusive, elastic, manipulable, a Janus-like cipher in the middle of the radical politics, theological disputes, and general turmoil of the period. Equity is a term still current in law: a remedy or process distinct from...

  16. A review of "Borders and Travellers in Early Modern Europe" edited by Thomas Betteridge 

    E-print Network

    McJannet, Linda

    2008-01-01

    . Betteridge?s Introduction focuses on the figure of the cannibal in Montaigne?s ?Of Cannibals? and More?s Utopia. He concludes that these ?sophisticated humanist texts? are haunted by the ?essential sameness? of the European travelers.../colonists and the indigenous peoples, whereas postmodern recuperations of the cannibal are part of the ?na?ve celebration of non-Western societies as non-antagonistic and free from the evils of modernity? (11). The essays that follow, however, are concerned with nuanced...

  17. A review of "Carnival and Literature in Early Modern England" by Jennifer C. Vaught 

    E-print Network

    Laam, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    of an exploitative, nascent capitalistic economy, which Spenser critiques in terms of its dehumanizing price” (78). However, the diverse throng grasping at the figure of Ambition in the same room also suggests that “avarice infects all ranks and ignites... destructive, selfish desires for advancement among elite and popular groups” (78). Other carnivalesque episodes in The Faerie Queene—the Masque of Cupid in Book Three, the “May-game” ritual in Book Five, Serena’s brush with gluttonous cannibals in Book Six...

  18. A review of "The Renaissance of Lesbianism in Early Modern England." by Valerie Traub

    E-print Network

    Mario Digangi

    2003-01-01

    ?s exploration of ?the potential for female erotic agency from within the confines of patriarchal ideology? (125) to a consideration of female erotic agency outside of marriage. Like the pudica (a naked woman protecting her genitals with her hand) found...

  19. A Review of "Memory's Library: Medieval Books in Early Modern England" by Jennifer Summit 

    E-print Network

    Engel, William E.

    2009-01-01

    , the new critics are largely remembered for their scholarship, not their poetry. Stanwood, however, gently refocuses our attention, reminding us of a story that is often no longer told, let alone heard. Jennifer Summit. Memory?s Library: Medieval Books..., Duke of Gloucester, whose book donations led directly to the founding of Oxford?s library. Humphrey?s library was a place of active literary production, encouraging both the writing of new books and new ways of reading old ones. His patronage...

  20. Writing Their Way In: The Dedicatory Epistles of Early Modern English Women Authors 

    E-print Network

    Parker, Meghan Lee

    2013-04-30

    and rank as a duchess render her (literary) activities continually the subject of public curiosity. According to Mikhail Bakhtin, spectacle is a sociopolitical phenomenon, occurring primarily in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, that fosters social... Fitzmaurice points out that Cavendish ?generally is seen as a good writer who overcame the impediments of patriarchy to 13 Mikhail Bakhtin. Rabelais and His World. Indiana: Indiana University Press 1984, 218. 14 Mary Russo ?Female Grotesques: Carnival...

  1. A review of "The Duel in Early Modern England: Civility, Politeness and Honour." by Markku Peltonen 

    E-print Network

    Brett F. Parker

    2005-01-01

    of honor, which allowed advocates of the duel to defend the practice in the face of changing circumstances and increasing criticism. Because civility was at root about proper behavior and politeness in a world of courtiers and gentlemen, it inherently...

  2. A review of "Excess and the Mean in Early Modern English Literature." by Joshua Scodel 

    E-print Network

    Ira Clark

    2003-01-01

    to encourage a skeptical quest for a Christian church and a space among established social identities for personal social mobility. Scodel?s Bacon ingeniously employed the mean in support of a stable commonwealth at the same time that he advocated a flexible... Daniel?s sonnets and Sidney?s Arcadia through cavalier lyrics into the heroic plays of John Dryden and Aphra Behn. Here he juxta- poses the rational ideals of moderate love and conjugal comfort advocated by English Protestants with the ideals...

