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1

Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario  

PubMed Central

The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

2009-01-01

2

An early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China.  

PubMed

Thirty-four elements of an early modern human (EMH) were found in Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China in 2003. Dated to 42,000-39,000 calendrical years before present by using direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon, the Tianyuan 1 skeleton is among the oldest directly dated EMHs in eastern Eurasia. Morphological comparison shows Tianyuan 1 to have a series of derived modern human characteristics, including a projecting tuber symphyseos, a high anterior symphyseal angle, a broad scapular glenoid fossa, a reduced hamulus, a gluteal buttress, and a pilaster on the femora. Other features of Tianyuan 1 that are more common among EMHs are its modest humeral pectoralis major tuberosities, anteriorly rotated radial tuberosity, reduced radial curvature, and modest talar trochlea. It also lacks several mandibular features common among western Eurasian late archaic humans, including mandibular foramen bridging, mandibular notch asymmetry, and a large superior medial pterygoid tubercle. However, Tianyuan 1 exhibits several late archaic human features, such as its anterior to posterior dental proportions, a large hamulus length, and a broad and rounded distal phalangeal tuberosity. This morphological pattern implies that a simple spread of modern humans from Africa is unlikely. PMID:17416672

Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Zhang, Shuangquan; Chen, Fuyou; Trinkaus, Erik

2007-04-17

3

DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China  

PubMed Central

Hominins with morphology similar to present-day humans appear in the fossil record across Eurasia between 40,000 and 50,000 y ago. The genetic relationships between these early modern humans and present-day human populations have not been established. We have extracted DNA from a 40,000-y-old anatomically modern human from Tianyuan Cave outside Beijing, China. Using a highly scalable hybridization enrichment strategy, we determined the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genome, the entire nonrepetitive portion of chromosome 21 (?30 Mbp), and over 3,000 polymorphic sites across the nuclear genome of this individual. The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans. They also show that this individual carried proportions of DNA variants derived from archaic humans similar to present-day people in mainland Asia. PMID:23341637

Fu, Qiaomei; Meyer, Matthias; Gao, Xing; Stenzel, Udo; Burbano, Hernán A.; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

2013-01-01

4

Desert speleothems reveal climatic window for African exodus of early modern humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the first movements of early modern humans out of Africa occurred 130-100 thousand years ago (ka), when they migrated northward to the Levant region. The climatic conditions that accompanied this migration are still under debate. Using high-precision multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) U-Th methods, we dated carbonate cave deposits (speleothems) from the central and southern Negev Desert of Israel, located at the northeastern margin of the Saharan-Arabian Desert. Speleothems grow only when rainwater enters the unsaturated zone, and this study reveals that a major cluster of wet episodes (the last recorded in the area) occurred between 140 and 110 ka. This episodic wet period coincided with increased monsoonal precipitation in the southern parts of the Saharan-Arabian Desert. The disappearance at this time of the desert barrier between central Africa and the Levant, and particularly in the Sinai-Negev land bridge between Africa and Asia, would have created a climatic “window” for early modern human dispersion to the Levant.

Vaks, Anton; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Ayalon, Avner; Matthews, Alan; Halicz, Ludwik; Frumkin, Amos

2007-09-01

5

Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards  

PubMed Central

Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S.; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C.; Stringer, Chris B.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Bori?, Dušan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C.; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

2012-01-01

6

Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards.  

PubMed

Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C; Stringer, Chris B; Tomlinson, Emma L; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C

2012-08-21

7

A complete mtDNA genome of an early modern human from Kostenki, Russia.  

PubMed

The recovery of DNA sequences from early modern humans (EMHs) could shed light on their interactions with archaic groups such as Neandertals and their relationships to current human populations. However, such experiments are highly problematic because present-day human DNA frequently contaminates bones [1, 2]. For example, in a recent study of mitochondrial (mt) DNA from Neolithic European skeletons, sequence variants were only taken as authentic if they were absent or rare in the present population, whereas others had to be discounted as possible contamination [3, 4]. This limits analysis to EMH individuals carrying rare sequences and thus yields a biased view of the ancient gene pool. Other approaches of identifying contaminating DNA, such as genotyping all individuals who have come into contact with a sample, restrict analyses to specimens where this is possible [5, 6] and do not exclude all possible sources of contamination. By studying mtDNA in Neandertal remains, where contamination and endogenous DNA can be distinguished by sequence, we show that fragmentation patterns and nucleotide misincorporations can be used to gauge authenticity of ancient DNA sequences. We use these features to determine a complete mtDNA sequence from a approximately 30,000-year-old EMH from the Kostenki 14 site in Russia. PMID:20045327

Krause, Johannes; Briggs, Adrian W; Kircher, Martin; Maricic, Tomislav; Zwyns, Nicolas; Derevianko, Anatoli; Pääbo, Svante

2010-02-01

8

No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been

David Serre; André Langaney; Mario Chech; Maria Teschler-Nicola; Maja Paunovic; Philippe Mennecier; Michael Hofreiter; Göran Possnert; Svante Pääbo

2004-01-01

9

Radiocarbon dating of interstratified Neanderthal and early modern human occupations at the Chatelperronian type-site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the coexistence and potential interaction between the last Neanderthal and the earliest intrusive populations of anatomically modern humans in Europe has recently emerged as a topic of lively debate in the archaeological and anthropological literature. Here we report the results of radiocarbon accelerator dating for what has been reported as an interstratified sequence of late Neanderthal and

Brad Gravina; Paul Mellars; Christopher Bronk Ramsey

2005-01-01

10

ESR dating evidence for early modern humans at Border Cave in South Africa.  

PubMed

The archaeological and hominid site of Border Cave (KwaZulu, South Africa) has a stratigraphic sequence covering the Middle and Later Stone Ages (MSA and LSA). It has been proposed that four hominid specimens recovered there (BC1 and BC2 of uncertain provenance, and BC3 and BC5 recovered from MSA layers) represent very early examples of anatomically modern humans, supporting an early late-Pleistocene appearance of modern Homo sapiens in Africa. This early appearance, however, has been questioned, largely because of doubts about the stratigraphic positions associated with the specimens and because of the lack of a reliable chronology for the stratigraphic sequence. We now report on the first comprehensive radiometric dating analysis of Border Cave, using electron spin resonance (ESR) on teeth within sediment layers. BC3 is likely to be approximately 70-80 kyr old, and BC5, 50-65 kyr old. BC1 and BC2 are almost certainly less than 90 kyr old. These results, although younger than some age estimates, support the early occurrence of anatomically modern humans at Border Cave. In addition, our results suggest that the Howiesons Poort lithic industry (approximately 45-75 kyr) and the MSA-LSA transition (approximately 35 kyr) are younger than often believed. PMID:2157165

Grün, R; Beaumont, P B; Stringer, C B

1990-04-01

11

Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus  

PubMed Central

Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins. PMID:21047863

Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

2011-01-01

12

EARLY MODERN BRAVE NEW WORLDS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay investigates how early modern maps of t he New World both as a mode of representation (i.e. a view of the self) and as a scopic instrument (i.e. a view of the other) translated the European view of the other as a mons trous (and) female body (the latter on the verge of object -ification), consonant with its

ESTELLA ANTOANETA CIOBANU

13

Non-metric variation in recent humans as a model for understanding Neanderthal-early modern human differences: just how “unique” are Neanderthal unique traits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using living humans as an extant referent, this paper examines the probability that the frequency differences in Neanderthal\\u000a “unique” non-metric traits observed between Neanderthals and Upper Paleolithic modern humans could be sampled from two major\\u000a populations of the same species. Neanderthal-like features occur in very low frequencies in living humans, if present at all.\\u000a Rather, other features distinguish major human

J. C. M. AHERN

14

Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment.  

PubMed

The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages--demonstrably made by modern humans--are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

Nigst, Philip R; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2014-10-01

15

A bug's life: change and transformation in early modern China.  

PubMed

Chanting wasps and shape-shifting worms were all in a day's work for sixteenth-century Chinese naturalists such as Li Shizhen (1518-1593). In an effort to understand the metamorphoses of both nature and the human body, he and other early modern Chinese scholars looked towards tiny creatures like roundworms, lice and demon bugs. For them, such animals could reveal the most intimate secrets of the universe. PMID:17964651

Nappi, Carla

2007-12-01

16

Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.  

PubMed

In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world. PMID:20509359

Nappi, Carla

2009-01-01

17

"With much nausea, loathing, and foetor": William Harvey, dissection, and dispassion in early modern medicine.  

PubMed

In early modern England accumulating knowledge of normal and morbid anatomy through dissecting the human body not only led to a better understanding of nature, but also defined the identity of the people who engaged in this activity. This essay analyses the relationship between systemically dismembering the dead and how this pursuit shaped the attitudes and emotions of early modern medical men toward the living. I focus on the most famous anatomist in early modern Britain - the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, William Harvey (1578-1657). PMID:12715788

Payne, Lynda

2002-12-01

18

The Construction of Early Modernity in Spanish Film  

E-print Network

The presence of early modern Spanish history in Spanish film has received only limited scholarly attention. The entire group of Spanish films dealing with the Spanish early modern era has never been placed under study by any overarching research...

Zarate Casanova, Miguel Angel

2011-10-21

19

Sweden -Holy Roman Empire Early Modern Cultural and Legal  

E-print Network

Sweden - Holy Roman Empire Early Modern Cultural and Legal Transfer in a wider European Perspective to explore issues related to transfer processes between Sweden and the Holy Ro- man Empire. The topics

Kallenrode, May-Britt

20

Astrology in Early Modern Scotland ca. 1560-1726   

E-print Network

Over the last generation scholars have demonstrated the fundamental importance of astrology in the early modern European worldview. While detailed studies have been undertaken of England and many areas of continental ...

Ridder-Patrick, Janet Harkness; Patrick, Janet Harkness Ridder

2012-11-30

21

Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.  

PubMed

This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends. PMID:12938716

Keiser, George R

2003-07-01

22

"Old Poems Have Heart": Teenage Students Reading Early Modern Poetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals for the revised National Curriculum in English suggest limiting the pre-twentieth century poetry that GCSE pupils read to "representative Romantic poetry" (Department for Education [DFE], 2013, p. 4). This paper argues that poetry of the early modern period is challenging and enriching study for adolescent pupils and that…

Naylor, Amanda

2013-01-01

23

Early Modern Experimentation on Live Animals* DOMENICO BERTOLONI MELI  

E-print Network

of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time. Keywords: Vivisection, Anatomy, Experiment of the anatomy of the animal to be dissected, including the exact location of its vital parts. The early modern

Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

24

Reformation and Revolution in Early Modern England History 418  

E-print Network

for these special subject terms: Great Britain--Church history--16th century--Sources Constitutional history1 Reformation and Revolution in Early Modern England History 418 Consider Resources Primary unless otherwise indicated. Oxford Companion to British History (Online) Tudor England: an Encyclopedia

Abolmaesumi, Purang

25

Ancient humans and the origin of modern humans.  

PubMed

Recent advances in sequencing technologies and molecular methods have facilitated the sequencing of DNA from ancient human remains which has, in turn, provided unprecedented insight into human history. Within the past 4 years the genomes of Neandertals and Denisovans, as well as the genomes of at least two early modern humans, have been sequenced. These sequences showed that there have been several episodes of admixture between modern and archaic groups; including admixture from Neandertals into modern human populations outside of Africa, and admixture from Denisovans into modern human populations in Oceania. Recent results indicate that some of these introgressed regions may have been advantageous for modern humans as they expanded into new regions outside of Africa. PMID:25286439

Kelso, Janet; Prüfer, Kay

2014-12-01

26

Evidence for a (15)N positive excursion in terrestrial foodwebs at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France: Implications for early modern human palaeodiet and palaeoenvironment.  

PubMed

The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition around 35,000 years ago coincides with the replacement of Neanderthals by anatomically modern humans in Europe. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this replacement, one of them being the ability of anatomically modern humans to broaden their dietary spectrum beyond the large ungulate prey that Neanderthals consumed exclusively. This scenario is notably based on higher nitrogen-15 amounts in early Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern human bone collagen compared with late Neanderthals. In this paper, we document a clear increase of nitrogen-15 in bone collagen of terrestrial herbivores during the early Aurignacian associated with anatomically modern humans compared with the stratigraphically older Châtelperronian and late Mousterian fauna associated with Neanderthals. Carnivores such as wolves also exhibit a significant increase in nitrogen-15, which is similar to that documented for early anatomically modern humans compared with Neanderthals in Europe. A shift in nitrogen-15 at the base of the terrestrial foodweb is responsible for such a pattern, with a preserved foodweb structure before and after the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France. Such an isotopic shift in the terrestrial ecosystem may be due to an increase in aridity during the time of deposition of the early Aurignacian layers. If it occurred across Europe, such a shift in nitrogen-15 in terrestrial foodwebs would be enough to explain the observed isotopic trend between late Neanderthals and early anatomically modern humans, without any significant change in the diet composition at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. PMID:24630359

Bocherens, Hervé; Drucker, Dorothée G; Madelaine, Stéphane

2014-04-01

27

Renaissance plays as a useful source for the comparison between English and Croatian early modern medicine.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the differences between English and Croatian views of early modern medicine through the respective Renaissance plays. As Renaissance made no particular distinction between arts and sciences, plays of that time provide a very common source of medical narrative. During Renaissance both languages produced high literary achievements, which makes them exemplars among their Germanic and Slavic counterparts, and justifies this comparison, regardless of their significant differences. One should bear in mind that while England was a unified kingdom, with London as the major cultural centre, Croatia's division among the neighbouring powers produced several prominent cultural centres such as Zadar, Šibenik, Split, Hvar, Kor?ula, and the most important one, Dubrovnik. One should also bear in mind that the golden age of Croatian Renaissance plays had finished as early as 1567 with the death of Marin DrŽi?, before it even started in England with the foundation of the first permanent theatrical companies in 1576. Along these lines, this paper compares their early modern attitudes toward medicine in general and men and women practitioners in particular. In this respect, it evaluates the influences of the origin, patronage, and religion of their authors. Special attention is given to William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and Marin DrŽi? (1508-1567) as the exemplars of English and Croatian Renaissance literature. PMID:23094840

Atalic, Bruno

2012-01-01

28

The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.  

PubMed

The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms." PMID:11143784

Lüthy, C

2000-09-01

29

Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England.  

PubMed

This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580-1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over 'aggravating' the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous 'cures' including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

Skuse, Alanna

2014-11-01

30

Assessing an early modern Fenland population: Whittlesey (Cambridgeshire).  

PubMed

Improvement writers argued that drainage would bring prosperity and population growth to fenland communities; locals counter-argued that their communities were already thriving. The detailed surviving records from early modern Whittlesey, in the Isle of Ely, are analysed here to test the accuracy of these opposing claims. Using the returns of the 1523 Lay Subsidy, the 1563 ecclesiastical census, the Lady Day 1674 Hearth Tax records and the 1676 Compton Census, together with bishops' transcripts and probate inventories, this article finds that although the population did indeed increase after drainage, the pre-drainage population was also increasing. The Michaelmas 1664 Hearth Tax records are analysed to uncover something of the character of the inhabitants and the 1674 Lady Day returns are then used to test the relative wealth of the community compared with that of sub-regions throughout England identified by Tom Arkell. Finally, there is a discussion of Whittlesey's housing stock. PMID:25080616

Falvey, Heather

2014-01-01

31

Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England  

PubMed Central

This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580–1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over ‘aggravating’ the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous ‘cures’ including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

Skuse, Alanna

2014-01-01

32

A review of "Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature" by Bernadette Andrea  

E-print Network

. Bernadette Andrea. Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 185 pp. ?45.00. Review by jyotsna g. singh, michigan state university. Women and Islam in Early Modern Literature makes an important con...- tribution to a growing body of scholarship on Europe?s encounter with Muslim cultures in the early modern period. Andrea?s exploration of the ?significance of women?s agency in the inaugural Anglo-Ottoman encounter? from the sixteenth century...

Singh, Jyotsna G.

2010-01-01

33

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Share Compartir On this Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

34

Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.  

PubMed

summary:Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

Kassell, Lauren

2014-01-01

35

Amazon Health / Human Origins Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 47-minute radio broadcast discusses a report by biologists that the types of trees in the inner Amazon rainforest are changing. Increasingly, they've found, larger, faster-growing tree species are crowding out smaller slower tree types - even in areas that have not yet been touched by logging or fires. The researchers suggest that increased carbon dioxide levels could be to blame. The second part of the show takes a look at current research into human origins. There is discussion about several recent research projects, including one which discovered six million-year-old fossils that may have come from one of the earliest known human ancestors and a new genetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA that researchers say shows that humans and Neanderthals did not interbreed. The show discusses the fossils of Ardipithecus kadabba; how temperature affects the extraction of DNA from fossils; how 5-7 million years ago the number of great ape species outnumbered that of monkeys; whether human ancestors had greater ability to form speech than Neanderthals; and how the gap in the fossil record of human ancestors is being filled.

36

Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

Damsen, Silver

2009-01-01

37

A comparative study of women in early modern England and their contemporaries in the Ottoman Empire  

E-print Network

An old Arab proverb says, "People are more akin to their contemporaries than they are to their own forefathers." Do the early modern women of England and the Ottoman Empire share more than their gender? English women of the early modern period...

Jackson, Emily Anne

2013-02-22

38

A review of "Autobiography in Early Modern England" by Adam Smyth  

E-print Network

;#28;#15;#29;#30;#23;#31;#15;#27;#22;. Annotated almanacs, #14;nancial account records, commonplace books, parish registers: in these four ostensibly mundane sources, Adam Smyth uncovers a network of textual practices through which early modern individuals wrote their own lives. e term.... Autobiography and Early Modern England is divided into four chapters, each of which tackles one of the genres listed above. In the #14;rst, ?Almanacs and annotators,? Smyth discusses printed almanacs, which were ?staggeringly popular? in the early modern...

Trettien, Whitney Anne

2011-01-01

39

A review of "Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern England." by Juliet Fleming  

E-print Network

scholarly project that promises to be very useful to art and theatre historians as well as to cultural critics. Juliet Fleming. Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern En- gland. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. vi + 224 pp...

Thomas H. Luxon

2002-01-01

40

Speaking England: nationalism(s) in early modern literature and culture  

E-print Network

This dissertation explores conceptions of nationalism in early modern English literature and culture. Specifically, it examines multiple definitions of nation in dramatic works by William Shakespeare (Cymbeline), John Fletcher (Bonduca), Thomas...

Morrow, Christopher L.

2009-06-02

41

A Review of "Desire and Dramatic Form in Early Modern England" by Judith Haber  

E-print Network

.00. Review by elisa oh, howard university. Departing from New Historicist emphasis on early modern plays? social and political context, Judith Haber?s study raises the provocative question of how sexuality and sexual difference affect formal aesthet- ics...

Oh, Elisa

2011-01-01

42

A review of "Excess and the Mean in Early Modern English Literature." by Joshua Scodel  

E-print Network

, Horace, and Augustine that deeply influenced early modern writers. Then his first part describes early modern revisions by John Donne and Francis Bacon. He finds that Donne through satires and epistles developed an idiosyncratic mean whereby... to encourage a skeptical quest for a Christian church and a space among established social identities for personal social mobility. Scodel?s Bacon ingeniously employed the mean in support of a stable commonwealth at the same time that he advocated a flexible...

Ira Clark

2003-01-01

43

Performing Women’s Speech in Early Modern Drama: Troubling Silence, Complicating Voice  

E-print Network

PERFORMING WOMEN’S SPEECH IN EARLY MODERN DRAMA: TROUBLING SILENCE, COMPLICATING VOICE A Dissertation by BEVERLY MARSHALL VAN NOTE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2010 Major Subject: English Performing Women’s Speech in Early Modern Drama: Troubling Silence, Complicating Voice Copyright 2010 Beverly...

Van Note, Beverly Marshall

2012-10-19

44

A review of "Subordination and Authorship in Early Modern England:" by Betty S. Travitsky  

E-print Network

REVIEWS 287 purposes and of their impact upon the European intellectual and political scene. Betty S. Travitsky. Subordination and Authorship in Early Modern England: The Case of Elizabeth Cavendish Egerton and Her ?Loose Papers.? Tempe: Arizona... not just an edition of Elizabeth Cavendish Egerton?s ?Loose Papers,? but she has used the occasion of editing the papers to produce a book-length ?case study?: a 170-page consideration of the conditions of early modern authorship, particularly for women...

Lisa J. Schnell

2002-01-01

45

A review of "Reading History in Early Modern England." by D. R. Woolf  

E-print Network

. Woolf. Reading History in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. xvi + 360 pp. + 11 figures + 4 maps + 22 illus. $70.00. Review by MICHAEL MENDLE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA. Anyone interested in the ?history of history books...), in the commercial underpinnings of scholarly publishing, and in the sociocultural milieu of ?history.? Indeed, while the matter of Reading History in Early Modern England coheres, the title seriously understates the volume?s scope. Even as the professed subject...

Michael Mendle

2004-01-01

46

Curiosity, forbidden knowledge, and the reformation of natural philosophy in early modern England.  

PubMed

From the patristic period to the beginning of the seventeenth century curiosity was regarded as an intellectual vice. Curious individuals were considered to be proud and "puffed up," and the objects of their investigations were deemed illicit, dispute engendering, unknowable, or useless. Seventeenth-century projects for the advancement of learning had to distance themselves from curiosity and its dubious fruits or, alternatively, enhance the moral status of the curious sensibility. Francis Bacon's proposals for the instauration of knowledge were an integral part of a process by which curiosity underwent a remarkable transformation from vice to virtue over the course of the seventeenth century. The changing fortunes of this human propensity highlight the morally charged nature of early modern debates over the status of natural philosophy and the particular virtues required of its practitioners. The rehabilitation of curiosity was a crucial element in the objectification of scientific knowledge and led to a gradual shift of focus away from the moral qualities of investigators and the propriety of particular objects of knowledge to specific procedures and methods. PMID:11590893

Harrison, P

2001-06-01

47

Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark.  

PubMed

To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons. PMID:25624493

Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

2015-02-10

48

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

.00004 Oxytocin receptor genetic variation promotes human trust behavior Frank Krueger1,2 *, Raja Parasuraman2 in promoting socio-emotional behaviors. Keywords: trust, oxytocin, social cognition, prosocial behavior, socialA1, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA. e-mail: fkrueger@gmu.edu Given that human trust behavior is heritable

Parasuraman, Raja

49

A review of "Playing Spaces in Early Modern Women's Drama" by Alison Findlay  

E-print Network

REVIEWS 167 AlisonFindlay. Playing Spaces in Early Modern Women?s Drama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. x + 260 pp. + 7 illus. $85.00. Review by SARAH SCOTT, MOUNT ST. MARY?S UNIVERSITY. Alison Findlay?s Playing Spaces in Early... Modern Women?s Drama investigates the multivalent concept of space in a wide-ranging survey of plays, masques, and liturgical dramas written and performed by women from 1376 to 1705. Examined are dramatic works of the Abbess of Barking, Elizabeth I...

Scott, Sarah

2007-01-01

50

Modern Human Ancestry at the Peripheries: A Test of the Replacement Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replacement theory of modern human origins stipulates that populations outside of Africa were replaced by a new African species of modern humans. Here we test the replacement theory in two peripheral areas far from Africa by examining the ancestry of early modern Australians and Central Europeans. Analysis of pairwise differences was used to determine if dual ancestry in local

Milford H. Wolpoff; John Hawks; David W. Frayer; Keith Hunley

2001-01-01

51

Origin of the Human Adaptive Pattern 24-450 Chapter 24. ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN ADAPTIVE  

E-print Network

of paleontologist/historian of sci- ence Misia Landau who discovered in "scientific" accounts of human origins using cultural adaptations (technology). The genetic resemblance between humans and the great apes

Richerson, Peter J.

52

Early Modern ET, Reflexive Telescopics, and Their Relevance Today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The period from the discovery of Tycho's New Star in 1572 to Galileo's "geometrization of astronomical space" in 1610 (and the years following) saw the disintegration of the boundary between the sublunary and superlunary spheres—between the "lower storey" and "upper storey" of the Aristotelian Universe. This establishment of a strong physical affinity between the universe "up there" and the earthly realm "down here" was also complemented by the rise of Copernicanism: for once the Earth was seen as a planet, the other planets could readily be imagined as other Earths. This analogy suggested not only physical but also biological affinities and supported the plausibility of humans' capacity to travel to the Moon and beyond. Robert Burton—given the demise of Aristotle's physics—declared in 1621 that "If the heavens be penetrable … it were not amiss in this aerial progress to make wings and fly up." John Wilkins and Francis Godwin in the 1630s actively imagined creatures in the Moon and human journeys thither. The epic poet John Milton in 1667 hinted that "every star [is] perhaps a world / Of destined habitation." Moreover, space travel was no one-way street: Thomas Traherne in the 1670s imagined a dweller among the stars visiting Earth and remarking on what must be the condition of its inhabitants. In these and other ways, seventeenth-century writers offered serious and impressive speculation about extraterrestrial life and its possible perceptions of Earth. Such speculations remain pertinent to astrobiological theory today. What Hans Blumenberg in the 1970s called "reflexive telescopics"—the examination of Earth from an imagined extraterrestrial viewpoint—is an important counterpart to the search for life "out there." It serves as a reminder of the obvious but profound premise that Earth is part of the cosmos. At a popular level we often continue to speak of "outer space" as if the old "two-storey" picture of the universe still had some residual legitimacy. However, if Galileo, Wilkins, and other devotees of the New Astronomy were right about Earth's being a full participant in "the dance of the stars," then "outer" is a merely relative and parochial term, not a scientific or qualitative one. And it is no trivial claim to assert that the search for intelligent life in the universe has already identified its first specimens.

Danielson, Dennis

53

A Step towards Clerical Preferment: Secondary School Teachers' Careers in Early Modern Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in early modern Sweden. The study is restricted to the eighty-nine teachers serving at Pitea Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from 1650 to 1849. The investigation pays considerable attention to the…

Lindmark, Daniel

2004-01-01

54

Trading secrets: Jews and the early modern quest for clandestine knowledge.  

PubMed

This essay explores the significance and function of secrecy and secret sciences in Jewish-Christian relations and in Jewish culture in the early modern period. It shows how the trade in clandestine knowledge and the practice of secret sciences became a complex, sometimes hazardous space for contact between Jews and Christians. By examining this trade, the essay clarifies the role of secrecy in the early modern marketplace of knowledge. The attribution of secretiveness to Jews was a widespread topos in early modern European thought. However, relatively little is known about the implications of such beliefs in science or in daily life. The essay pays special attention to the fact that trade in secret knowledge frequently offered Jews a path to the center of power, especially at court. Furthermore, it becomes clear that the practice of secret sciences, the trade in clandestine knowledge, and a mercantile agenda were often inextricably interwoven. Special attention is paid to the Italian-Jewish alchemist, engineer, and entrepreneur Abramo Colorni (ca. 1544-1599), whose career illustrates the opportunities provided by the marketplace of secrets at that time. Much scholarly (and less scholarly) attention has been devoted to whether and what Jews "contributed" to what is commonly called the "Scientific Revolution." This essay argues that the question is misdirected and that, instead, we should pay more attention to the distinctive opportunities offered by the early modern economy of secrecy. PMID:23488236

Jütte, Daniel

2012-12-01

55

Insubstantial pageants: Women's work and the (im)material culture of the early modern stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excavations of the sites of the Rose and Globe playhouses have uncovered thousands of small objects that early moderns wore about their persons, holding together parts of their clothing and headwear and adding lustre to them. The labour of manufacturing and applying such objects was mainly female, in contrast to that of the professional playing companies, which was exclusively

Natasha Korda

2011-01-01

56

The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in Early Modern English Drama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…

Cady, Christina J.

2010-01-01

57

Risky Business: The Discourse of Credit and Early Modern Female Playwrights Before Defoe  

E-print Network

, offers a more nuanced understanding of the ways women writers were impacted by the rise of paper credit outside of and prior to fiction. The research presented in this project offers a new account of the way early modern female readers, writers...

Beggs, Courtney Beth

2011-10-21

58

Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.  

PubMed

This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21797075

Kahn, Didier

2011-03-01

59

'Abhorreas pinguedinem': Fat and obesity in early modern medicine (c. 1500-1750).  

PubMed

Contrary to a widely held belief, the medicalization of obesity is not a recent development. Obesity was extensively discussed in leading early modern medical textbooks, as well as in dozens of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century dissertations. Drawing upon ancient and medieval writings, these works discussed the negative impact of obesity upon health and linked it with premature death. Obesity was particularly associated with apoplexy, paralysis, asthma and putrid fevers, and a range of therapeutic options was proposed. This paper offers a first survey of the medical understanding of the causes, effects and treatment of obesity in the early modern period. It examines the driving forces behind the physicians' interest and traces the apparently rather limited response to their claims among the general public. Comparing early modern accounts of obesity with the views and stereotypes prevailing today, it notes the impact of changing medical, moral and aesthetic considerations and identifies, among other things, a shift in the early modern period from concepts of pathological compression to images of the obese body as lax and boundless. PMID:22520186

Stolberg, Michael

2012-06-01

60

From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

Chamberland, Celeste

2013-01-01

61

Bayesian Thought in Early Modern Detective Stories: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the maxims used by three early modern fictional detectives: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes. It find similarities between these maxims and Bayesian thought. Poe’s Dupin uses ideas very similar to Bayesian game theory. Sherlock Holmes’ statements also show thought patterns justifiable in Bayesian terms.

Joseph B. Kadane

2009-01-01

62

Bayesian Thought in Early Modern Detective Stories: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes  

E-print Network

This paper reviews the maxims used by three early modern fictional detectives: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes. It find similarities between these maxims and Bayesian thought. Poe's Dupin uses ideas very similar to Bayesian game theory. Sherlock Holmes' statements also show thought patterns justifiable in Bayesian terms.

Kadane, Joseph B

2010-01-01

63

Published in Kant and the Early Moderns, eds. Daniel Garber and Batrice Longuenesse  

E-print Network

Published in Kant and the Early Moderns, eds. Daniel Garber and Béatrice Longuenesse (Princeton>Lisa Downing Both Immanuel Kant and Paul Guyer have raised important concerns about the limitations of Lockean a way in which Kant's system is objectionably constrained, where Locke's is in principle open.) On my

Downing, Lisa

64

A review of "Reading Early Modern Women’s Writing" by Paul Salzman  

E-print Network

in the political, religious or social history of Britain in the second half of the seventeenth century will find something of interest in this collection. Paul Salzman. Reading Early Modern Women?s Writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 247pp. $110...

Campbell, Julie D.

2008-01-01

65

Class, Authority, and the Querelle des Femmes: A Women's Community of Resistance in Early Modern Europe  

E-print Network

in London, all of whom attempted to create communities of learned and literary women within their texts. In their works, all four women boldly reject the misogyny prevalent in early modern culture; however, they do so without being able to withdraw from...

Lawrence, Dana Eatman

2010-10-12

66

A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…

Maffioli, Cesare S.

2013-01-01

67

Between Charity and Education: Orphans and Orphanages in Early Modern Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early modern times orphans have been children who could not expect sufficient support from their family because of lack of at least one parent, in most cases the father. This article will clarify of whom we are talking if we talk about orphans and what have been the conditions of living in a society which was organised by a high variety of…

Jacobi, Juliane

2009-01-01

68

‘A WONDERFULL MONSTER BORNE IN GERMANY’: HAIRY GIRLS IN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN GERMAN BOOK, COURT AND PERFORMANCE CULTURE  

PubMed Central

Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. Modern investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most early modern European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, modern historians routinely link early modern reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising early modern awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives. One concerns an Italian girl taken to Prague in 1355 by the Holy Roman Empress, Anna von Schweidnitz. Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the ‘Wild Man’ of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the 1580s. The third and fourth cases consider the medieval bearded Sankt Kümmernis (also known as St Wilgefortis or St Uncumber), and the seventeenth-century Bavarian fairground performer Barbara Urslerin. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u.a. genetische Veländerungen und Vererbung, verschiedene Krebserkrankungen und hormonelle Störungen gehören. Die moderne Hirsutismus-Forschung ist im 19. Jh. von deutschen Forschern initiiert worden. Die meisten europäischen frühneuzeitlichen Erscheinungen von Hypertrichose (dem genetisch bedingten Haarwuchs am gesamten Körper und im Gesicht) gehen auf deutschsprachige Eltern oder Förderer zurück und sind in Deutschland in den Druck gelangt. Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des Wilden Mannes zieht die aktuelle geschichtswissenschaftliche Forschung in der Regel Verbindungslinien zwischen der frühneuzeitlichen Wahrnehmung von Hypertrichose-Fällen und Fragen der Ethnizität, ohne jedoch zu beachten, dass in der Frühen Neuzeit die Verbindung zwischen temporärem Hirsutismus und der krankhaften Verknüpfung von Unterernährung und Anorexie bekannt war. Im vorliegenden Beitragwerden vier Fälle von an Hirsutismus erkrankten Frauen neu analysiert, unter Einbezug dieser medizinischen Perspektive und unter Beachtung von Texten und Abbildungen, die meine jüngsten Forschungen in der Herzog August Bibliothek und an deutschen Archiven ans Licht gefördert haben. Die hier betrachteten Fälle betreffen ein italienisches Mädchen, das 1355 von Anna von Schweidnitz, Kaiserin des Hl. Römischen Reichs, nach Prag gebracht wurde; Madeleine und Antonietta Gonzalez, die Töchter des ‘Wilden Manns’ von Teneriffa, die in den 1580er Jahren an deutschen Höfen bezeugt sind; die bärtige Sankt Kümmernis (Wilgefortis), und die bayerische Jahrmarktkünstlerin Barbara Urslerin. PMID:25598545

Katritzky, M. A.

2014-01-01

69

Galley-foists, Lord Mayors' Shows, and Early Modern English Drama  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the OED’s mistaken definition of a ‘galley-foist’ as ‘a stage barge, esp. that of the lord mayor of London’ has significantly misled readers, editors of Jonson and other early modern drama, and writers on London civic pageantry. Evidence from chronicles, eyewitness accounts, livery company records, and the pictorial record demonstrates that the galley-foist was indeed a

David Carnegie

2004-01-01

70

A Fruitful Exchange\\/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their education and argued for an institutional reform of their profession, Girolamo Cardano and other

Cesare S. Maffioli

2012-01-01

71

Demonic possession and mental disorder in medieval and early modern Europe.  

PubMed

Western European belief in demonic possession as a cause of mental disorder has been traced through the medieval and early modern periods. Generally it appears that the range of disorders attributed to demonic possession has gradually narrowed. In any period, however, there seem to have been marked individual and cultural differences in outlook; some of these differences are still evident today in the survival of belief in demonic possession in pentecostal sects. PMID:3554292

Kemp, S; Williams, K

1987-02-01

72

A review of "Foxe's Book of Martyrs and Early Modern Print Culture" by John N. King  

E-print Network

compilation. King highlights the interaction Foxe had with other collaborators, such as John Aylmer, Henry Bull, and others. The fact was that Foxe was part of a large community of writers, printers, and religious thinkers, many of whom had a hand... that are made by Findlay are sophisticated and complex. This book provides highly stimulating and rewarding reading for students and scholars of women?s drama. John N. King. Foxe?s Book of Martyrs and Early Modern Print Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge...

Blevins, Jacob

2007-01-01

73

Consumption, Social Capital, and the 'Industrious Revolution' in Early Modern Germany  

E-print Network

Consumption, Social Capital, and the “Industrious Revolution” in Early Modern Germany SHEILAGH OGILVIE Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge Acknowledgements: I am grateful to Marco Belfanti, André... Leverhulme Trust Major Research Fellowship (F/09 722/C) and an ESRC Large Research Grant (RES-062-23-0759). Abstract This paper uses evidence from German-speaking central Europe to address open questions about the Consumer and Industrious Revolutions...

Ogilvie, Sheilagh

74

MIXING METAPHORS: SCIENCE AND RELIGION OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper1 is historiographical: How have historians understood the relationship between science and religion in early modern Europe? This discussion bears directly on current re-considerations of the historiographical utility of the concept of the Scientific Revolution.2 One of the assumptions embedded in the traditional historiography of science is that disciplinary bounda- ries have remained static throughout history.3

Margaret J. Osler

1998-01-01

75

A Review of "Poetry and Parental Bereavement in Early Modern Lutheran Germany" by Anna Linton  

E-print Network

among Lutheran authors in early modern Germany. As sources, she uses sixteenth- and seventeenth-century commemorative poetry, books of consolation, and funeral publications found at the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenb... cites. Two chapters reproduce material from article-length publications elsewhere. Source texts are presented only in German. The main programmatic goal of the work is to rehabilitate occasional poetry as a subject for literary scholarship...

Boettcher, Susan R.

2009-01-01

76

Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the Early Modern English Household  

PubMed Central

When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this ‘treasury for health.’ Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax ‘family books,’ this essay traces on the process through which early modern recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of early modern recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in early modern households. PMID:23926360

Leong, Elaine

2013-01-01

77

The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia  

PubMed Central

The discovery of an early Upper Paleolithic human burial at the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, has provided evidence of early modern humans from southern Iberia. The remains, the largely complete skeleton of a ?4-year-old child buried with pierced shell and red ochre, is dated to ca. 24,500 years B.P. The cranium, mandible, dentition, and postcrania present a mosaic of European early modern human and Neandertal features. The temporal bone has an intermediate-sized juxtamastoid eminence. The mandibular mentum osseum and the dental size and proportions, supported by mandibular ramal features, radial tuberosity orientation, and diaphyseal curvature, as well as the pubic proportions align the skeleton with early modern humans. Body proportions, reflected in femorotibial lengths and diaphyseal robusticity plus tibial condylar displacement, as well as mandibular symphyseal retreat and thoracohumeral muscle insertions, align the skeleton with the Neandertals. This morphological mosaic indicates admixture between regional Neandertals and early modern humans dispersing into southern Iberia. It establishes the complexities of the Late Pleistocene emergence of modern humans and refutes strict replacement models of modern human origins. PMID:10377462

Duarte, Cidália; Maurício, João; Pettitt, Paul B.; Souto, Pedro; Trinkaus, Erik; van der Plicht, Hans; Zilhão, João

1999-01-01

78

A review of "‘A moving Rhetoricke’: Gender and Silence in Early Modern England. Review" by Christina Luckyj  

E-print Network

and politically disobedient, Luckyj does not acknowledge how fre- quently feminine virtue is the intended or ostensible reason for female silence in early modern texts. For example, Hermia apolo- gizes for speaking in public about her choice of husband...

Elisa Oh

2003-01-01

79

A review of "Inventing the Indigenous: Local Knowledge and Natural History in Early Modern Europe" by Alix Cooper  

E-print Network

. Inventing the Indigenous: Local Knowledge and Natural History in Early Modern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. xiii + 218. $80.00. Review by celeste chamberland, roosevelt university. In the decades since Alfred Crosby first identified...

Chamberland, Celeste

2009-01-01

80

Human Origins Program: In Search of What Makes Us Human  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Human Origins Program at the Smithsonian "is dedicated to understanding the biological and cultural foundations of human life." Their new site gives visitors an accessible and informative tour of the current state of human paleontology. At the heart of the site is a hypertext family tree of early human phylogeny that helps users see not only the relations between various incarnations of human ancestors, but lets them click on parts of the timetable to examine fossil evidence and read about the discovery of and conclusions drawn from crucial skull bones and fragments. Another section allows users to examine three key fossilized skulls with QuickTime, so that one can rotate the skull and zoom in on key features. The What's Hot! in Paleoanthropology section offers readable summaries of key professional articles published in the field in the last three years. Finally, users are invited to ask questions via email of the paleontologists at the Human Origins Program. Some of these will, no doubt, be posted in the yet-to-be completed Frequently Asked Questions portion of the site. Ironically enough, materials for the latest entries in the human family tree, including Homo sapiens, are still under construction.

81

A review of "Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same-Sex Literary Erotics." by Harriette Andreadis  

E-print Network

52 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Harriette Andreadis. Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same- Sex Literary Erotics, 1550-1714. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. xiii + 254 pp. + 9 illus. $17.00 Paper. Review by MADHAVI MENON, ITHACA... COLLEGE. In a book that claims to be about erotic ellipses, Sappho in Early Modern England is also dependent on one: its evident debt to Foucauldian theory goes both unnamed and unpaid. In general, scholars of Renaissance sexuality draw on Foucault...

Madhavi Menon

2002-01-01

82

A review of "Reading, Society and Politics in Early Modern England." by Kevin Sharpe and S. N. Zwicker eds.  

E-print Network

to undo Satanic rhetoric. Kevin Sharpe and Steven N. Zwicker, eds. Reading, Society and Politics in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ix + 363 pp. $70.00. Review by JEFFREY JOHNSON, NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY.... This collection of essays takes as its subject the history of reading, and the purpose of the volume, as Kevin Sharpe and Steven N. Zwicker clarify in their Introduction is ?to bring into central focus the critical and historical hermeneutics of early modern...

Jeffrey Johnson

2004-01-01

83

A review of "Monstrous Bodies: Political Monstrosities in Early Modern Europe" by Laura Lunger Knoppers and Joan B. Landes, eds.  

E-print Network

-century scholarship. Laura Lunger Knoppers and Joan B. Landes, eds. Monstrous Bodies: Political Monstrosities in Early Modern Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004. xi + 304 pp. + 40 illus. $59.95. Review by LAURA FEITZINGER BROWN, CONVERSE COLLEGE.... Laura Lunger Knoppers and Joan B. Landes have assembled a fascinating interdisciplinary anthology of essays about interac- tions between the concept of monstrosity and ideas of the body politic in early modern Europe. Using eight essays by well...

Laura Feitzinger Brown

2004-01-01

84

Genetic and Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of living Homo sapiens has once again been the subject of much debate. Genetic data on present human population relationships and data from the Pleistocene fossil hominid record are used to compare two contrasting models for the origin of modern humans. Both genetics and paleontology support a recent African origin for modern humans rather than a long period

C. B. Stringer; P. Andrews

1988-01-01

85

A review of "Renaissance Tropologies: The Cultural Imagination of Early Modern England" by Jeanne Shami  

E-print Network

for his renuncia- reviews 5 tion of all the world?s goods. The ?journey trope? receives further, less metaphorical treatment, in A. E. B. Coldiron?s study of the many texts connected with the marriage of Mary Tudor and Louis XII in 1514. Louis... contributors so that the volume is coherent. But ?cultural imagination? is obviously not well or fully contained in such loose baggage as these tropologies might wish to hold or embrace. Bernadette Andrea. Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature...

Stanwood, P.G.

2010-01-01

86

A review of "Early Modern Nationalism and Milton's England" edited by David Loewenstein and Paul Stevens  

E-print Network

century; yet it is in the #14;elds of book use and media history where Smyth?s careful archival readings may become most signi#14;cant. David Loewenstein and Paul Stevens, eds. Early Modern Nationalism and Milton?s England. Toronto: University...;#27;#30;#30;#28;#27;#26;-#25;#30;#28;#27;#24;#23;#22; #28;#30;#21;#31; David Loewenstein and Paul Stevens, is therefore a welcome guide to the variety of things that we (and Milton) talk about when we talk about nationalism. As the editors point...

Conti, Brooke

2011-01-01

87

A review of "Education and Women in the Early Modern Hispanic World" by Elizabeth Teresa Howe  

E-print Network

that the Catholic Queen valued her needle as well as her pen; she even went so far as to mend Ferdinand?s clothing herself! This, perhaps more than any other detail in the book, serves as a reminder of just how far early modern women started behind men. No one... y n e w s Chapter 5, ?Muse(ings) on Women?s Learning,? offers the reader a stark dichotomy between prescriptive treatises circumscribing women?s roles and popular literature subverting these expectations. Here we find Fray Luis de Le?n and Juan...

Kallendorf, Hillaire

2008-01-01

88

Investigating early modern Ottoman consumer culture in the light of Bursa probate inventories.  

PubMed

This study investigates the development of early modern Ottoman consumer culture. In particular, the democratization of consumption, which is a significant indicator of the development of western consumer cultures, is examined in relation to Ottoman society. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century probate inventories of the town of Bursa combined with literary and official sources are used in order to identify democratization of consumption and the macro conditions shaping this development. Findings demonstrate that commercialization, international trade, urbanization which created a fluid social structure, and the ability of the state to negotiate with guilds were possible contextual specificities which encouraged the democratization of consumption in the Bursa context. PMID:22329064

Karababa, Eminegül

2012-01-01

89

All that glitters: fool's gold in the early-modern era.  

PubMed

Natural philosophers of the early-modern period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the early Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones. PMID:19019438

Roos, Anna Marie

2008-12-01

90

["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].  

PubMed

In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition. PMID:9333999

Freller, T

1997-01-01

91

The ‘spiteful’ origins of human cooperation  

PubMed Central

We analyse generosity, second-party (‘spiteful’) punishment (2PP), and third-party (‘altruistic’) punishment (3PP) in a cross-cultural experimental economics project. We show that smaller societies are less generous in the Dictator Game but no less prone to 2PP in the Ultimatum Game. We might assume people everywhere would be more willing to punish someone who hurt them directly (2PP) than someone who hurt an anonymous third person (3PP). While this is true of small societies, people in large societies are actually more likely to engage in 3PP than 2PP. Strong reciprocity, including generous offers and 3PP, exists mostly in large, complex societies that face numerous challenging collective action problems. We argue that ‘spiteful’ 2PP, motivated by the basic emotion of anger, is more universal than 3PP and sufficient to explain the origins of human cooperation. PMID:21159680

Marlowe, Frank W.; Berbesque, J. Colette; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Gurven, Michael; Tracer, David

2011-01-01

92

Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.  

PubMed

Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism. PMID:21874692

Chang, Ku-ming

2011-06-01

93

Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit  

PubMed Central

During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

McHugh, Tim

2012-01-01

94

Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.  

PubMed

Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear. PMID:25080642

Anstey, Peter R

2014-01-01

95

"The Root is Hidden and the Material Uncertain": the challenges of prosecuting witchcraft in early modern Venice.  

PubMed

The rich archival records of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Venice have yielded much information about early modern society and culture. The transcripts of witchcraft trials held before the Inquisition reveal the complexities of early modern conceptions of natural and supernatural. The tribunal found itself entirely unable to convict individuals charged with performing harmful magic, or maleficio, as different worldviews clashed in the courtroom. Physicians, exorcists, and inquisitors all had different approaches to distinguishing natural phenomena from supernatural, and without a consensus guilty verdicts could not be obtained. PMID:19618523

Seitz, Jonathan

2009-01-01

96

Genetic and Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Modern Humans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how genetic data on present human population relationships and data from the Pleistocene fossil hominid record are being used to compare two contrasting models for the origin of modern humans. (TW)

Stringer, C. B.; Andrews, P.

1988-01-01

97

ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia and mouse brain the experimental-wise false discovery rate. A human acute leukemia dataset corrected from 38 leukemia patients

Gu, Xun

98

Mitochondrial COII Sequences and Modern Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to measure human mitochondrial sequence variability in the relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit II (CO11 ) and to estimate when the the human common ancestral mitochondrial type existed. New CO11 gene sequences were determined for five humans (Homo sap- iens), including some of the most mitochondrially divergent humans known; for two

Maryellen Ruvolo; Sarah Zehr; Miranda von Dornum; Deborah Pan; Belinda Chang; Jenny Lin

1993-01-01

99

The four faces of Eve: hypothesis compatibility and human origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several different sources of evidence have been used to support a recent African origin for our species. It is commonly assumed that these sources of evidence support the same recent African origin. However, a close examination of the evidence available from four sources, including paleontology, archaeology, the level of human genetic variation, and the geographic structure of human genetic variation,

John D. Hawks; Milford H. Wolpoff

2001-01-01

100

Developing an automated semantic analysis system for Early Modern English Dawn Archer, Tony McEnery, Paul Rayson, Andrew Hardie  

E-print Network

Developing an automated semantic analysis system for Early Modern English Dawn Archer, Tony Mc-based approaches to EmodE (see, for example, Archer 2003; McEnery forthcoming),1 using the system on historical for EmodE texts which contains an `intelligent' spelling regulariser, that is, a system that is able

Rayson, Paul

101

A review of "Reading Material in Early Modern England: Print, Gender, and Literacy." by Heidi Brayman Hackel  

E-print Network

? and ?vulgar? readers are ad- dressed as such in prefatory material, and each are given direction as to what to do with the book in hand: ?early modern readers need both reliable guides and sound judgment to escape the reading process unscathed? (78), because...

Lissa Beauchamp

2006-01-01

102

Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part I--Preliminary survey.  

PubMed

This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21465995

Kahn, Didier

2010-11-01

103

Downing, Lisa, "Robert Boyle," in A Companion to Early Modern Philosophy, ed. Steven Nadler (Blackwell, 2002), pp.338-353.  

E-print Network

, Robert Hooke, and Christopher Wren. Members of this group worked towards founding the Royal SocietyDowning, Lisa, "Robert Boyle," in A Companion to Early Modern Philosophy, ed. Steven Nadler (Blackwell, 2002), pp.338-353. Robert Boyle I. Life and works Robert Boyle, natural philosopher, was born

Downing, Lisa

104

The early modern kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth century. Part 1.  

PubMed

The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to early modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). PMID:23278189

Eknoyan, Garabed

2013-01-01

105

A review of "Early Modern English Lives: Autobiography and Self-Representation 1500 - 1660" by Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly  

E-print Network

by ELISA OH. Contributing to the conversation on the early modern subject, Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly?s Early Modern English Lives: Autobi- ography and Self-Representation 1500-1660 examines a welcome variety of six- teenth...

Oh, Elisa

2008-01-01

106

The origin and diversity of human retroviruses  

PubMed Central

Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), T-cell lymphotrophic viruses (STLV), and foamy viruses (SFV) from non-human primates (NHP) have crossed the species barrier to humans at several occasions, leading to the HIV and HTLV epidemic and to sporadic cases of human infections with simian foamy viruses, respectively. Efficient infection and spread in humans differs between SFV, STLV and SIV, but seems also to differ among the different viruses from the same simian lineage, as illustrated by the different spread of HIV-1 M, N O, P or for the different HIV-2 groups. Among the four HIV-1 groups, only HIV-1 group M has spread worldwide and the actual diversity within HIV-1 M (subtypes, Circulating Recombinants) is the result of subsequent evolution and spread in the human population. HIV-2 did only spread to some extent in West Africa, and similarly as for HIV-1, the nine HIV-2 groups have also a different epidemic spread. Four types of HTLV, type 1 to 4, have been described in humans and for 3 of them simian counterparts (STLV-1, STLV-2, STLV-3) have been identified in multiple NHP species. The majority of human infections are with HTLV-1 which is present throughout the world as clusters of high endemicity. Humans are susceptible to a wide variety of SFVs and seem to acquire these viruses more readily than SIVs or STLVs but no signs of disease in humans nor human-to-human transmission of SFV has been documented yet. The current HIV-1 M epidemic illustrates the impact of a single cross-species transmission. The recent discovery of HIV-1 P, HIV-2 I, new HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 variants as well as SFV infections in humans in Central Africa, show that our knowledge of genetic diversity and cross-species transmissions of simian retroviruses are still incomplete. PMID:24584106

Peeters, Martine; D’Arc, Mirela; Delaporte, Eric

2014-01-01

107

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation  

E-print Network

association fiber tracts, it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution and schizophrenia. Keywords High-angular resolution diffusion imaging . Middle longitudinal fascicle . Middle diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delin- eated the two major fiber connections of the human Md

Dickerson, Brad

108

Genetics and the Origin of Human “Races”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decades, the concept of human races was considered scientifically unfounded as it was not confirmed by genetic evidence. None of the racial classifications, which strongly differ in the number of races and their composition, reflects actual genetic similarity and genealogy of human populations inferred from variability of classical markers and DNA regions. Moreover, intercontinental (“interracial”) variability was

E. Ya. Tetushkin

2001-01-01

109

Original Paper Human sensorimotor learning for  

E-print Network

. The concept is to consider the target robot platform as a tool to be controlled intuitively by a human, Atkeson, & Cheng, 2004; Billard & Hayes, 1999; Billard & Siegwart, 2004; Breazeal & Scassellati, 2002; Ito

Babic, Jan

110

The Origins of Human Sexual Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a series of common assumptions about prehistoric sex, associated with the prejudice that it must have been more natural because it happened closer to our evolutionary origins. The development of primate studies reveals a high degree of social variation between and within primate species, along with evidence for the practice of non-reproductive sex both recreationally and for expressing

Timothy F. Taylor

2007-01-01

111

'Very sore nights and days': the child's experience of illness in early modern England, c.1580-1720.  

PubMed

Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children's experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfillment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children's emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors' casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308

Newton, Hannah

2011-04-01

112

A review of "The Burgher and the Whore: Prostitution in Early Modern Amsterdam" by Lotte van de Pol  

E-print Network

often uneasy with its public face. As van de Pol demonstrates, the lo- cal o#27; cials often vacillated between implicit tolerance and repression over the two hundred year period she examines. On one hand, the famous music houses were popular... of prostitutes, such as streetwalkers or those associated with brothels and music houses, who were more likely to appear in criminal records. Van de Pol #23; lls the gaps by examining the semiotics of early modern prostitution through literary and artistic...

Cruz, Laura

2012-01-01

113

A review of "Autobiography and Gender in Early Modern Literature: Reading Women's Lives, 1600-1680" by Sharon Cadman Seelig  

E-print Network

REVIEWS 161 Sharon Cadman Seelig. Autobiography and Gender in Early Modern Literature: Reading Women?s Lives, 1600-1680. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 214pp. 75.00 cloth; Review by JULIE D. CAMPBELL, EASTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY...). Addressing her subjects chronologically, she observes that these women?s texts ?trace a progression from fairly factual documentation of events to more consistent and concep- tualized narratives, to extravagant and romantic self-depiction and self...

Campbell, Julie D.

2007-01-01

114

A review of "Dido's Daughters: Literacy, Gender, and Empire in Early Modern England and France" by Margaret W. Ferguson.  

E-print Network

196 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Margaret W. Ferguson. Dido?s Daughters: Literacy, Gender, and Empire in Early Modern England and France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. xiv + 506 pp. + 8 illus. $25.00 paper. Review by JULIE D. CAMPBELL..., EASTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY. Basing her exploration of literacy, gender, and empire upon the premise that literacy was a site of social contest in the Euro- pean past, Margaret W. Ferguson argues that ?literacy is a social phenomenon surrounded and often...

Julie D. Campbell

2004-01-01

115

A Review of "New World Gold: Cultural Anxiety and Monetary Disorder in Early Modern Spain" by Elvira Vilches  

E-print Network

the practices and theories of censorship and of recent work on the early Enlightenment. Elvira Vilches. New World Gold: Cultural Anxiety and Monetary Disorder in Early Modern Spain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010. xi + 361 pp. $45. Review... in sixteenth-century Spain reflects that: ?from the king on down to the average citizen, it was almost impossible to grasp that the flood of American bullion could be dried up by interest rates and mortgaged debt? (208). One result of this anxiety...

Wright, Elizabeth R.

2011-01-01

116

A review of "Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage" by John Considine  

E-print Network

reviews 1 John Considine. Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. xiv + 393 pp. $99.00. Review by eugene d. hill, mount holyoke college. John Considine?s fine... in their prefaces and correspondence. But their typical frame of mind was well evoked in a Latin verse by Joseph Scaliger (aptly and elegantly rendered, as are numerous passages of Renaissance Latin, by Considine): If a harsh sentence from the judges awaits...

Hill, Eugene D.

2010-01-01

117

Exploring early modern chemistry: the first twenty-five years of the Society for the Study of Alchemy & Early Modern Chemistry 1935-1960.  

PubMed

The article uses the recently deposited archives of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry to explore the ideas, motives and disagreements of its founders and officers between 1935 and 1960. The origin of the title Ambix for the society's journal is also explained. An appendix identifies the initial membership of the society. PMID:22397154

Brock, W H

2011-11-01

118

The human dark side: evolutionary psychology and original sin.  

PubMed

Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human. PMID:24327261

Lee, Joseph; Theol, M

2014-04-01

119

Origins of the human genome project  

SciTech Connect

The Human Genome Project has become a reality. Several genome projects are now in full stride around the world, and more are likely to form in the next several years. The purpose of genome projects is to assemble data on the structure of DNA in human chromosomes and those of other organisms. A second goal is to develop new technologies to perform mapping and sequencing. There have been impressive technical advances in the past 5 years. We are on the verge of beginning pilot projects to test several approaches to sequencing long stretches of DNA, using both automation and manual methods. Ordered sets of yeast artificial chromosome and cosmid clones have been assembled to span more than 2 million base pairs of several human chromosomes, and a region of 10 million base pairs has been assembled for Caenorhabditis elegans.

Watson, J.D.; Cook-Deegan, R.M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1991-01-01

120

GENETIC PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN ORIGINS AND DIFFERENTIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract This is a review of genetic evidence about the ancient demography of the ancestors of our species and about the genesis of worldwide human diversity. The issue of whether or not a population size bottleneck occurred among our ancestors is under debate among geneticists as well as among anthropologists. The bottleneck, if it occurred, would confirm the Garden

Henry Harpending; Alan Rogers

2000-01-01

121

The First Humans -Origin and Early Evolution  

E-print Network

Evolution of the Genus Homo, 77 Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology, © Springer Science + Business, tool-making, and complex cognition. Usually these derived features have been interpreted, explicitly using athletic capabilities such as strength, power, agility and speed. Obviously, humans compare poorly

Lieberman, Daniel E.

122

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical  

E-print Network

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 1 Introduction Since the 1990s, biomechanical modelling of the human upper properties of the upper airway (geometry, rheology). This makes them of interest to improve the qualityORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical simulations using

Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

123

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical  

E-print Network

, biomechanical modelling of the human upper airway has received a growing interest since it allows a better of the biomechanical properties of the upper airway (geometry, rheology). This makes them of interest to improveORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical simulations using

Payan, Yohan

124

Origins of the Human Genome Project.  

PubMed

The Human Genome Project has become a reality. Building on a debate that dates back to 1985, several genome projects are now in full stride around the world, and more are likely to form in the next several years. Italy began its genome program in 1987, and the United Kingdom and U.S.S.R. in 1988. The European communities mounted several genome projects on yeast, bacteria, Drosophila, and Arabidospis thaliana (a rapidly growing plant with a small genome) in 1988, and in 1990 commenced a new 2-year program on the human genome. In the United States, we have completed the first year of operation of the National Center for Human Genome Research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), now the largest single funding source for genome research in the world. There have been dedicated budgets focused on genome-scale research at NIH, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute for several years, and results are beginning to accumulate. There were three annual meetings on genome mapping and sequencing at Cold Spring Harbor, New York, in the spring of 1988, 1989, and 1990; the talks have shifted from a discussion about how to approach problems to presenting results from experiments already performed. We have finally begun to work rather than merely talk. The purpose of genome projects is to assemble data on the structure of DNA in human chromosomes and those of other organisms. A second goal is to develop new technologies to perform mapping and sequencing. There have been impressive technical advances in the past 5 years since the debate about the human genome project began. We are on the verge of beginning pilot projects to test several approaches to sequencing long stretches of DNA, using both automation and manual methods. Ordered sets of yeast artificial chromosome and cosmid clones have been assembled to span more than 2 million base pairs of several human chromosomes, and a region of 10 million base pairs has been assembled for Caenorhabditis elegans by a collaboration between Washington University and the Medical Research Council laboratory in Cambridge, U.K. This project is now turning to sequencing C. elegans DNA as a logical extension of this work. These are but the first fruits of the genome project. There is much more to come. PMID:1991595

Watson, J D; Cook-Deegan, R M

1991-01-01

125

A review of "Genre and Women's Life Writing in Early Modern England" edited by Michelle M. Dowd and Julie A. Eckerle  

E-print Network

these life writings comprise a notable catalog of early modern historicist and feminist scholars: Helen Wilcox, Margaret J. M. Ezell, Catherine Field, Megan Matchinske, Mary Ellen Lamb, Eckerle, Dowd, Elspeth Graham, Lara Dodds, and Josephine Donovan...

Beck, Jeffrey P.

2011-01-01

126

A review of "Self-Defense and Religious Strife in Early Modern Europe. England and Germany 1530-1630." by Robert von Friedeburg  

E-print Network

. Self-Defense and Religious Strife in Early Modern Europe. England and Germany 1530-1630. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002. xii + 278 pp. $99.95. Review by PAUL M. DOVER, KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY. With the advent of the religious controversies...

Paul M. Dover

2006-01-01

127

Origins of the Human Genome Project  

SciTech Connect

The human genome project was borne of technology, grew into a science bureaucracy in the US and throughout the world, and is now being transformed into a hybrid academic and commercial enterprise. The next phase of the project promises to veer more sharply toward commercial application, harnessing both the technical prowess of molecular biology and the rapidly growing body of knowledge about DNA structure to the pursuit of practical benefits. Faith that the systematic analysis of DNA structure will prove to be a powerful research tool underlies the rationale behind the genome project. The notion that most genetic information is embedded in the sequence of CNA base pairs comprising chromosomes is a central tenet. A rough analogy is to liken an organism's genetic code to computer code. The coal of the genome project, in this parlance, is to identify and catalog 75,000 or more files (genes) in the software that directs construction of a self-modifying and self-replicating system -- a living organism.

Cook-Deegan, Robert

1993-07-01

128

A review of "The Arts of Remembrance in Early Modern England: Memorial Cultures of the Post Reformation" by Andrew Gordon and Thomas Rist  

E-print Network

reviews 31 Andrew Gordon and Thomas Rist. The Arts of Remembrance in Early Modern England: Memorial Cultures of the Post Reformation. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013. xi +259 + 23 illus. $114.95. Review by william e. engel, sewanee: the university... and Williams, and Forgetting in Early Modern English Literature and Culture: Lethe’s Legacies by Ivic and Williams. In this regard, the first chapter is a faithful introduction to the volume; the editors deftly navigate a course through a sea of studies...

Engel, William E.

2014-01-01

129

A Review of "The Monarchical Republic of Early Modern England: Essays in Response to Patrick Collinson" Edited by John F. McDiarmid  

E-print Network

, the biggest shortcoming of this volume is the absence of a substantial introduction, an omission for which John Morrill?s characteristically incisive and provocative Afterword, is inadequate compensation. A number of the contributors talk about the changing... and collectively, will be essential building blocks in the writing of the history of biblical scholarship in early modern England. John F. McDiarmid, ed. The Monarchical Republic of Early Modern England: Essays in Response to Patrick Collinson. Aldershot, Hants...

Ward, Joseph P.

2010-01-01

130

A review of "New Worlds Reflected. Travel and Utopia in the Early Modern Period" edited by Chloë Houston  

E-print Network

with David Harris Sacks?s ?Rebuild- ing Solomon?s Temple: Richard Hakluyt?s Great Instauration,? which focuses on two early modern authors (Hakluyt and Bacon) and tries to #14;nd the link between them. One of them, Richard Hakluyt, who described journeys... showing their deeply spiritual meaning and stressing the importance of a possible reunion (here in one true faith) which is about to happen with the English help, and which leads us to Bacon?s Solomon?s Temple?a utopian symbol of that reunion. e...

Janik, Jakub

2011-01-01

131

Modern human origins: continuity, replacement, and masticatory robusticity in Australasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological evidence for a Multiregional (MR) model of human origins is suggested by a series of “linking traits” seen in the crania of late Javanese Homo erectus from Ngandong and anatomically modern Australian crania. A few studies that consider the genetic, structural, or functional aspects of these regional traits suggest their appearance is heavily influenced not by shared phylogeny but

Susan C. Antón; Hannah Carter-Menn; Valerie B. DeLeon

2011-01-01

132

Body proportions in Late Pleistocene Europe and modern human origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body proportions covary with climate, apparently as the result of climatic selection. Ontogenetic research and migrant studies have demonstrated that body proportions are largely genetically controlled and are under low selective rates; thus studies of body form can provide evidence for evolutionarily short-term dispersals and\\/or gene flow. Following these observations, competing models of modern human origins yield different predictions concerning

Trenton W. Holliday

1997-01-01

133

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Turner syndrome and the evolution of human sexual  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Turner syndrome and the evolution of human sexual dimorphism Bernard Crespi. Loss of part or all of an X chromo- some causes Turner syndrome in females, whereas gains of one, Turner syndrome, X chromosome. Correspondence Bernard Crespi, Killam Research Professor, Department

Crespi, Bernard J.

134

Original Research In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human  

E-print Network

Original Research In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Cervical Spinal Cord at 3 Tesla is feasible at 3 T. Key Words: MRI; 3 Tesla; cervical spinal cord; gradient echo; gray matter; white matter J, and pulsatile flow (9,10). Deficits in motor and sensory function from damage to the spinal cord are mainly due

Gorassini, Monica

135

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain activation during-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 Abstract Rationale Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) polydrug ecstasy use with semantic memory per- formance and brain activation in ecstasy polydrug users. Methods

Park, Sohee

136

Human cancers express mutator phenotypes: origin, consequences and targeting  

PubMed Central

Recent data on DNA sequencing of human tumours have established that cancer cells contain thousands of mutations. These data support the concept that cancer cells express a mutator phenotype. This Perspective considers the evidence supporting the mutator phenotype hypothesis, the origin and consequences of a mutator phenotype, the implications for personalized medicine and the feasibility of ablating tumours by error catastrophe. PMID:21593786

Loeb, Lawrence A.

2014-01-01

137

The origin of human multi-modal communication.  

PubMed

One reason for the apparent gulf between animal and human communication systems is that the focus has been on the presence or the absence of language as a complex expressive system built on speech. But language normally occurs embedded within an interactional exchange of multi-modal signals. If this larger perspective takes central focus, then it becomes apparent that human communication has a layered structure, where the layers may be plausibly assigned different phylogenetic and evolutionary origins--especially in the light of recent thoughts on the emergence of voluntary breathing and spoken language. This perspective helps us to appreciate the different roles that the different modalities play in human communication, as well as how they function as one integrated system despite their different roles and origins. It also offers possibilities for reconciling the 'gesture-first hypothesis' with that of gesture and speech having evolved together, hand in hand--or hand in mouth, rather--as one system. PMID:25092670

Levinson, Stephen C; Holler, Judith

2014-09-19

138

The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation.  

PubMed

Proactive, that is, unsolicited, prosociality is a key component of our hyper-cooperation, which in turn has enabled the emergence of various uniquely human traits, including complex cognition, morality and cumulative culture and technology. However, the evolutionary foundation of the human prosocial sentiment remains poorly understood, largely because primate data from numerous, often incommensurable testing paradigms do not provide an adequate basis for formal tests of the various functional hypotheses. We therefore present the results of standardized prosociality experiments in 24 groups of 15 primate species, including humans. Extensive allomaternal care is by far the best predictor of interspecific variation in proactive prosociality. Proactive prosocial motivations therefore systematically arise whenever selection favours the evolution of cooperative breeding. Because the human data fit this general primate pattern, the adoption of cooperative breeding by our hominin ancestors also provides the most parsimonious explanation for the origin of human hyper-cooperation. PMID:25158760

Burkart, J M; Allon, O; Amici, F; Fichtel, C; Finkenwirth, C; Heschl, A; Huber, J; Isler, K; Kosonen, Z K; Martins, E; Meulman, E J; Richiger, R; Rueth, K; Spillmann, B; Wiesendanger, S; van Schaik, C P

2014-01-01

139

The myth of Eve: molecular biology and human origins.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that modern humans descended from a single woman, the "mitochondrial Eve" who lived in Africa 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. The human immune system DRB1 genes are extremely polymorphic, with gene lineages that coalesce into an ancestor who lived around 60 million years ago, a time before the divergence of the apes from the Old World monkeys. The theory of gene coalescence suggests that, throughout the last 60 million years, human ancestral populations had an effective size of 100,000 individuals or greater. Molecular evolution data favor the African origin of modern humans, but the weight of the evidence is against a population bottleneck before their emergence. The mitochondrial Eve hypothesis emanates from a confusion between gene genealogies and individual genealogies. PMID:8533083

Ayala, F J

1995-12-22

140

Towards a theory of modern human origins: Geography, demography, and diversity in recent human evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of modern humans have been the central debate in palaeoanthropology during the last decade. We examine the problem in the context of the history of anthropology, the accumulating evidence for a recent African origin, and evolutionary mechanisms. Using a historical perspective, we show that the current controversy is a continuation of older conflicts and as such relates to

Marta Mirazón Lahr; Robert A. Foley

1998-01-01

141

A review of "Renaissance Hybrids: Culture and Genre in Early Modern England" by Gary A. Schmidt  

E-print Network

super- ficially paradisal island” (73). The monstrously hybrid mermaids and harpies that Guyon encounters on the sea “embod[y] the longstanding connection between hybridity, degeneration, and the undomesticated energies of the semi- or sub-human world...

Swann, Adam

2014-01-01

142

Origin of human bipedalism: The knuckle-walking hypothesis revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most long-standing questions in paleoanthropology concern how and why human bipe- dalism evolved. Over the last century, many hypotheses have been offered on the mode of locomotion from which bipedalism originated. Candidate ancestral adaptations include monkey-like arboreal or terrestrial quadrupedal- ism, gibbon- or orangutan-like (or other forms of) climbing and suspension, and knuckle-walking. This paper reviews the

Brian G. Richmond; David R. Begun; David S. Strait

2001-01-01

143

University of Southampton: Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Southampton, this website presents the Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins (CAHO). The CAHO website contains information about research projects, publications, and staff. The Research section links to basic information about research projects in the UK, Africa, and Europe. Publication lists, background information, and contacts are provided for CAHO academic staff and research students. The site also contains sections for News & Events, and related Links.

144

A review of "Performing Maternity in Early Modern England" edited by Kathryn M. Moncrief and Kathryn R. McPherson  

E-print Network

the performances of maternity. Peter Shoemaker, Powerful Connections: The Poetics of Patronage in the Age of Louis XIII. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2007. 291 pp. $60.00. Review by ge o f f r e y tu r n o v s k y , un i v e r s i t y o f wa s h i...230 s e v e n t e e n t h -c e n t u r y n e w s Kathryn M. Moncrief and Kathryn R. McPherson, eds. Performing Maternity in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England: Ashgate, 2007. 241 pp. + 14 figures. $99.95. Review by na n c y M. Bu n k e r...

Bunker, Nancy M.

2008-01-01

145

[Some features of the relationship between Lullism and pseudo-Lullism in the early modern times].  

PubMed

In this work, the author presents, following a chronologic sequence, some aspects of Llull's image that became controversial during the 16th century, especially the discussion about the idea of Llull as alchemist, which developed around the 16th century. To this end, the author analyses the origin and development of the polemic since the 14th century, including the "official" positions. At the same time, the two positions (Llull the achemist and Llull the philosopher) are related to similar occurrences outside the Iberian Peninsular, especially in France and Italy. PMID:12678049

López Pérez, Miguel

2002-01-01

146

A review of "Women, Property, and the Letters of the Law in Early Modern England." by Nancy E. Wright Margaret Ferguson A. R. Buck eds.  

E-print Network

overlooked?ways. Nancy E. Wright, Margaret Ferguson, A. R. Buck, eds. Women, Property, and the Letters of the Law in Early Modern England. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004. ix +304 pp. $65.00. Review by NANCY M. BUNKER, MACON STATE COLLEGE.... Women, Property, and the Letters of the Law in Early Modern England, an inter- disciplinary examination of women?s legal status and property relationships, directs attention away from the ?well-known narrative about women?s legal disabilities...

Nancy M. Bunker

2005-01-01

147

Chordophone Culture in Two Early Modern Societies: A Pipa-Vihuela Duet  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make the case for more attention by world historians to music as a universal human phenomenon, this article compares the socioeconomic niches, cultural associa­tions, and technical and technological development of plucked stringed instruments in sixteenth-century Spain and Ming China. An examination of the interrelation­ship of vihuela, lute, and guitarra, on the one hand, with the guqin and pipa, on

James A. Millward

2012-01-01

148

Fossils and human origins, Mark StonekingSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Mark Stoneking DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>migrations Geneticist Mark Stoneking, co-author of an early mitochondrial DNA paper, talks about the competing theories of human origins.

2008-10-06

149

Modern human origins: continuity, replacement, and masticatory robusticity in Australasia.  

PubMed

Morphological evidence for a Multiregional (MR) model of human origins is suggested by a series of "linking traits" seen in the crania of late Javanese Homo erectus from Ngandong and anatomically modern Australian crania. A few studies that consider the genetic, structural, or functional aspects of these regional traits suggest their appearance is heavily influenced not by shared phylogeny but by a common "strong" masticatory pattern. Using dental occlusal areas, external mandibular metrics, internal biomechanical properties of the mandibular corpus measured from CT scans, and nonmetric traits associated with the attachment of masticatory muscles, we test the hypothesis that Australians exhibit evidence of a "strong" masticatory pattern. We use a mixed-sex comparative human sample (n = 415) that includes precontact Alaskans from Point Hope and the Aleutian Islands, Californians, Peruvians, an urban forensic sample, and the late Pleistocene Afalou-Taforalt sample. In comparison with recent humans known to exhibit such patterns, Australian mandibles show none of the expected changes related to producing and dissipating heavy occlusal loads. This is true regardless of whether external or internal mandibular dimensions are considered, albeit Australians show large occlusal areas and relatively large section modulus indices. Thus, a prime functional argument proposed for the origin of some Australian regional features is not supported by these data. PMID:20934739

Antón, Susan C; Carter-Menn, Hannah; DeLeon, Valerie B

2011-01-01

150

Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here, we developed a novel polymerase chain reaction based single genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in fecal samples of wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed, and almost always comprised of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas was comprised of parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin. PMID:20864995

Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Robertson, Joel D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Shaw, George M.; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

2010-01-01

151

Functional interactions of DNA topoisomerases with a human replication origin  

PubMed Central

The human DNA replication origin, located in the lamin B2 gene, interacts with the DNA topoisomerases I and II in a cell cycle-modulated manner. The topoisomerases interact in vivo and in vitro with precise bonds ahead of the start sites of bidirectional replication, within the pre-replicative complex region; topoisomerase I is bound in M, early G1 and G1/S border and topoisomerase II in M and the middle of G1. The Orc2 protein competes for the same sites of the origin bound by either topoisomerase in different moments of the cell cycle; furthermore, it interacts on the DNA with topoisomerase II during the assembly of the pre-replicative complex and with DNA-bound topoisomerase I at the G1/S border. Inhibition of topoisomerase I activity abolishes origin firing. Thus, the two topoisomerases are closely associated with the replicative complexes, and DNA topology plays an essential functional role in origin activation. PMID:17290216

Abdurashidova, Gulnara; Radulescu, Sorina; Sandoval, Oscar; Zahariev, Sotir; Danailov, Miltcho B; Demidovich, Alexander; Santamaria, Laura; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Riva, Silvano; Falaschi, Arturo

2007-01-01

152

Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.  

PubMed

At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new. PMID:22702172

Jalobeanu, Dana

2012-01-01

153

Immunohistochemical analyses point to epidermal origin of human Merkel cells.  