  3. Caught in the act: the stage as a backdrop for defining crime in early modern England 

    E-print Network

    Orman, Lindsay Erin

    2013-02-22

    control when class conflicts often color the administration of justice. Several social stages, including the ceremony of the church, the pomp of the royal court, and the spectacle of criminal punishment, provide a setting in which criminals can...

  4. A Review of "Marriage, Manners and Mobility in Early Modern Venice" by Alexander Cowan 

    E-print Network

    Litchfield, Burr

    2009-01-01

    parents and grandparents, in 1506 the Golden Books appeared, and in 1589 prove di nobilt? for non-patrician brides. The proofs were assessed by the Avogaria di Comune, a kind of supreme court of patrician lawyers appointed by the Council of Ten... they were privi- leged to hold. The system ended with Napoleon?s suppression of the Republic in 1797. The elite defined itself as ?noble? and became increasingly concerned with its purity of blood. In 1422, standing required the nobility of both...

  5. A review of "Playing Spaces in Early Modern Women's Drama" by Alison Findlay 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    , Mary Sidney Herbert, Henrietta Maria, Rachel Fane, Margaret Cavendish, Aphra Behn, and many others. Informing Findlay?s study are the social and spatial theories of Henri Lefebvre and Michel De Certeau. (See, for instance, Lefebvre?s The Production... Court. Anna requested the performers utilize the clothes of Elizabeth I as a means to invest herself with the authority once held by Elizabeth. Also illuminating is the section ?Framing Beauty and Planting Voices: Henrietta Maria?s Court Drama,? which...

  6. A review of "Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature" by Bernadette Andrea 

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jyotsna G.

    2010-01-01

    discourse,? implying her own identification with Sir Robert Shirley?s ?Persian wife.? Chapter Three offers a compelling account of three Quaker women missionaries, Mary Fisher, who had an audience with the Ottoman Sultan, Katherine Evans and Sarah...

  7. A review of "Domestic Arrangements in Early Modern England." by Kari McBride ed. 

    E-print Network

    Karen L. Raber

    2004-01-01

    the coffin and effigy beneath a canopy littered with arms and heraldry. George Wither recalled this ?antique curious rite? in his Prince Henries Obseqvies, asking, ?What needed all that Cerimonious show?? The answer came quickly: ?it shew?d that though he...

  8. A review of "Roman Triumphs and Early Modern English Culture." by Anthony Miller 

    E-print Network

    Michael Ullyot

    2004-01-01

    , UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. When Henry, Prince of Wales, was interred in Westminster Abbey in December 1612, his funeral procession necessitated two thousand black-robed mourners to accompany his chariot, carrying the coffin and effigy beneath a canopy littered...

  9. A review of "Digressive Voices in Early Modern English Literature" by Anne Cotterill 

    E-print Network

    McDayter, Mark

    2007-01-01

    - ginal? (27). Closely associated with this insight is her identification of digres- sion with the Ovidian figure of the ?labyrinth,? which is here less a place of entrapment and confusion than an opportunity for indirection and subtle subversion...

  10. Memories of violence and New English identities in early modern Ireland

    E-print Network

    Redmond, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    and lands. This article will examine the collapse of the plantation, and the violence that brought about its end-- including killing, robbery, and rape-- and the often-ritualised and targeted nature of this violence. It will also investigate some... Ireland, and especially from planted Munster. One the most shocking and disturbing acts of violence described in Munster was rape. It was reported in several accounts, which also included a moving description of its harrowing consequences...

  11. The book as looking glass : improving works for and about children in early modern England

    E-print Network

    Miller, Heather, 1971 Sept. 14-

    2004-01-01

    This text explores three developments pertaining to children and reading in seventeenth-century England. The author aims to show how profoundly death was implicated in the development of thought about children's reading ...