PubMed

Merkel cells, the neurosecretory cells of skin, are essential for light-touch responses and may probably fulfill additional functions. Whether these cells derive from an epidermal or a neural lineage has been a matter of dispute for a long time. In mice, recent studies have clearly demonstrated an epidermal origin of Merkel cells. Given the differences in Merkel cell distribution between human and murine skin, it is, however, unclear whether the same holds true for human Merkel cells. We therefore attempted to gain insight into the human Merkel cell lineage by co-immunodetection of the Merkel cell marker protein cytokeratin 20 (CK20) with various proteins known to be expressed either in epidermal or in neural stem cells of the skin. Neither Sox10 nor Pax3, both established markers of the neural crest lineage, exhibited any cell co-labeling with CK20. By contrast, ?1 integrin, known to be enriched in epidermal stem cells, was found in nearly 70 % of interfollicular epidermal and 25 % of follicular Merkel cells. Moreover, LRIG1, also enriched in epidermal stem cells, displayed significant co-immunolabeling with CK20 as well (approximately 20 % in the interfollicular epidermis and 7 % in the hair follicle, respectively). Further epidermal markers were detected in sporadic Merkel cells. Cells co-expressing CK20 with epidermal markers may represent a transitory state between stem cells and differentiated cells. ?1 integrin is probably also synthesized by a large subset of mature Merkel cells. Summarizing, our data suggest that human Merkel cells may originate from epidermal rather than neural progenitors. PMID:24292845

Tilling, Thomas; Wladykowski, Ewa; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Houdek, Pia; Brandner, Johanna M; Moll, Ingrid

2014-04-01

154

Belief and Belonging in the Early Modern World This seminar meets weekly on Wednesdays at 11.15 in the Old Common Room, Balliol College  

E-print Network

ownership of religious art in Paris towards the end of the Wars of Religion, 1574-1611'; Hannah Williams and credibility: three 'reformed Spaniards' in London, 1621-1629' Adam Smyth, Oxford June 11: `Do we still believe in the book? Impermanent print in early modern England' Conveners: John-Paul Ghobrial (Balliol); Lyndal Roper

Oxford, University of

155

Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.  

PubMed

Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Martin D; Smith, Davey M; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

2014-09-01

156

Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant. PMID:25080643

de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

2014-01-01

157

Parental origin of transcription from the human GNAS1 gene.  

PubMed Central

Variation in the phenotypic expression of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) determined by the parent of transmission, suggests that the human Gs alpha gene (GNAS1), in which mutations occur in AHO, may be under imprinted control. GNAS1 is also known to map to a chromosomal region (20q13.11) showing syntenic homology with the imprinted mouse region 2E1-2H3. To establish if GNAS1 is indeed imprinted, we have examined the parental origin of GNAS1 transcription in human fetal tissues. Of 75 fetuses genotyped, at gestational ages ranging from 6 to 13 weeks, 13 heterozygous for a FokI polymorphism in exon 5 of GNAS1 were identified whose mothers were homozygous for one or other allele. RNA from up to 10 different tissues from each fetus was analysed by RT-PCR. In all cases expression from both parental alleles was shown by FokI digestion of RT-PCR products and quantification of the resulting fragments. No tissue specific pattern of expression was discerned in these experiments. If genomic imprinting regulates the expression of the human GNAS1 gene, our data suggest that the effect must either be subtle and quantitative, or be confined to a small subset of specialised hormone responsive cells within the target tissues. Images PMID:7815417

Campbell, R; Gosden, C M; Bonthron, D T

1994-01-01

158

Reexamining human origins in light of Ardipithecus ramidus.  

PubMed

Referential models based on extant African apes have dominated reconstructions of early human evolution since Darwin's time. These models visualize fundamental human behaviors as intensifications of behaviors observed in living chimpanzees and/or gorillas (for instance, upright feeding, male dominance displays, tool use, culture, hunting, and warfare). Ardipithecus essentially falsifies such models, because extant apes are highly derived relative to our last common ancestors. Moreover, uniquely derived hominid characters, especially those of locomotion and canine reduction, appear to have emerged shortly after the hominid/chimpanzee divergence. Hence, Ardipithecus provides a new window through which to view our clade's earliest evolution and its ecological context. Early hominids and extant apes are remarkably divergent in many cardinal characters. We can no longer rely on homologies with African apes for accounts of our origins and must turn instead to general evolutionary theory. A proposed adaptive suite for the emergence of Ardipithecus from the last common ancestor that we shared with chimpanzees accounts for these principal ape/human differences, as well as the marked demographic success and cognitive efflorescence of later Plio-Pleistocene hominids. PMID:19810200

Lovejoy, C Owen

2009-10-01

159

Single origin of human commensalism in the house sparrow.  

PubMed

The current, virtually worldwide distribution of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a result of its commensal relationship with humans. It has been suggested that long before the advent of agriculture, an early glacial advance resulted in two disjunct ranges of ancestral house sparrows - one in the Middle East and another on the Indian subcontinent. Differentiation during this period of isolation resulted in two major groups of subspecies: the domesticus group and the indicus group. According to this hypothesis, commensalism with humans would have evolved independently in the two regions and at least twice. An alternative hypothesis is that morphological differences between the subspecies represent very recent differentiation, following expansions from a single source. To test between these hypotheses, we analysed genetic variation at the mitochondrial DNA control region and at three nuclear loci from several house sparrow populations in Europe, Asia and North Africa. No differentiation between the indicus and domesticus groups was found, supporting the single origin hypothesis. One of the subspecies in the indicus group, P. d. bactrianus, differs ecologically from other house sparrows in being migratory and in preferentially breeding in natural habitat. We suggest that bactrianus represents a relict population of the ancestral, noncommensal house sparrow. When agricultural societies developed in the Middle East about 10 000 years ago, a local house sparrow population of the bactrianus type adapted to the novel environment and eventually became a sedentary, human commensal. As agriculture and human civilizations expanded, house sparrows experienced a correlated and massive expansion in range and numbers. The pattern of genetic variation analysed here is consistent with this scenario. PMID:22320215

Sætre, Glenn-Peter; Riyahi, S; Aliabadian, M; Hermansen, J S; Hogner, S; Olsson, U; Gonzalez Rojas, M F; Sæther, S A; Trier, C N; Elgvin, T O

2012-04-01

160

The digital origin of human language--a synthesis.  

PubMed

The fact that all languages known are digital poses the question of their origin. The answer developed here treats language as the interface of information theory and molecular development by showing previously unrecognized isomorphisms between the analog and digital features of language and life at the molecular level. Human language is a special case of signal transduction and hence is subject to the coding aspects of Shannon's theorems and the analog aspects of pattern recognition, each represented by genotype and phenotype. Digital language acquisition is late in evolution and postnatal development and requires a neural reorganization by a mechanism of somatic network programming in response to the environment. Such a mechanism would solve the Chomsky conundrum of how children can learn any language without knowing rules of grammar too numerous to be encoded genotypically. PMID:12717819

Noll, Hans

2003-05-01

161

The Middle\\/Upper Paleolithic interface and the relationship of Neanderthals and early modern humans in the Hrvatsko Zagorje, Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first detailed analysis of the artefacts from the Mousterian level G3 at Vindija Cave and a revision of the artefact analysis for the early Upper Paleolithic levels (j, i) at Velika Pe?ina, both in Croatia. Combined with an assessment of the artefacts from the crucial G1 level at Vindija, results of these analyses are used to

I. Karavani?; F. H. Smith

1998-01-01

162

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community-  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community- associated for a Human Pandemic Clone of2013. Laura E. Spoor, Paul R. McAdam, Lucy A. Weinert, et al. aureus StaphylococcusMethicillin-Resistant Community-Associated Pandemic Clone of Livestock Origin for a Human http

Millar, Andrew J.

163

Quaternary International 137 (2005) 719 The assimilation model, modern human origins in Europe, and the  

E-print Network

biological history. Some believed that Neandertals were logical ancestors for modern humans (e.g. SchwalbeQuaternary International 137 (2005) 7­19 The assimilation model, modern human origins in Europe offered to explain modern human origins. In fact despite various claims to the contrary, there continues

Suzuki, Masatsugu

164

Chimpanzee Vocal Signaling Points to a Multimodal Origin of Human Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary origin of human language and its neurobiological foundations has long been the object of intense scientific debate. Although a number of theories have been proposed, one particularly contentious model suggests that human language evolved from a manual gestural communication system in a common ape-human ancestor. Consistent with a gestural origins theory are data indicating that chimpanzees intentionally and

Jared P. Taglialatela; Jamie L. Russell; Jennifer A. Schaeffer; William D. Hopkins; Martine Hausberger

2011-01-01

165

AFRICAN GENETIC DIVERSITY: Implications for Human Demographic History, Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of ethnically diverse human populations, particularly in Africa, are important for reconstructing human evolutionary history and for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation and complex disease. African populations are characterized by greater levels of genetic diversity, extensive population substructure, and less linkage disequilibrium (LD) among loci compared to non-African populations. Africans also possess a number of genetic adaptations that have evolved in response to diverse climates and diets, as well as exposure to infectious disease. This review summarizes patterns and the evolutionary origins of genetic diversity present in African populations, as well as their implications for the mapping of complex traits, including disease susceptibility. PMID:18593304

Campbell, Michael C.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

2010-01-01

166

Necessities and Luxuries in Early-Modern Textile Consumption: Real Values of Worsted Says and Fine Woollens in the Sixteenth-Century Low Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

If mankind’s three basic necessities have always been food, clothing, and shelter, whose production, trade, and consumption have rightly been a primary focus of economists and economic historians for many generations, we may ask this vital question: how do they distinguish between necessities and luxury products? Indeed, any examination of later-medieval, early-modern commodity prices soon reveals that for all three

John H. Munro

2008-01-01

167

A review of "Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830" by Norma Landau and "Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England" by Garthine Walker  

E-print Network

postmodern philosophy and historical analysis energizes Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830, edited by Norma Landau, and Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England by Garthine Walker. While only the latter acknowledges its reviews 17... of postmodern thought: the rendering of all cultural production as ?texts? and ?discourses? that make equal claims to interpretive authority. In distinction to most post- modern work undertaken in literary studies, however, the two books anchor themselves...

Sherman, Donovan

2010-01-01

168

A review of "Libertines and Radicals in Early Modern London: Sexuality, Politics, and Literary Culture, 1630-1685." by James Grantham Turner  

E-print Network

sexual and na- tional politics dwindles away, and figurative correspondences be- come literal? (76). As sexual behavior becomes politicized, so does REVIEWS 277 political behavior become sexualized. Female political action dur- ing the Commonwealth...274 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS debates and issues at the turn of the seventeenth century in its pages. James Grantham Turner. Libertines and Radicals in Early Modern London: Sexuality, Politics, and Literary Culture, 1630-1685. Cam- bridge...

Matthew J. Kinservik

2002-01-01

169

Analysis of the origin of predictability in human communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human behaviors in daily life can be traced by their communications via electronic devices. E-mails, short messages and cell-phone calls can be used to investigate the predictability of communication partners’ patterns, because these three are the most representative and common behaviors in daily communications. In this paper, we show that all the three manners have apparent predictability in partners’ patterns, and moreover, the short message users’ sequences have the highest predictability among the three. We also reveal that people with fewer communication partners have higher predictability. Finally, we investigate the origin of predictability, which comes from two aspects: one is the intrinsic pattern in the partners sequence, that is, people have the preference of communicating with a fixed partner after another fixed one. The other aspect is the burst, which is communicating with the same partner several times in a row. The high burst in short message communication pattern is one of the main reasons for its high predictability, the intrinsic pattern in e-mail partners sequence is the main reason for its predictability, and the predictability of cell-phone call partners sequence comes from both aspects.

Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yani; Wu, Ye; Xiao, Jinghua

2014-01-01

170

The Origins of Human Interaction. The Van Zelst Lecture in Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the field of communication studies the preeminent forms of explanation of human behavior have been the social and psychological, but biological origins may be as important to understanding human communication as are social origins. Communication research suggests a biological basis for certain patterns of adult interaction. Although these…

Cappella, Joseph N.

171

The Body Satyrical: Satire and the Corpus Mysticum during Crises of Fragmentation in Late Medieval and Early Modern France  

E-print Network

positing a purely evil, human-horse hybrid as a depiction ofof the human masses fawning over the evil animal that hasevil embodied by the beast. However, to associate one or the other exclusively with the human

Flood, Christopher Martin

2013-01-01

172

Origins and rates of aneuploidy in human blastomeres  

E-print Network

(monosomy vs. trisomy; mitotic vs. meiotic) and parental origin (maternal vs. paternal). Result(s): The rate of maternal meiotic trisomy rose significantly with age, whereas other types of trisomy showed no correlation with age. Trisomies were mostly maternal in origin, whereas paternal and maternal monosomies were roughly

Petrov, Dmitri

173

A review of "The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton’s Lives." by Mary Jo Kietzman  

E-print Network

144 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Mary Jo Kietzman. The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton?s Lives. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004. 350 pp. + 12 illus. $79.95. Review by TIM REINKE-WILLIAMS, UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK. Mary Jo... engaged with studies of cheap print that have dealt with au- thorship, readership, and increasingly with issues of genre and consumption. 146 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Adam Fox, Peter Lake, Joad Raymond, and Tessa Watt have all made signifi- cant...

Tim Reinke-Williams

2005-01-01

174

Spatial dynamics of human-origin H1 influenza A v irus in North American swine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human...

175

Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human  

E-print Network

Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human physical of these traits. In this study, we assessed the relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human received 16 June 2009 Abstract A number of traits have been proposed to be important in human mate choice

Little, Tony

176

The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of the model known as the “human revolution” claim that modern human behaviors arose suddenly, and nearly simultaneously, throughout the Old World ca.40–50ka. This fundamental behavioral shift is purported to signal a cognitive advance, a possible reorganization of the brain, and the origin of language. Because the earliest modern human fossils, Homo sapiens sensu stricto, are found in Africa

Sally Mcbrearty; Alison S. Brooks

2000-01-01

177

DNA replication origin interference increases the spacing between initiation events in human cells.  

PubMed

Mammalian DNA replication origins localize to sites that range from base pairs to tens of kilobases. A regular distribution of initiations in individual cell cycles suggests that only a limited number of these numerous potential start sites are converted into activated origins. Origin interference can silence redundant origins; however, it is currently unknown whether interference participates in spacing functional human initiation events. By using a novel hybridization strategy, genomic Morse code, on single combed DNA molecules from primary keratinocytes, we report the initiation sites present on 1.5 Mb of human chromosome 14q11.2. We confirm that initiation zones are widespread in human cells, map to intergenic regions, and contain sequence motifs found at other mammalian initiation zones. Origins used per cell cycle are less abundant than the potential sites of initiation, and their limited use increases the spacing between initiation events. Between-zone interference decreases in proportion to the distance from the active origin, whereas within-zone interference is 100% efficient. These results identify a hierarchical organization of origin activity in human cells. Functional origins govern the probability that nearby origins will fire in the context of multiple potential start sites of DNA replication, and this is mediated by origin interference. PMID:17005913

Lebofsky, Ronald; Heilig, Roland; Sonnleitner, Max; Weissenbach, Jean; Bensimon, Aaron

2006-12-01

178

Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human origins  

PubMed Central

There are numerous anthropological analyses concerning the importance of diet during human evolution. Diet is thought to have had a profound influence on the human phenotype, and dietary differences have been hypothesized to contribute to the dramatic morphological changes seen in modern humans as compared with non-human primates. Here, we attempt to integrate the results of new genomic studies within this well-developed anthropological context. We then review the current evidence for adaptation related to diet, both at the level of sequence changes and gene expression. Finally, we propose some ways in which new technologies can help identify specific genomic adaptations that have resulted in metabolic and morphological differences between humans and non-human primates. PMID:21177690

Babbitt, Courtney C.; Warner, Lisa R.; Fedrigo, Olivier; Wall, Christine E.; Wray, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

179

Astronomy/IB C13: Origins: From the Big Bang to the Emergence of Humans Fall 2013 Aug 29 1) The Science of Origins  

E-print Network

Astronomy/IB C13: Origins: From the Big Bang to the Emergence of Humans Fall 2013 1 Syllabus Aug 29) The Emergence of Humans Nov 12 22) How Modern Humans Colonized the Planet SECTION 11: Human Migration(s) out & Human Induced Extinctions SECTION 12: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Nov 21 25) Extreme

Wurtele, Jonathan

180

Mitochondrial DNA and the origin of humans, Douglas WallaceSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Douglas Wallace DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>migrations>Videos Mitochondrial DNA research pioneer Douglas Wallace speaks about mitochondrial DNA and theories of human evolution.

2008-10-06

181

Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been a potent tool in our understanding of human evolution, owing to characteristics such as high copy number, apparent lack of recombination, high substitution rate and maternal mode of inheritance. However, almost all studies of human evolution based on mtDNA sequencing have been confined to the control region, which constitutes less than 7%

Max Ingman; Henrik Kaessmann; Svante Pääbo; Ulf Gyllensten

2000-01-01

182

Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.  

PubMed

Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

2015-01-13

183

Mexican-Origin Interregional Migration from the Southwest: Human, Household, and Community Capital Hypotheses  

E-print Network

This research addresses the question of what factors lead Mexican-origin individuals living in the U.S. to seek a new residence outside their Southwestern state of residence. The analysis examines three hypotheses: (1) the human capital hypothesis...

Siordia, Carlos

2010-01-16

184

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Fate of Immortalized Human Neuronal Progenitor  

E-print Network

directed toward vascular endothelial glycopro- teins in peripheral organ transplants2 ; (2) the reported with harvesting human fetal or embryonic stem cells or solid spi- nal cord tissue; and (4) ultimately, avoidance

Fischer, Itzhak

185

Inference of human geographic origins using Alu insertion polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inference of an individual's geographic ancestry or origin can be critical in narrowing the field of potential suspects in a criminal investigation. Most current technologies rely on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes to accomplish this task. However, SNPs can introduce homoplasy into an analysis since they can be identical-by-state. We introduce the use of insertion polymorphisms based on short

David A. Ray; Jerilyn A. Walker; Ashley Hall; Barbara Llewellyn; Jack Ballantyne; Allen T. Christian; Kenneth Turteltaub; Mark A. Batzer

2005-01-01

186

The origin of bursts and heavy tails in human dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of many social, technological and economic phenomena are driven by individual human actions, turning the quantitative understanding of human behaviour into a central question of modern science. Current models of human dynamics, used from risk assessment to communications, assume that human actions are randomly distributed in time and thus well approximated by Poisson processes. In contrast, there is increasing evidence that the timing of many human activities, ranging from communication to entertainment and work patterns, follow non-Poisson statistics, characterized by bursts of rapidly occurring events separated by long periods of inactivity. Here I show that the bursty nature of human behaviour is a consequence of a decision-based queuing process: when individuals execute tasks based on some perceived priority, the timing of the tasks will be heavy tailed, with most tasks being rapidly executed, whereas a few experience very long waiting times. In contrast, random or priority blind execution is well approximated by uniform inter-event statistics. These finding have important implications, ranging from resource management to service allocation, in both communications and retail.

Barabási, Albert-László

2005-05-01

187

The origin of bursts and heavy tails in human dynamics.  

PubMed

The dynamics of many social, technological and economic phenomena are driven by individual human actions, turning the quantitative understanding of human behaviour into a central question of modern science. Current models of human dynamics, used from risk assessment to communications, assume that human actions are randomly distributed in time and thus well approximated by Poisson processes. In contrast, there is increasing evidence that the timing of many human activities, ranging from communication to entertainment and work patterns, follow non-Poisson statistics, characterized by bursts of rapidly occurring events separated by long periods of inactivity. Here I show that the bursty nature of human behaviour is a consequence of a decision-based queuing process: when individuals execute tasks based on some perceived priority, the timing of the tasks will be heavy tailed, with most tasks being rapidly executed, whereas a few experience very long waiting times. In contrast, random or priority blind execution is well approximated by uniform inter-event statistics. These finding have important implications, ranging from resource management to service allocation, in both communications and retail. PMID:15889093

Barabási, Albert-László

2005-05-12

188

HOPEGM REPORT Primate Origins of Human Evolution: From Genes to Mind  

E-print Network

HOPEGM REPORT Primate Origins of Human Evolution: From Genes to Mind Japan Society) Deutscherplatz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany anna.albiach@eva.mpg.de #12;INTRODUCTION The "Primate Origins of the Primate Research Institute (PRI, University of Kyoto, Japan), invited 3 senior researchers and 7

Takada, Shoji

189

DNA Replication Origin Plasticity and Perturbed Fork Progression in Human Inverted Repeats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of metazoan genomes during their duplication depends on the spatiotemporal activation of origins and the progression of forks. Human rRNA genes represent a unique challenge to DNA replication since a large proportion of them exist as noncanonical palindromes in addition to canonical tandem repeats. Whether origin usage and\\/or fork elongation can cope with the variable structure of these

Ronald Lebofsky; Aaron Bensimon

2005-01-01

190

Original article Effects of light on human circadian rhythms  

E-print Network

suppression of melatonin production. Numerous questions remain regarding the effects of light on the human system. The circadian rhythms (melatonin, cortisol, timing of sleep/wake) of individuals with different enucleated showed free run- ning melatonin and cortisol rhythms. Studies assessing the light

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate  

PubMed Central

Although there is a general consensus on African origin of early modern humans, there is disagreement about how and when they dispersed to Eurasia. This paper reviews genetic and Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic archaeological literature from northeast Africa, Arabia, and the Levant to assess the timing and geographic backgrounds of Upper Pleistocene human colonization of Eurasia. At the center of the discussion lies the question of whether eastern Africa alone was the source of Upper Pleistocene human dispersals into Eurasia or were there other loci of human expansions outside of Africa? The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: (i) from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5), (ii) from a rapid dispersal out of East Africa via the Southern Route (across the Red Sea basin), dating to ~74–60?kya. PMID:21716744

Beyin, Amanuel

2011-01-01

192

Skeletal Variation Among Early Holocene North American Humans: Implications for Origins and  

E-print Network

of human morphology at the earliest observable time period. Stature, body mass, body breadth, and limbSkeletal Variation Among Early Holocene North American Humans: Implications for Origins, Knoxville, TN 37996 KEY WORDS limb proportions; bi-iliac breadth; stature; Paleoindian; Beringian Standstill

Auerbach, Benjamin M.

193

Built for Speed: Pleistocene Climate Variation and the Origin of Human Culture  

E-print Network

. This hypothesis contrasts with the common idea that human language, tools, and culture represent a revolutionary adaptive complex--tool making, language, complex social organization, and other aspects of culture. MoreBuilt for Speed: Pleistocene Climate Variation and the Origin of Human Culture Peter J. Richerson

Richerson, Peter J.

194

Original Article SORCS1: A Novel Human Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility  

E-print Network

Original Article SORCS1: A Novel Human Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Gene Suggested by the Mouse diabetes have been identified by candidate gene analysis or positional cloning. Genes found to influence diabetes or related traits in mice are likely to be susceptibility genes in humans. SorCS1 is the gene

Yandell, Brian S.

195

Original Research Article Toward Quantifying the Usage Costs of Human Immunity: Altered Metabolic  

E-print Network

Original Research Article Toward Quantifying the Usage Costs of Human Immunity: Altered Metabolic Rates and Hormone Levels During Acute Immune Activation in Men MICHAEL P. MUEHLENBEIN,1* JANA L There is a paucity of data on the energetic demands of human immune functions, despite the fact that both clinical

Muehlenbein, Michael

196

Origin, concentration and structural features of human mammary gland cells cultured from breast secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study traced the origin of cells observed in human breast secretion samples obtained during lactation and describes the appearance of these cells following prolonged maintenance in vitro. Human milk contains a large number of single vacuolated foam cells and a small proportion of non-vacuolated epithelial cells in clusters. Foam cells are identified by their large size, the polarity of

Edwin V. Gaffney; Frank P. Polanowski; Susan E. Blackburn; Jim P. Lambiase

1976-01-01

197

Human origins family treeSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>our family tree Meet the extended family Until the late 1900s, many researchers believed that humans evolved from an apelike ancestor through a linear series of stages. There are now many different theories about the relationships between species. It appears that we may just be one of the twigs on a vast family tree.

2009-04-10

198

Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: the origin of Neandertals.  

PubMed

Western Eurasia yielded a rich Middle (MP) and Late Pleistocene (LP) fossil record documenting the evolution of the Neandertals that can be analyzed in light of recently acquired paleogenetical data, an abundance of archeological evidence, and a well-known environmental context. Their origin likely relates to an episode of recolonization of Western Eurasia by hominins of African origin carrying the Acheulean technology into Europe around 600 ka. An enhancement of both glacial and interglacial phases may have played a crucial role in this event, as well as in the subsequent evolutionary history of the Western Eurasian populations. In addition to climatic adaptations and an increase in encephalization, genetic drift seems to have played a major role in their evolution. To date, a clear speciation event is not documented, and the most likely scenario for the fixation of Neandertal characteristics seems to be an accretion of features along the second half of the MP. Although a separation time for the African and Eurasian populations is difficult to determine, it certainly predates OIS 11 as phenotypic Neandertal features are documented as far back as and possibly before this time. It is proposed to use the term "Homo rhodesiensis" to designate the large-brained hominins ancestral to H. sapiens in Africa and at the root of the Neandertals in Europe, and to use the term "Homo neanderthalensis" to designate all of the specimens carrying derived metrical or non-metrical features used in the definition of the LP Neandertals. PMID:19805257

Hublin, J J

2009-09-22

199

Electrostatic origin of in vitro aggregation of human ?-crystallin  

PubMed Central

The proteins ?-, ?-, and ?-crystallins are the major components of the lens in the human eye. Using dynamic light scattering method, we have performed in vitro investigations of protein-protein interactions in dilute solutions of human ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin. We find that ?-crystallin spontaneously aggregates into finite-sized clusters in phosphate buffer solutions. There are two distinct populations of unaggregated and aggregated ?-crystallins in these solutions. On the other hand, ?-crystallin molecules are not aggregated into large clusters in solutions of ?-crystallin alone. When ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin are mixed in phosphate buffer solutions, we demonstrate that the clusters of ?-crystallin are prevented. By further investigating the roles of temperature, protein concentration, pH, salt concentration, and a reducing agent, we show that the aggregation of ?-crystallin under our in vitro conditions arises from non-covalent electrostatic interactions. In addition, we show that aggregation of ?-crystallin occurs under the dilute in vitro conditions even in the absence of oxidizing agents that can induce disulfide cross-links, long considered to be responsible for human cataracts. Aggregation of ?-crystallin when maintained under reducing conditions suggests that oxidation does not contribute to the aggregation in dilute solutions. PMID:24089726

Mohr, Benjamin G.; Dobson, Cassidy M.; Garman, Scott C.; Muthukumar, Murugappan

2013-01-01

200

The human socio-cognitive niche and its evolutionary origins  

PubMed Central

Hominin evolution took a remarkable pathway, as the foraging strategy extended to large mammalian prey already hunted by a guild of specialist carnivores. How was this possible for a moderately sized ape lacking the formidable anatomical adaptations of these competing ‘professional hunters’? The long-standing answer that this was achieved through the elaboration of a new ‘cognitive niche’ reliant on intelligence and technology is compelling, yet insufficient. Here we present evidence from a diversity of sources supporting the hypothesis that a fuller answer lies in the evolution of a new socio-cognitive niche, the principal components of which include forms of cooperation, egalitarianism, mindreading (also known as ‘theory of mind’), language and cultural transmission, that go far beyond the most comparable phenomena in other primates. This cognitive and behavioural complex allows a human hunter–gatherer band to function as a unique and highly competitive predatory organism. Each of these core components of the socio-cognitive niche is distinctive to humans, but primate research has increasingly identified related capacities that permit inferences about significant ancestral cognitive foundations to the five pillars of the human social cognitive niche listed earlier. The principal focus of the present study was to review and integrate this range of recent comparative discoveries. PMID:22734055

Whiten, Andrew; Erdal, David

2012-01-01

201

"It is caused of the womans part or of the mans part": the role of gender in the diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunction in early modern England.  

PubMed

Philip Barrough wrote in 1590 that barrenness 'is caused of the womans part or of the mans part'. By the eighteenth century, however, barrenness was perceived as a female disorder distinguished from male impotence. Few historians have addressed the uncertainty surrounding early modern definitions of infertility, choosing instead to adopt set terms that fit comfortably with modern ideas. This article will highlight the difficulties surrounding the gender distinction of the terms 'barrenness' and 'impotence' during this period. Moreover, the discussion will examine the role of gender in diagnosing these disorders to sufferers. The article will argue that ideas of gender were more central to diagnosis of poor sexual health than to effectual treatment. Although it appears that barrenness and impotence were treated with separate remedies, many treatments were described as effectual for both sexes. Additionally, the ingredients used in such recipes were often sexual stimulants explained without reference to gender. PMID:22026034

Evans, Jennifer

2011-01-01

202

The origin of remarkable resilience of human tooth enamel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of human tooth enamel depend not only on test locations but also on the indentation depth. However, it remains uncertain what roles the depth-dependant properties play in mechanical performance of enamel. Here we reveal that a change in the mechanical properties of enamel, in particular its strength, with increasing indentation depth promotes inelastic deformation in material. In doing so, the severity and extent of stress concentration is reduced. Furthermore, we observed that following unloading, self-recovery occurs in enamel. These findings improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the remarkable resilience of enamel.

Zhao, Xiaoli; O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Abbott, Paul; Munroe, Paul; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

2013-12-01

203

The Developmental Origins of Voice Processing in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Summary In human adults, voices are processed in specialized brain regions in superior temporal cortices. We examined the development of this cortical organization during infancy by using near-infrared spectroscopy. In experiment 1, 7-month-olds but not 4-month-olds showed increased responses in left and right superior temporal cortex to the human voice when compared to nonvocal sounds, suggesting that voice-sensitive brain systems emerge between 4 and 7 months of age. In experiment 2, 7-month-old infants listened to words spoken with neutral, happy, or angry prosody. Hearing emotional prosody resulted in increased responses in a voice-sensitive region in the right hemisphere. Moreover, a region in right inferior frontal cortex taken to serve evaluative functions in the adult brain showed particular sensitivity to happy prosody. The pattern of findings suggests that temporal regions specialize in processing voices very early in development and that, already in infancy, emotions differentially modulate voice processing in the right hemisphere. PMID:20346760

Grossmann, Tobias; Oberecker, Regine; Koch, Stefan Paul; Friederici, Angela D.

2010-01-01

204

A Review of "Early Modern Women and Transnational Communities of Letters" edited by Julie D. Campbell and Anne R. Larsen  

E-print Network

Jesus, is crucified, is original and convincing. As Jonathan Nauman has pointed out, Louise Imogen Guiney?a pioneering student of Vaughan?wrote that ?Whenever [Vaughan] falls to translating, it is time for the sympathetic reader to prick up his ears... demonstrate how women used their written correspondence to maintain or create familial bonds. Susan Broom- hall?s opening chapter demonstrates how the women?especially Louise, the fourth wife and widow of the William the Silent?of the Nassau family used...

Kennedy, Colleen E.

2011-01-01

205

Human microRNAs originated from two periods at accelerated rates in mammalian evolution.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that modulate genes posttranscriptionally. Frequent gains and losses of miRNA genes have been reported to occur during evolution. However, little is known systematically about the periods of evolutionary origin of the present miRNA gene repertoire of an extant mammalian species. Thus, in this study, we estimated the evolutionary periods during which each of 1,433 present human miRNA genes originated within 15 periods, from human to platypus-human common ancestral branch and a class "conserved beyond theria," primarily using multiple genome alignments of 38 species, plus the pairwise genome alignments of five species. The results showed two peak periods in which the human miRNA genes originated at significantly accelerated rates. The most accelerated rate appeared in the period of the initial phase of hominoid lineage, and the second appeared shortly before Laurasiatherian divergence. Approximately 53% of the present human miRNA genes have originated within the simian lineage to human. In particular, approximately 28% originated within the hominoid lineage. The early phase of placental mammal radiation comprises approximately 28%, while no more than 15% of human miRNAs have been conserved beyond placental mammals. We also clearly showed a general trend, in which the miRNA expression level decreases as the miRNA becomes younger. Intriguingly, amid this decreasing trend of expression, we found one significant rise in the expression level that corresponded to the initial phase of the hominoid lineage, suggesting that increased functional acquisitions of miRNAs originated at this particular period. PMID:23171859

Iwama, Hisakazu; Kato, Kiyohito; Imachi, Hitomi; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

206

Tracing the origin of functional and conserved domains in the human proteome: implications for protein evolution at the modular level  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The functional repertoire of the human proteome is an incremental collection of functions accomplished by protein domains evolved along the Homo sapiens lineage. Therefore, knowledge on the origin of these functionalities provides a better understanding of the domain and protein evolution in human. The lack of proper comprehension about such origin has impelled us to study the evolutionary origin

Lipika R Pal; Chittibabu Guda

2006-01-01

207

Origins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

208

Embryonic origins of human vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for in vitro modeling and clinical application.  

PubMed

Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) arise from multiple origins during development, raising the possibility that differences in embryological origins between SMCs could contribute to site-specific localization of vascular diseases. In this review, we first examine the developmental pathways and embryological origins of vascular SMCs and then discuss in vitro strategies for deriving SMCs from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We then review in detail the potential for vascular disease modeling using iPSC-derived SMCs and consider the pathological implications of heterogeneous embryonic origins. Finally, we touch upon the role of human ESC-derived SMCs in therapeutic revascularization and the challenges remaining before regenerative medicine using ESC- or iPSC-derived cells comes of age. PMID:24442477

Sinha, Sanjay; Iyer, Dharini; Granata, Alessandra

2014-06-01

209

On the Origins of Suboptimality in Human Probabilistic Inference  

PubMed Central

Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors), in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal). Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the priors, and by variability in the decision process, which we represent as a noisy or stochastic posterior. PMID:24945142

Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M.

2014-01-01

210

Arts and Humanities Module Information  

E-print Network

Arts and Humanities College of BA History Module Information 2013-2014 Arts and Humanities College British Atlantic World 1550-1760 HIH240 Europe 1500-1650: Renaissance, Reformation and Religious War HIH in Welsh as HIL325W] HIH377 The Grand Tour HIH3171 Family, Sex and Intimacy in Early Modern England HIH3178

Martin, Ralph R.

211

The origin of human chromosome 18 from a human\\/ape ancestor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karyotype analysis by previous investigators demonstrated that human chromosome 18 differs from homologous chromosomes in the great apes by a pericentric inversion. The present study uses fluorescence in situ hybridization on human and pygmy chimpanzee chromosomes to confirm the inversion and to delimit the regions where the breakpoints must have occurred in the human\\/ape ancestor.Copyright © 1997 S. Karger AG,

E. H. McConkey

1997-01-01

212

Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013.  

PubMed

We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

Schurer, Janna M; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J

2014-12-01

213

Sensitivity to Differences in the Motor Origin of Drawings: From Human to Robot  

PubMed Central

This study explores the idea that an observer is sensitive to differences in the static traces of drawings that are due to differences in motor origin. In particular, our aim was to test if an observer is able to discriminate between drawings made by a robot and by a human in the case where the drawings contain salient kinematic cues for discrimination and in the case where the drawings only contain more subtle kinematic cues. We hypothesized that participants would be able to correctly attribute the drawing to a human or a robot origin when salient kinematic cues are present. In addition, our study shows that observers are also able to detect the producer behind the drawings in the absence of these salient kinematic cues. The design was such that in the absence of salient kinematic cues, the drawings are visually very similar, i.e. only differing in subtle kinematic differences. Observers thus had to rely on these subtle kinematic differences in the line trajectories between drawings. However, not only motor origin (human versus robot) but also motor style (natural versus mechanic) plays a role in attributing a drawing to the correct producer, because participants scored less high when the human hand draws in a relatively mechanical way. Overall, this study suggests that observers are sensitive to subtle kinematic differences between visually similar marks in drawings that have a different motor origin. We offer some possible interpretations inspired by the idea of “motor resonance”. PMID:25014198

De Preester, Helena; Tsakiris, Manos

2014-01-01

214

Geographic distributions and origins of human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) based on mitochondrial data.  

PubMed

Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) are subdivided into 3 deeply divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades A, B, and C), each having unique geographical distributions. Determining the evolutionary history and geographic distribution of these mitochondrial clades can elucidate the evolutionary history of the lice as well as their human hosts. Previous data suggest that lice belonging to mitochondrial Clade B may have originated in North America or Asia; however, geographic sampling and sample sizes have been limited. With newly collected lice, we calculate the relative frequency, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of louse mitochondrial clades to determine the geographic origin of lice belonging to Clade B. In agreement with previous studies, genetic diversity data support a North American origin of Clade B lice. It is likely that lice belonging to this mitochondrial clade recently migrated to other geographic localities, e.g., Europe and Australia, and, if not already present, may disperse further to occupy all geographic regions. PMID:18576877

Light, Jessica E; Allen, Julie M; Long, Lauren M; Carter, Tamar E; Barrow, Lisa; Suren, Ganbold; Raoult, Didier; Reed, David L

2008-12-01

215

A monkey's tale: The origin of Plasmodium vivax as a human malaria parasite  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of Duffy negativity (lack of the Duffy blood group antigen) among human populations in sub-Saharan Africa has been used to argue that Plasmodium vivax originated on that continent. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 10 species of Plasmodium that infect primates by using three genes, two nuclear (?-tubulin and cell division cycle 2) and a gene from the plastid genome (the elongation factor Tu). We find compelling evidence that P. vivax is derived from a species that inhabited macaques in Southeast Asia. Specifically, those phylogenies that include P. vivax as an ancient lineage from which all of the macaque parasites could originate are significantly less likely to explain the data. We estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor at four neutral gene loci from Asian and South American isolates (a minimum sample of seven isolates per locus). Our analysis estimates that the extant populations of P. vivax originated between 45,680 and 81,607 years ago. The phylogeny and the estimated time frame for the origination of current P. vivax populations are consistent with an “out of Asia” origin for P. vivax as hominoid parasite. The current debate regarding how the Duffy negative trait became fixed in Africa needs to be revisited, taking into account not only human genetic data but also the genetic diversity observed in the extant P. vivax populations and the phylogeny of the genus Plasmodium. PMID:15684081

Escalante, Ananias A.; Cornejo, Omar E.; Freeland, Denise E.; Poe, Amanda C.; Durrego, Ester; Collins, William E.; Lal, Altaf A.