  12. A Review of "Desire and Dramatic Form in Early Modern England" by Judith Haber 

    E-print Network

    Oh, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    , then brother and husband. The play?s obsession with fathering?producing children without a troublesome mother?is literalized in incest that destroys the purity of the parthenogenesis it desires. Margaret Cavendish?s self-conscious disruptions...

  13. A Review of "Marriage, Manners and Mobility in Early Modern Venice" by Alexander Cowan

    E-print Network

    Litchfield, Burr

    2009-01-01

    quintessence of pastoralism in the service of buon gusto, operating at the heart of Arcadian poetics. Minor?s book is not a comprehensive historical account of the period, nor does it claim to answer in absolute or definitive terms why the baroque style... was eclipsed by a new aesthetic in the eighteenth century. This is one of the great strengths of Minor?s study, for the question of style is multifaceted, and cannot be answered in simple terms. He offers instead sharp historical analysis and insight...

  14. A review of "Gender and Heroism in Early Modern English Literature." by Mary Beth Rose 

    E-print Network

    M. J. Vecchio

    2002-01-01

    and determines value,? writes Professor Rose. Her book argues that, during the seventeenth cen- tury, English literature?s prevailing ?active male heroism of rule, exploration, and conquest? transforms itself into one that ?valo- rizes the patient suffering...

  15. [Social order, stability, and certainty violence and social power in early modern history].

    PubMed

    Pröve, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a comprehensive critique of historical research focussing on the mutual relations between social power and violence. According to the methodological initial hypothesis, due to the inadequate distinction between indigenious concept (from sources) and heuristic (from reseach) in the historical sciences, there have been very few valuable insights into these relations to date. In order to expand the research focus which is the objective of this article, the analysis draws on the two actor-centric reference systems of "certainty" and "order". The key idea behind this, operationalizing certainty/uncertainty by means of order/disorder, is a promising way of programmatically combining a vertical and horizontal network of relationships of power, violence, certainty, and order. PMID:25600019

  16. A Review of "Memory's Library: Medieval Books in Early Modern England" by Jennifer Summit

    E-print Network

    Engel, William E.

    2009-01-01

    on the Reformation and how we are the inheritors of textual practices that developed between the two centuries bookended by Duke Humphrey and Robert Cotton. This painstaking study of the place of medieval manuscripts in the formation of the important...). Cromwell cultivated a coterie of educated laymen, most notably Starkey and Elyot, whose bibloclastic reforms she discusses in detail. For example, Summit adduces that Elyot?s famous Dictionary, created from the royal collec- tions, resembles a library...

  17. A review of "Education and Women in the Early Modern Hispanic World" by Elizabeth Teresa Howe 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Hillaire

    2008-01-01

    and the Amazons,? ?The Spanish Zenobia,? ?The New Judith,? etc. Her decision to lump Spain together with its New World colo- nies is not uncontroversial. Although there is a growing effort (and not just by comparatists) to look at the big picture of the Iberian...

  18. A review of "Psalm Culture and Early Modern English Literature" by Hannibal Hamlin. 

    E-print Network

    Alan Rudrum

    2004-01-01

    in the debt of those who worked so hard to bring this project to fruition: the directors, Michael Leslie and Mark Greengrass, and to their principals, Michael Hannon, Patrick Collinson and W. J Hitchens, Judith Crawford and Timothy Raylor. Hannibal Hamlin...

  19. A Review of "Spectacle. Studies in Early Modern France" edited by Jeff Persels 

    E-print Network

    Duggan, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    . Llewellyn provides an intriguing reading of Jean Molinet?s Le Myst?re de Judith et Holofern?s. She argues that the apparent contradic- tions between Judith?s transgression of feminine ideals of modesty, humility, and silence, on the one hand, and her... exemplary value, on the other, can be resolved by reading the character?s actions in terms of metadrama. Judith performs the role of seductress and executioner, only to return to her status as virtuous widow at the end of the play, when she insists...