2005-01-01

216

The contribution of dormant origins to genome stability: From cell biology to human genetics  

PubMed Central

The ability of a eukaryotic cell to precisely and accurately replicate its DNA is crucial to maintain genome stability. Here we describe our current understanding of the process by which origins are licensed for DNA replication and review recent work suggesting that fork stalling has exerted a strong selective pressure on the positioning of licensed origins. In light of this, we discuss the complex and disparate phenotypes observed in mouse models and humans patients that arise due to defects in replication licensing proteins. PMID:24767947

Alver, Robert C.; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J. Julian

2014-01-01

217

The Inquiring Eye: Early Modernism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide introduces students to early 20th century European and American art. Through critically viewing and discussing art images and participating in related activities, students are encouraged to explore the historical and cultural context within which the art was created. This guide includes background information and an overview…

Wisotzki, Paula

218

Origins and Historical Influences on Human Resource Development: A Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of literature on the origins and historical influences on human resource development reveals that much of its development is attributed to Western (predominantly U.S.) thought and perspectives. This study is an effort to begin exploring significant contributions from a global perspective-including those that are primarily non-Western. To do so, this article identifies and examines key non-Western contributions

Meera Alagaraja; Larry M. Dooley

2003-01-01

219

Emergence of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND On April 15 and April 17, 2009, novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified in specimens obtained from two epidemiologically unlinked patients in the United States. The same strain of the virus was identified in Mexico, Canada, and elsewhere. We describe 642 confirmed cases of human S-OIV infection identi- fied from the rapidly evolving U.S. outbreak. METHODS

Seema Jain; Lyn Finelli; Michael W. Shaw; Stephen Lindstrom; Rebecca J. Garten; Larisa V. Gubareva; Xiyan Xu; Carolyn B. Bridges; Timothy M. Uyeki

2009-01-01

220

Desmin is a specific marker for rhabdomyosarcomas of human and rat origin.  

PubMed Central

Putative human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has been divided into two groups according to desmin content. Twenty-five tumors with histologic features consistent with but not necessarily sufficient to prove a diagnosis of RMS were desmin-positive. More than 95% of the tumor cells were desmin-positive, suggesting a muscle origin and supporting the diagnosis of RMS. Nine tumors for which the preferred first histologic diagnosis was also RMS were desmin-negative. Reexamination of the original histologic slides together with results from intermediate filament typing resulted in a diagnosis other than RMS for all tumors in this second group, and in several instances other tests were used to prove the correctness of the final diagnosis. The results on human material were extended to a rat model system in which RMS was induced by nickel sulfide. Again, all 24 tumors tested were desmin-positive. Vimentin was coexpressed in a varying percentage of tumor cells in RMS of human and rat origin. The results show that desmin is an excellent marker for rhabdomyosarcoma, yielding few if any false-positive or false-negative results in frozen or alcohol-fixed material. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3881039

Altmannsberger, M.; Weber, K.; Droste, R.; Osborn, M.

1985-01-01

221

Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: the spread of modern humans in Europe.  

PubMed

The earliest credible evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe is an archaeological proxy in the form of several artifact assemblages (Bohunician) found in South-Central and possibly Eastern Europe, dating to < or =48,000 calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal BP). They are similar to assemblages probably made by modern humans in the Levant (Emiran) at an earlier date and apparently represent a population movement into the Balkans during a warm climate interval [Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI 12)]. A second population movement may be represented by a diverse set of artifact assemblages (sometimes termed Proto-Aurignacian) found in the Balkans, parts of Southwest Europe, and probably in Eastern Europe, and dating to several brief interstadials (GI 11-GI 9) that preceded the beginning of cold Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) (approximately 40,000 cal BP). They are similar to contemporaneous assemblages made by modern humans in the Levant (Ahmarian). The earliest known human skeletal remains in Europe that may be unequivocally assigned to H. sapiens (Peçstera cu Oase, Romania) date to this time period (approximately 42,000 cal BP) but are not associated with artifacts. After the Campanian Ignimbrite volcanic eruption (40,000 cal BP) and the beginning of HE4, artifact assemblages assigned to the classic Aurignacian, an industry associated with modern human skeletal remains that seems to have developed in Europe, spread throughout the continent. PMID:19571003

Hoffecker, John F

2009-09-22

222

Erythroid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells is independent of donor cell type of origin.  

PubMed

Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, which is related to the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, might lead to variations in the differentiation capacities of the pluripotent stem cells. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than the commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex vivo expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells into erythroid cells, we compared induced pluripotent stem cells from human neural stem cells and human cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells and evaluated their potential for differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor and mature red blood cells. Although genome-wide DNA methylation profiling at all promoter regions demonstrates that the epigenetic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells is influenced by the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, we found a similar hematopoietic induction potential and erythroid differentiation pattern of induced pluripotent stem cells of different somatic cell origin. All human induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed terminal maturation into normoblasts and enucleated reticulocytes, producing predominantly fetal hemoglobin. Differences were only observed in the growth rate of erythroid cells, which was slightly higher in the induced pluripotent stem cells derived from CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. More detailed methylation analysis of the hematopoietic and erythroid promoters identified similar CpG methylation levels in the induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from CD34(+) cells and those derived from neural stem cells, which confirms their comparable erythroid differentiation potential. PMID:25326431

Dorn, Isabel; Klich, Katharina; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Radstaak, Martina; Santourlidis, Simeon; Ghanjati, Foued; Radke, Teja F; Psathaki, Olympia E; Hargus, Gunnar; Kramer, Jan; Einhaus, Martin; Kim, Jeong Beom; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Schöler, Hans R; Schlenke, Peter; Zaehres, Holm

2015-01-01

223

Erythroid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells is independent of donor cell type of origin  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, which is related to the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, might lead to variations in the differentiation capacities of the pluripotent stem cells. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than the commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex vivo expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells into erythroid cells, we compared induced pluripotent stem cells from human neural stem cells and human cord blood-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and evaluated their potential for differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor and mature red blood cells. Although genome-wide DNA methylation profiling at all promoter regions demonstrates that the epigenetic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells is influenced by the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, we found a similar hematopoietic induction potential and erythroid differentiation pattern of induced pluripotent stem cells of different somatic cell origin. All human induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed terminal maturation into normoblasts and enucleated reticulocytes, producing predominantly fetal hemoglobin. Differences were only observed in the growth rate of erythroid cells, which was slightly higher in the induced pluripotent stem cells derived from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. More detailed methylation analysis of the hematopoietic and erythroid promoters identified similar CpG methylation levels in the induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from CD34+ cells and those derived from neural stem cells, which confirms their comparable erythroid differentiation potential. PMID:25326431

Dorn, Isabel; Klich, Katharina; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Radstaak, Martina; Santourlidis, Simeon; Ghanjati, Foued; Radke, Teja F.; Psathaki, Olympia E.; Hargus, Gunnar; Kramer, Jan; Einhaus, Martin; Kim, Jeong Beom; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Schöler, Hans R.; Schlenke, Peter; Zaehres, Holm

2015-01-01

224

Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment  

E-print Network

combination of climatostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating. The upper five meters of the sequence show evidence of seven interstadial paleosols separated from each other by loess deposits and tundra gley paleosols, indicative of stadial conditions. Here, we... on top of D1; the overlying lithological complex C records conditions characterized as cold steppe to medium cold steppe with some boreal trees. Unit C9 demonstrates aeolian input of sandy silt and Page 10 of 24   development of a tundra gley soil...

Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2014-09-22

225

A review of "Bodily Extremities: Preoccupations with the Human Body in Early Modern European Culture." by Florike Egmond and Robert Zwijnenberg eds.  

E-print Network

result, the skin becomes a jailer and a representation of sin that clouds the soul. The next essay, Robert Zwijnenberg?s discussion of da Vinci?s St. John the Baptist, comes to two conclusions. The first is that to da Vinci, ?painting can only... be understood properly if the special and tight relationship between body and soul is assessed critically? (56). He then concludes that ?we must consider Saint John the Baptist as Leonardo?s intellectual self-portrait? (67). Harald Hendrix?s chapter addresses...

Rebecca De Haas

2004-01-01

226

Characterization of Temperate Phages Infecting Clostridium difficile Isolates of Human and Animal Origins  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive pathogen infecting humans and animals. Recent studies suggest that animals could represent potential reservoirs of C. difficile that could then transfer to humans. Temperate phages contribute to the evolution of most bacteria, for example, by promoting the transduction of virulence, fitness, and antibiotic resistance genes. In C. difficile, little is known about their role, mainly because suitable propagating hosts and conditions are lacking. Here we report the isolation, propagation, and preliminary characterization of nine temperate phages from animal and human C. difficile isolates. Prophages were induced by UV light from 58 C. difficile isolates of animal and human origins. Using soft agar overlays with 27 different C. difficile test strains, we isolated and further propagated nine temperate phages: two from horse isolates (?CD481-1 and ?CD481-2), three from dog isolates (?CD505, ?CD506, and ?CD508), and four from human isolates (?CD24-2, ?CD111, ?CD146, and ?CD526). Two phages are members of the Siphoviridae family (?CD111 and ?CD146), while the others are Myoviridae phages. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and restriction enzyme analyses showed that all of the phages had unique double-stranded DNA genomes of 30 to 60 kb. Phages induced from human C. difficile isolates, especially the members of the Siphoviridae family, had a broader host range than phages from animal C. difficile isolates. Nevertheless, most of the phages could infect both human and animal strains. Phage transduction of antibiotic resistance was recently reported in C. difficile. Our findings therefore call for further investigation of the potential risk of transduction between animal and human C. difficile isolates. PMID:24532062

Sekulovic, Ognjen; Garneau, Julian R.; Néron, Audrey

2014-01-01

227

Haplotypes in the Dystrophin DNA Segment Point to a Mosaic Origin of Modern Human Diversity  

PubMed Central

Although Africa has played a central role in human evolutionary history, certain studies have suggested that not all contemporary human genetic diversity is of recent African origin. We investigated 35 simple polymorphic sites and one Tn microsatellite in an 8-kb segment of the dystrophin gene. We found 86 haplotypes in 1,343 chromosomes from around the world. Although a classical out-of-Africa topology was observed in trees based on the variant frequencies, the tree of haplotype sequences reveals three lineages accounting for present-day diversity. The proportion of new recombinants and the diversity of the Tn microsatellite were used to estimate the age of haplotype lineages and the time of colonization events. The lineage that underwent the great expansion originated in Africa prior to the Upper Paleolithic (27,000–56,000 years ago). A second group, of structurally distinct haplotypes that occupy a central position on the tree, has never left Africa. The third lineage is represented by the haplotype that lies closest to the root, is virtually absent in Africa, and appears older than the recent out-of-Africa expansion. We propose that this lineage could have left Africa before the expansion (as early as 160,000 years ago) and admixed, outside of Africa, with the expanding lineage. Contemporary human diversity, although dominated by the recently expanded African lineage, thus represents a mosaic of different contributions. PMID:14513410

Zi?tkiewicz, Ewa; Yotova, Vania; Gehl, Dominik; Wambach, Tina; Arrieta, Isabel; Batzer, Mark; Cole, David E. C.; Hechtman, Peter; Kaplan, Feige; Modiano, David; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Michalski, Roman; Labuda, Damian

2003-01-01

228

Complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): implications for human migrations in Oceania.  

PubMed

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae), a traditional starch crop in Oceania, has enjoyed legendary status ever since its role in the infamous mutiny aboard the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789, yet its origins remain unclear. Breadfruit's closest relatives are A. camansi and A. mariannensis. DNA fingerprinting data (AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphisms) from over 200 breadfruit cultivars, 30 A. camansi, and 24 A. mariannensis individuals were used to investigate the relationships among these species. Multivariate analyses and the identification of species-specific AFLP markers indicate at least two origins of breadfruit. Most Melanesian and Polynesian cultivars appear to have arisen over generations of vegetative propagation and selection from A. camansi. In contrast, most Micronesian breadfruit cultivars appear to be the result of hybridization between A. camansi-derived breadfruit and A. mariannensis. Because breadfruit depends on humans for dispersal, the data were compared to theories on the human colonization of Oceania. The results agree with the well-supported theory that humans settled Polynesia via Melanesia. Additionally, a long-distance migration from eastern Melanesia into Micronesia is supported. PMID:21653430

Zerega, Nyree J C; Ragone, Diane; Motley, Timothy J

2004-05-01

229

Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins  

PubMed Central

The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans’ place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700?km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000–130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50?km of their villages. GPS’s accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S.; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G.; Owings, Amanda C.; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R.; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R. Spencer; Acosta, Oscar; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Hui; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Merchant, Nirav C.; Mitchell, John R.; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Sandoval, Jose Raul; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Ziegle, Janet S.

2014-01-01

230

Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins.  

PubMed

The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans' place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000-130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS's accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G; Gaieski, Jill B; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G; Owings, Amanda C; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R Spencer

2014-01-01

231

Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Accelerated Protein Evolution and Origins of Human-Specific Features  

E-print Network

-specific phenotypes may have been under altered selective pressures in human evolution and thus exhibit changesCopyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Accelerated Protein Evolution and Origins of Human-Specific Features: FOXP2 as an Example Jianzhi Zhang,1 David M. Webb and Ondrej Podlaha Department

Zhang, Jianzhi

232

The Ribagorda sand gully (east-central Spain): Sediment yield and human-induced origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gullies are developed under different climatic conditions and lithologies; however, those formed on sands have been scarcely described. This paper reports the study of the Ribagorda sand gully, 2.57 ha in area (east-central Spain). The main objectives were to characterize and quantify its geomorphic dynamics and to trace its origin. We described the landforms of the gully and measured the surface strength of the sand. We monitored, for six years, the filling of the storage areas of three check dams built downstream from the gully, and related it with rainfall characteristics. We also described the nature of the sediments trapped by the dams and estimated the amount of sediment eroded since the gully formation. Finally, we consulted historical records and maps to determine past land uses and transformations that may have affected the origin of the gully. The study shows a high diversity of landforms, denoting active processes, consistent with a measured mean annual sediment yield of 114 Mg ha- 1 yr- 1. A statistically significant relationship exists between the mass of sediment (Mg) and: 1) the total rainfall (mm) (P = 0.0007) or 2) the analysed rainfall intensities. Among five identified facies in the sedimentary wedge, the sandy ones are predominant. The total amount of sediment eroded by the Ribagorda gully since its origin was 962,800 Mg. The results are unequivocal signs of an intense geomorphic activity within the gully, with an alluvial-fan type deposition in the dams. We interpret that the Ribagorda gully was initiated by deforestation after the 13th century, when forests began to be intensively logged, and before the 18th century, when the gully was first indirectly described in print. The age, origin, evolution and dynamics of this gully indicate that this landscape is currently evolving towards a new steady state, after human disturbances over centuries. Given the gully evolution and local extent, we suggest that no correction measures are needed for its management.

Martín-Moreno, C.; Fidalgo Hijano, C.; Martín Duque, J. F.; González Martín, J. A.; Zapico Alonso, I.; Laronne, J. B.

2014-11-01

233

Focuson Arts & Humanities for study abroad advisors  

E-print Network

N SHAKESPEArE'S gLObE tHEAtrE HOUSES OF PArLiAMENt · Royal Academy of Music · British Lib of an expansion phase which will see it double in size between 2010 and 2014. Our History Department early modern English/Shakespeare), and History (including Medieval History, Medical Humanities

Applebaum, David

234

University of California, San Diego Revelle College Humanities  

E-print Network

of Private Property Week IV 23 October: Renaissance Art Due: Essay #1 #12;25 October: The Church on the Eve:00-4:00 & by appointments Humanities 3: Renaissance and Reformation Europe Course Description: A lecture-discussion course on historical, literary, and philosophical trends of Early Modern Europe. Focuses on Renaissance Humanism

Blanco, Philip R.

235

ON LOCATION What makes humans human? How and when did we become what we are today? How did our ancestors live? These questions are  

E-print Network

that the early modern human from the Tianyuan Cave and the ancestors of many present-day Asians and NativeON LOCATION What makes humans human? How and when did we become what we are today? How did our ancestors live? These questions are of great interest to a lot of people. The scientists at the Max Planck

Falge, Eva

236

Origin of XMRV and its Demise as a Human Pathogen Associated with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Retroviruses are well known pathogens of mammals, birds and fish. Their potential to induce cancer in chickens was already described almost 100 years ago and murine retroviruses have been a subject of study for 50 years. The first human retroviruses, HTLV and HIV, were discovered more than 30 years ago, surprising researchers and physicians by the profound differences in the diseases they cause. HTLV-1 is able to induce, after decades of infection, lymphomas/leukemia or neuroimmune disorders whereas untreated HIV infection leads almost inevitably to AIDS. The recently described XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) appeared to possess many of the features known for HTLV and was regarded by some to be the third human retrovirus. However, recent publications by Knox et al. [1] and Paprotka et al. [2] have shed new light on this gammaretrovirus. Knox and colleagues clearly demonstrate that XMRV is absent in patients belonging to a chronic fatigue syndrome cohort who had previously been reported to be XMRV-positive [3]. This supports the growing suspicion that laboratory contamination was responsible for the postulated link between XMRV and the disease. Furthermore, Paprotka et al’s identification of XMRV’s origin and the phylogenetic analysis of known XMRV sequences are further nails in the coffin to the notion that XMRV is a clinically relevant infectious human retrovirus. PMID:21994780

Hohn, Oliver; Bannert, Norbert

2011-01-01

237

Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine  

PubMed Central

The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n?=?1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003–2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens. PMID:21695237

Nelson, Martha I.; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C.; Gramer, Marie

2011-01-01

238

Ascending, unobstructed urinary tract infection in mice caused by pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli of human origin.  

PubMed Central

A model for ascending unobstructed urinary tract infection was developed in mice to study the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection induced by Escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infection in humans. Specifically, the model was designed to monitor the initial stages of the infectious process, e.g., bacterial adhesion. Mice were selected since the specificity and intensity of bacterial attachment of pyelonephritogenic E. coli strains to human and mouse uroepithelial cells were similar. Female mice were infected by urethral catheterization and installation of bacteria in the urinary bladder. To maximize clearance of unattached bacteria, no obstructive manipulations were performed. After sacrifice, the persistence of bacteria in kidneys and bladder was determined by viable counts on homogenized tissues. The experimental infection was standardized by using one pyelonephritis (HU734) and one normal fecal (414) E. coli isolate. With both strains all of the bladders became infected, but E. coli 414 was eliminated more rapidly than HU734. The percentage of positive kidney cultures increased with the bacterial inoculum concentration and volume. An inoculum of 0.05 ml containing 10(10) bacteria per ml was selected, giving the highest percentage of positive kidney cultures without detectable bacterial spread to the blood stream. The variation in the percentage of positive kidney cultures possibly depended on the degree of vesicoureteric reflux in the individual animals. Both in the kidneys and in the urinary bladders, strain HU734 yielded higher numbers of bacteria at 24 h and persisted longer than did strain 414. Several E. coli pyelonephritis isolates with properties associated with virulence in the human urinary tract consistently were recovered from mouse kidneys and bladders in higher numbers than E. coli strains of human fecal origin lacking those properties. The role of bacterial adhesion per se is the topic of the accompanying paper. Images PMID:6339403

Hagberg, L; Engberg, I; Freter, R; Lam, J; Olling, S; Svanborg Edén, C

1983-01-01

239

Localization of proteins bound to a replication origin of human DNA along the cell cycle  

PubMed Central

The proteins bound in vivo at the human lamin B2 DNA replication origin and their precise sites of binding were investigated along the cell cycle utilizing two novel procedures based on immunoprecipitation following UV irradiation with a pulsed laser light source. In G1, the pre-replicative complex contains CDC6, MCM3, ORC1 and ORC2 proteins; of these, the post-replicative complex in S phase contains only ORC2; in M phase none of them are bound. The precise nucleotide of binding was identified for the two ORC and the CDC6 proteins near the start sites for leading-strand synthesis; the transition from the pre- to the post-replicative complex is accompanied by a 17 bp displacement of the ORC2 protein towards the start site. PMID:12912926

Abdurashidova, Gulnara; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Ochem, Alexander; Triolo, Gianluca; Djeliova, Vera; Radulescu, Sorina; Vindigni, Alessandro; Riva, Silvano; Falaschi, Arturo

2003-01-01

240

Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.  

PubMed

The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

2014-09-16

241

A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism of Human Neuropeptide S Gene Originated from Europe Shows Decreased Bioactivity  

PubMed Central

Using accumulating SNP (Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism) data, we performed a genome-wide search for polypeptide hormone ligands showing changes in the mature regions to elucidate genotype/phenotype diversity among various human populations. Neuropeptide S (NPS), a brain peptide hormone highly conserved in vertebrates, has diverse physiological effects on anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, food intake, and sleeping time through its cognate receptor-NPSR. Here, we report a SNP rs4751440 (L6-NPS) causing non-synonymous substitution on the 6th position (V to L) of the NPS mature peptide region. L6-NPS has a higher allele frequency in Europeans than other populations and probably originated from European ancestors ?25,000 yrs ago based on haplotype analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Functional analyses indicate that L6-NPS exhibits a significant lower bioactivity than the wild type NPS, with ?20-fold higher EC50 values in the stimulation of NPSR. Additional evolutionary and mutagenesis studies further demonstrate the importance of the valine residue in the 6th position for NPS functions. Given the known physiological roles of NPS receptor in inflammatory bowel diseases, asthma pathogenesis, macrophage immune responses, and brain functions, our study provides the basis to elucidate NPS evolution and signaling diversity among human populations. PMID:24386135

Hsueh, Aaron J. W.

2013-01-01

242

An Alu Transposition Model for the Origin and Expansion of Human Segmental Duplications  

PubMed Central

Relative to genomes of other sequenced organisms, the human genome appears particularly enriched for large, highly homologous segmental duplications (?90% sequence identity and ?10 kbp in length). The molecular basis for this enrichment is unknown. We sought to gain insight into the mechanism of origin, by systematically examining sequence features at the junctions of duplications. We analyzed 9,464 junctions within regions of high-quality finished sequence from a genomewide set of 2,366 duplication alignments. We observed a highly significant (P<.0001) enrichment of Alu short interspersed element (SINE) sequences near or within the junction. Twenty-seven percent of all segmental duplications terminated within an Alu repeat. The Alu junction enrichment was most pronounced for interspersed segmental duplications separated by ?1 Mb of intervening sequence. Alu elements at the junctions showed higher levels of divergence, consistent with Alu-Alu–mediated recombination events. When we classified Alu elements into major subfamilies, younger elements (AluY and AluS) accounted for the enrichment, whereas the oldest primate family (AluJ) showed no enrichment. We propose that the primate-specific burst of Alu retroposition activity (which occurred 35–40 million years ago) sensitized the ancestral human genome for Alu-Alu–mediated recombination events, which, in turn, initiated the expansion of gene-rich segmental duplications and their subsequent role in nonallelic homologous recombination. PMID:14505274

Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Ge; Eichler, Evan E.

2003-01-01

243

A unique Middle Miocene European hominoid and the origins of the great ape and human clade  

PubMed Central

The great ape and human clade (Primates: Hominidae) currently includes orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans. When, where, and from which taxon hominids evolved are among the most exciting questions yet to be resolved. Within the Afropithecidae, the Kenyapithecinae (Kenyapithecini + Equatorini) have been proposed as the sister taxon of hominids, but thus far the fragmentary and scarce Middle Miocene fossil record has hampered testing this hypothesis. Here we describe a male partial face with mandible of a previously undescribed fossil hominid, Anoiapithecus brevirostris gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Miocene (11.9 Ma) of Spain, which enables testing this hypothesis. Morphological and geometric morphometrics analyses of this material show a unique facial pattern for hominoids. This taxon combines autapomorphic features—such as a strongly reduced facial prognathism—with kenyapithecine (more specifically, kenyapithecin) and hominid synapomorphies. This combination supports a sister-group relationship between kenyapithecins (Griphopithecus + Kenyapithecus) and hominids. The presence of both groups in Eurasia during the Middle Miocene and the retention in kenyapithecins of a primitive hominoid postcranial body plan support a Eurasian origin of the Hominidae. Alternatively, the two extant hominid clades (Homininae and Ponginae) might have independently evolved in Africa and Eurasia from an ancestral, Middle Miocene stock, so that the supposed crown-hominid synapomorphies might be homoplastic. PMID:19487676

Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Alba, David M.; Almécija, Sergio; Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac; Köhler, Meike; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Robles, Josep M.; Galindo, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep

2009-01-01

244

Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries  

PubMed Central

Recent reports indicate that functional mouse oocytes and sperm can be derived in vitro from somatic cell lines. We hypothesize that in adult human ovaries, mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea (TA) are bipotent progenitors with a commitment for both primitive granulosa and germ cells. We investigated ovaries of twelve adult women (mean age 32.8 ± 4.1 SD, range 27–38 years) by single, double, and triple color immunohistochemistry. We show that cytokeratin (CK)+ mesenchymal cells in ovarian TA differentiate into surface epithelium (SE) cells by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Segments of SE directly associated with ovarian cortex are overgrown by TA, forming solid epithelial cords, which fragment into small (20 micron) epithelial nests descending into the lower ovarian cortex, before assembling with zona pellucida (ZP)+ oocytes. Germ cells can originate from SE cells which cover the TA. Small (10 micron) germ-like cells showing PS1 meiotically expressed oocyte carbohydrate protein are derived from SE cells via asymmetric division. They show nuclear MAPK immunoexpression, subsequently divide symmetrically, and enter adjacent cortical vessels. During vascular transport, the putative germ cells increase to oocyte size, and are picked-up by epithelial nests associated with the vessels. During follicle formation, extensions of granulosa cells enter the oocyte cytoplasm, forming a single paranuclear CK+ Balbiani body supplying all the mitochondria of the oocyte. In the ovarian medulla, occasional vessels show an accumulation of ZP+ oocytes (25–30 microns) or their remnants, suggesting that some oocytes degenerate. In contrast to males, adult human female gonads do not preserve germline type stem cells. This study expands our previous observations on the formation of germ cells in adult human ovaries. Differentiation of primitive granulosa and germ cells from the bipotent mesenchymal cell precursors of TA in adult human ovaries represents a most sophisticated adaptive mechanism created during the evolution of female reproduction. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. An essential mission of such follicular turnover might be elimination of spontaneous or environmentally induced genetic alterations of oocytes in resting primary follicles. PMID:15115550

Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

2004-01-01

245

Origin of human triosephosphate isomerase isozymes: Further evidence for the single structural locus hypothesis with Japanese variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four electrophoretic variants of human erythrocyte triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) have been studied to investigate the origin of the multiple forms of human TPI, in particular the constitutive TPI-B isozyme and the cell division-associated TPI-A isozyme. The variant phenotype expressed by the constitutive TPI-B isozyme in both erythrocytes and peripheral lymphocytes was also expressed by the cell division-associated isozymes in mitogen-stimulated

Jun-ichi Asakawa; Shozo Iida

1985-01-01

246

PERSPECTIVE:IS HUMAN CULTURAL EVOLUTION DARWINIAN? EVIDENCE REVIEWED FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that human culture evolves through the differential adoption of cultural variants, in a manner analogous to the evolution of biological species, has been greeted with much resistance and confusion. Here we demonstrate that as compelling a case can now be made that cultural evolution has key Darwinian properties, as Darwin himself presented for biological evolution in The Origin

Alex Mesoudi; Andrew Whiten; Kevin N. Laland

2004-01-01

247

Genetic and Epigenetic Modeling of the Origins of Multidrug-Resistant Cells in a Human Sarcoma Cell Line  

E-print Network

Genetic and Epigenetic Modeling of the Origins of Multidrug- Resistant Cells in a Human Sarcoma versus epigenetics) have been proposed to elucidate the mechanisms of acquired drug resistance. In this study, we answer these fundamental questions through investigation of the genetic and epigenetic

Ford, James

248

The dispanins: a novel gene family of ancient origin that contains 14 human members.  

PubMed

The Interferon induced transmembrane proteins (IFITM) are a family of transmembrane proteins that is known to inhibit cell invasion of viruses such as HIV-1 and influenza. We show that the IFITM genes are a subfamily in a larger family of transmembrane (TM) proteins that we call Dispanins, which refers to a common 2TM structure. We mined the Dispanins in 36 eukaryotic species, covering all major eukaryotic groups, and investigated their evolutionary history using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to infer a phylogenetic tree. We identified ten human genes that together with the known IFITM genes form the Dispanin family. We show that the Dispanins first emerged in eukaryotes in a common ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoa, and that the family later expanded in vertebrates where it forms four subfamilies (A-D). Interestingly, we also find that the family is found in several different phyla of bacteria and propose that it was horizontally transferred to eukaryotes from bacteria in the common ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoa. The bacterial and eukaryotic sequences have a considerably conserved protein structure. In conclusion, we introduce a novel family, the Dispanins, together with a nomenclature based on the evolutionary origin. PMID:22363774

Sällman Almén, Markus; Bringeland, Nathalie; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

2012-01-01

249

Social Origins of Rhythm? Synchrony and Temporal Regularity in Human Vocalization  

PubMed Central

Humans have a capacity to perceive and synchronize with rhythms. This is unusual in that only a minority of other species exhibit similar behavior. Study of synchronizing species (particularly anurans and insects) suggests that simultaneous signal production by different individuals may play a critical role in the development of regular temporal signaling. Accordingly, we investigated the link between simultaneous signal production and temporal regularity in our own species. Specifically, we asked whether inter-individual synchronization of a behavior that is typically irregular in time, speech, could lead to evenly-paced or “isochronous” temporal patterns. Participants read nonsense phrases aloud with and without partners, and we found that synchronous reading resulted in greater regularity of durational intervals between words. Comparison of same-gender pairings showed that males and females were able to synchronize their temporal speech patterns with equal skill. These results demonstrate that the shared goal of synchronization can lead to the development of temporal regularity in vocalizations, suggesting that the origins of musical rhythm may lie in cooperative social interaction rather than in sexual selection. PMID:24312214

Bowling, Daniel L.; Herbst, Christian T.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

2013-01-01

250

A review of "The Inquisitor in the Hat Shop. Inquisition, Forbidden Books, and Unbelief in Early Modern Venice" by Federico Barbierato  

E-print Network

were objects of interest: a vernacular transla- tion of Lucretius? atomistic De rerum natura (the Latin original was thought ?safe?), the notoriously homoerotic Alcibiade fanciullo a scola (written by a Venetian but published in Amsterdam...), and Pierre Bayle?s Dictionnaire among others. Barbierato?s book concludes with the case of Bortolo Zorzi and the group of ?free metaphysicians? that met in his hat shop in the 1730s. He was accused by a priest in 1739, thought to be a Free Mason (although...

Litchfield, R. Burr

2012-01-01

251

Evidence for Sequential and Increasing Activation of Replication Origins along Replication Timing Gradients in the Human Genome  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide replication timing studies have suggested that mammalian chromosomes consist of megabase-scale domains of coordinated origin firing separated by large originless transition regions. Here, we report a quantitative genome-wide analysis of DNA replication kinetics in several human cell types that contradicts this view. DNA combing in HeLa cells sorted into four temporal compartments of S phase shows that replication origins are spaced at 40 kb intervals and fire as small clusters whose synchrony increases during S phase and that replication fork velocity (mean 0.7 kb/min, maximum 2.0 kb/min) remains constant and narrowly distributed through S phase. However, multi-scale analysis of a genome-wide replication timing profile shows a broad distribution of replication timing gradients with practically no regions larger than 100 kb replicating at less than 2 kb/min. Therefore, HeLa cells lack large regions of unidirectional fork progression. Temporal transition regions are replicated by sequential activation of origins at a rate that increases during S phase and replication timing gradients are set by the delay and the spacing between successive origin firings rather than by the velocity of single forks. Activation of internal origins in a specific temporal transition region is directly demonstrated by DNA combing of the IGH locus in HeLa cells. Analysis of published origin maps in HeLa cells and published replication timing and DNA combing data in several other cell types corroborate these findings, with the interesting exception of embryonic stem cells where regions of unidirectional fork progression seem more abundant. These results can be explained if origins fire independently of each other but under the control of long-range chromatin structure, or if replication forks progressing from early origins stimulate initiation in nearby unreplicated DNA. These findings shed a new light on the replication timing program of mammalian genomes and provide a general model for their replication kinetics. PMID:22219720

Guilbaud, Guillaume; Rappailles, Aurélien; Baker, Antoine; Chen, Chun-Long; Arneodo, Alain; Goldar, Arach; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Thermes, Claude; Audit, Benjamin; Hyrien, Olivier

2011-01-01

252

Origin, persistence, and resolution of the rotational grazing debate: Integrating human dimensions into rangeland research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This synthesis examines the origins of the rotational grazing debate, identifies the major reasons for its persistence, and concludes with an approach for resolution. The debate originated from scientific and institutional responses to rangeland degradation in the US during the late 1800s. Rotationa...

253

Human intestinal Vdelta1+ lymphocytes recognize tumor cells of epithelial origin  

PubMed Central

gammadelta T cells can be grouped into discrete subsets based upon their expression of T cell receptor (TCR) variable (V) region families, their tissue distribution, and their specificity. Vdelta2+ T cells constitute the majority of gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood whereas Vdelta1+T cells reside preferentially in skin epithelium and in the intestine. gammadelta T cells are envisioned as first line host defense mechanisms capable of providing a source of immune effector T cells and immunomodulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 4 or interferon (IFN) gamma. We describe here the fine specificity of three distinct gammadelta+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) obtained from patients with primary or metastatic colorectal cancer, that could be readily expanded in vitro in the presence of IL-1beta and IL-7. Irrespective of donor, these individual gammadelta T cells exhibited a similar pattern of reactivity defined by recognition of autologous and allogeneic colorectal cancer cells, renal cell cancer, pancreatic cancer, and a freshly isolated explant from human intestine as measured by cytolytic T cell responses and by IFN-gamma release. In contrast, tumors of alternate histologies were not lysed, including lung cancer, squamous cell cancer, as well as the natural/lymphocyte-activated killer cell-sensitive hematopoietic cell lines T2, C1R, or Daudi. The cell line K562 was only poorly lysed when compared with colorectal cancer targets. Target cell reactivity mediated by Vdelta1+ T cells was partially blocked with Abs directed against the TCR, the beta2 or beta7 integrin chains, or fibronectin receptor. Marker analysis using flow cytometry revealed that all three gammadelta T cell lines exhibit a similar phenotype. Analysis of the gammadelta TCR junctional suggested exclusive usage of the Vdelta1/Ddelta3/Jdelta1 TCR segments with extensive (< or = 29 bp) N/P region diversity. T cell recognition of target cells did not appear to be a major histocompatibility complex restricted or to be correlated with target cell expression of heat- shock proteins. Based on the ability of some epithelial tumors, including colorectal, pancreatic, and renal cell cancers to effectively cold target inhibit the lysis of colorectal cancer cell lines by these Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cells are capable of recognizing cell surface Ag(s) shared by tumors of epithelial origin. PMID:8666926

1996-01-01

254

ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

255

Melanchthon’s rhetoric and the practical origins of Reformation human science  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the 16th century in Germany, religious ends and human art joined forces to produce a sacred rhetoric: a rhetoric that could transform human nature, and explain at the same time how such transformation was possible according to both science and scripture. No longer was it enough to ask in Scholastic fashion ‘What is man?’ - his

Daniel M. Gross

2000-01-01

256

Origin of human chromosome 2: An ancestral telomere-telomere fusion  

SciTech Connect

The authors identified two allelic genomic cosmids from human chromosome 2, c8.1 and c29B, each containing two inverted arrays of the vertebrate telomeric repeat in a head-to-head arrangement, 5{prime}(TTAGGG){sub n}-(CCCTAA){sub m}3{prime}. Sequences flanking this telomeric repeat are characteristic of present-day human pretelomeres. BAL-31 nuclease experiments with yeast artificial chromosome clones of human telomeres and fluorescence in situ hybridization reveal that sequences flanking these inverted repeats hybridize both to band 2q13 and to different, but overlapping, subsets of human chromosome ends. They conclude that the locus cloned in cosmids c8.1 and c29B is the relic of an ancient telomere-telomere fusion and marks the point at which two ancestral ape chromosomes fused to give rise to human chromosome 2.

Ijdo, J.W.; Baldini, A.; Ward, D.C.; Reeders, S.T.; Wells, R.A. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-10-15

257

First Ancient Mitochondrial Human Genome from a Prepastoralist Southern African  

PubMed Central

The oldest contemporary human mitochondrial lineages arose in Africa. The earliest divergent extant maternal offshoot, namely haplogroup L0d, is represented by click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa. Broadly defined as Khoesan, contemporary Khoesan are today largely restricted to the semidesert regions of Namibia and Botswana, whereas archeological, historical, and genetic evidence promotes a once broader southerly dispersal of click-speaking peoples including southward migrating pastoralists and indigenous marine-foragers. No genetic data have been recovered from the indigenous peoples that once sustained life along the southern coastal waters of Africa prepastoral arrival. In this study we generate a complete mitochondrial genome from a 2,330-year-old male skeleton, confirmed through osteological and archeological analysis as practicing a marine-based forager existence. The ancient mtDNA represents a new L0d2c lineage (L0d2c1c) that is today, unlike its Khoe-language based sister-clades (L0d2c1a and L0d2c1b) most closely related to contemporary indigenous San-speakers (specifically Ju). Providing the first genomic evidence that prepastoral Southern African marine foragers carried the earliest diverged maternal modern human lineages, this study emphasizes the significance of Southern African archeological remains in defining early modern human origins. PMID:25212860

Smith, Andrew B.; Hayes, Vanessa M.

2014-01-01

258

First ancient mitochondrial human genome from a prepastoralist southern African.  