  20. Performing Women’s Speech in Early Modern Drama: Troubling Silence, Complicating Voice 

    E-print Network

    Van Note, Beverly Marshall

    2012-10-19

    considerably flatten the contours of the historical patterns discernable in women’s lifewriting. As a result, female spectators may have experienced greater cognitive dissonance in reaction to the portrayals of women by boy actors. In spite of this, however...

  1. Speaking England: nationalism(s) in early modern literature and culture 

    E-print Network

    Morrow, Christopher L.

    2009-06-02

    ..... 169 2 ?The Manner of the First Bringing and Preaching of the Christian faith, unto Ethelbert, King of Kent? .............................. 179 3 ?Primi Noui Evangelij fructus... In the final scene of Shakespeare?s Henry V, King Harry, wooing his soon-to-be bride, Katherine, daughter to the French King, asks her to teach him the terms in which to plead ?his love-suit to her gentle heart? (5.2.101). She replies, ?Your majesty shall...

  2. A review of "Women and Race in Early Modern Texts." by Joyce Green MacDonald 

    E-print Network

    Julie D. Campbell

    2003-01-01

    ?the wild knight and the black lady? at the court of King James VI of Scotland in 1507 and 1508 to her concluding comments on the ?cultural work? of race, MacDonald seeks to discover how ?raced,? ?sexual? bodies are used to delineate and define culture...Donald states that the book has six chapters (18), but it actually has seven, excluding the introduction and conclusion. The first three chapters focus on Rome and Egypt. First, MacDonald looks at how the figure of Cleopatra ?may figure in contemporary...

  3. A review of "Anamorphosis in Early Modern Literature: Mediation and Affect" by Jen E. Boyle 

    E-print Network

    Dodds, Lara

    2011-01-01

    in Paradise Lost, #14;rst as an alternative to the panoptic or controlling perspective of God and Satan and second as a way of rethinking the problem of allegory. e second of the two Milton chapters is probably the best in the book. Here Boyle argues... agency and authority? (95). Boyle fol- 192 #31;#30;#29;#30;#28;#27;#30;#30;#28;#27;#26;-#25;#30;#28;#27;#24;#23;#22; #28;#30;#21;#31; lows Karen Edwards in identifying Eve as a ?historian-philosopher,? and suggests that the Fall, initiated by Satan?s...

  4. A review of "Visual Rhetoric and Early Modern English Literature" by Katherine Acheson 

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    and all other preceding pieces of the genealogical diagram. Reading Satan’s propensity for paradoxical logic against this providential cause and effect function, Acheson describes how satanic oxymorons represent a “desire to corrupt not only... to trace how the “Genealogy of Good” in Paradise Lost sits in relation to its demonic double, “[t]he perversity of the Satanic family tree” (67) represented by Sin and Death. But for Adam and Eve, genealogy is also a source of restoration...

  5. A review of "Early Modern French Thought: The Age of Suspicion." by Michael Moriarty 

    E-print Network

    Todd Janke

    2006-01-01

    ). For Pascal, in the end, the recognition of the fragility and precariousness of our epistemic condition and the futility of attempts to gain philosophical certainty must lead us to reject as suspect at best any knowledge we may gain of ourselves: the true... of a resistance? (151). Unlike Descartes, however, the goal of this resistance for Malebranche, Moriarty writes, was not only to better grasp the nature of truth and certainty but to understand the soul?s essential closeness to God. What...

  6. A review of "Psalm Culture and Early Modern English Literature" by Hannibal Hamlin.

    E-print Network

    Alan Rudrum

    2004-01-01

    in the debt of those who worked so hard to bring this project to fruition: the directors, Michael Leslie and Mark Greengrass, and to their principals, Michael Hannon, Patrick Collinson and W. J Hitchens, Judith Crawford and Timothy Raylor. Hannibal Hamlin...