PubMed

The oldest contemporary human mitochondrial lineages arose in Africa. The earliest divergent extant maternal offshoot, namely haplogroup L0d, is represented by click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa. Broadly defined as Khoesan, contemporary Khoesan are today largely restricted to the semidesert regions of Namibia and Botswana, whereas archeological, historical, and genetic evidence promotes a once broader southerly dispersal of click-speaking peoples including southward migrating pastoralists and indigenous marine-foragers. No genetic data have been recovered from the indigenous peoples that once sustained life along the southern coastal waters of Africa prepastoral arrival. In this study we generate a complete mitochondrial genome from a 2,330-year-old male skeleton, confirmed through osteological and archeological analysis as practicing a marine-based forager existence. The ancient mtDNA represents a new L0d2c lineage (L0d2c1c) that is today, unlike its Khoe-language based sister-clades (L0d2c1a and L0d2c1b) most closely related to contemporary indigenous San-speakers (specifically Ju). Providing the first genomic evidence that prepastoral Southern African marine foragers carried the earliest diverged maternal modern human lineages, this study emphasizes the significance of Southern African archeological remains in defining early modern human origins. PMID:25212860

Morris, Alan G; Heinze, Anja; Chan, Eva K F; Smith, Andrew B; Hayes, Vanessa M

2014-10-01

259

Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis in Genotyping Yersinia enterocolitica Strains from Human and Porcine Origins  

PubMed Central

Sporadic and epidemiologically linked Yersinia enterocolitica strains (n = 379) isolated from fecal samples from human patients, tonsil or fecal samples from pigs collected at slaughterhouses, and pork samples collected at meat stores were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) with six loci, i.e., V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9. In total, 312 different MLVA types were found. Similar types were detected (i) in fecal samples collected from human patients over 2 to 3 consecutive years, (ii) in samples from humans and pigs, and (iii) in samples from pigs that originated from the same farms. Among porcine strains, we found farm-specific MLVA profiles. Variations in the numbers of tandem repeats from one to four for variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci V2A, V5, V6, and V7 were observed within a farm. MLVA was applicable for serotypes O:3, O:5,27, and O:9 and appeared to be a highly discriminating tool for distinguishing sporadic and outbreak-related strains. With long-term use, interpretation of the results became more challenging due to variations in more-discriminating loci, as was observed for strains originating from pig farms. Additionally, we encountered unexpectedly short V2A VNTR fragments and sequenced them. According to the sequencing results, updated guidelines for interpreting V2A VNTR results were prepared. PMID:23637293

Laukkanen-Ninios, R.; Ortiz Martínez, P.; Siitonen, A.; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.; Korkeala, H.

2013-01-01

260

Replicon typing of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 in Enterobacteriaceae of animal, environmental and human origin  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the plasmid replicon profiles of a collection of blaCTX-M-1-positive enterobacterial strains. The isolates originated from chicken in the production pyramid, healthy food-producing animals at slaughter (chicken, calves, and pigs), chicken retail meat, environmental isolates originating from water bodies, and isolates from humans. A selection of IncI and IncN plasmids were characterized by multilocus sequence typing in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness. Methods: Transconjugants of 74 blaCTX-M-1-positive isolates were analyzed by PCR-based replicon typing and by PCR-based plasmid multilocus sequence typing. Results: The incompatibility groups detected among the blaCTX-M-1-harboring plasmids included IncI1, IncN, IncHI1B, IncF, IncFIIS, IncFIB, and IncB/O, with plasmid lineage IncI1/ST3 predominating in isolates from chicken and from humans. Lineage IncN/ST1 was detected mainly in isolates from pigs. For the first time, blaCTX-M-1 genes encoded on IncHI1 plasmids were detected in isolates from cattle and from water bodies. Conclusions: This study identifies plasmid lineages that are contributing to the dissemination of blaCTX-M-1 genes in the food chain, the environment, and humans. PMID:25400623

Zurfluh, Katrin; Jakobi, Gianna; Stephan, Roger; Hächler, Herbert; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena

2014-01-01

261

How trade saved humanity from biological exclusion: an economic theory of Neanderthal extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the great puzzles in science concerns the rise of early modern humans and the fall of Neanderthals. A number of theories exist, and many support the biological principle of competitive exclusion. But the evidence for such mechanistic theories in which biology is destiny is limited. In response, this paper develops a behavioral model of Neanderthal extinction. We show

Richard D. Horan; Erwin Bulte; Jason F. Shogren

2005-01-01

262

The relationship between the human state and external perturbations of atmospheric, geomagnetic and solar origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the state of human body and the external factors such as the different phenomena of solar activity, geomagnetic perturbations and local atmospheric characteristics is studied. The monitoring of blood pressure and electro-conductivity of human body in acupuncture points for a group fo 28 people over the period of 1.5 year has been performed daily from February 2001 to August 2002 in Capodimonte Observatory in Naples, Italy. The modified Voll method of electropuncture diagnostics was used. The strong correlation between the human body state and meteo conditions is found and the probable correlation with geomagnetic perturbations is discussed.

Gavryuseva, E.; Kroussanova, N.

2002-12-01

263

Complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): implications for human migrations in Oceania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae), a traditional starch crop in Oceania, has enjoyed legendary status ever since its role in the infamous mutiny aboard the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789, yet its origins remain unclear. Breadfruit's closest relatives are A. camansi and A. mariannensis. DNA fingerprinting data (AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphisms) from over 200 breadfruit cultivars, 30 A. camansi, and 24

NYREE J. C. ZEREGA; DIANE RAGONE; TIMOTHY J. MOTLEY

2004-01-01

264

Tracking the evolutionary origins of dog-human cooperation: the "Canine Cooperation Hypothesis".  

PubMed

At present, beyond the fact that dogs can be easier socialized with humans than wolves, we know little about the motivational and cognitive effects of domestication. Despite this, it has been suggested that during domestication dogs have become socially more tolerant and attentive than wolves. These two characteristics are crucial for cooperation, and it has been argued that these changes allowed dogs to successfully live and work with humans. However, these domestication hypotheses have been put forward mainly based on dog-wolf differences reported in regard to their interactions with humans. Thus, it is possible that these differences reflect only an improved capability of dogs to accept humans as social partners instead of an increase of their general tolerance, attentiveness and cooperativeness. At the Wolf Science Center, in order to detangle these two explanations, we raise and keep dogs and wolves similarly socializing them with conspecifics and humans and then test them in interactions not just with humans but also conspecifics. When investigating attentiveness toward human and conspecific partners using different paradigms, we found that the wolves were at least as attentive as the dogs to their social partners and their actions. Based on these findings and the social ecology of wolves, we propose the Canine Cooperation Hypothesis suggesting that wolves are characterized with high social attentiveness and tolerance and are highly cooperative. This is in contrast with the implications of most domestication hypotheses about wolves. We argue, however, that these characteristics of wolves likely provided a good basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation. PMID:25642203

Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

2014-01-01

265

Tracking the evolutionary origins of dog-human cooperation: the “Canine Cooperation Hypothesis”  

PubMed Central

At present, beyond the fact that dogs can be easier socialized with humans than wolves, we know little about the motivational and cognitive effects of domestication. Despite this, it has been suggested that during domestication dogs have become socially more tolerant and attentive than wolves. These two characteristics are crucial for cooperation, and it has been argued that these changes allowed dogs to successfully live and work with humans. However, these domestication hypotheses have been put forward mainly based on dog-wolf differences reported in regard to their interactions with humans. Thus, it is possible that these differences reflect only an improved capability of dogs to accept humans as social partners instead of an increase of their general tolerance, attentiveness and cooperativeness. At the Wolf Science Center, in order to detangle these two explanations, we raise and keep dogs and wolves similarly socializing them with conspecifics and humans and then test them in interactions not just with humans but also conspecifics. When investigating attentiveness toward human and conspecific partners using different paradigms, we found that the wolves were at least as attentive as the dogs to their social partners and their actions. Based on these findings and the social ecology of wolves, we propose the Canine Cooperation Hypothesis suggesting that wolves are characterized with high social attentiveness and tolerance and are highly cooperative. This is in contrast with the implications of most domestication hypotheses about wolves. We argue, however, that these characteristics of wolves likely provided a good basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation. PMID:25642203

Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

2015-01-01

266

Evolutionary origin and human-specific expansion of a cancer/testis antigen gene family.  

PubMed

Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are encoded by germline genes and are aberrantly expressed in a number of human cancers. Interestingly, CT antigens are frequently involved in gene families that are highly expressed in germ cells. Here, we presented an evolutionary analysis of the CTAGE (cutaneous T-cell-lymphoma-associated antigen) gene family to delineate its molecular history and functional significance during primate evolution. Comparisons among human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, macaque, marmoset, and other mammals show a rapid and primate specific expansion of CTAGE family, which starts with an ancestral retroposition in the haplorhini ancestor. Subsequent DNA-based duplications lead to the prosperity of single-exon CTAGE copies in catarrhines, especially in humans. Positive selection was identified on the single-exon copies in comparison with functional constraint on the multiexon copies. Further sequence analysis suggests that the newly derived CTAGE genes may obtain regulatory elements from long terminal repeats. Our result indicates the dynamic evolution of primate genomes, and the recent expansion of this CT antigen family in humans may confer advantageous phenotypic traits during early human evolution. PMID:24916032

Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

2014-09-01

267

Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples  

PubMed Central

Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking). In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples. PMID:23762826

Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet

2013-01-01

268

A new Late Miocene great ape from Kenya and its implications for the origins of African great apes and humans  

PubMed Central

Extant African great apes and humans are thought to have diverged from each other in the Late Miocene. However, few hominoid fossils are known from Africa during this period. Here we describe a new genus of great ape (Nakalipithecus nakayamai gen. et sp. nov.) recently discovered from the early Late Miocene of Nakali, Kenya. The new genus resembles Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (9.6–8.7 Ma, Greece) in size and some features but retains less specialized characters, such as less inflated cusps and better-developed cingula on cheek teeth, and it was recovered from a slightly older age (9.9–9.8 Ma). Although the affinity of Ouranopithecus to the extant African apes and humans has often been inferred, the former is known only from southeastern Europe. The discovery of N. nakayamai in East Africa, therefore, provides new evidence on the origins of African great apes and humans. N. nakayamai could be close to the last common ancestor of the extant African apes and humans. In addition, the associated primate fauna from Nakali shows that hominoids and other non-cercopithecoid catarrhines retained higher diversity into the early Late Miocene in East Africa than previously recognized. PMID:18024593

Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Masayuki; Hyodo, Hironobu; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Nakaya, Hideo; Saegusa, Haruo; Mazurier, Arnaud; Saneyoshi, Mototaka; Tsujikawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ayumi; Mbua, Emma

2007-01-01

269

Quantification of human and animal viruses to differentiate the origin of the fecal contamination present in environmental samples.  

PubMed

Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking). In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples. PMID:23762826

Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Girones, Rosina

2013-01-01

270

The origins of polarimetric image contrast between healthy and cancerous human colon tissue  

E-print Network

spectral Mueller matrix images of ex vivo human colon tissue revealed the contrast enhancement between convention as in Ref. 1, for which the Mueller matrix of a mirror at normal incidence is a unity matrix, microscopic imaging may be less adequate compared to diffuse reflectance spectroscopy or Mueller polarimetry

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

Dendritic Cell Ontogeny: A Human Dendritic Cell Lineage of Myeloid Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DC) have been thought to represent a family of closely related cells with similar functions and developmental pathways. The best-characterized precursors are the epidermal Langerhans cells, which migrate to lymphoid organs and become activated DC in response to inflammatory stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that a large subset of DC in the T cell-dependent areas of human lymphoid organs

Johanna Olweus; Andrew Bitmansour; Roger Warnke; Peter A. Thompson; Jose Carballido; Louis J. Picker; Fridtjof Lund-Johansen

1997-01-01

272

Bacteriocin-like activity of group B and group C streptococci of human and of animal origin.  

PubMed Central

An inhibitor "fingerprinting' technique was used to test 120 group B and 50 group C streptococcus strains for production of inhibitory activity. The incidence of inhibitor production was low. Five of 70 group B streptococci of animal origin and one of 50 from human sources consistently produced inhibitory activity. Six of 20 animal strains and three of 30 human strains of group C streptococci were inhibitor producers. These included two Streptococcus dysgalactiae, three S. equisimilis and four S. zooepidemicus. The temperature of incubation and species of origin of the blood used in the culture medium were critical determinants of inhibitor production. Investigation of inhibitors for their spectrum of activity, heat stability, sensitivity to trypsin, dialysability and mode of action indicated that five of the group B and seven of the group C streptococci produced inhibitors that had bacteriocin-line properties. Three bovine strains of group B streptococci produced very similar inhibitory activity. A greater variety of bacteriocin-like substances was detected in the group C streptococcus strains. Two of the S. zooepidemicus strains were each found to produce more than one inhibitory substance. PMID:6337211

Schofield, C. R.; Tagg, J. R.

1983-01-01

273

Public finance in the early modern era.  

E-print Network

??Die vorliegende Diplomarbeit behandelt das Thema der Staatsfinanzen in England und Frankreich im 18. Jahrhundert. Sie behandelt drei große Themen: Steuern, Staatsverschuldung und die politische… (more)

Uschmann, Till

2013-01-01

274

Homeotic Evolution in the Mammalia: Diversification of Therian Axial Seriation and the Morphogenetic Basis of Human Origins  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the rising interest in homeotic genes, little has been known about the course and pattern of evolution of homeotic traits across the mammalian radiation. An array of emerging and diversifying homeotic gradients revealed by this study appear to generate new body plans and drive evolution at a large scale. Methodology/Principal Findings This study identifies and evaluates a set of homeotic gradients across 250 extant and fossil mammalian species and their antecedents over a period of 220 million years. These traits are generally expressed as co-linear gradients along the body axis rather than as distinct segmental identities. Relative position or occurrence sequence vary independently and are subject to polarity reversal and mirroring. Five major gradient modification sets are identified: (1)–quantitative changes of primary segmental identity pattern that appeared at the origin of the tetrapods ; (2)–frame shift relation of costal and vertebral identity which diversifies from the time of amniote origins; (3)–duplication, mirroring, splitting and diversification of the neomorphic laminar process first commencing at the dawn of mammals; (4)–emergence of homologically variable lumbar lateral processes upon commencement of the radiation of therian mammals and ; (5)–inflexions and transpositions of the relative position of the horizontal septum of the body and the neuraxis at the emergence of various orders of therian mammals. Convergent functional changes under homeotic control include laminar articular engagement with septo-neural transposition and ventrally arrayed lumbar transverse process support systems. Conclusion/Significance Clusters of homeotic transformations mark the emergence point of mammals in the Triassic and the radiation of therians in the Cretaceous. A cluster of homeotic changes in the Miocene hominoid Morotopithecus that are still seen in humans supports establishment of a new “hominiform” clade and suggests a homeotic origin for the human upright body plan. PMID:17925867

Filler, Aaron G.

2007-01-01

275

Cytotoxic evaluation of cubic boron nitride in human origin cultured cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of cubic boron nitride (cBN), a component of surgical cutting tools. The small quantities of cBN that typically remain on implants as a result of the manufacturing process may act as abrasives, injuring tissues surrounding the implant. To determine how cBN affects cells, we treated human neuroblastoma cells (NB-1) and

Kenjiro Koga; Akira Kaji; Kenichi Hirosaki; Yukako Hata; Tsutomu Ogura; Osamu Fujishita; Kazuhiro Shintani

2006-01-01

276

Evidence Supporting a Zoonotic Origin of Human Coronavirus Strain NL63  

PubMed Central

The relationship between bats and coronaviruses (CoVs) has received considerable attention since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoV was identified in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae) in 2005. Since then, several bats throughout the world have been shown to shed CoV sequences, and presumably CoVs, in the feces; however, no bat CoVs have been isolated from nature. Moreover, there are very few bat cell lines or reagents available for investigating CoV replication in bat cells or for isolating bat CoVs adapted to specific bat species. Here, we show by molecular clock analysis that alphacoronavirus (?-CoV) sequences derived from the North American tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) are predicted to share common ancestry with human CoV (HCoV)-NL63, with the most recent common ancestor between these viruses occurring approximately 563 to 822 years ago. Further, we developed immortalized bat cell lines from the lungs of this bat species to determine if these cells were capable of supporting infection with HCoVs. While SARS-CoV, mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15), and chimeric SARS-CoVs bearing the spike genes of early human strains replicated inefficiently, HCoV-NL63 replicated for multiple passages in the immortalized lung cells from this bat species. These observations support the hypothesis that human CoVs are capable of establishing zoonotic-reverse zoonotic transmission cycles that may allow some CoVs to readily circulate and exchange genetic material between strains found in bats and other mammals, including humans. PMID:22993147

Huynh, Jeremy; Li, Shimena; Yount, Boyd; Smith, Alexander; Sturges, Leslie; Olsen, John C.; Nagel, Juliet; Johnson, Joshua B.; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gates, J. Edward; Frieman, Matthew B.; Baric, Ralph S.

2012-01-01

277

Differentiation potential of stem cells from human dental origin - promise for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed the existence of stem cells in various human tissues including dental structures. We aimed to establish primary cell cultures from human dental pulp and periodontal ligament, to identify multipotential adult stem cells in these cultures, and to study the differentiation capacity of these cells to osteogenic and to neuronal fates. Dental pulp and the periodontal ligament were isolated from extracted human wisdom teeth. The extracellular matrix was enzymatically degraded to obtain isolated cells for culturing. Both dental pulp and periodontal ligament derived cultures showed high proliferative capacity and contained a cell population expressing the STRO-1 mesenchymal stem cell marker. Osteogenic induction by pharmacological stimulation resulted in mineralized differentiation as shown by Alizarin red staining in both cultures. When already described standard neurodifferentiation protocols were used, cultures exhibited only transient neurodifferentiation followed by either redifferentiation into a fibroblast-like phenotype or massive cell death. Our new three-step neurodifferentiation protocol consisting of (1) epigenetic reprogramming, then (2) simultaneous PKC/PKA activation, followed by (3) incubation in a neurotrophic medium resulted in robust neurodifferentiation in both pulp and periodontal ligament cultures shown by cell morphology, immunocytochemistry and real time PCR for vimentin and neuron-specific enolase. In conclusion, we report the isolation, culture and characterization of stem cell containing cultures from both human dental pulp and periodontal ligament. Furthermore, our data clearly show that both cultures differentiate into mineralized cells or to a neuronal fate in response to appropriate pharmacological stimuli. Therefore, these cells have high potential to serve as resources for tissue engineering not only for dental or bone reconstruction, but also for neuroregenerative treatments. PMID:20388961

Kadar, K; Kiraly, M; Porcsalmy, B; Molnar, B; Racz, G Z; Blazsek, J; Kallo, K; Szabo, E L; Gera, I; Gerber, G; Varga, G

2009-12-01

278

Comparative population structure analysis of Campylobacter jejuni from human and poultry origin in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of antecedent infections leading to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The objective of the present study was to define the genetic diversity, population structure, and potential role of poultry in the transmission of Campylobacter to humans in Bangladesh. We determined the population structure of C. jejuni isolated from poultry (n = 66) and patients with enteritis (n = 39) or GBS (n = 10). Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) typing showed that 50/66 (76 %) C. jejuni strains isolated from poultry could be assigned to one of five LOS locus classes (A-E). The distribution of neuropathy-associated LOS locus classes A, B, and C were 30/50 (60 %) among the typable strains isolated from poultry. The LOS locus classes A, B, and C were significantly associated with GBS and enteritis-related C. jejuni strains more than for the poultry strains [(31/38 (82 %) vs. 30/50 (60 %), p < 0.05]. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) defined 15 sequence types (STs) and six clonal complexes (CCs) among poultry isolates, including one ST-3740 not previously documented. The most commonly identified type, ST-5 (13/66), in chicken was seen only once among human isolates (1/49) (p < 0.001). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) revealed three major clusters (A, B, and C) among C. jejuni isolated from humans and poultry. There seems to be a lack of overlap between the major human and chicken clones, which suggests that there may be additional sources for campylobacteriosis other than poultry in Bangladesh. PMID:24962195

Islam, Z; van Belkum, A; Wagenaar, J A; Cody, A J; de Boer, A G; Sarker, S K; Jacobs, B C; Talukder, K A; Endtz, H P

2014-12-01

279

On the origin of respiratory artifacts in BOLD-EPI of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BOLD-based functional MRI (fMRI) can be used to explicitly measure hemodynamic aspects and functions of human neuro-physiology. As fMRI measures changes in regional cerebral blood flow and volume as well as blood oxygenation, rather than neuronal brain activity directly, other processes that may change the above parameters have to be examined closely to assess sensitivity and specificity of fMRI results.

Christian Windischberger; Herbert Langenberger; Thomas Sycha; Edda M Tschernko; Gabriele Fuchsjäger-Mayerl; Leopold Schmetterer; Ewald Moser

2002-01-01

280

Soluble phosphate glasses: in vitro studies using human cells of hard and soft tissue origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the short-term response of two typical cellular components of a hard\\/soft tissue interface such as the periodontal ligament\\/mandible and patellar tendon\\/tibia. Tissue engineering of such interfaces requires a contiguous scaffold system with at least two cell types associated with it. Human oral osteoblasts, oral fibroblasts and hand flexor tendon fibroblasts were seeded on phosphate-based glasses of different

Malak Bitar; Vehid Salih; Vivek Mudera; Jonathan C. Knowles; Mark P. Lewis

2004-01-01

281

Interindividual variability and parent of origin DNA methylation differences at specific human Alu elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the CpG methylation of 19 specific members of Alu sub-families in human DNA isolated from whole blood, using an assay based on methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease digestion of genomic DNA and 'hot-stop' polymerase chain reaction. We found significant interindividual variability in the level of methylation for specific Alu elements among the members of 48 three-generation families. Surprisingly, some of

Ionel Sandovici; Sacha Kassovska-Bratinova; J. Concepcion Loredo-Osti; Mark Leppert; Alexander Suarez; Rae Stewart; F. Dale Bautista; Michael Schiraldi; Carmen Sapienza

2005-01-01

282

Methylomic profiling of human brain tissue supports a neurodevelopmental origin for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

BackgroundSchizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that is hypothesized to result from disturbances in early brain development. There is mounting evidence to support a role for developmentally-regulated epigenetic variation in the molecular etiology of the disorder. Here, we describe a systematic study of schizophrenia-associated methylomic variation in the adult brain and its relationship to changes in DNA methylation across human fetal brain development.ResultsWe profile methylomic variation in matched prefrontal cortex and cerebellum brain tissue from schizophrenia patients and controls, identifying disease-associated differential DNA methylation at multiple loci, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, and confirming these differences in an independent set of adult brain samples. Our data reveal discrete modules of co-methylated loci associated with schizophrenia that are enriched for genes involved in neurodevelopmental processes and include loci implicated by genetic studies of the disorder. Methylomic data from human fetal cortex samples, spanning 23 to 184 days post-conception, indicates that schizophrenia-associated differentially methylated positions are significantly enriched for loci at which DNA methylation is dynamically altered during human fetal brain development.ConclusionsOur data support the hypothesis that schizophrenia has an important early neurodevelopmental component, and suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may mediate these effects. PMID:25347937

Pidsley, Ruth; Viana, Joana; Hannon, Eilis; Spiers, Helen H; Troakes, Claire; Al-Saraj, Safa; Mechawar, Naguib; Turecki, Gustavo; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Bray, Nicholas J; Mill, Jonathan

2014-10-28

283

Skeletal variation among early Holocene North American humans: implications for origins and diversity in the Americas.  

PubMed

The movement of humans into the Americas remains a major topic of debate among scientific disciplines. Central to this discussion is ascertaining the timing and migratory routes of the earliest colonizers, in addition to understanding their ancestry. Molecular studies have recently argued that the colonizing population was isolated from other Asian populations for an extended period before proceeding to colonize the Americas. This research has suggested that Beringia was the location of this "incubation," though archaeological and skeletal data have not yet supported this hypothesis. This study employs the remains of the five most complete North American male early Holocene skeletons to examine patterns of human morphology at the earliest observable time period. Stature, body mass, body breadth, and limb proportions are examined in the context of male skeletal samples representing the range of morphological variation in North America in the last two millennia of the Holocene. These are also compared with a global sample. Results indicate that early Holocene males have variable postcranial morphologies, but all share the common trait of wide bodies. This trait, which is retained in more recent indigenous North American groups, is associated with adaptations to cold climates. Peoples from the Americas exhibit wider bodies than other populations sampled globally. This pattern suggests the common ancestral population of all of these indigenous American groups had reduced morphological variation in this trait. Furthermore, this provides support for a single, possibly high latitude location for the genetic isolation of ancestors of the human colonizers of the Americas. PMID:23109240

Auerbach, Benjamin M

2012-12-01

284

Unraveling the origin of exponential law in intra-urban human mobility  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of travel takes place within cities. Recently, new data has become available which allows for the discovery of urban mobility patterns which differ from established results about long distance travel. Specifically, the latest evidence increasingly points to exponential trip length distributions, contrary to the scaling laws observed on larger scales. In this paper, in order to explore the origin of the exponential law, we propose a new model which can predict individual flows in urban areas better. Based on the model, we explain the exponential law of intra-urban mobility as a result of the exponential decrease in average population density in urban areas. Indeed, both empirical and analytical results indicate that the trip length and the population density share the same exponential decaying rate. PMID:24136012

Liang, Xiao; Zhao, Jichang; Dong, Li; Xu, Ke

2013-01-01

285

The origin, function, and diagnostic potential of RNA within extracellular vesicles present in human biological fluids  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that tumor cells release membranous structures into their extracellular environment, which are termed exosomes, microvesicles or extracellular vesicles depending on specific characteristics, including size, composition and biogenesis pathway. These cell-derived vesicles can exhibit an array of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids derived from the originating tumor. This review focuses of the transcriptome (RNA) of these extracellular vesicles. Based on current data, these vesicular components play essential roles as conveyers of intercellular communication and mediators of many of the pathological conditions associated with cancer development, progression and therapeutic failures. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, signal pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer, chemoresistance, and genetic exchange. These tumor-derived extracellular vesicles not only to represent a central mediator of the tumor microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for tumor biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. PMID:23908664

Taylor, Douglas D.; Gercel-Taylor, Cicek

2013-01-01

286

Heterogeneity among virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles of extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates of animal and human origin.  

PubMed

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) isolates collected from different infected animals and from human patients with extraintestinal infections in 2001 were characterized for their phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, genotypes, and key virulence factors. Among the 10 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfonamides was most frequent. Multiresistant strains were found in both the animal and the human groups of isolates. Resistance gene distribution was assessed by colony hybridization. Similar antibiotic resistance patterns could be observed in the animal and the human isolates. Although some resistance genes, such as bla(TEM), sulI, and sulII, were equally represented in the animal and human ExPEC isolates, differences in the distributions of tetracycline [tet(D)], chloramphenicol (catI, catIII, and floR), and trimethoprim (dhfrI, dhfrV, dhfrVII, and dhfrXIII) resistance genes were observed between the animal and the human isolates. Approximately one-third of the ExPEC isolates possessed a class 1 integron. The four major different variable regions of the class 1 integron contained aminoglycoside (aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, and aadA6) and/or trimethoprim (dhfrIb, dhfrXII, and dhfrXVII) resistance genes. The ExPEC strains belonged to different phylogenetic groups, depending on their host origin. Strains isolated from animal tissues belonged to either a commensal group (group A or B1) or a virulent group (group B2 or D), while the majority of the human isolates belonged to a virulent group (group B2 or D). Although the limited number of isolates evaluated in the present study prevents firm epidemiological conclusions from being made, on a more global scale, these data demonstrate that extraintestinal isolates of E. coli can possess relatively distinct intra- and intergroup resistance gene profiles, with animal isolates presenting a more heterogeneous group than human isolates. PMID:15583263

Maynard, Christine; Bekal, Sadjia; Sanschagrin, François; Levesque, Roger C; Brousseau, Roland; Masson, Luke; Larivière, Serge; Harel, Josée

2004-12-01

287

Heterogeneity among Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Profiles of Extraintestinal Escherichia coli Isolates of Animal and Human Origin  

PubMed Central

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) isolates collected from different infected animals and from human patients with extraintestinal infections in 2001 were characterized for their phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, genotypes, and key virulence factors. Among the 10 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfonamides was most frequent. Multiresistant strains were found in both the animal and the human groups of isolates. Resistance gene distribution was assessed by colony hybridization. Similar antibiotic resistance patterns could be observed in the animal and the human isolates. Although some resistance genes, such as blaTEM, sulI, and sulII, were equally represented in the animal and human ExPEC isolates, differences in the distributions of tetracycline [tet(D)], chloramphenicol (catI, catIII, and floR), and trimethoprim (dhfrI, dhfrV, dhfrVII, and dhfrXIII) resistance genes were observed between the animal and the human isolates. Approximately one-third of the ExPEC isolates possessed a class 1 integron. The four major different variable regions of the class 1 integron contained aminoglycoside (aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, and aadA6) and/or trimethoprim (dhfrIb, dhfrXII, and dhfrXVII) resistance genes. The ExPEC strains belonged to different phylogenetic groups, depending on their host origin. Strains isolated from animal tissues belonged to either a commensal group (group A or B1) or a virulent group (group B2 or D), while the majority of the human isolates belonged to a virulent group (group B2 or D). Although the limited number of isolates evaluated in the present study prevents firm epidemiological conclusions from being made, on a more global scale, these data demonstrate that extraintestinal isolates of E. coli can possess relatively distinct intra- and intergroup resistance gene profiles, with animal isolates presenting a more heterogeneous group than human isolates. PMID:15583263

Maynard, Christine; Bekal, Sadjia; Sanschagrin, François; Levesque, Roger C.; Brousseau, Roland; Masson, Luke; Larivière, Serge; Harel, Josée

2004-01-01

288

Sequence analyses of herpesviral enzymes suggest an ancient origin for human sexual behavior.  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the deoxythymidine kinases of herpes simplex (HSV) and of marmoset herpes viruses (MHV) suggests a divergence time of 8 to 10 million years ago for HSV-1 and -2. Like MHV, HSV-1 and -2 cause local infections in their natural hosts, and direct contact between two individuals during the brief period of infectivity is needed for transmission. Because B virus, a nearer relative of HSV, depends on both oral and genital routes of transmission, we postulate that ancestral HSV (aHSV) was similar, and that for HSV-1 and -2 to diverge, genital and oral sites had to become microbiologically somewhat isolated from each other, while oral--oral and genital--genital contact had to be facilitated to maintain both aHSV strains. We propose that acquisition of continual sexual attractiveness by the ancestral human female and the adoption of close face-to-face mating, two hallmarks of human sexual behavior, provided the conditions for the divergence. PMID:3128793

Gentry, G A; Lowe, M; Alford, G; Nevins, R

1988-01-01

289

Recently recovered Kenyapithecus mandible and its implications for great ape and human origins.  

PubMed Central

We report here a Kenyapithecus africanus juvenile mandible recovered from middle Miocene (ca. 14-16 million years) deposits of Maboko Island (Lake Victoria), Kenya. Symphyseal and dental attributes of the mandible distinguish K. africanus, a species widely regarded as the earliest known member of the great ape and human clade, from other Miocene large-bodied hominoids. The Maboko Island mandible exhibits a markedly proclined symphyseal axis, massive inferior transverse torus, mesiodistally narrow, high-crowned, and strongly procumbent lateral incisor, and molars with cingula restricted to the median buccal cleft. Although the presence of some of these conditions in Kenyapithecus was suggested earlier, the fragmentary and ill-preserved nature of previously known specimens led certain authorities to doubt their validity. Our assessment of mandibular and dental morphology indicates that K. africanus diverged after Proconsul and Griphopithecus but prior to the last common ancestor of Sivapithecus, extant great apes, and humans. The robustly constructed mandibular symphysis and anterior dentition suggest that incisal biting played as important a role as thick molar enamel in the dietary adaptations of K. africanus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8446615

McCrossin, M L; Benefit, B R

1993-01-01

290

Human genes involved in copy number variation: mechanisms of origin, functional effects and implications for disease  

PubMed Central

Copy number variants (CNVs) overlap over 7000 genes, many of which are pivotal in biological pathways. The implications of this are profound, with consequences for evolutionary studies, population genetics, gene function and human phenotype, including elucidation of genetic susceptibility to major common diseases, the heritability of which has thus far defied full explanation. Even though this research is still in its infancy, CNVs have already been associated with a number of monogenic, syndromic and complex diseases: the development of high throughput and high resolution techniques for CNV screening is likely to bring further new insights into the contribution of copy number variation to common diseases. Amongst genes overlapped by CNVs, significant enrichments for certain gene ontology categories have been identified, including those related to immune responses and interactions with the environment. Genes in both of these categories are thought to be important in evolutionary adaptation and to be particular targets of natural selection. Thus, a full appreciation of copy number variation may be important for our understanding of human evolution. PMID:19287135

de Smith, A.J.; Walters, R.G.; Froguel, P.; Blakemore, A.I.

2009-01-01

291

A Novel Human-Infection-Derived Bacterium Provides Insights into the Evolutionary Origins of Mutualistic Insect–Bacterial Symbioses  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive study, little is known about the origins of the mutualistic bacterial endosymbionts that inhabit approximately 10% of the world's insects. In this study, we characterized a novel opportunistic human pathogen, designated “strain HS,” and found that it is a close relative of the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius. Our results indicate that ancestral relatives of strain HS have served as progenitors for the independent descent of Sodalis-allied endosymbionts found in several insect hosts. Comparative analyses indicate that the gene inventories of the insect endosymbionts were independently derived from a common ancestral template through a combination of irreversible degenerative changes. Our results provide compelling support for the notion that mutualists evolve from pathogenic progenitors. They also elucidate the role of degenerative evolutionary processes in shaping the gene inventories of symbiotic bacteria at a very early stage in these mutualistic associations. PMID:23166503

Clayton, Adam L.; Oakeson, Kelly F.; Gutin, Maria; Pontes, Arthur; Dunn, Diane M.; von Niederhausern, Andrew C.; Weiss, Robert B.; Fisher, Mark; Dale, Colin

2012-01-01

292

On the multiscale origins of fracture resistance in human bone and its biological degradation  

SciTech Connect

Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length-scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone?s strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length-scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation and disease. Indeed aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length-scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to the initiation and growth of cracks.

Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Barth, Holly D.; Ritchie, Robert O.

2012-03-09

293

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial squids from different geographical origins: levels and risks for human consumption.  

PubMed

The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in five commercially valuable squid species from different geographical origins (Atlantic, Indic and Pacific Oceans). Out of the 18 quantified PAHs (the 16 PAHs considered by US EPA as priority pollutants, dibenzo(a,l)pyrene and benzo(j)fluoranthene) only dibenz(a,h)anthracene was not detected. The total concentrations of PAHs varied by a factor of more than 100-fold, from 0.22 (Loligo gahi) to 60.9 ?g/kg ww (Loligo reynaudii). Intra- and inter-specific variability of PAH levels was statistically assessed. Nine carcinogenic (probable/possible) PAHs accounted for 1% (L. reynaudii) to 26% (Loligo opalescens) of the total PAHs content being the main contributors naphthalene (in Loligo duvaucelii, L. reynaudii and Loligo vulgaris species), chrysene (in L. opalescens) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (in L. gahi). PAHs source analysis indicated that four of the five zones of capture of the different squid species are significantly affected by both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources. Assessment of the target carcinogenic risks, established by the US EPA, suggested that L. gahi (Atlantic Ocean) and L. opalescens (from Pacific Ocean) may pose additional risks for consumers, if not eaten in moderation, derived from benzo(a)pyrene ingestion. PMID:23727335

Gomes, Filipa; Oliveira, Marta; Ramalhosa, Maria João; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

2013-09-01

294

Origin, diversity, and maturation of human antiviral antibodies analyzed by high-throughput sequencing.  