  7. Risky Business: The Discourse of Credit and Early Modern Female Playwrights Before Defoe

    E-print Network

    Beggs, Courtney Beth

    2011-10-21

    at a Venture (1706), A Bold Stroke for a Wife (1718), and The Artifice (1722). Ultimately, I argue that these plays present a narrative bridge between literary representations of financial discourse that appear in print before and during... Money: Women?s Fiction in England, 1790-1820 , Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995. While Copeland?s study includes less canonical writers and writers of magazine fiction, the focus remains on literature of the very late eighteenth and early nineteenth...

  8. Famine relief and imperial policy in early modern Morocco: the political functions of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, A R

    1981-01-01

    There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7027811

  9. Fashioning the Early Modern: Innovation and Creativity in Europe, 1500-1800

    E-print Network

    such as wigs, new textiles, ribbons, ruffs and lace become successful while others failed? How far did.10 Governing Innovation: The Political Economy of Textiles in the Eighteenth Century Giorgio Riello (University of the 17th century Corinne Thépaut-Cabasset (V&A) #12;16.40 Selling Textiles under Revolution: Economy

  10. Teleomechanism redux? Functional physiology and hybrid models of life in early modern natural philosophy.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Charles T

    2014-01-01

    The distinction between 'mechanical' and 'teleological' has been familiar since Kant; between a fully mechanistic, quantitative science of Nature and a teleological, qualitative approach to living beings, namely 'organisms' understood as purposive or at least functional entities. The beauty of this distinction is that it apparently makes intuitive sense and maps onto historico-conceptual constellations in the life sciences, regarding the status of the body versus that of the machine. I argue that the mechanism-teleology distinction is imprecise and flawed using examples including the 'functional' features present even in Cartesian physiology, the Oxford Physiologists' work on circulation and respiration, the fact that the model of the 'body-machine' is not a mechanistic reduction of organismic properties to basic physical properties but is focused on the uniqueness of organic life; and the concept of 'animal economy' in vitalist medicine, which I present as a 'teleomechanistic' concept of organism (borrowing a term of Lenoir's which he applied to nineteenth-century embryology)--neither mechanical nor teleological. PMID:25707100

  11. The Woodstruck Deed The Documentation of Accidental Defloration among the Jews of Early Modern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Malkiel

    2006-01-01

    The “woodstruck” (mukat ets) deed, a Hebrew document that officially records the accidental defloration of a young girl, appears in sixteenth-century Italy, in a block of deeds recorded by Jewish notaries in Rome, in a rabbinic responsum and in the record book of the Padua community. Prior to that, there is no record of such an instrument anywhere in Jewish

  12. A review of "Locke, Language and Early-Modern Philosophy" by Hannah Dawson 

    E-print Network

    Fester, Karin Susan

    2010-01-01

    but in how they generated moral language as a whole. Locke challenged the commonly held as- sumption that a universal language existed for communication among philosophers (see Chapters Eight and Nine), arguing that semantic diversity?through private... language?particularly moral language?which is to be the major location of philosophical anxiety about semantic instability? (130). Part Two, ?Philosophical Developments of the Problem of Language,? is presented in Chapters Four, Five, and Six...

  13. Symbolic language in early modern mathematics: The Algebra of Pierre Hérigone (1580–1643)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Massa Esteve

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a formal mathematical language was fundamental to making mathematics algebraic. A landmark in this process was the publication of In artem analyticem isagoge by François Vičte (1540–1603) in 1591. This work was diffused through many other algebra texts, as in the section entitled Algebra in the Cursus mathematicus (Paris, 1634, 1637, 1642; second edition 1644) by Pierre

  14. A review of "The Challenges of Orpheus: Lyric Poetry and Early Modern England" by Heather Dubrow

    E-print Network

    Hedley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    this book?s most interesting chapter is the one that focuses on lyric audiences. That chapter arrestingly begins by citing the use of transparent glass in certain public buildings of recent design to render the distinction between inside and outside...

  15. A Review of "Milton’s Angels:The Early Modern Imagination" by Joad Raymond 

    E-print Network

    Swann, Adam

    2011-01-01

    with Satan to be depicted as an ?interpret[ation] and reappropriat[ion of] the debates of the 1650s? (223). However, there are points where Raymond?s readings are some- what less convincing; for instance, his representation of the Abdiel episode...

  16. ‘Nature Concocts & Expels’: The Agents and Processes of Recovery from Disease in Early Modern England

    E-print Network

    Newton, Hannah

    2015-03-26

    arewont to believe, that there resides, in the Body of a sick Person, a certain Provident orWatchful Being, that… industriously employs itself… to… restore thedistemper’dBody to its Pristine stateofHealth’.33 This notionwas rooted in thewritingsofHippocrates... , andhis famous axiom, ‘Natura estmorborummedicatrix’, or ‘Nature is the healer of disease’.34 His- torians usually associate this idea with the ‘New Hippocrates’, Thomas Sydenham England, 1580–1720 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), chs. 4, 6. 24The...

  17. A Review of "Desire and Dramatic Form in Early Modern England" by Judith Haber

    E-print Network

    Oh, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    ,? he closes (18). Lest it seem this tripartite argument enacts a Hegelian synthesis, Harris appends ?Dis-Orientations? as Coda: ?Untimely matter ? challenges the fantasy of the self-identical moment or period, of the sovereign moment-state divided...

  18. A review of "Martyrdom and Literature in Early Modern England." by Susannah Brietz Monta

    E-print Network

    Lissa Beauchamp

    2005-01-01

    158 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS complemented by the anecdotal, refreshingly unpretentious quality of the coda, which animates and personalizes the act of literary criticism. Milton and the Rhetoric of Zeal proves itself to be an urbane, graceful...

  19. A review of "The Poetics of Melancholy in Early Modern England." by Douglas Trevor

    E-print Network

    Thomas P. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    , the sidenotes serve a ?thera- peutic function in that they affirm the viability of the written cure, however qualified by one?s humorial tendencies? (111). What is a pleasurable coda in Trevor?s chapter on Donne?the editorial apparatus as symptom...

  20. A review of "Women and Race in Early Modern Texts." by Joyce Green MacDonald

    E-print Network

    Julie D. Campbell

    2003-01-01

    and Renaissance attempts to reclaim or deny a non-European cultural identity.? Second, she addresses Shakespeare?s Antony and Cleopatra, arguing that it ?significantly refuses many of the majoritarian sexual, ra- cial, and imperial biases many Renaissance readers...

  1. Class, Authority, and the Querelle des Femmes: A Women's Community of Resistance in Early Modern Europe 

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Dana Eatman

    2010-10-12

    This dissertation examines the poetry of Isabella Whitney, a maidservant in London, Veronica Franco, a Venetian courtesan, Marie de Romieu, a baker's daughter in rural France, and Aemilia Lanyer, the daughter and wife of ...

  2. A review of "Church, Censorship and Culture in Early Modern Italy." by Gigliola Fragnito, ed. 

    E-print Network

    Erminia Ardissino

    2002-01-01

    . Church, Censorship and Culture in Early Mod- ern Italy. Trans. Adrian Belton. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- sity Press, 2001. x + 264 pp. + 4 illus. $59.95. Review by ERMINIA ARDISSINO, UNIVERSITY OF TURIN. Although devoted primarily...

  3. A review of "Pamphlets and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain" by Joad Raymond. 

    E-print Network

    Timothy Raylor

    2004-01-01

    audience and focused on polemic, the necessity of so full an account here is debatable (especially given the effectiveness with which both Peter Blayney and Adrian Johns have recently surveyed the same terri- tory). But Raymond?s understanding...