PubMed

Our understanding of how antibodies are generated and function could help develop effective vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against viruses such as HIV-1, SARS coronavirus (SARS CoV), and Hendra and Nipah viruses (henipaviruses). Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against the HIV-1 were observed in patients, elicitation of such bnAbs remains a major challenge when compared to other viral targets. We previously hypothesized that HIV-1 could have evolved a strategy to evade the immune system due to absent or very weak binding of germline antibodies to the conserved epitopes that may not be sufficient to initiate and/or maintain an effective immune response. To further explore our hypothesis, we used the 454 sequence analysis of a large naïve library of human IgM antibodies which had been used for selecting antibodies against SARS CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD), and soluble G proteins (sG) of henipaviruses. We found that the human IgM repertoires from the 454 sequencing have diverse germline usages, recombination patterns, junction diversity, and a lower extent of somatic mutation. In this study, we identified antibody maturation intermediates that are related to bnAbs against the HIV-1 and other viruses as observed in normal individuals, and compared their genetic diversity and somatic mutation level along with available structural and functional data. Further computational analysis will provide framework for understanding the underlying genetic and molecular determinants related to maturation pathways of antiviral bnAbs that could be useful for applying novel approaches to the design of effective vaccine immunogens and antibody-based therapeutics. PMID:22876240

Prabakaran, Ponraj; Zhu, Zhongyu; Chen, Weizao; Gong, Rui; Feng, Yang; Streaker, Emily; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

2012-01-01

295

Origin, diversity, and maturation of human antiviral antibodies analyzed by high-throughput sequencing  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of how antibodies are generated and function could help develop effective vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against viruses such as HIV-1, SARS coronavirus (SARS CoV), and Hendra and Nipah viruses (henipaviruses). Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against the HIV-1 were observed in patients, elicitation of such bnAbs remains a major challenge when compared to other viral targets. We previously hypothesized that HIV-1 could have evolved a strategy to evade the immune system due to absent or very weak binding of germline antibodies to the conserved epitopes that may not be sufficient to initiate and/or maintain an effective immune response. To further explore our hypothesis, we used the 454 sequence analysis of a large naïve library of human IgM antibodies which had been used for selecting antibodies against SARS CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD), and soluble G proteins (sG) of henipaviruses. We found that the human IgM repertoires from the 454 sequencing have diverse germline usages, recombination patterns, junction diversity, and a lower extent of somatic mutation. In this study, we identified antibody maturation intermediates that are related to bnAbs against the HIV-1 and other viruses as observed in normal individuals, and compared their genetic diversity and somatic mutation level along with available structural and functional data. Further computational analysis will provide framework for understanding the underlying genetic and molecular determinants related to maturation pathways of antiviral bnAbs that could be useful for applying novel approaches to the design of effective vaccine immunogens and antibody-based therapeutics. PMID:22876240

Prabakaran, Ponraj; Zhu, Zhongyu; Chen, Weizao; Gong, Rui; Feng, Yang; Streaker, Emily; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

2012-01-01

296

Fibre type composition of the human psoas major muscle with regard to the level of its origin.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to explore the fibre type composition of the human psoas major muscle at different levels of its origin, from the first lumbar to the fourth lumbar vertebra, and to compare the muscle fibre size and distribution of different fibre types between levels with respect to its complex postural and dynamic function. Muscle samples were collected from 15 young males (younger than 35 years). Serial transverse sections (5 microm) of the samples were cut by cryomicrotome. Type I, IIA and IIX muscle fibres were typed using myosin heavy chain identification. The serial sections were analysed using a light microscope with a magnitude of 100x. The differences between measurements were evaluated using a repeated-measures anova and Scheffé test for post-hoc analysis. Our study showed that the human psoas major muscle was composed of type I, IIA and IIX muscle fibres. It had a predominance of type IIA muscle fibres, whereas type I muscle fibres had the largest cross-sectional area. Type IIX muscle fibres were present as a far smaller percentage and had the smallest cross-sectional area. Moreover, the fibre type composition of the psoas major muscle was different between levels of its origin starting from the first lumbar to the fourth lumbar vertebra. We conclude that the fibre type composition of the psoas major muscle indicated its dynamic and postural functions, which supports the fact that it is the main flexor of the hip joint (dynamic function) and stabilizer of the lumbar spine, sacroiliac and hip joints (postural function). The cranial part of the psoas major muscle has a primarily postural role, whereas the caudal part of the muscle has a dynamic role. PMID:19930517

Arbanas, Juraj; Klasan, Gordana Starcevic; Nikolic, Marina; Jerkovic, Romana; Miljanovic, Ivo; Malnar, Daniela

2009-12-01

297

Establishment and characterization of a cell line (OMC-3) originating from a human mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

A new human ovarian carcinoma cell line, designated OMC-3, was established from the mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of a 59-year-old woman. This cell line has grown well for 65 months and has been subcultured more than 50 times. Monolayer-cultured cells are polygonal in shape, showing a pavement-like arrangement and a tendency to pile up without contact inhibition. The chromosomal number shows aneuploidy and the modal chromosomal number is in the hypodiploid range. The cells were transplanted into the subcutis of nude mice and produced tumors resembling the original tumor. Ten thousand OMC-3 cells produced CA-125 (228-580 U) and CA-19-9 (2900-5640 U) during 17 days in culture media. CA-125 and CA-19-9 were demonstrated immunohistochemically in the original tumor, heterotransplanted tumor, and OMC-3 cells. The cells contain no estrogen or progesterone receptors. OMC-3 cells were sensitive to actinomycin D, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, and mitomycin C in vitro. Three other reports of ovarian mucinous carcinoma cell lines are reviewed. PMID:2010102

Yamada, T; Ueda, M; Otsuki, Y; Ueki, M; Sugimoto, O

1991-02-01

298

A cell of origin gene signature indicates human bladder cancer has distinct cellular progenitors.  

PubMed

There are two distinct forms of urothelial (bladder) cancer: muscle-invasive (MI) and nonmuscle invasive (NMI) disease. Since it is currently believed that bladder cancer arises by transformation of urothelial cells of the basal layer, bladder cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been isolated based on expression markers found in such cells. However, these CSCs have only been identified in MI tumors raising the intriguing hypothesis that NMI tumor progenitors do not arise from the basal compartment. To test this hypothesis, we carried out genome-wide expression profiling of laser capture microdissected basal and umbrella cells, the two most histologically distinct cell types in normal urothelium and developed a cell of origin (COO) gene signature that distinguishes these. The COO signature was a better predictor of stage and survival than other bladder, generic, or breast CSC signatures and bladder cell differentiation markers in multiple patient cohorts. To assess whether NMI and MI tumors arise from a distinct progenitor cell (DPC) or common progenitor cell, we developed a novel statistical framework that predicts COO score as a function of known genetic alterations (TP53, HRAS, KDM6A, and FGFR3) that drive either MI or NMI bladder cancer and compared this to the observed COO score of the tumor. Analysis of 874 patients in five cohorts established the DPC model as the best fit to the available data. This observation supports distinct progenitor cells in NMI and MI tumors and provides a paradigm shift in our understanding of bladder cancer biology that has significant diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24357085

Dancik, Garrett M; Owens, Charles R; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Theodorescu, Dan

2014-04-01

299

Characterisation of Nuclear Architectural Alterations during In Vitro Differentiation of Human Stem Cells of Myogenic Origin  

PubMed Central

Cell differentiation is based on a synchronised orchestra of complex pathways of intrinsic and extrinsic signals that manifest in the induced expression of specific transcription factors and pivotal genes within the nucleus. One cannot ignore the epigenetic status of differentiating cells, comprising not only histones and DNA modifications but also the spatial and temporal intranuclear chromatin organisation, which is an important regulator of nuclear processes. In the present study, we investigated the nuclear architecture of human primary myoblasts and myocytes in an in vitro culture, with reference to global changes in genomic expression. Repositioning of the chromosomal centromeres, along with alterations in the nuclear shape and volume, was observed as a consequence of myotube formation. Moreover, the microarray data showed that during in vitro myogenesis cells tend to silence rather than induce gene expression. The creation of a chromosome map marked with gene expression changes that were at least 2-fold confirmed the observation. Additionally, almost all of the chromosomal centromeres in the differentiated cells preferentially localised near the nuclear periphery when compared to the undifferentiated cells. The exceptions were chromosomes 7 and 11, in which we were unable to confirm the centromere repositioning. In our opinion, this is the first reported observation of the movement of chromosomal centromeres along differentiating myogenic cells. Based on these data we can conclude that the myogenic differentiation with global gene expression changes is accompanied by the spatial repositioning of chromosomes and chromatin remodelling, which are important processes that regulate cell differentiation. PMID:24019912

Rozwadowska, Natalia; Kolanowski, Tomasz; Wiland, Ewa; Siatkowski, Marcin; Pawlak, Piotr; Malcher, Agnieszka; Mietkiewski, Tomasz; Olszewska, Marta; Kurpisz, Maciej

2013-01-01

300

The human milk microbiota: origin and potential roles in health and disease.  

PubMed

Human milk has been traditionally considered sterile; however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal, mutualistic and/or potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Culture-dependent and -independent techniques have revealed the dominance of staphylococci, streptococci, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in this biological fluid, and their role on the colonization of the infant gut. These bacteria could protect the infant against infections and contribute to the maturation of the immune system, among other functions. Different studies suggest that some bacteria present in the maternal gut could reach the mammary gland during late pregnancy and lactation through a mechanism involving gut monocytes. Thus, modulation of maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy and lactation could have a direct effect on infant health. On the other hand, mammary dysbiosis may lead to mastitis, a condition that represents the first medical cause for undesired weaning. Selected strains isolated from breast milk can be good candidates for use as probiotics. In this review, their potential uses for the treatment of mastitis and to inhibit mother-to-infant transfer of HIV are discussed. PMID:22974824

Fernández, Leónides; Langa, Susana; Martín, Virginia; Maldonado, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Martín, Rocío; Rodríguez, Juan M

2013-03-01

301

Peptoniphilus mikwangii sp. nov., Isolated from a Clinical Specimen of Human Origin.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-positive, anaerobic, and coccus-shaped bacterium, designated as strain ChDC B134(T), was isolated from a human postoperative infectious lesion in the right maxilla between the lateral incisor and canine and was characterized by polyphasic taxonomic analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain ChDC B134(T) belonged to the genus Peptoniphilus, as it showed sequence similarities to Peptoniphilus indolicus KCTC 15023(T) (94.0 %) and Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus KCTC 3321(T) (93.8 %). The prevalent fatty acids of of strain ChDC B134(T) were C16:0 (20.3 %), C18:1 cis 9 (34.3 %), and C18:0 (13.2 %). The DNA G+C content was 30.9 mol%. The cell wall diamino acid was D-ornithine, which is a property shared by other reference type strains of the genus Peptoniphilus. Based on the results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic analysis, strain ChDC B134(T) (=KCOM 1628(T) = KCTC 15227(T) = JCM 30223(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of genus Peptoniphilus, for which the name Peptoniphilus mikwangii sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25319028

Cho, Eugene; Park, Soon-Nang; Shin, Yeseul; Lim, Yun Kyong; Paek, Jayoung; Kim, Hak Kyun; Hwang, Cheol Ho; Jo, Eojin; Jin, Dongchun; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kook, Joong-Ki

2014-10-16

302

Exploring the Molecular Origins of Protein Dynamics in the Active Site of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II  

PubMed Central

We present three-pulse vibrational echo measurements of azide ion bound to the active site Zn of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) and of two separate active-site mutants Thr199 ? Ala (T199A) and Leu198 ? Phe (L198F). Because structural motions of the protein active site influence the frequency of bound ligands, the differences in the time scales of the frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) obtained from global fits to each set of data allow us to make inferences about the time scales of the active site dynamics of HCA II. Surprisingly, the deletion of a potential electrostatic interaction in T199A results in very little change in the FFCF, but the insertion of the bulky phenylalanine ring in L198F causes much faster dynamics. We conclude that the fast, sub-picosecond time scale in the correlation function is attributable to hydrogen bond dynamics, and the slow, apparently static contribution is due to the conformational flexibility of Zn-bound azide in the active site. PMID:19637848

Hill, Sarah E.; Bandaria, Jigar N.; Fox, Michelle; Vanderah, Elizabeth; Kohen, Amnon; Cheatum, Christopher M.

2009-01-01

303

Long-Term Cultured Human Term Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Maternal Origin Displays Plasticity  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an alluring therapeutic resource because of their plasticity, immunoregulatory capacity and ease of availability. Human BM-derived MSCs have limited proliferative capability, consequently, it is challenging to use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Hence, placental MSCs of maternal origin, which is one of richest sources of MSCs were chosen to establish long-term culture from the cotyledons of full-term human placenta. Flow analysis established bonafied MSCs phenotypic characteristics, staining positively for CD29, CD73, CD90, CD105 and negatively for CD14, CD34, CD45 markers. Pluripotency of the cultured MSCs was assessed by in vitro differentiation towards not only intralineage cells like adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, and myotubules cells but also translineage differentiated towards pancreatic progenitor cells, neural cells, and retinal cells displaying plasticity. These cells did not significantly alter cell cycle or apoptosis pattern while maintaining the normal karyotype; they also have limited expression of MHC-II antigens and are Naive for stimulatory factors CD80 and CD 86. Further soft agar assays revealed that placental MSCs do not have the ability to form invasive colonies. Taking together all these characteristics into consideration, it indicates that placental MSCs could serve as good candidates for development and progress of stem-cell based therapeutics. PMID:22550499

Sabapathy, Vikram; Ravi, Saranya; Srivastava, Vivi; Srivastava, Alok; Kumar, Sanjay

2012-01-01

304

Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Emerging Enteric Picobirnaviruses of Animal Origin and Their Relationship to Human Strains  

PubMed Central

Picobirnavirus (PBV) which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae.” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior. Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated. Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses. Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach. Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains. PMID:25136620

Malik, Yashpal S.; Kumar, Naveen; Sharma, Kuldeep; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Banyai, Krisztian

2014-01-01

305

Extended life span of human endometrial stromal cells transfected with cloned origin-defective, temperature-sensitive simian virus 40.  

PubMed Central

Human endometrial stromal cells transfected with an origin-defective, temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 recombinant plasmid are dependent on T-antigen function for proliferation and at the permissive temperature have an extended life span in culture. Southern blot analysis indicates that the transfected gene is present in low copy number, possibly at a single integration site. Normal stromal cells are capable of 10 to 20 population doublings in culture. Transfected cultures have been carried at the permissive temperature to 80 population doublings before crisis. In the multistep model of malignant transformation of human cells, these cells represent one of the earliest stages: extended but finite life span. We have used these cells to investigate alterations in signal transduction that may be responsible for this early stage of transformation caused by the large T antigen. Temperature shift experiments indicate that the expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) but not of c-fos is altered by the large T antigen. Induction of c-fos by serum or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate is independent of temperature. However, in the transfected cells, the induction of ODC by asparagine or serum is greatly enhanced at the permissive temperature. This result indicates that the large T antigen acts downstream of c-fos but upstream of ODC expression in the signal-transducing cascade. Images PMID:1847463

Rinehart, C A; Haskill, J S; Morris, J S; Butler, T D; Kaufman, D G

1991-01-01

306

The recombinant origin of emerging human norovirus GII.4\\/2008: intra-genotypic exchange of the capsid P2 domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

GII.4 noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. A new variant of GII.4, the 2008 variant, has recently increased its prevalence on a global scale. A previous study of this variant in Japan suggested that it might be of recombinant origin, with a breakpoint at the ORF1-ORF2 junction. Here, examination of the evolutionary origin of the 2008

Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam; Huachen Zhu; David K. Smith; Yi Guan; Edward C. Holmes; Oliver G. Pybus

2012-01-01

307

The Origin of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Dictates Their Reparative Properties  

PubMed Central

Background Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) from adipose cardiac tissue have attracted considerable interest in regard to cell?based therapies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that hMSCs from the heart and epicardial fat would be better cells for infarct repair. Methods and Results We isolated and grew hMSCs from patients with ischemic heart disease from 4 locations: epicardial fat, pericardial fat, subcutaneous fat, and the right atrium. Significantly, hMSCs from the right atrium and epicardial fat secreted the highest amounts of trophic and inflammatory cytokines, while hMSCs from pericardial and subcutaneous fat secreted the lowest. Relative expression of inflammation? and fibrosis?related genes was considerably higher in hMSCs from the right atrium and epicardial fat than in subcutaneous fat hMSCs. To determine the functional effects of hMSCs, we allocated rats to hMSC transplantation 7 days after myocardial infarction. Atrial hMSCs induced greatest infarct vascularization as well as highest inflammation score 27 days after transplantation. Surprisingly, cardiac dysfunction was worst after transplantation of hMSCs from atrium and epicardial fat and minimal after transplantation of hMSCs from subcutaneous fat. These findings were confirmed by using hMSC transplantation in immunocompromised mice after myocardial infarction. Notably, there was a correlation between tumor necrosis factor?? secretion from hMSCs and posttransplantation left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction. Conclusions Because of their proinflammatory properties, hMSCs from the right atrium and epicardial fat of cardiac patients could impair heart function after myocardial infarction. Our findings might be relevant to autologous mesenchymal stromal cell therapy and development and progression of ischemic heart disease. PMID:24080908

Naftali?Shani, Nili; Itzhaki?Alfia, Ayelet; Landa?Rouben, Natalie; Kain, David; Holbova, Radka; Adutler?Lieber, Shimrit; Molotski, Natali; Asher, Elad; Grupper, Avishay; Millet, Eran; Tessone, Ariel; Winkler, Eyal; Kastrup, Jens; Feinberg, Micha S.; Zipori, Dov; Pevsner?Fischer, Meirav; Raanani, Ehud; Leor, Jonathan

2013-01-01

308

iPS cells reprogrammed from human mesenchymal-like stem/progenitor cells of dental tissue origin.  

PubMed

Generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and other aspects of clinical applications. Many types of cells have been successfully reprogrammed into iPS cells in the mouse system; however, reprogramming human cells have been more difficult. To date, human dermal fibroblasts are the most accessible and feasible cell source for iPS generation. Dental tissues derived from ectomesenchyme harbor mesenchymal-like stem/progenitor cells and some of the tissues have been treated as biomedical wastes, for example, exfoliated primary teeth and extracted third molars. We asked whether stem/progenitor cells from discarded dental tissues can be reprogrammed into iPS cells. The 4 factors Lin28/Nanog/Oct4/Sox2 or c-Myc/Klf4/Oct4/Sox2 carried by viral vectors were used to reprogram 3 different dental stem/progenitor cells: stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We showed that all 3 can be reprogrammed into iPS cells and appeared to be at a higher rate than fibroblasts. They exhibited a morphology indistinguishable from human embryonic stem (hES) cells in cultures and expressed hES cell markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-80, TRA-2-49, Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2. They formed embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo containing tissues of all 3 germ layers. We conclude that cells of ectomesenchymal origin serve as an excellent alternative source for generating iPS cells. PMID:19795982

Yan, Xing; Qin, Haiyan; Qu, Cunye; Tuan, Rocky S; Shi, Songtao; Huang, George T-J

2010-04-01

309

Human Papillomavirus and Cystic Node Metastasis in Oropharyngeal Cancer and Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin  

PubMed Central

The clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in neck node metastasis from cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is not well established. We aimed to address the relationship of HPV status between node metastasis and the primary tumor, and also the relevance of HPV status regarding radiographically detected cystic node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and CUP. HPV DNA was examined in 68 matched pairs of node metastasis and primary tumor, and in node metastasis from 27 CUPs. In surgically treated CUPs, p16 was examined immunohistochemically. When tonsillectomy proved occult tonsillar cancer in CUP, HPV DNA and p16 were also examined in the occult primary. Cystic node metastasis on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans was correlated with the primary site and HPV status in another series of 255 HNSCCs and CUPs with known HPV status. Node metastasis was HPV-positive in 19/37 (51%) oropharyngeal SCCs (OPSCCs) and 10/27 (37%) CUPs, but not in non-OPSCCs. Fluid was collected from cystic node metastasis using fine needle aspiration in two OPSCCs and one CUP, and all fluid collections were HPV-positive. HPV status, including the presence of HPV DNA, genotype, and physical status, as well as the expression pattern of p16 were consistent between node metastasis and primary or occult primary tumor. Occult tonsillar cancer was found more frequently in p16-positive CUP than in p16-negative CUP (odds ratio (OR), 39.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4–377.8; P?=?0.02). Radiographically, cystic node metastasis was specific to OPSCC and CUP, and was associated with HPV positivity relative to necrotic or solid node metastasis (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.2–45.7; P?=?0.03). In conclusion, HPV status remains unchanged after metastasis. The occult primary of HPV-positive CUP is most probably localized in the oropharynx. HPV status determined from fine needle aspirates facilitates the diagnosis of cystic node metastasis. PMID:24752007

Yasui, Toshimichi; Morii, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshii, Tadashi; Takenaka, Yukinori; Nakahara, Susumu; Todo, Takeshi; Inohara, Hidenori

2014-01-01

310

Novel isolation strategy to deliver pure fetal-origin and maternal-origin mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations from human term placenta.  

PubMed

The placenta is an abundant source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Although presumed of translationally-advantageous fetal origin, the literature instead suggests a high incidence of either contaminating or pure maternal MSC. Despite definitional criteria that MSC are CD34-, increasing evidence suggests that fetal MSC may be CD34 positive in vivo. We flow sorted term placental digests based on CD34+ expression and exploited differential culture media to isolate separately pure fetal and maternal MSC populations. This method has considerable translational implications, in particular to clinical trials underway with "placental" MSC of uncertain or decidual origin. PMID:25239220

Patel, J; Shafiee, A; Wang, W; Fisk, N M; Khosrotehrani, K

2014-11-01

311

Aging of corticospinal tract fibers according to the cerebral origin in the human brain: A diffusion tensor imaging study.  

PubMed

The corticospinal tract (CST) is known to originate from multiple cerebral areas, including the primary motor cortex (M1). In this study, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we attempted to investigate the differences of aging of CST fibers according to the cerebral origin in the human brain. Sixty healthy subjects aged from the 20s to the 70s were recruited, and 10 subjects were assigned to each age group. CST fibers were reconstructed from the M1 (Broadmann's area [BA] 4), the secondary motor area (M2, BA 6), and the primary somatosensory cortex (S1, BA 1-3), respectively. Values of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volume (TV) of CST fibers from each cerebral area were measured. Significant differences in the TV values of CST fibers from the M2 were observed between the 70s age group and the other age groups, except the 60s age group (p<0.05). However, no significant difference in the values of FA and MD of CST fibers from the M2 were observed between age group (p>0.05). No significant differences in the values of FA, MD, and TV of CST fibers from the S1 and M1 were observed between age groups (p>0.05). We found that the fiber number of CST fibers from the M2 was decreased in the 70s age group compared with the 20s-50s age groups. Because the main function of the M2 is motor planning and coordination, our results would be helpful in development of strategies for coping with aging of the CST. PMID:25445381

Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

2015-01-12

312

Adhesion of Human and Animal Escherichia coli Strains in Association with Their Virulence-Associated Genes and Phylogenetic Origins  

PubMed Central

Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H.

2013-01-01

313

The origin, evolution, and functional impact of short insertion–deletion variants identified in 179 human genomes  

PubMed Central

Short insertions and deletions (indels) are the second most abundant form of human genetic variation, but our understanding of their origins and functional effects lags behind that of other types of variants. Using population-scale sequencing, we have identified a high-quality set of 1.6 million indels from 179 individuals representing three diverse human populations. We show that rates of indel mutagenesis are highly heterogeneous, with 43%–48% of indels occurring in 4.03% of the genome, whereas in the remaining 96% their prevalence is 16 times lower than SNPs. Polymerase slippage can explain upwards of three-fourths of all indels, with the remainder being mostly simple deletions in complex sequence. However, insertions do occur and are significantly associated with pseudo-palindromic sequence features compatible with the fork stalling and template switching (FoSTeS) mechanism more commonly associated with large structural variations. We introduce a quantitative model of polymerase slippage, which enables us to identify indel-hypermutagenic protein-coding genes, some of which are associated with recurrent mutations leading to disease. Accounting for mutational rate heterogeneity due to sequence context, we find that indels across functional sequence are generally subject to stronger purifying selection than SNPs. We find that indel length modulates selection strength, and that indels affecting multiple functionally constrained nucleotides undergo stronger purifying selection. We further find that indels are enriched in associations with gene expression and find evidence for a contribution of nonsense-mediated decay. Finally, we show that indels can be integrated in existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS); although we do not find direct evidence that potentially causal protein-coding indels are enriched with associations to known disease-associated SNPs, our findings suggest that the causal variant underlying some of these associations may be indels. PMID:23478400

Montgomery, Stephen B.; Goode, David L.; Kvikstad, Erika; Albers, Cornelis A.; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Ananda, Guruprasad; Howie, Bryan; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Smith, Kevin S.; Anaya, Vanessa; Richardson, Rhea; Davis, Joe; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Sidow, Arend; Duret, Laurent; Gerstein, Mark; Makova, Kateryna D.; Marchini, Jonathan; McVean, Gil; Lunter, Gerton

2013-01-01

314

Monday 26 May 09:30 Archaeology of Modern Human Origins. The Greeks and the Mediterranean World, c. 950-500 BC.  

E-print Network

Monday 26 May 09:30 Archaeology of Modern Human Origins. The Greeks and the Mediterranean World, c. Saturday 31 May 09:30 Archaeology of Southern African Hunter-Gatherers. Farming and Early States in Sub America. Tuesday 03 June 09:30 Biological Techniques in Environmental Archaeology. Mesopotamia and Egypt

Oxford, University of

315

Isolation and Characterization of Different Clones Including Myoepithelial-like Variants from a Clonal Neoplastic Epithelial Duct Cell Line of Human Salivary Gland Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clonal neoplastic epithelial duct cell (HSGc) of human salivary gland origin has a fine structure similar to the intercalated duct cell and the capacity to express secretory component and lac- toferrin. HSGc cells tend to form an occasional glandular arrange ment in vitro and in vivo, and transplantation of cells into nude mice resulted in production of adenocarcinoma. By

Kanemitsu Shirasuna; Kazuya Watatani; Masaru Sugiyama; Shigeyuki Morioka; Tadashi Miyazaki

316

Prevalence of quinolone resistance determinants in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from human origin in Extremadura, Spain.  

PubMed

Resistance to the quinolones nalidixic acid (NAL) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) and the occurrence of quinolone resistance determinants have been investigated in 300 non-typhoidal Salmonella from human origin, isolated in the years between 2004 and 2008, in 6 hospitals within Extremadura (Spain). Salmonella Enteritidis was the major serotype found among quinolone-resistant isolates, most of which were clustered by clonal analysis to a single clone, which presented D87 or S83 substitutions in GyrA. Eleven isolates presented the non-classical quinolone resistance phenotype (resistance to CIP and susceptibility to NAL), lacking mutations in the quinolone resistance determinant region of topoisomerase genes. Among them, one Salmonella Typhimurium isolate carried a qnrS1 gene in a low-molecular-weight plasmid, pQnrS1-HLR25, identical to plasmids previously found in the UK, Taiwan, and USA. The occurrence of this genetic element could represent a risk for the horizontal transmission of quinolone resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:24581744

Campos, Maria Jorge; Palomo, Gonzalo; Hormeño, Lorena; Herrera-León, Silvia; Domínguez, Lucas; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Quesada, Alberto

2014-05-01

317

Experimental lepromatous leprosy in the white-handed gibbon (Hylobatus lar): successful inoculation with leprosy bacilli of human origin.  

PubMed Central

Leprosy bacilli of human origin were inoculated into a white-handed gibbon by the i.v. and i.p. routes, and also locally into ears, testis and around an ulnar nerve. The animal was observed closely during a period of nearly 15 years and did not exhibit any clinical evidence of cutaneous or neurological disease. At death, a wide range of tissues was taken for bacterial counts and histological examination, and a disseminated and progressive infection was demonstrated. Acid-fast bacilli were found in many sites; their morphological appearance distribution in nerves, and pattern of multiplication in mouse foot-pads, and also the presence of anti-mycobacterial antibody in the serum and the absence of specific lymphocyte transformation were all in keeping with an infection by Mycobacterium leprae, at an early lepromatous stage. This is probably the first fully documented report of experimental lepromatous infection in a primate. The findings are discussed in relation to the long incubation period of le promatous leprosy and the difficulties of diagnosing the disease at an early stage in man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs. 4-6 PMID:371653

Waters, M. F.; Bakri, I. B.; Isa, H. J.; Rees, R. J.; McDougall, A. C.

1978-01-01

318

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in coastal natives of British Columbia: phylogenetic affinities and possible origins.  

PubMed Central

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection has been discovered recently in people of Amerindian descent living in coastal areas of British Columbia, Canada. DNA sequencing combined with phylogenetic analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of HTLV-1 strains recovered from these British Columbia Indians (BCI) was conducted. Sequence-based phylogenetic trees distributed the BCI isolates among the Japanese subcluster (subcluster B) and the geographically widely distributed subcluster (subcluster A) of the large HTLV-1 cosmopolitan cluster. Long terminal repeat (LTR) RFLP typing revealed three distinct, equally frequent LTR cleavage patterns, two of which were of previously recognized Japanese and widely dispersed cosmopolitan types. A third, new cleavage pattern was detected which may have arisen by recombination between two other HTLV-1 genotypes. Our results suggest multiple origins for HTLV-1 in BCI, which are equally consistent with (i) a cluster of recent sporadic infections, (ii) ancient endemic vertical transmission through Amerindian lineages, or (iii) both. PMID:7474147

Picard, F J; Coulthart, M B; Oger, J; King, E E; Kim, S; Arp, J; Rice, G P; Dekaban, G A

1995-01-01

319

Evolution and Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

MY attention has been directed to the leading article in the issue of NATURE of January 26 in which criticisms are made on an address by me to the Victoria Institute recently. I have no desire to enter into further written controversy on the subject just at present, and you might probably be unable in any case to afford space

Ambrose Fleming

1935-01-01

320

Common virulence factors and genetic relationships between O18:K1:H7 Escherichia coli isolates of human and avian origin.  

PubMed

Extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) Escherichia coli strains of serotype O18:K1:H7 are mainly responsible for neonatal meningitis and sepsis in humans and belong to a limited number of closely related clones. The same serotype is also frequently isolated from the extraintestinal lesions of colibacillosis in poultry, but it is not well known to what extent human and avian strains of this particular serotype are related. Twenty-two ExPEC isolates of human origin and 33 isolates of avian origin were compared on the basis of their virulence determinants, lethality for chicks, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, and classification in the main phylogenetic groups. Both avian and human isolates were lethal for chicks and harbored similar virulence genotypes. A major virulence pattern, identified in 75% of the isolates, was characterized by the presence of F1 variant fimbriae; S fimbriae; IbeA; the aerobactin system; and genomic fragments A9, A12, D1, D7, D10, and D11 and by the absence of P fimbriae, F1C fimbriae, Afa adhesin, and CNF1. All but one of the avian and human isolates also belonged to major phylogenetic group B2. However, various subclonal populations could be distinguished by PFGE in relation to animal species and geographical origin. These results demonstrate that very closely related clones can be recovered from extraintestinal infections in humans and chickens and suggest that avian pathogenic E. coli isolates of serotype O18:K1:H7 are potential human pathogens. PMID:17021071

Moulin-Schouleur, Maryvonne; Schouler, Catherine; Tailliez, Patrick; Kao, Mu-Rong; Brée, Annie; Germon, Pierre; Oswald, Eric; Mainil, Jacques; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jorge

2006-10-01

321

Glycan analysis of Fonsecaea monophora from clinical and environmental origins reveals different structural profile and human antigenic response  

PubMed Central

Dematiaceous fungi constitute a large and heterogeneous group, characterized by having a dark pigment, the dihydroxynaftalen melanin—DHN, inside their cell walls. In nature they are found mainly as soil microbiota or decomposing organic matter, and are spread in tropical and subtropical regions. The fungus Fonsecaea monophora causes chromoblastomycosis in humans, and possesses essential mechanisms that may enhance pathogenicity, proliferation and dissemination inside the host. Glycoconjugates confer important properties to these pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, structural characterization of glycan structures present in two different strains of F. monophora MMHC82 and FE5p4, from clinical and environmental origins, respectively, was performed. Each one were grown on Minimal Medium (MM) and Czapeck-Dox (CD) medium, and the water soluble cell wall glycoconjugates and exopolysaccharides (EPS) were evaluated by NMR, methylation and principal component analysis (PCA). By combining the methylation and 2D NMR analyses, it was possible to visualize the glycosidic profiles of the complex carbohydrate mixtures. Significant differences were observed in ?-D-Galf-(1?5) and (1?6) linkages, ?- and ?-D-Glcp-(1?3), (1?4), and (1?6) units, as well as in ?-D-Manp. PCA from 1H-NMR data showed that MMHC82 from CD medium showed a higher variation in the cell wall carbohydrates, mainly related to O-2 substituted ?-D-Galf (? 106.0/5.23 and ? 105.3/5.23) units. In order to investigate the antigenic response of the glycoconjugates, these were screened against serum from chromoblastomycosis patients. The antigen which contained the cell wall of MMHC82 grown in MM had ?-D-Manp units that promoted higher antigenic response. The distribution of these fungal species in nature and the knowledge of how cell wall polysaccharides and glycoconjugates structure vary, may contribute to the better understanding and the elucidation of the pathology caused by this fungus. PMID:25401093

Burjack, Juliana R.; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P.; Ruthes, Andrea C.; Riter, Daniel S.; Vicente, Vania A.; Alvarenga, Larissa M.; Sassaki, Guilherme L.

2014-01-01

322

A novel multiplex-PCR for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium bovis in clinical isolates of both veterinary and human origin.  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease that not only causes huge economic losses but also poses an important risk for human infection. The definitive identification of a clinical isolate relies on time-consuming, highly specialized and laborious biochemical tests. We have developed a method for the rapid and reliable identification of Mycobacterium bovis and for its simultaneous differentiation from other members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Furthermore, the technique also allowed us to distinguish M. tuberculosis complex members from other Mycobacterial species. The method comprises both a single PCR and a multiplex-PCR and can be confidently applied to samples of both veterinary and human origin. PMID:12825733

Cobos-Marín, L.; Montes-Vargas, J.; Rivera-Gutierrez, S.; Licea-Navarro, A.; González-y-Merchand, J. A.; Estrada-García, I.

2003-01-01

323

Time and Place of Human Origins, the African Eve Hypothesis Examined through Modelling: Can High Schools Contribute?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of mitochondrial DNA imply that modern humans arose in Africa 150,000 years ago and spread throughout the world, replacing all prior human groups. But many paleontologists see continuity in human fossils on each continent and over a much longer time. Modeling may help test these alternatives. (Author/MKR)

Oxnard, Charles

1994-01-01

324

Human Origins: Problems in the Interpretation of New Evidence. Third Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Chautauqua-type short course in human evolution is divided into two parts: The Biochemical Evidence for Human Evolution, and the Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution. The first part covers the comparison of macromolecular differences between species. This includes comparison of DNA base-ratios and amino acid substitution in enzymes and other…

Almquist, Alan J.; Cronin, John E.

325

Early Origin for HumanLike Precision Grasping: A Comparative Study of Pollical Distal Phalanges in Fossil Hominins  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe morphology of human pollical distal phalanges (PDP) closely reflects the adaptation of human hands for refined precision grip with pad-to-pad contact. The presence of these precision grip-related traits in the PDP of fossil hominins has been related to human-like hand proportions (i.e. short hands with a long thumb) enabling the thumb and finger pads to contact. Although this has

Sergio Almécija; Salvador Moyà-Solà; David M. Alba; David S. Strait

2010-01-01

326

CROSS-SPECIES TRANSMISSION OF GIARDIA: INOCULATION OF BEAVERS AND MUSKRATS WITH CYSTS OF HUMAN, BEAVER, MOUSE, AND MUSKRAT ORIGIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Giardia cysts isolated from humans, beavers, mice and muskrats were tested in cross-species transmission experiments for their ability to infect either beavers or muskrats. iardia cysts, derived from multiple symptomatic human donors and used for inoculation of beavers ormuskrats...

327

Evaluation of the efficacy of 100% Type-I collagen membrane of bovine origin in the treatment of human gingival recession: A clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background: Various treatment modalities have been devised for gingival recession, which is one of the most common signs of periodontal disease. The present study evaluates the efficacy of bioresorbable 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin in the treatment of human gingival recession. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of Miller's class I or class II localized gingival recession defects on the facial surface were treated with 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin in conjunction with coronally positioned flap. Pre-operative and post-operative assessments were performed with respect to probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and clinical recession at 12, 24 and 36 weeks. The data thus collected were analyzed statistically. Results: Statistically significant improvement based on Student's t test was found in all the three clinical parameters. Conclusion: Bioresorbable 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin has given inspiring results in the treatment of human gingival recession defects, thereby justifying the use of this material wherever indicated.

Soni, Nitin; Sikri, Poonam; Kapoor, Daljit; Soni, Bhavita Wadhwa; Jain, Rachna

2014-01-01

328

The recombinant origin of emerging human norovirus GII.4/2008: intra-genotypic exchange of the capsid P2 domain.  

PubMed

GII.4 noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. A new variant of GII.4, the 2008 variant, has recently increased its prevalence on a global scale. A previous study of this variant in Japan suggested that it might be of recombinant origin, with a breakpoint at the ORF1-ORF2 junction. Here, examination of the evolutionary origin of the 2008 variant based on a larger sample of worldwide GII.4 norovirus sequences revealed a more complex pattern of recombination between the 2006a- and 2006b-like variants of genotype GII.4, involving the P2 antigenic domain. Double (termed '2008i') and triple (termed '2008ii') recombinant forms of 2008 variants were identified. This study highlights the possible importance of intra-genotypic recombination over antigenic regions in driving norovirus evolution, and is suggestive of a process analogous to the antigenic shift of influenza A virus by reassortment. PMID:22238233

Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Zhu, Huachen; Smith, David K; Guan, Yi; Holmes, Edward C; Pybus, Oliver G

2012-04-01

329

Structure of the NS1 Protein N-Terminal Origin Recognition/Nickase Domain from the Emerging Human Bocavirus  

E-print Network

Human bocavirus is a newly identified, globally prevalent, parvovirus that is associated with respiratory infection in infants and young children. Parvoviruses encode a large nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) that is essential ...

Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Zhao, Haiyan; Shen, Weiran; Qiu, Jianming; Tang, Liang

2013-08-21

330

Ancient teeth and modern human origins: An expanded comparison of African Plio-Pleistocene and recent world dental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research by the first author revealed that, relative to other modern peoples, sub-Saharan Africans exhibit the highest frequencies of ancestral (or plesiomorphic) dental traits and, thus, appear to be least derived dentally from an ancestral hominin state. This determination, in conjunction with various other lines of dental morphological evidence, was interpreted to be supportive of an African origin for

Joel D Irish; Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg

2003-01-01

331

Differential Expression of bcl2 Protooncogene in Neuroblastoma and Other Human Tumor Cell Lines of Neural Origin1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bell protooncogene was originally discovered because of its in volvement in t(14;18) chromosomal translocations frequently found in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The expression of this gene is reported to be highly tissue specific, with bell mRNAs being readily detectable only in hematolymphoid tissues and brain. To explore the possible involvement of beli in neural tumors, we surveyed a variety of tumor

John C. Reed; Lynn Meister; Shigeki Tanaka; Michael Cuddy; Samuel Yum; Claudia Geyer; David Pleasure

1991-01-01

332

[Studying in vitro neuroprotective properties of GK-2(h)--a new original mimetic of human nerve growth factor].  