  4. A review of "Literature, Nationalism, and Memory in Early Modern England and Wales." by Philip Schwyzer 

    E-print Network

    Thomas P. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    , is an account of how English intellec- tuals ranging from Edmund Spenser to James I, from Robert Aske to John Bale, and from William Baldwin to William Shakespeare bridged that gap. While Literature, Nationalism, and Memory examines major English authors in its...

  5. A review of "Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern England." by Juliet Fleming

    E-print Network

    Thomas H. Luxon

    2002-01-01

    . Especially fascinating is her brief consideration of white- wash as an early version of Freud?s mystic writing pad (73-74) and the ambivalent uses to which whitewash was put by religious reformers (76-78). Fleming?s discussion of tattoos (chapter three...

  6. A review of "Renaissance Tropologies: The Cultural Imagination of Early Modern England" by Jeanne Shami

    E-print Network

    Stanwood, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    readers disposed to grant Considine the teacher?s privilege of using analogical shorthand. To be sure, these considerations add up to a caveat or two, no more. This book richly rewards the scholar?s attention. Jeanne Shami, ed. Renaissance Tropologies... the whole volume. But his last work, a collaboration with James D. Hardy, Jr., Age of Iron: English Renaissance Tropologies of Love and Power (1998), provides the organizing principle not only of that book, but also of this present collection...

  7. Sanskrit Scientific Libraries and Their Uses: Examples and Problems of the Early Modern Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Minkowski

    \\u000a Sanskrit philologists are not usually thought of these days as intrepid, but in their search for manuscript collections more\\u000a than a century ago they were required to brave arsenic, plague, and worst of all, corrosive, insuperable suspicion. The essay\\u000a that follows is about how that came to be so; it is also about science, broadly defined; about texts and their

  8. From abbey to archive: managing texts and records in early modern England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Popper

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the long-term transformations in England’s documentary storage regime wrought by the Reformation.\\u000a Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries famously resulted in the dispersal and destruction of many medieval texts and\\u000a records, but he and his successors sponsored efforts to retrieve lost materials, which they then used in the formation of\\u000a ecclesiastical policy. Elizabethan counselors expanded the scope

  9. Class, Authority, and the Querelle des Femmes: A Women's Community of Resistance in Early Modern Europe

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Dana Eatman

    2010-10-12

    Whitney?s A Sweet Nosgay (1570), Veronica Franco?s Terze Rime (1575), Marie de Romieu?s Premi?res ?uvres Po?tiques (1581), and Ameilia Lanyer?s Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum (1611). While I cannot prove that any of these women were directly familiar...

  10. A review of "Church, Censorship and Culture in Early Modern Italy." by Gigliola Fragnito, ed.

    E-print Network

    Erminia Ardissino

    2002-01-01

    ); and the memoirs of Queen Mary II. These sources, along with a good bibliography, make this book an excellent choice for advanced undergraduates and gradu- ate students. The only problem with this book is its price. Only research libraries will be able to spend... is of extreme importance for the understanding of Italian intellectual life in the seventeenth century. The book offers a clear perspective on what approaching a book in this century must have meant, a century when the vernacular translation of the Bible...

  11. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Margócsy, Dániel

    2009-06-01

    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange. PMID:19852263

  12. A review of "Pamphlets and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain" by Joad Raymond.

    E-print Network

    Timothy Raylor

    2004-01-01

    290 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS final years and the Jacobite community which remained there for several decades after the death of the queen in 1718. A Court in Exile is an important addition to the history of the Jacobite cause which should stimulate... further research. It is rec- ommended for graduate students and others interested in the ques- tion of how the royal court maintained its tradition, organization and ceremonial in the face of exile and military defeat. Joad Raymond. Pamphlets...

  13. Domesticating the Reformation: Material Culture, Memory and Confessional Identity in Early Modern England

    E-print Network

    Walsham, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    slightly rarer. Mary Magdalene appears on a dish dated 1637 and another plate shows Jesus walking with two of his disciples to Emmaus as described in Luke 24.38 A fireplace tile rescued from a dilapidated house in East Hampton illustrates John 20, where... 1659/60.25 In another collection there is money box painted with the words ‘Ann Whittin was born ye 14 of October 1717’.26 More poignantly, a mid-eighteenth century mug in the Fitzwilliam Museum records the demise of Mary Turner at the tender age of 2...