PubMed

Human nerve growth factor (NGF) mimetic hexamethylenediamide bis-N-monosuccinyl-glicyl-lysine) (GK-2(h)) demonstrates protective activity on immortalized mouse hippocampal cell line HT22 in a concentration up to 10(-13)M against hydrogen peroxide toxicity and in concentration up to 10(-8) M against glutamate toxicity. GK-2(h) dipeptide protects rat PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells in a concentration up to 10(-7) M and protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in a concentration up to 10(-8) against 6-hydroxydofamine-induced damage. PMID:24791333

Antipova, T A; Nikolaev, S V; Gudasheva, T A; Seredenin, S B

2014-01-01

333

The "Malaria's Eve" hypothesis and the debate concerning the origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The debate over whether the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum underwent a recent severe population bottleneck ("Malaria's Eve" hypothesis) has attracted great attention recently. Understanding the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of the parasite has practical implications for developing disease control measures. PMID:12919857

Su, Xin Zhuan; Mu, Jianbing; Joy, Deirdre A

2003-08-01

334

The Origins of Human Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis and Their Implications for Cancer Prevention and Treatmentâ€\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiológica! studies provide evidence that environmental factors (external agents such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses) play a major role in the causation of the majority of human tumors. This is a highly optimistic message, since it implies that cancer is largely a preventable disease. To meet this challenge we must, however, understand the mech anisms of cancer causation at the

I. Bernard Weinstein

335

Original Contribution The induction of human superoxide dismutase and catalase in vivo: A fundamentally new approach to antioxidant therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composition consisting of extracts of five widely studied medicinal plants (Protandim) was administered to healthy human subjects ranging in age from 20 to 78 years. Individual ingredients were selected on the basis of published findings of induction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and\\/or catalase in rodents in vivo, combined with evidence of decreasing lipid peroxidation. Each ingredient was present at

Sally K. Nelson; Swapan K. Bose; Gary K. Grunwald; Paul Myhill; Joe M. McCord

336

Genome-wide parent-of-origin DNA methylation analysis reveals the intricacies of human imprinting and suggests a germline methylation-independent mechanism of establishment.  

PubMed

Differential methylation between the two alleles of a gene has been observed in imprinted regions, where the methylation of one allele occurs on a parent-of-origin basis, the inactive X-chromosome in females, and at those loci whose methylation is driven by genetic variants. We have extensively characterized imprinted methylation in a substantial range of normal human tissues, reciprocal genome-wide uniparental disomies, and hydatidiform moles, using a combination of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density methylation microarrays. This approach allowed us to define methylation profiles at known imprinted domains at base-pair resolution, as well as to identify 21 novel loci harboring parent-of-origin methylation, 15 of which are restricted to the placenta. We observe that the extent of imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) is extremely similar between tissues, with the exception of the placenta. This extra-embryonic tissue often adopts a different methylation profile compared to somatic tissues. Further, we profiled all imprinted DMRs in sperm and embryonic stem cells derived from parthenogenetically activated oocytes, individual blastomeres, and blastocysts, in order to identify primary DMRs and reveal the extent of reprogramming during preimplantation development. Intriguingly, we find that in contrast to ubiquitous imprints, the majority of placenta-specific imprinted DMRs are unmethylated in sperm and all human embryonic stem cells. Therefore, placental-specific imprinting provides evidence for an inheritable epigenetic state that is independent of DNA methylation and the existence of a novel imprinting mechanism at these loci. PMID:24402520

Court, Franck; Tayama, Chiharu; Romanelli, Valeria; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Okamura, Kohji; Sugahara, Naoko; Simón, Carlos; Moore, Harry; Harness, Julie V; Keirstead, Hans; Sanchez-Mut, Jose Vicente; Kaneki, Eisuke; Lapunzina, Pablo; Soejima, Hidenobu; Wake, Norio; Esteller, Manel; Ogata, Tsutomu; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Monk, David

2014-04-01

337

Do Human Extraintestinal Escherichia coli Infections Resistant to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins Originate From Food-Producing Animals? A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

To find out whether food-producing animals (FPAs) are a source of extraintestinal expanded-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESCR-EC) infections in humans, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically reviewed. Thirty-four original, peer-reviewed publications were identified for inclusion. Six molecular epidemiology studies supported the transfer of resistance via whole bacterium transmission (WBT), which was best characterized among poultry in the Netherlands. Thirteen molecular epidemiology studies supported transmission of resistance via mobile genetic elements, which demonstrated greater diversity of geography and host FPA. Seventeen molecular epidemiology studies did not support WBT and two did not support mobile genetic element-mediated transmission. Four observational epidemiology studies were consistent with zoonotic transmission. Overall, there is evidence that a proportion of human extraintestinal ESCR-EC infections originate from FPAs. Poultry, in particular, is probably a source, but the quantitative and geographical extent of the problem is unclear and requires further investigation. PMID:25301206

Lazarus, Benjamin; Paterson, David L; Mollinger, Joanne L; Rogers, Benjamin A

2015-02-01

338

Human microRNA-24 modulates highly pathogenic avian-origin H5N1 influenza A virus infection in A549 cells by targeting secretory pathway furin.  

PubMed

A common critical cellular event that many human enveloped viruses share is the requirement for proteolytic cleavage of the viral glycoprotein by furin in the host secretory pathway. For example, the furin-dependent proteolytic activation of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A (infA) H5 and H7 haemagglutinin precursor (HA0) subtypes is critical for yielding fusion-competent infectious virions. In this study, we hypothesized that viral hijacking of the furin pathway by HP infA viruses to permit cleavage of HA0 could represent a novel molecular mechanism controlling the dynamic production of fusion-competent infectious virus particles during the viral life cycle. We explored the biological role of a newly identified furin-directed human microRNA, miR-24, in this process as a potential post-transcriptional regulator of the furin-mediated activation of HA0 and production of fusion-competent virions in the host secretory pathway. We report that miR-24 and furin are differentially expressed in human A549 cells infected with HP avian-origin infA H5N1. Using miR-24 mimics, we demonstrated a robust decrease in both furin mRNA levels and intracellular furin activity in A549 cells. Importantly, pretreatment of A549 cells with miR-24 mimicked these results: a robust decrease of H5N1 infectious virions and a complete block of H5N1 virus spread that was not observed in A549 cells infected with low-pathogenicity swine-origin infA H1N1 virus. Our results suggest that viral-specific downregulation of furin-directed microRNAs such as miR-24 during the life cycle of HP infA viruses may represent a novel regulatory mechanism that governs furin-mediated proteolytic activation of HA0 glycoproteins and production of infectious virions. PMID:25234642

Loveday, Emma-Kate; Diederich, Sandra; Pasick, John; Jean, François

2015-01-01

339

An environmental survey of surface waters using mitochondrial DNA from human, bovine and porcine origin as fecal source tracking markers.  

PubMed

Fecal contamination of surface waters is one the major sources of waterborne pathogens and consequently, is an important concern for public health. For reliable fecal source tracking (FST) monitoring, there is a need for a multi-marker toolbox as no single all-encompassing method currently exists. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a source tracking marker has emerged as a promising animal-specific marker. However, very few comprehensive field studies were done on the occurrence of this marker in surface waters. In this report, water samples were obtained from 82 sites in different watersheds over a six year period. The samples were analyzed for the presence of human, bovine and porcine mtDNA by endpoint nested PCR, along with the human-specific Bacteroidales HF183 marker. These sites represented a mix of areas with different anthropogenic activities, natural, urban and agricultural. The occurrences of mitoHu (human), mitoBo (bovine), mitoPo (porcine) and HF183 specific PCR amplifications from the samples were 46%, 23%, 6% and 50%, respectively. The occurrence of mitoHu and HF183 was high in all environment types with higher occurrence in the natural and urban areas, whereas the occurrence of mitoBo was higher in agricultural areas. FST marker concentrations were measured by real-time PCR for samples positive for these markers. The concentration of the mitoHu markers was one order of magnitude lower than HF183. There was co-linearity between the concentrations of the mitoHu and HF183 markers. Co-linearity was also observed between HF183 concentration and fecal coliform levels. Such a relationship was not observed between the mitoHu concentration and fecal coliform levels. In summary, our results showed a high incidence of human fecal pollution throughout the environment while demonstrating the potential of mtDNA as suitable FST markers. PMID:25463935

Villemur, Richard; Imbeau, Marianne; Vuong, Minh N; Masson, Luke; Payment, Pierre

2014-11-01

340

Evolutionary Genetics of Human Enterovirus 71: Origin, Population Dynamics, Natural Selection, and Seasonal Periodicity of the VP1 Gene? †  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is one of the major etiologic causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children worldwide, with fatal instances of neurological complications becoming increasingly common. Global VP1 capsid sequences (n = 628) sampled over 4 decades were collected and subjected to comprehensive evolutionary analysis using a suite of phylogenetic and population genetic methods. We estimated that the common ancestor of human EV-71 likely emerged around 1941 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1929 to 1952), subsequently diverging into three genogroups: B, C, and the now extinct genogroup A. Genealogical analysis revealed that diverse lineages of genogroup B and C (subgenogroups B1 to B5 and C1 to C5) have each circulated cryptically in the human population for up to 5 years before causing large HFMD outbreaks, indicating the quiescent persistence of EV-71 in human populations. Estimated phylogenies showed a complex pattern of spatial structure within well-sampled subgenogroups, suggesting endemicity with occasional lineage migration among locations, such that past HFMD epidemics are unlikely to be linked to continuous transmission of a single strain of virus. In addition, rises in genetic diversity are correlated with the onset of epidemics, driven in part by the emergence of novel EV-71 subgenogroups. Using subgenogroup C1 as a model, we observe temporal strain replacement through time, and we investigate the evidence for positive selection at VP1 immunogenic sites. We discuss the consequences of the evolutionary dynamics of EV-71 for vaccine design and compare its phylodynamic behavior with that of influenza virus. PMID:20089660

Tee, Kok Keng; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Chan, Yoke Fun; Bible, Jon M.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tong, C. Y. William; Takebe, Yutaka; Pybus, Oliver G.

2010-01-01

341

Origin and expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (coleoptera: scolytinae): a mixture of historical natural expansion and contemporary human-mediated relocation.  

PubMed

The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats. PMID:25372458

Lü, Jun; Hu, Shao-ji; Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

2014-01-01

342

Expression of the human amylase genes: Recent origin of a salivary amylase promoter from an actin pseudogene  

SciTech Connect

The human genes encoding salivary amylase (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase (AMY2) are nearly identical in structure and sequence. The authors have used ribonuclease protection studies to identify the functional gene copies in this multigene family. Riboprobes derived from each gene were hybridized to RNA from human pancreas, parotid and liver. The sizes of the protected fragments demonstrated that both pancreatic genes are expressed in pancreas. One of the pancreatic genes, AMY2B, is also transcribed at a low level in liver, but not from the promoter used in pancreas. AMY1 transcripts were detected in parotid, but not in pancreas or liver. Unexpected fragments protected by liver RNA led to the discovery that the 5{prime} regions of the five human amylase genes contain a processed {gamma}-actin pseudogene. The promoter and start site for transcription of AMY1 are recently derived from the 3{prime} untranslated region of {gamma}-actin. In addition, insertion of an endogenous retrovirus has interrupted the {gamma}-actin pseudogene in four of the five amylase genes.

Samuelson, L.C.; Gumucio, D.L.; Meisler, M.H. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Wiebauer, K. (Friedrich Miescher Institut, Basel (Switzerland))

1988-09-12

343

Validation of an original incubator set-up for the exposure of human astrocyte cells to X-band microwaves in a GTEM-chamber.  

PubMed

A current concern about the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is increasing with the wide spread use of X-band microwaves (MW, 8-10 GHz range). Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) field flat transmission lines are currently being used for experimental exposure of biological samples to high frequency EMF. Experiments carried out on human cells in culture require optimal growing temperature conditions, i.e. 37 °C, 5% CO2 in a humidified atmosphere. The aim of our work has been: i) to built up an original incubator set-up, the so called GTEM-incubator, for exposure of human cells in culture to MW inside a GTEM-chamber, under optimal growing physical conditions; ii) to make the validation of the GTEM-incubator by growing cell samples inside the non-energized GTEM-chamber (test sample) comparing the results with the ones obtained from cell samples grown inside a standard incubator (control samples). The features for comparison were: cell morphology, expression and distribution of cytoskeleton proteins, genotoxicity, viability and cell cycle progression. Any variation in any of the studied parameters would allow for detecting any possible failure or misconception in our GTEM-incubator working test. The results obtained in control and test incubators showed non-significant differences in the development of both cell populations for any of the studied parameters. Thereby our GTEM-incubator is considered valid for our purposes of human cell exposures to X-band MW. PMID:21751150

Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Del Moral, A; Pérez-Castejón, C; Llorente, M; Vera, A; Azanza, M J

2011-09-01

344

[Immunomodulators of microbial origin enhance cytotoxicity of human mononuclear leukocytes and reduce metastatic progression of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].  

PubMed

Effect of immunomodulators for microbial origin on innate immunity and antitumor system was continued to study. Immunomodificator Immunovac VP-4, purified staphylococcal toxoid and glucosaminyl muramyl dipeptide (GMDP) equally enhanced cytotoxicity of mononuclear leukocytes of peripheral blood of healthy donors. Index of cytotoxicity was 2.78, 2.77 and 2.70 respectively. Reduced metastatic progression of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was observed after Immunovac VP-4 and GMDP administration. Effectiveness was seen when preparations administered according to schedules including their administration before implantation of the tumor. If preparations were administered number of metastases reduced in 4.4-5.6 times and size of metastases reduced in 7-10 times. Interplay between antitumor activity of studied immunomodulators and cytotoxic activity of NK-cells, which are base effectors of antitumor immune response, are discussed. PMID:17163136

Akhmatova, N K; Semenova, I B; Donenko, F V; Kiselevski?, M V; Kurbatova, E A; Egorova, N B

2006-01-01

345

Differences in the pattern and regulation of mineral deposition in human cell lines of osteogenic and non-osteogenic origin.  

PubMed

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used as a cellular model of bone formation, and can mineralize in vitro in response to osteogenic medium (OM). It is unclear, however, whether this property is specific to cells of mesenchymal origin. We analysed the OM response in 3 non-osteogenic lines, HEK293, HeLa and NTera, compared to MSCs. Whereas HEK293 cells failed to respond to OM conditions, the 2 carcinoma-derived lines NTera and HeLa deposited a calcium phosphate mineral comparable to that present in MSC cultures. However, unlike MSCs, HeLa and NTera cultures did so in the absence of dexamethasone. This discrepancy was confirmed, as bone morphogenetic protein inhibition obliterated the OM response in MSCs but not in HeLa or NTera, indicating that these 2 models can deposit mineral through a mechanism independent of established dexamethasone or bone morphogenetic protein signalling. PMID:22123583

Rashidi, Hassan; Strohbuecker, Stephanie; Jackson, Leigh; Kalra, Spandan; Blake, Alexander J; France, Louise; Tufarelli, Cristina; Sottile, Virginie

2012-01-01

346

A quantitative ranking of Canada's research output of original human studies for the decade 1989 to 1998  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Since 1987 research articles have been catalogued with the author's affiliation address in the 40 databases of the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) of the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md. The present study was conducted to examine the Canadian entries in MEDLARS to interpret past and future trends and to combine the MEDLARS demographic data with data from other sources to rank Canadian research output of human studies both nationally and internationally. METHODS: The PubMed Web site of the National Library of Medicine was used to count medical articles archived in MEDLARS and published from Jan. 1, 1989, through Dec. 31, 1998. The articles attributed to Canadian authors were compared by country, province, city, medical school, hospital, article type, journal and medical specialty. RESULTS: During the study period Canadian authors contributed on average 3% (standard deviation [SD] 0.2%) of the worldwide MEDLARS content each year, which translated to a mean of 11,067 (SD 1037) articles per year; 49% were human studies, of which 13% were clinical or controlled trials, and 55% involved people aged 18 years or less. In total, 68% of the articles were by authors affiliated with Canadian medical schools; those affiliated with the University of Toronto accounted for the greatest number (8604), whereas authors affiliated with McGill University had the greatest rate of annual increase in the quantity published (8%). Over one-third (38%) of the articles appeared in Canadian journals. When counted by specialty, 17% of the articles were by authors with clinical specialties, 5% by those with surgical specialties and 3% by those with laboratory specialties. INTERPRETATION: The annual rate of increase in research output for Canada was more than 3 times higher than that seen world wide. Canada is now ranked seventh among countries contributing human studies to MEDLARS. The increase indicates that Canada's medical schools are productive, competitive in making contributions to medical science and are supporting Canadian journals. PMID:11216196

Gagnon, R E; Macnab, A J; Gagnon, F A

2000-01-01

347

Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Originating from the Bilateral Inferior Turbinate in Humans with Nasal Septal Deviation  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Nasal septal deviation (NSD) is often associated with overgrowth of the unilateral inferior turbinate. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into multiple cell types, including osteoblasts. We tested the hypothesis that turbinate size affects human turbinate-derived MSC (hTMSCs) quantity, proliferation, and differentiation into osteogenic lineages, and that hypertrophic turbinates may predispose to NSD on the contralateral side. Subjects and Methods The hypertrophic and contralateral inferior turbinate tissues used in our study were obtained and cultured from the tissue discarded from 10 patients who underwent septoplasty and partial turbinectomy. After isolating the hTMSCs from both turbinates, the cells were enumerated using an automated cell counter. The expression of surface markers for MSCs over four passages was assessed by fluorescent-activated cell sorting analysis (FACS), and cell proliferation was assessed using a cell counting kit (CCK)-8 according to turbinate size. In addition, osteogenic differentiation of hTMSCs was identified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red S staining, after which osteoblastic gene expression was evaluated. Results There was no significant difference in the number of hTMSCs. FACS analysis revealed that the hTMSCs were negative for CD14, CD19, CD34, and HLA-DR, and positive for CD29, CD73, and CD90, representing a characteristic MSC phenotype, with no significant difference between the two groups. The cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of the hTMSCs were also not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions We conclude that turbinate size does not affect the characterization, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation potential of hTMSCs in vitro test, and therefore should not affect the clinical decision of whether to use autologous or allogenic hTMSCs. However, more experiments are required to definitively state the relationship of hTMSCs with turbinate size or the process NSD in humans. PMID:24926874

Choi, Jin; Lee, Dong Chang; Oh, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae

2014-01-01

348

[The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water. PMID:23680749

Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

2013-04-01

349

DNA methylation patterns in human tissues of uniparental origin using a zinc-Finger gene (ZNF127) from the Angelman/Prader-Willi region  

SciTech Connect

In order to further our understanding of the epigenetic modification of DNA and its role in imprinting, we examined DNA methylation patterns of human tissues of uniparental origin. We used complete hydatidiform moles (CHM), which are totally androgenetic conceptions, to examine the paternal methylation pattern in the absence of a maternal contribution and we used ovarian teratomas to represent the maternal counterpart. We carried out an analysis of DNA methylation of a gene which has been shown to contain sites which are differentially methylated in a parent-specific fashion. The gene, ZNF127, is located on chromosome 15q11-q13 in the region associated with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. The parent-of-origin DNA methylation has been postulated to reflect the presence of an imprint and recent studies have confirmed that ZNF127 is differentially expressed only from the paternal chromosome. We identified a unique pattern of hyper- and hypomethylated sites in androgenetic conceptions which was nearly identical to the paternal pattern found in sperm. This may represent the paternal germ-line methylation imprint. We also studied partial hydatidiform moles, non-molar triploid conceptions, normal chorionic villi, and somatic tissue. These all demonstrated a modified DNA methylation pattern characteristic of normal chorionic villi with only limited findings of the imprint. Our results suggest that human androgenetic conceptions may provide an excellent model to analyze epigenetic DNA modifications, such as methylation, in imprinted genes. The paternal allele-specific methylation imprint will also be useful clinically to confirm the androgenetic nature of suspected molar conceptions in which parental blood samples may not be available. 55 refs., 3 figs.

Mowery-Rushton, P.A.; Surti, U.; Locker, J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); and others

1996-01-11

350

A New Algorithm to Diagnose Atrial Ectopic Origin from Multi Lead ECG Systems - Insights from 3D Virtual Human Atria and Torso  

PubMed Central

Rapid atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) predispose to ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and stroke. Identifying the origin of atrial ectopic activity from the electrocardiogram (ECG) can help to diagnose the early onset of AF in a cost-effective manner. The complex and rapid atrial electrical activity during AF makes it difficult to obtain detailed information on atrial activation using the standard 12-lead ECG alone. Compared to conventional 12-lead ECG, more detailed ECG lead configurations may provide further information about spatio-temporal dynamics of the body surface potential (BSP) during atrial excitation. We apply a recently developed 3D human atrial model to simulate electrical activity during normal sinus rhythm and ectopic pacing. The atrial model is placed into a newly developed torso model which considers the presence of the lungs, liver and spinal cord. A boundary element method is used to compute the BSP resulting from atrial excitation. Elements of the torso mesh corresponding to the locations of the placement of the electrodes in the standard 12-lead and a more detailed 64-lead ECG configuration were selected. The ectopic focal activity was simulated at various origins across all the different regions of the atria. Simulated BSP maps during normal atrial excitation (i.e. sinoatrial node excitation) were compared to those observed experimentally (obtained from the 64-lead ECG system), showing a strong agreement between the evolution in time of the simulated and experimental data in the P-wave morphology of the ECG and dipole evolution. An algorithm to obtain the location of the stimulus from a 64-lead ECG system was developed. The algorithm presented had a success rate of 93%, meaning that it correctly identified the origin of atrial focus in 75/80 simulations, and involved a general approach relevant to any multi-lead ECG system. This represents a significant improvement over previously developed algorithms. PMID:25611350

Alday, Erick A. Perez; Colman, Michael A.; Langley, Philip; Butters, Timothy D.; Higham, Jonathan; Workman, Antony J.; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

2015-01-01

351

A New Algorithm to Diagnose Atrial Ectopic Origin from Multi Lead ECG Systems - Insights from 3D Virtual Human Atria and Torso.  

PubMed

Rapid atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) predispose to ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and stroke. Identifying the origin of atrial ectopic activity from the electrocardiogram (ECG) can help to diagnose the early onset of AF in a cost-effective manner. The complex and rapid atrial electrical activity during AF makes it difficult to obtain detailed information on atrial activation using the standard 12-lead ECG alone. Compared to conventional 12-lead ECG, more detailed ECG lead configurations may provide further information about spatio-temporal dynamics of the body surface potential (BSP) during atrial excitation. We apply a recently developed 3D human atrial model to simulate electrical activity during normal sinus rhythm and ectopic pacing. The atrial model is placed into a newly developed torso model which considers the presence of the lungs, liver and spinal cord. A boundary element method is used to compute the BSP resulting from atrial excitation. Elements of the torso mesh corresponding to the locations of the placement of the electrodes in the standard 12-lead and a more detailed 64-lead ECG configuration were selected. The ectopic focal activity was simulated at various origins across all the different regions of the atria. Simulated BSP maps during normal atrial excitation (i.e. sinoatrial node excitation) were compared to those observed experimentally (obtained from the 64-lead ECG system), showing a strong agreement between the evolution in time of the simulated and experimental data in the P-wave morphology of the ECG and dipole evolution. An algorithm to obtain the location of the stimulus from a 64-lead ECG system was developed. The algorithm presented had a success rate of 93%, meaning that it correctly identified the origin of atrial focus in 75/80 simulations, and involved a general approach relevant to any multi-lead ECG system. This represents a significant improvement over previously developed algorithms. PMID:25611350

Alday, Erick A Perez; Colman, Michael A; Langley, Philip; Butters, Timothy D; Higham, Jonathan; Workman, Antony J; Hancox, Jules C; Zhang, Henggui

2015-01-01

352

ORIGIN AND PREVALENCE OF HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TYPE 1 (HTLV-1) AND TYPE 2 (HTLV-2) AMONG INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS IN THE AMERICAS  

PubMed Central

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events. PMID:25651320

Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

2015-01-01

353

Original 2-(3-Alkoxy-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyrimidine Derivatives as Inhibitors of Human Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase (DHODH).  

PubMed

From a research program aimed at the design of new chemical entities followed by extensive screening on various models of infectious diseases, an original series of 2-(3-alkoxy-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyrimidines endowed with notable antiviral properties were found. Using a whole cell measles virus replication assay, we describe here some aspects of the iterative process that, from 2-(4-benzyl-3-ethoxy-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyrimidine, led to 2-(4-(2,6-difluorophenoxy)-3-isopropoxy-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-5-ethylpyrimidine and a 4000-fold improvement of antiviral activity with a subnanomolar level of inhibition. Moreover, recent precedents in the literature describing antiviral derivatives acting at the level of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway led us to determine that the mode of action of this series is based on the inhibition of the cellular dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the fourth enzyme of this pathway. Biochemical studies with recombinant human DHODH led us to measure IC50 as low as 13 nM for the best example of this original series when using 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone (coenzyme Q1) as a surrogate for coenzyme Q10, the cofactor of this enzyme. PMID:25558988

Munier-Lehmann, Hélène; Lucas-Hourani, Marianne; Guillou, Sandrine; Helynck, Olivier; Zanghi, Gigliola; Noel, Anne; Tangy, Frédéric; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Janin, Yves L

2015-01-22

354

Origin and prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) among indigenous populations in the americas.  

PubMed

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2) is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events. PMID:25651320

Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

2015-02-01

355

Identification of Novel Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part II): In Silico Prediction in Antidiabetic Extracts  

PubMed Central

Background Natural extracts play an important role in traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and are also an essential resource for new drug discovery. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are potential candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the effectiveness of certain antidiabetic extracts of natural origin could be, at least partially, explained by the inhibition of DPP-IV. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and an experimentally validated virtual screening procedure previously developed in our lab (Guasch et al.; 2012) [1], we have predicted 12 potential DPP-IV inhibitors from 12 different plant extracts that are known to have antidiabetic activity. Seven of these molecules are identical or similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity (although their role as DPP-IV inhibitors has not been suggested as an explanation for their bioactivity). Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of these extracts through their inhibitory effect on DPP-IV. In addition, we also identified as potential DPP-IV inhibitors 6 molecules from 6 different plants with no described antidiabetic activity but that share the same genus as plants with known antidiabetic properties. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules that we predicted as DPP-IV inhibitors exhibits chemical similarity with a group of 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance Our study identified 18 potential DPP-IV inhibitors in 18 different plant extracts (12 of these plants have known antidiabetic properties, whereas, for the remaining 6, antidiabetic activity has been reported for other plant species from the same genus). Moreover, none of the 18 molecules exhibits chemical similarity with a large group of known DPP-IV inhibitors. PMID:23028712

Guasch, Laura; Sala, Esther; Ojeda, María José; Valls, Cristina; Bladé, Cinta; Mulero, Miquel; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

2012-01-01

356

The origins of narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents work in progress towards a better understanding of the origins of narrative. Assuming an evolutionary and developmental continuity of mental experiences, we propose a grounding of human narrative capacities in non-verbal narrative transactions in non-human animals, and in pre-verbal narrative transactions of human children. We discuss narrative intelligence in the context of the evolution of primate (social)

Kerstin Dautenhahn

357

Evidence for the evolutionary origin of human chromosome 21 from comparative gene mapping in the cow and mouse  

SciTech Connect

To determine the extent of conservation between bovine syntenic group U10, human chromosome 21 (HSA 21), and mouse chromosome 16(MMU 16), 11 genes were physically mapped by segregation analysis in a bovine-hamster hybrid somatic cell panel. The genes chosen for study span MMU 16 and represent virtually the entire q arm of HSA 21. Because the somatostatin gene (SST), an HSA 3/MMU 16 locus, was previously shown to be in U10, the transferrin gene (TF), an HSA 3/MMU 9 marker, was also mapped to determine whether U10 contains any HSA 3 genes not represented on MMU 16. With the exception of the protamine gene PRM1 (HSA 16/MMU 16), all of the genes studies were syntenic on bovine U10. Thus, all homologous loci from HSA 21 that have been studied in the cow are on a single chromosome. The bovine homolog of HSA 21 also carries several HSA 3 genes, two of which have homologous loci on MMU 16. The syntenic association of genes from the q arm of HSA 3 with HSAS 21 genes in two mammalian species, the mouse and the cow, indicates that HSA 21 may have evolved from a larger ancestral mammalian chromosome that contained genes now residing on HSA 3. Additionally, the syntenic association of TF with SST in the cow permits the prediction that the rhodopsin gene (RHO) is proximal to TF on HSA 3q.

Threadgill, D.S.; Womack, J.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)); Kraus, J.P. (Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver (United States)); Krawetz, S.A. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States))

1991-01-01

358

Human Adult Stem Cells Maintain a Constant Phenotype Profile Irrespective of Their Origin, Basal Media, and Long Term Cultures  

PubMed Central

The study aims to identify the phenotypic marker expressions of different human adult stem cells derived from, namely, bone marrow, subcutaneous fat, and omentum fat, cultured in different media, namely, DMEM-Low Glucose, Alpha-MEM, DMEM-F12 and DMEM-KO and under long term culture conditions (>P20). We characterized immunophenotype by using various hematopoietic, mesenchymal, endothelial markers, and cell adhesion molecules in the long term cultures (Passages-P1, P3, P5, P9, P12, P15, and P20.) Interestingly, data revealed similar marker expression profiles irrespective of source, basal media, and extensive culturing. This demonstrates that all adult stem cell sources mentioned in this study share similar phenotypic marker and all media seem appropriate for culturing these sources. However, a disparity was observed in the markers such as CD49d, CD54, CD117, CD29, and CD106, thereby warranting further research on these markers. Besides the aforesaid objective, it is understood from the study that immunophenotyping acts as a valuable tool to identify inherent property of each cell, thereby leading to a valuable cell based therapy.

Somasundaram, Indumathi; Mishra, Rashmi; Radhakrishnan, Harikrishnan; Sankaran, Rajkumar; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth

2015-01-01

359

Identification of Novel Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part I): Virtual Screening and Activity Assays  

PubMed Central

Background There has been great interest in determining whether natural products show biological activity toward protein targets of pharmacological relevance. One target of particular interest is DPP-IV whose most important substrates are incretins that, among other beneficial effects, stimulates insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Incretins have very short half-lives because of their rapid degradation by DPP-IV and, therefore, inhibiting this enzyme improves glucose homeostasis. As a result, DPP-IV inhibitors are of considerable interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The main goals of this study were (a) to develop a virtual screening process to identify potential DPP-IV inhibitors of natural origin; (b) to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening protocol by experimentally testing the in vitro activity of selected natural-product hits; and (c) to use the most active hit for predicting derivatives with higher binding affinities for the DPP-IV binding site. Methodology/Principal Findings We predicted that 446 out of the 89,165 molecules present in the natural products subset of the ZINC database would inhibit DPP-IV with good ADMET properties. Notably, when these 446 molecules were merged with 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors and the resulting set was classified into 50 clusters according to chemical similarity, there were 12 clusters that contained only natural products for which no DPP-IV inhibitory activity has been previously reported. Nine molecules from 7 of these 12 clusters were then selected for in vitro activity testing and 7 out of the 9 molecules were shown to inhibit DPP-IV (where the remaining two molecules could not be solubilized, preventing the evaluation of their DPP-IV inhibitory activity). Then, the hit with the highest activity was used as a lead compound in the prediction of more potent derivatives. Conclusions/Significance We have demonstrated that our virtual-screening protocol was successful in identifying novel lead compounds for developing more potent DPP-IV inhibitors. PMID:22984596

Guasch, Laura; Ojeda, Maria José; González-Abuín, Noemí; Sala, Esther; Cereto-Massagué, Adrià; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

2012-01-01

360

Genetic and molecular characterization of the human osteosarcoma 3AB-OS cancer stem cell line: a possible model for studying osteosarcoma origin and stemness.  

PubMed

Finding new treatments targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) within a tumor seems to be critical to halt cancer and improve patient survival. Osteosarcoma is an aggressive tumor affecting adolescents, for which there is no second-line chemotherapy. Uncovering new molecular mechanisms underlying the development of osteosarcoma and origin of CSCs is crucial to identify new possible therapeutic strategies. Here, we aimed to characterize genetically and molecularly the human osteosarcoma 3AB-OS CSC line, previously selected from MG63 cells and which proved to have both in vitro and in vivo features of CSCs. Classic cytogenetic studies demonstrated that 3AB-OS cells have hypertriploid karyotype with 71-82 chromosomes. By comparing 3AB-OS CSCs to the parental cells, array CGH, Affymetrix microarray, and TaqMan® Human MicroRNA array analyses identified 49 copy number variations (CNV), 3,512 dysregulated genes and 189 differentially expressed miRNAs. Some of the chromosomal abnormalities and mRNA/miRNA expression profiles appeared to be congruent with those reported in human osteosarcomas. Bioinformatic analyses selected 196 genes and 46 anticorrelated miRNAs involved in carcinogenesis and stemness. For the first time, a predictive network is also described for two miRNA family (let-7/98 and miR-29a,b,c) and their anticorrelated mRNAs (MSTN, CCND2, Lin28B, MEST, HMGA2, and GHR), which may represent new biomarkers for osteosarcoma and may pave the way for the identification of new potential therapeutic targets. PMID:23129384

Di Fiore, Riccardo; Fanale, Daniele; Drago-Ferrante, Rosa; Chiaradonna, Ferdinando; Giuliano, Michela; De Blasio, Anna; Amodeo, Valeria; Corsini, Lidia R; Bazan, Viviana; Tesoriere, Giovanni; Vento, Renza; Russo, Antonio

2013-06-01

361

Influence of Oxygen Tension on Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Fetal Stem Cells of Midbrain and Forebrain Origin  

PubMed Central

Neural stem cells (NSCs) constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease (PD), but protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation are not yet available. Here we investigated the influence of oxygen on dopaminergic differentiation of human fetal NSCs derived from the midbrain and forebrain. Cells were differentiated for 10 days in vitro at low, physiological (3%) versus high, atmospheric (20%) oxygen tension. Low oxygen resulted in upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and increased the proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in both types of cultures (midbrain: 9.1±0.5 and 17.1±0.4 (P<0.001); forebrain: 1.9±0.4 and 3.9±0.6 (P<0.01) percent of total cells). Regardless of oxygen levels, the content of TH-ir cells with mature neuronal morphologies was higher for midbrain as compared to forebrain cultures. Proliferative Ki67-ir cells were found in both types of cultures, but the relative proportion of these cells was significantly higher for forebrain NSCs cultured at low, as compared to high, oxygen tension. No such difference was detected for midbrain-derived cells. Western blot analysis revealed that low oxygen enhanced ?-tubulin III and GFAP expression in both cultures. Up-regulation of ?-tubulin III was most pronounced for midbrain cells, whereas GFAP expression was higher in forebrain as compared to midbrain cells. NSCs from both brain regions displayed less cell death when cultured at low oxygen tension. Following mictrotransplantation into mouse striatal slice cultures predifferentiated midbrain NSCs were found to proliferate and differentiate into substantial numbers of TH-ir neurons with mature neuronal morphologies, particularly at low oxygen. In contrast, predifferentiated forebrain NSCs microtransplanted using identical conditions displayed little proliferation and contained few TH-ir cells, all of which had an immature appearance. Our data may reflect differences in dopaminergic differentiation capacity and region-specific requirements of NSCs, with the dopamine-depleted striatum cultured at low oxygen offering an attractive micro-environment for midbrain NSCs. PMID:24788190

Krabbe, Christina; Bak, Sara Thornby; Jensen, Pia; von Linstow, Christian; Martínez Serrano, Alberto; Hansen, Claus; Meyer, Morten

2014-01-01

362

Catarrhine phylogeny: noncoding DNA evidence for a diphyletic origin of the mangabeys and for a human-chimpanzee clade.  

PubMed

Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of two of the serum albumin gene's intron sequences from 24 catarrhines (17 cercopithecid and 7 hominid) and 3 platyrrhines (an outgroup to the catarrhines) yielded results on catarrhine phylogeny that are congruent with those obtained with noncoding sequences of the gamma(1)-gamma(2) globin gene genomic region, using only those flanking and intergenic gamma sequences that in their history were not involved in gene conversion. A data set that combined in a tandem alignment these two sets of noncoding DNA orthologues from the two unlinked nuclear genomic loci yielded the following confirmatory results both on the course of cladistic branchings (the divisions in a cladistic classification of higher ranking taxa into subordinate taxa) and on the ages of the taxa (each taxon representing a clade). The cercopithecid branch of catarrhines, at approximately 14 Ma (mega annum) divided into Colobini (the leaf-eating Old World monkeys) and Cercopithecini (the cheek-pouched Old World monkeys). At approximately 10-9 Ma, Colobini divided into an African clade, Colobina, and an Asian clade, Presbytina; similarly at this time level, Cercopithecini divided into Cercopithecina (the guenons, patas, and green monkeys) and Papionina. At approximately 7 Ma, Papionina divided into Macaca, Cercocebus, and Papio. At approximately 5 Ma, Cercocebus divided subgenerically into C. (Cercocebus) for terrestrial mangabeys and C. (Mandrillus) for drills and mandrills, while at approximately 4 Ma Papio divided subgenerically into P. (Locophocebus) for arboreal mangabeys, P. (Theropithecus) for gelada baboons, and P. (Papio) for hamadryas baboons. In turn, the hominid branch of catarrhines at approximately 18 Ma divided into Hylobatini (gibbons and siamangs) and Hominini; at approximately 14 Ma, Hominini divided into Pongina (orangutans) and Hominina; at approximately 7 Ma, Hominina divided into Gorilla and Homo; and at approximately 6-5 Ma, Homo divided subgenerically into H. (Homo) for humans and H. (Pan) for common and bonobo chimpanzees. Rates of noncoding DNA evolution were assessed using a data set of noncoding gamma sequence orthologues that represented 18 catarrhines, 16 platyrrhines, 3 non-anthropoid primates (2 tarsiers and 1 strepsirhine), and rabbit (as outgroup to the primates). Results obtained with this data set revealed a faster rate of nucleotide substitutions in the early primate lineage to the anthropoid (platyrrhine/catarrhine) ancestor than from that ancestor to the present. Rates were slower in catarrhines than in platyrrhines, slower in the cheek-pouched than in the leaf-eating cercopithecids, and slower yet in the hominids. On relating these results to data on brain sizes and life spans, it was suggested that life-history strategies that favor intelligence and longer life spans also select for decreases in de novo mutation rates. PMID:11161738

Page, S L; Goodman, M

2001-01-01

363

The Origin of Malignant Malaria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malignant malaria, which is among the most severe human infectious diseases. Despite its overwhelming significance to human health, the parasite’s origins remain unclear. The favored origin hypothesis holds that P. falciparum and its closest known rel...