  14. From Cloister to Court: Nuns and the Gendered Culture of Disputing in Early Modern France

    E-print Network

    Tuttle, Leslie R.

    2010-06-01

    of Sainte-Catherine-lčs-Provins in Provins, France. Divided over the issue of reform that would impose stricter enclosure, the community became factionalized and unable to resolve its disputes internally. But access to France's civil courts was limited...

  15. A review of "Early Modern Nationalism and Milton's England" edited by David Loewenstein and Paul Stevens

    E-print Network

    Conti, Brooke

    2011-01-01

    ?s political nationalism: the relation- ship between his revolutionary politics and his idea of the nation as a self-determining assembly of free people (10). David Loewenstein?s lead chapter traces the ways in which Milton uses the language of nationhood...

  16. A review of "Literacy and Written Culture in Early Modern Central Europe" by Istvan Gyorgy Toth. 

    E-print Network

    Jakub Basista

    2004-01-01

    , JAGIELLONIAN UNIVERSITY, KRAK?W. When I saw the title of this book for the first time on a web page, I felt real excitement and knew that, sooner or later, I had to get access to it. Today?s world makes certain things much easier than they were in the times... discussed by the au- thor, and several weeks later I could open the discussed work and place it on my desk. The early discussion, and particularly the introduction, were somewhat disappointing. The author sets out to discuss the level of literacy...

  17. Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

  18. Original article In vitro cholesterol-lowering activity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article In vitro cholesterol-lowering activity of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei strains isolated from the Italian Castelmagno PDO cheese Simona BELVISO*, Manuela with probiotic characteristics, mostly isolated from human gut. In this work, eight Lactobacillus plantarum

  19. Human Rights

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The idea of "human rights" is a relatively new development in history, but as this website from Britain's National Archives notes in its discussion of the long trajectory of struggles for equality and so forth, "We could do worse than characterizing this history as the struggle for human rights." This visually compelling online exhibit uses original documents from The National Archives to take a long view of these struggles and movements. Visitors can start their journey through the site by picking a time period, and then reading an introductory essay on the period. Each time period includes a timeline and links to digitized version of relevant documents, such as The Poor Act of 1601 and a poster for a Staffordshire coal miners' union public meeting from 1831. The site is rounded out by a thorough glossary and a document index.

  20. Tuberculosis origin: The Neolithic scenario.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, Israel; Donoghue, Helen D; Minnikin, David E; May, Hila; Lee, Oona Y-C; Feldman, Michal; Galili, Ehud; Spigelman, Mark; Rothschild, Bruce M; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2015-06-01

    This paper follows the dramatic changes in scientific research during the last 20 years regarding the relationship between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and its hosts - bovids and/or humans. Once the M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis genomes were sequenced, it became obvious that the old story of M. bovis evolving into the human pathogen should be reversed, as M. tuberculosis is more ancestral than M. bovis. Nevertheless, the timescale and geographical origin remained an enigma. In the current study human and cattle bone samples were examined for evidence of tuberculosis from the site of Atlit-Yam in the Eastern Mediterranean, dating from 9250 to 8160 (calibrated) years ago. Strict precautions were used to prevent contamination in the DNA analysis, and independent centers used to confirm authenticity of findings. DNA from five M. tuberculosis genetic loci was detected and had characteristics consistent with extant genetic lineages. High performance liquid chromatography was used as an independent method of verification and it directly detected mycolic acid lipid biomarkers, specific for the M. tuberculosis complex. These, together with pathological changes detected in some of the bones, confirm the presence of the disease in the Levantine populations during the Pre-pottery Neolithic C period, more than 8000 years ago. PMID:25726364