364

The first modern human dispersals across Africa.  

PubMed

The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve") possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution. PMID:24236171

Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

2013-01-01

365

The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa  

PubMed Central

The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0’s sister clade, L1’6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by “mitochondrial Eve”) possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African “megadroughts” of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135–75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution. PMID:24236171

Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B.; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor

2013-01-01

366

Diverse incidences of individual oligopeptides (dipeptidic to hexapeptidic) in proteins of human, bakers' yeast, and Escherichia coli origin registered in the Swiss-Prot data base.  

PubMed Central

Oligopeptidic permutations of the 20 amino acid residues give rise to proteins of diverse functions. Our long-term goal is to produce a lexicon of oligopeptides, classifying them into at least five categories: (i) ubiquitous, (ii) function specific, (iii) group specific, (iv) species specific, and (v) nonexistent. To begin with, we report on the varying frequencies of individual oligopeptides (dipeptidic to hexapeptidic in length) found among 2862 human proteins, 1942 Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins, and 2672 Escherichia coli proteins registered in the Swiss-Prot data base (version 29.0, released in June 1994). At all lengths (dipeptides to hexapeptides), homooligopeptides were very prominent among the most frequently occurring varieties in proteins of human and bakers' yeast origins. However, this was not the case with E. coli. While all of the expected 20(3) varieties of tripeptides were found among human proteins, three tripeptides (Cys-Cys-Trp, Trp-Trp-Cys, and Trp-Trp-His) were missing from the bakers' yeast proteins. Three tripeptides (Cys-Ile-Trp, Cys-Met-Tyr, and Cys-Trp-Trp) were also absent from E. coli proteins. Inasmuch as the Swiss-Prot data base already contained 67% of the expected total of 4000 E. coli proteins, it is virtually certain that 96,000 varieties of hexapeptides containing at least one or another of the three missing tripeptides noted above shall be nonexistent in E. coli. Furthermore, the observation of missing tripeptides in the bakers' yeast proteins suggests that nonexistent hexapeptides shall be highly phylum specific. Because of the sample size, only a small fraction of the 20(6) varieties of hexapeptides were expected to be encountered in the present survey. Indeed, only 1.2-1.5% of the possible hexapeptides were found, and the average copy number of observed hexapeptides varied between 1.06 and 1.25. Nevertheless, 33 varieties of hexapeptides occurred in 102-169 copies among human proteins. Furthermore, 15 of the 33 varieties contained such rarely used residues as Tyr, His, Cys, and Trp. PMID:7708741

Doi, H; Kitajima, M; Watanabe, I; Kikuchi, Y; Matsuzawa, F; Aikawa, S; Takiguchi, K; Ohno, S

1995-01-01

367

Isolation of Cancer Stem Like Cells from Human Adenosquamous Carcinoma of the Lung Supports a Monoclonal Origin from a Multipotential Tissue Stem Cell  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that many solid tumors are hierarchically organized with the bulk tumor cells having limited replication potential, but are sustained by a stem-like cell that perpetuates the tumor. These cancer stem cells have been hypothesized to originate from transformation of adult tissue stem cells, or through re-acquisition of stem-like properties by progenitor cells. Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is an aggressive type of lung cancer that contains a mixture of cells with squamous (cytokeratin 5+) and adenocarcinoma (cytokeratin 7+) phenotypes. The origin of these mixtures is unclear as squamous carcinomas are thought to arise from basal cells in the upper respiratory tract while adenocarcinomas are believed to form from stem cells in the bronchial alveolar junction. We have isolated and characterized cancer stem-like populations from ASC through application of selective defined culture medium initially used to grow human lung stem cells. Homogeneous cells selected from ASC tumor specimens were stably expanded in vitro. Primary xenografts and metastatic lesions derived from these cells in NSG mice fully recapitulate both the adenocarcinoma and squamous features of the patient tumor. Interestingly, while the CSLC all co-expressed cytokeratins 5 and 7, most xenograft cells expressed either one, or neither, with <10% remaining double positive. We also demonstrated the potential of the CSLC to differentiate to multi-lineage structures with branching lung morphology expressing bronchial, alveolar and neuroendocrine markers in vitro. Taken together the properties of these ASC-derived CSLC suggests that ASC may arise from a primitive lung stem cell distinct from the bronchial-alveolar or basal stem cells. PMID:24324581

Mather, Jennie P.; Roberts, Penelope E.; Pan, Zhuangyu; Chen, Francine; Hooley, Jeffrey; Young, Peter; Xu, Xiaolin; Smith, Douglas H.; Easton, Ann; Li, Panjing; Bonvini, Ezio; Koenig, Scott; Moore, Paul A.

2013-01-01

368

Remodeling of the Human Papillomavirus Type 11 Replication Origin into Discrete Nucleoprotein Particles and Looped Structures by the E2 Protein  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus (HPV) origin (ori) of DNA replication shares a common theme with many DNA control elements in having multiple binding sites for one or more proteins spaced over several hundred base pairs. The HPV type-11 ori spans 103 bp and contains three palindromic binding sites (E2BS-2, E2BS-3, and E2BS-4) for the dimeric E2 origin binding protein. These sites are separated by 64 bp and 3 bp. E2BS-1 is located 288 bp upstream of E2BS-2 and is not required for efficient transient or cell-free replication. In this study, electron microscopy was used to visualize complexes of HPV-11 ori DNA bound by purified E2 protein. DNA containing only E2BS-2 showed a single E2 dimer bound. DNA containing E2BS-3 and E2BS-4 showed two side-by-side E2 dimers, while DNA containing E2BS-2, E2BS-3, and E2BS-4 exhibited a large disk/ring-shaped protein particle bound indicating that the DNA had been remodeled into a discrete complex, likely containing an E2 hexamer. With all four binding sites present, up to 27% of the DNA molecules were arranged into loops by E2, the majority of which spanned E2BS-1 and one of the other three sites. Studies of the dependence of looping on salt, ATP, and DTT using full length E2 and an E2 protein containing only the carboxyl-terminal DNA binding and protein dimerization domain suggest that looping is dependent on the N terminal domain as well as factors which may affect the manner in which E2 scans DNA for binding sites. The role of these structures in the modeling and regulation of the HPV-11 ori is discussed. PMID:18067922

Sim, Jeonggu; Ozgur, Sezgin; Lin, Biing Yuan; Yu, Jei-Hwa; Broker, Thomas R.; Chow, Louise T.; Griffith, Jack

2009-01-01

369

The Rejection of the Manege Tradition in Early Modern England: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renaissance creativity and obsession with classical traditions spawned a new form of horsemanship called the manege in sixteenth-century Europe. This study deals with England's rejection of the courtly horsemanship despite the dismal state of the nation's equestrian affairs. Tudor and Stuart monarchs utilized royal influence to attempt change - from legislative refmms to the horses - but no specific monarchical

Elizabeth Pope Simmons

2001-01-01

370

Poetry or pathology? Jesuit hypochondria in early modern Naples.  

PubMed

In their didactic poems on fishing and chocolate, both published in 1689, two Neapolitan Jesuits digressed to record and lament a devastating 'plague' of 'hypochondria'. The poetic plagues of Niccolò Giannettasio and Tommaso Strozzi have literary precedents in Lucretius, Vergil, and Fracastoro, but it will be argued that they also have a real, contemporary significance. Hypochondria was considered to be a serious (and epidemic) illness in the seventeenth century, with symptoms ranging from depression to delusions. Not only did our Jesuit poets claim to have suffered from it, but so did prominent members of the 'Accademia degl'Investiganti', a scientific society in Naples that was at odds with both the religious and medical establishments. PMID:18173170

Haskell, Yasmin

2007-01-01

371

Love and love of self in early modern French writing  

E-print Network

for another gives its ease, “And builds a Heaven in Hell’s despair.” So sang a little Clod of Clay Trodden with the cattle’s feet, But a Pebble of the brook Warbled out these metres meet: “Love seeketh only Self to please, “To bind another to Its... the love of the object in itself and the love of its possession. Thus an ambitious man’s love of glory, a miser’s of money, a drunkard’s of wine, the lust of a would-be rapist, an honourable man’s love for a mistress or friend, and paternal affection...

Moriarty, Michael

2013-07-01

372

Domesticating the dodo in early modern natural history  

E-print Network

constraining the accommodation of new strange creatures in natural history, Aristotle’s On the Parts of Animals provided a precedent for a group of flightless birds.33 Aristotle described birds with ‘heavy bodies…not constructed for flight.’ The ‘Libyan...

Lawrence, Natalie

2014-01-01

373

Baby teething in early modern England: theory and therapeutic practice.  

PubMed

Oral and dental healthcare was a major medical concern in 16th- and 17th-century England. The analysis of a representative corpus from Early English Books Online (EEBO) reveals that the general principles and therapeutic management of baby teething were found most often in pediatric and midwifery treatises. The chapters devoted to this babyhood process usually gave information on factors determining teething onset, eruption schedule, order of appearance, associated disorders and short-term prognosis. Among the remedies available to alleviate children's pain, the authors mention anti-inflammatory herbal ointments, soothing fomentations, periodic mouthwashes, and minor surgery. Although the selected chapters on baby teething do not include detailed accounts of teething-related symptoms, one can find consistent data in the different descriptions and recipes provided. This scholarly agreement indicates systematic medical and midwifery practices to deal with a predictable, but frequently troublesome, stage of children's development. PMID:22372184

Dominguez-Rodriguez, Maria Victoria

2011-01-01

374

Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition. PMID:22520182

Clericuzio, Antonio

2012-06-01

375

Gender and the Social Order in Early Modern England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place of the family and the relationship between gender and social order in England between 1560 and 1725 are examined. The fear of disorder so prevalent in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was caused by the doubling of the population and extremely poor economic conditions. In the attempt to enforce order, the analogy between…

Amussen, Susan Dwyer

376

Shutt up: bubonic plague and quarantine in early modern England.  

PubMed

The outbreak of bubonic plague that struck London and Westminster in 1636 provoked the usual frenzied response to epidemics, including popular flight and government-mandated quarantine. The government asserted that plague control measures were acts of public health for the benefit of all. However, contrary to this government narrative of disease prevention there was a popular account that portrayed quarantine and isolation as personal punishment rather than prudent policy. In examining the 1636 outbreak on the parish as well as the individual level, reasons for this inconsistency between official and unofficial perspectives emerge. Quarantine and its effects were not classless, and its implementation was not always strictly in the name of public health. Government application of quarantine was remarkably effective, but it could never be uncontroversial both because of circumstances and because of misuse. The flight of the wealthiest from London and Westminster left only the more socially vulnerable to be quarantined. Though plague policy was financially sensitive to the poorest, it was costly to the middling sort. Another cause of controversy was the government's use of quarantine as a punishment to control individuals found breaking other laws. Though not widely publicized, popular narratives continually included grievances about the cruelty and inequity of quarantine and the militaristic nature of its implementation. Despite these objections, quarantine remained a staple of the government response to plague outbreaks throughout the seventeenth century. PMID:22611587

Newman, Kira L S

2012-01-01

377

Slipping through the Cracks: The Taxonomic Impediment Conceals the Origin and Dispersal of Haminoea japonica, an Invasive Species with Impacts to Human Health  

PubMed Central

Haminoea japonica is a species of opisthobranch sea slug native to Japan and Korea. Non-native populations have spread unnoticed for decades due to difficulties in the taxonomy of Haminoea species. Haminoea japonica is associated with a schistosome parasite in San Francisco Bay, thus further spread could have consequence to human health and economies. Anecdotal evidence suggests that H. japonica has displaced native species of Haminoea in North America and Europe, becoming locally dominant in estuaries and coastal lagoons. In this paper we study the population genetics of native and non-native populations of H. japonica based on mt-DNA data including newly discovered populations in Italy and France. The conclusions of this study further corroborate a Northeastern Japan origin for the non-native populations and suggest possible independent introductions into North America and Europe. Additionally, the data obtained revealed possible secondary introductions within Japan. Although non-native populations have experienced severe genetic bottlenecks they have colonized different regions with a broad range of water temperatures and other environmental conditions. The environmental tolerance of this species, along with its ability to become dominant in invaded areas and its association with a schistosome parasite, suggest H. japonica could be a dangerous invasive species. PMID:24098588

Hanson, Dieta; Cooke, Samantha; Hirano, Yayoi; Malaquias, Manuel A. E.; Crocetta, Fabio; Valdés, Ángel

2013-01-01

378

* This Policy was originally issued as the Columbia University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2005 and  

E-print Network

University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8 POLICY ON THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH WITH HUMAN EMBRYOS AND HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS* A. INTRODUCTION Columbia University believes that human embryonic and human stem cell research is essential to advancing

Shepard, Kenneth

379

Ubiquitous human ‘master’ origins of replication are encoded in the DNA sequence via a local enrichment in nucleosome excluding energy barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the elementary building block of eukaryotic chromatin, the nucleosome is at the heart of the compromise between the necessity of compacting DNA in the cell nucleus and the required accessibility to regulatory proteins. The recent availability of genome-wide experimental maps of nucleosome positions for many different organisms and cell types has provided an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate to what extent the DNA sequence conditions the primary structure of chromatin and in turn participates in the chromatin-mediated regulation of nuclear functions, such as gene expression and DNA replication. In this study, we use in vivo and in vitro genome-wide nucleosome occupancy data together with the set of nucleosome-free regions (NFRs) predicted by a physical model of nucleosome formation based on sequence-dependent bending properties of the DNA double-helix, to investigate the role of intrinsic nucleosome occupancy in the regulation of the replication spatio-temporal programme in human. We focus our analysis on the so-called replication U/N-domains that were shown to cover about half of the human genome in the germline (skew-N domains) as well as in embryonic stem cells, somatic and HeLa cells (mean replication timing U-domains). The ‘master’ origins of replication (MaOris) that border these megabase-sized U/N-domains were found to be specified by a few hundred kb wide regions that are hyper-sensitive to DNase I cleavage, hypomethylated, and enriched in epigenetic marks involved in transcription regulation, the hallmarks of localized open chromatin structures. Here we show that replication U/N-domain borders that are conserved in all considered cell lines have an environment highly enriched in nucleosome-excluding-energy barriers, suggesting that these ubiquitous MaOris have been selected during evolution. In contrast, MaOris that are cell-type-specific are mainly regulated epigenetically and are no longer favoured by a local abundance of intrinsic NFRs encoded in the DNA sequence. At the smaller few hundred bp scale of gene promoters, CpG-rich promoters of housekeeping genes found nearby ubiquitous MaOris as well as CpG-poor promoters of tissue-specific genes found nearby cell-type-specific MaOris, both correspond to in vivo NFRs that are not coded as nucleosome-excluding-energy barriers. Whereas the former promoters are likely to correspond to high occupancy transcription factor binding regions, the latter are an illustration that gene regulation in human is typically cell-type-specific.

Drillon, Guénola; Audit, Benjamin; Argoul, Françoise; Arneodo, Alain

2015-02-01

380

Ubiquitous human 'master' origins of replication are encoded in the DNA sequence via a local enrichment in nucleosome excluding energy barriers.  

PubMed

As the elementary building block of eukaryotic chromatin, the nucleosome is at the heart of the compromise between the necessity of compacting DNA in the cell nucleus and the required accessibility to regulatory proteins. The recent availability of genome-wide experimental maps of nucleosome positions for many different organisms and cell types has provided an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate to what extent the DNA sequence conditions the primary structure of chromatin and in turn participates in the chromatin-mediated regulation of nuclear functions, such as gene expression and DNA replication. In this study, we use in vivo and in vitro genome-wide nucleosome occupancy data together with the set of nucleosome-free regions (NFRs) predicted by a physical model of nucleosome formation based on sequence-dependent bending properties of the DNA double-helix, to investigate the role of intrinsic nucleosome occupancy in the regulation of the replication spatio-temporal programme in human. We focus our analysis on the so-called replication U/N-domains that were shown to cover about half of the human genome in the germline (skew-N domains) as well as in embryonic stem cells, somatic and HeLa cells (mean replication timing U-domains). The 'master' origins of replication (MaOris) that border these megabase-sized U/N-domains were found to be specified by a few hundred kb wide regions that are hyper-sensitive to DNase I cleavage, hypomethylated, and enriched in epigenetic marks involved in transcription regulation, the hallmarks of localized open chromatin structures. Here we show that replication U/N-domain borders that are conserved in all considered cell lines have an environment highly enriched in nucleosome-excluding-energy barriers, suggesting that these ubiquitous MaOris have been selected during evolution. In contrast, MaOris that are cell-type-specific are mainly regulated epigenetically and are no longer favoured by a local abundance of intrinsic NFRs encoded in the DNA sequence. At the smaller few hundred bp scale of gene promoters, CpG-rich promoters of housekeeping genes found nearby ubiquitous MaOris as well as CpG-poor promoters of tissue-specific genes found nearby cell-type-specific MaOris, both correspond to in vivo NFRs that are not coded as nucleosome-excluding-energy barriers. Whereas the former promoters are likely to correspond to high occupancy transcription factor binding regions, the latter are an illustration that gene regulation in human is typically cell-type-specific. PMID:25563930

Drillon, Guénola; Audit, Benjamin; Argoul, Françoise; Arneodo, Alain

2015-02-18

381

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

University, Boston, MA, USA 3 Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience and Behavior, Wesleyan and musically structured, with less-frequent deviant events that differed from a specific expectation in some with an established scale context elicit deviant components even though equally rare pitches that fit

Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

382

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

of Barcelona, Spain Liuba Papeo, Harvard University, USA Paola Mengotti, SISSA, Italy *Correspondence: Bradford is a necessary and intermediary step in the process of conceptual understanding. Cognitive neuropsychological evaluations of patients with impairments for action knowledge permit a direct test of the necessity of motor

Mahon, Bradford Z.

383

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

.00694 Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers Grace E. Giles one of the three doses of caffeine or placebo, waited 60 min, and then completed two spatial tasks landmark relationships. On the map learning task, results indicated that caffeine enhanced memory

Patel, Aniruddh D.

384

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

and suggests that MBSR may enhance more adaptive social self-referential processes in patients with SAD on the self-referential brain network in social anxiety disorder Philippe Goldin*, Michal Ziv, Hooria Jazaieri aerobic exercise (AE) program. A self-referential encoding task was administered at base- line and post

Gross, James J.

385

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

.00038 Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks Wendy Hasenkamp to examine the effect of meditation experience on brain networks under- lying cognitive actions employed fluctuations that occur during the practice of focused attention meditation.This model specifies four intervals

Barsalou, Lawrence W.

386

* This Policy was originally issued as the Columbia University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2005 and  

E-print Network

University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8 EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS* A. INTRODUCTION Columbia University believes that human embryonic and human stem cell strongly supports the use of human embryos and stem cells ­ embryonic, fetal and adult ­ for legitimate

Grishok, Alla

387

* This Policy was originally issued as the Columbia University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8, 2005 and  

E-print Network

University Institutional Policy on the Conduct of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells on February 8 EMBRYOS AND HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS* A. INTRODUCTION Columbia University believes that human embryonic. The University strongly supports the use of human embryos and stem cells ­ embryonic, fetal and adult

Qian, Ning

388

Long-term human immune system reconstitution in non-obese diabetic (NOD)-Rag (-)-? chain (-) (NRG) mice is similar but not identical to the original stem cell donor.  

PubMed

The murine immune system is not necessarily identical to it human counterpart, which has led to the construction of humanized mice. The current study analysed whether or not a human immune system contained within the non-obese diabetic (NOD)-Rag1(null) -? chain(null) (NRG) mouse model was an accurate representation of the original stem cell donor and if multiple mice constructed from the same donor were similar to one another. To that end, lightly irradiated NRG mice were injected intrahepatically on day 1 of life with purified cord blood-derived CD34(+) stem and progenitor cells. Multiple mice were constructed from each cord blood donor. Mice were analysed quarterly for changes in the immune system, and followed for periods up to 12 months post-transplant. Mice from the same donor were compared directly with each other as well as with the original donor. Analyses were performed for immune reconstitution, including flow cytometry, T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) spectratyping. It was observed that NRG mice could be 'humanized' long-term using cord blood stem cells, and that animals constructed from the same cord blood donor were nearly identical to one another, but quite different from the original stem cell donor immune system. PMID:24032450

Harris, D T; Badowski, M; Balamurugan, A; Yang, O O

2013-12-01

389

Long-term human immune system reconstitution in non-obese diabetic (NOD)-Rag (–)-? chain (–) (NRG) mice is similar but not identical to the original stem cell donor  

PubMed Central

The murine immune system is not necessarily identical to it human counterpart, which has led to the construction of humanized mice. The current study analysed whether or not a human immune system contained within the non-obese diabetic (NOD)-Rag1null-? chainnull (NRG) mouse model was an accurate representation of the original stem cell donor and if multiple mice constructed from the same donor were similar to one another. To that end, lightly irradiated NRG mice were injected intrahepatically on day 1 of life with purified cord blood-derived CD34+ stem and progenitor cells. Multiple mice were constructed from each cord blood donor. Mice were analysed quarterly for changes in the immune system, and followed for periods up to 12 months post-transplant. Mice from the same donor were compared directly with each other as well as with the original donor. Analyses were performed for immune reconstitution, including flow cytometry, T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) spectratyping. It was observed that NRG mice could be ‘humanized’ long-term using cord blood stem cells, and that animals constructed from the same cord blood donor were nearly identical to one another, but quite different from the original stem cell donor immune system. PMID:24032450

Harris, D T; Badowski, M; Balamurugan, A; Yang, O O

2013-01-01

390

Unusual feeding behavior in wild great apes, a window to understand origins of self-medication in humans: role of sociality and physiology on learning process.  

PubMed

Certain toxic plants are beneficial for health if small amounts are ingested infrequently and in a specific context of illness. Among our closest living relatives, chimpanzees are found to consume plants with pharmacological properties. Providing insight on the origins of human self-medication, this study investigates the role social systems and physiology (namely gut specialization) play on learning mechanisms involved in the consumption of unusual and potentially bioactive foods by two great ape species. We collected data from a community of 41-44 wild chimpanzees in Uganda (11 months, 2008), and a group of 11-13 wild western gorillas in Central African Republic (10 months, 2008-2009). During feeding, we recorded food consumed, its availability, and social interactions (including observers watching conspecifics and the observers' subsequent activity). Unusual food consumption in chimpanzees was twice higher than in gorillas. Additionally chimpanzees relied more on social information with vertical knowledge transmission on unusual foods by continually acquiring information during their life through mostly observing the fittest (pre-senescent) adults. In contrast, in gorillas observational learning primarily occurred between related immatures, showing instead the importance of horizontal knowledge transmission. As chimpanzees' guts are physiologically less specialized than gorillas (more capable of detoxifying harmful compounds), unusual-food consumption may be more risky for chimpanzees and linked to reasons other than nutrition (like self-medication). Our results show that differences in sociality and physiology between the two species may influence mechanisms that discriminate between plants for nutrition and plants with potential therapeutic dietary components. We conclude that self-medication may have appeared in our ancestors in association with high social tolerance and lack of herbivorous gut specialization. PMID:21888922

Masi, Shelly; Gustafsson, Erik; Saint Jalme, Michel; Narat, Victor; Todd, Angelique; Bomsel, Marie-Claude; Krief, Sabrina

2012-01-18

391

The Origin of Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys place in the world that is still controversial today. It is both a brilliant

Charles Darwin

2005-01-01

392

Original Misunderstanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

Holtzman, Alexander

2009-01-01

393

The Missouri Human Rights Act makes it illegal to discriminate in any aspect of employment because of an individual's race, color, religion, national origin, ancestry,  

E-print Network

of an individual's race, color, religion, national origin, ancestry, sex, disability or age (40 through 69 or classification of employees, transfer, promotion, layoff or recall, job advertisements, recruitment, testing, use, religion, national origin, ancestry, sex, disability, or age · Retaliating against an individual for filing

Subramanian, Venkat

394

The interplanetary superhighway and the Origins Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of the universe and of life itself have been central to human inquiries since the dawn of consciousness. To develop and use the technologies to answer these timeless and profound questions is the mission of NASA's Origins Program.

Lo, M. W.

2002-01-01

395

Back to the Origin  

PubMed Central

In bacteria, replication is a carefully orchestrated event that unfolds the same way for each bacterium and each cell division. The process of DNA replication in bacteria optimizes cell growth and coordinates high levels of simultaneous replication and transcription. In metazoans, the organization of replication is more enigmatic. The lack of a specific sequence that defines origins of replication has, until recently, severely limited our ability to define the organizing principles of DNA replication. This question is of particular importance as emerging data suggest that replication stress is an important contributor to inherited genetic damage and the genomic instability in tumors. We consider here the replication program in several different organisms including recent genome-wide analyses of replication origins in humans. We review recent studies on the role of cytosine methylation in replication origins, the role of transcriptional looping and gene gating in DNA replication, and the role of chromatin’s 3-dimensional structure in DNA replication. We use these new findings to consider several questions surrounding DNA replication in metazoans: How are origins selected? What is the relationship between replication and transcription? How do checkpoints inhibit origin firing? Why are there early and late firing origins? We then discuss whether oncogenes promote cancer through a role in DNA replication and whether errors in DNA replication are important contributors to the genomic alterations and gene fusion events observed in cancer. We conclude with some important areas for future experimentation. PMID:23634256

Evertts, Adam G.

2012-01-01

396

Whole-Genome Analysis of a Rare Human Korean G3P[9] Rotavirus Strain Suggests a Complex Evolutionary Origin Potentially Involving Reassortment Events between Feline and Bovine Rotaviruses  

PubMed Central

A rare human rotavirus, G3P[9] strain RVA/Human-tc/KOR/CAU12-2-51/2013/G3P[9], was isolated from the stool of a 9-year-old female hospitalized with acute watery diarrhea in August 2012 in South Korea using a cell culture system, and its genome was analyzed. The complete genomic constellation of the CAU12-2-51 strain revealed a novel genotype constellation for human rotavirus, G3-P[9]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T3-E3-H3. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CAU12-2-51 strain originated from feline- and bovine-like reassortment strains. The genes encoding VP4, VP7, NSP1, NSP3, NSP4, and NSP5 were related to human/feline-like and feline rotavirus strains, whereas the remaining five genes encoding VP1, VP2, VP3, VP6, and NSP2 were related to the human/bovine-like and bovine rotavirus strains. This novel strain was identified for the first time, providing evidence of feline/bovine-to-human transmission of rotavirus. The data presented herein provide information regarding rotavirus diversity and evolution. PMID:24818762

Jeong, Sunyoung; Than, Van Thai; Lim, Inseok; Kim, Wonyong

2014-01-01

397

Horizontal Transfer of a Multi-Drug Resistance Plasmid between Coliform Bacteria of Human and Bovine Origin in a Farm Environment  

PubMed Central

Multi-drug-resistant coliform bacteria were isolated from feces of cattle exposed to antimicrobial agents and humans associated with the animals. Isolates from both cattle and humans harbored an R plasmid of 65 kb (pTMS1) that may have been transferred between them due to selective antibiotic pressure in the farm environment. PMID:11472956

Oppegaard, Hanne; Steinum, Terje M.; Wasteson, Yngvild

2001-01-01

398

In Vitroprebiotic effects of Acacia gums onto the human intestinal microbiota depends on both botanical origin and environmental pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acacia gums are commonly used food additives. It is currently unclear how extensively these non-digestible polysaccharides are fermented in the human large intestine. However, they have been shown to support bifidobacterial growthin vitroand may represent useful candidate prebiotics. In these investigations,in vitro24-h batch incubations and chemostat continuous-cultures of human faecal bacteria were conducted using two acacia gums (Fibregum standard and

C. Michel; T. P. Kravtchenko; A. David; S. Gueneau; F. Kozlowski; C. Cherbut

1998-01-01

399

Tishkoff,S.A.,K.K.Kidd,and A.G.Clark,2000. Inferences of modern human origins from variation in CD4 haplotypes. Proceedings of the Trinational Workshop on Molecular Evolution (M.K.Uyenoyama and A.Von Haeseler,Eds.),  

E-print Network

Tishkoff,S.A.,K.K.Kidd,and A.G.Clark,2000. Inferences of modern human origins from variation in CD4 haplotypes. Proceedings of the Trinational Workshop on Molecular Evolution (M.K.Uyenoyama and A.Von Haeseler,S.A.,K.K.Kidd,and A.G.Clark,2000. Inferences of modern human origins from variation in CD4 haplotypes. Proceedings

Kidd, Kenneth

400

Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans  

PubMed Central

One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual “Neandertal” features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

2014-01-01

401

Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans.  

PubMed

One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual "Neandertal" features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

2014-07-22

402

Universe Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from Swift: Eyes through Time introduces gamma ray bursts and how studying these distant objects in the universe help scientists look back in time. Swift scientists hope to discover or develop better theories of how the universe all began. The segment covers the origins of the study of the stars; the geocentric and heliocentric models; and, how culture influences the interpretation of scientific data.

2010-01-01

403

Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Streptococcus canis Confirms the Zoonotic Origin of Human Infections and Reveals Genetic Exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection. PMID:23345291

Pinho, M. D.; Matos, S. C.; Pomba, C.; Lübke-Becker, A.; Wieler, L. H.; Preziuso, S.; Melo-Cristino, J.

2013-01-01

404

Noninvasive localization of the site of origin of paced cardiac activation in human by means of a 3-D heart model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently developed heart-model-based localization approach is experimentally evaluated in noninvasively localizing the site of origin of cardiac activation in a patient with a pacemaker. The heart-torso model of the patient was constructed from the contrast ultrafast computed tomography images. The site of initial paced activation in the patient was quantitatively localized and compared with the tip position of the

Guanglin Li; Xin Zhang; Jie Lian; Bin He

2003-01-01

405

Inhibition of p53-mediated transactivation by E6 of type 1, but not type 5, 8, or 47, human papillomavirus of cutaneous origin.  

PubMed Central

Transient transfection experiments indicated (i) that E6 protein of non-cancer-associated cutaneous human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV-1) can inhibit p53-mediated transcriptional transactivation in both p53-deficient human cells (H358) and normal rat cells (3Y1), but those of cancer-associated cutaneous HPV-5, -8, and -47 cannot do so in either H358 or 3Y1 cells, and (ii) that E6 proteins of HPV-16 and -18 can inhibit the p53 function in H358 cells but not in 3Y1 cells. PMID:8207840

Kiyono, T; Hiraiwa, A; Ishii, S; Takahashi, T; Ishibashi, M

1994-01-01

406

Multiple Ethnic Origins of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages for the Population of Mauritius  

PubMed Central

This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa. PMID:24676463

Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Calaon, Diego; ?aval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

2014-01-01

407

The Evolutionary Origin of Man Can Be Traced in the Layers of Defunct Ancestral Alpha Satellites Flanking the Active Centromeres of Human Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha satellite domains that currently function as centromeres of human chromosomes are flanked by layers of older alpha satellite, thought to contain dead centromeres of primate progenitors, which lost their function and the ability to homogenize satellite repeats, upon appearance of a new centromere. Using cladistic analysis of alpha satellite monomers, we elucidated complete layer patterns on chromosomes 8, 17,

Valery A. Shepelev; Alexander A. Alexandrov; Yuri B. Yurov; Ivan A. Alexandrov

2009-01-01

408

Z:\\oas\\Common\\FACT SHEETS -DO NOT DELETE\\Academic Fact Sheets\\on Humanities.doc Originally Written: July 1996  

E-print Network

) courses in the humanities and/or social sciences. Each course must be at least 3.0 credits in weight. One higher than the equivalent two high school years of that language. One year of a foreign language in high school is equivalent to one semester in college. The following matrix is used to determine where to begin

409

Intracellular Locations of Replication Proteins and the Origin of Replication during Chromosome Duplication in the Slowly Growing Human Pathogen Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

We followed the position of the replication complex in the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori using antibodies raised against the single-stranded DNA binding protein (HpSSB) and the replicative helicase (HpDnaB). The position of the replication origin, oriC, was also localized in growing cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with fluorescence-labeled DNA sequences adjacent to the origin. The replisome assembled at oriC near one of the cell poles, and the two forks moved together toward the cell center as replication progressed in the growing cell. Termination and resolution of the forks occurred near midcell, on one side of the septal membrane. The duplicated copies of oriC did not separate until late in elongation, when the daughter chromosomes segregated into bilobed nucleoids, suggesting sister chromatid cohesion at or near the oriC region. Components of the replication machinery, viz., HpDnaB and HpDnaG (DNA primase), were found associated with the cell membrane. A model for the assembly and location of the H. pylori replication machinery during chromosomal duplication is presented. PMID:24363345

Sharma, Atul; Kamran, Mohammad; Verma, Vijay

2014-01-01

410

Humans and Ferrets with Prior H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections Do Not Exhibit Evidence of Original Antigenic Sin after Infection or Vaccination with the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis of original antigenic sin (OAS) states that the imprint established by an individual's first influenza virus infection governs the antibody response thereafter. Subsequent influenza virus infection results in an antibody response against the original infecting virus and an impaired immune response against the newer influenza virus. The purpose of our study was to seek evidence of OAS after infection or vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009 pH1N1) virus in ferrets and humans previously infected with H1N1 viruses with various antigenic distances from the 2009 pH1N1 virus, including viruses from 1935 through 1999. In ferrets, seasonal H1N1 priming did not diminish the antibody response to infection or vaccination with the 2009 pH1N1 virus, nor did it diminish the T-cell response, indicating the absence of OAS in seasonal H1N1 virus-primed ferrets. Analysis of paired samples of human serum taken before and after vaccination with a monovalent inactivated 2009 pH1N1 vaccine showed a significantly greater-fold rise in the titer of antibody against the 2009 pH1N1 virus than against H1N1 viruses that circulated during the childhood of each subject. Thus, prior experience with H1N1 viruses did not result in an impairment of the antibody response against the 2009 pH1N1 vaccine. Our data from ferrets and humans suggest that prior exposure to H1N1 viruses did not impair the immune response against the 2009 pH1N1 virus. PMID:24648486

O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Wright, Amber; Vogel, Leatrice; Boonnak, Kobporn; Treanor, John J.

2014-01-01

411

Humans and ferrets with prior H1N1 influenza virus infections do not exhibit evidence of original antigenic sin after infection or vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.  

PubMed

The hypothesis of original antigenic sin (OAS) states that the imprint established by an individual's first influenza virus infection governs the antibody response thereafter. Subsequent influenza virus infection results in an antibody response against the original infecting virus and an impaired immune response against the newer influenza virus. The purpose of our study was to seek evidence of OAS after infection or vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009 pH1N1) virus in ferrets and humans previously infected with H1N1 viruses with various antigenic distances from the 2009 pH1N1 virus, including viruses from 1935 through 1999. In ferrets, seasonal H1N1 priming did not diminish the antibody response to infection or vaccination with the 2009 pH1N1 virus, nor did it diminish the T-cell response, indicating the absence of OAS in seasonal H1N1 virus-primed ferrets. Analysis of paired samples of human serum taken before and after vaccination with a monovalent inactivated 2009 pH1N1 vaccine showed a significantly greater-fold rise in the titer of antibody against the 2009 pH1N1 virus than against H1N1 viruses that circulated during the childhood of each subject. Thus, prior experience with H1N1 viruses did not result in an impairment of the antibody response against the 2009 pH1N1 vaccine. Our data from ferrets and humans suggest that prior exposure to H1N1 viruses did not impair the immune response against the 2009 pH1N1 virus. PMID:24648486

O'Donnell, Christopher D; Wright, Amber; Vogel, Leatrice; Boonnak, Kobporn; Treanor, John J; Subbarao, Kanta

2014-05-01

412

Establishment and characterization of a new xenograft-derived human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HKESC-4 of Chinese origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new human esophageal cancer cell line, HKESC-4, was established from a nude-mouse xenograft of a moderately differentiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) developed from a 65-year-old Hong Kong Chinese man. The cellular characteristics (morphological, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical studies), tumorigenicity in athymic nude mice, cytogenetic features, and DNA ploidy of the cell line were investigated. The cell line was maintained

Leo C. M. Cheung; Johnny C. O. Tang; P. Y. Lee; L. Hu; X. Y. Guan; W. K. Tang; Gopesh Srivastava; John Wong; John M. Luk; Simon Law

2007-01-01

413

Human Infections Attributable to the d-Tartrate-Fermenting Variant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi B in Germany Originate in Reptiles and, on Rare Occasions, Poultry  

PubMed Central

In this study, the population structure, incidence, and potential sources of human infection caused by the d-tartrate-fermenting variant of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B [S. Paratyphi B (dT+)] was investigated. In Germany, the serovar is frequently isolated from broilers. Therefore, a selection of 108 epidemiologically unrelated S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (dT+) strains isolated in Germany between 2002 and 2010 especially from humans, poultry/poultry meat, and reptiles was investigated by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Strains isolated from poultry and products thereof were strongly associated with multilocus sequence type ST28 and showed antimicrobial multiresistance profiles. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis XbaI profiles were highly homogeneous, with only a few minor XbaI profile variants. All strains isolated from reptiles, except one, were strongly associated with ST88, another distantly related type. Most of the strains were susceptible to antimicrobial agents, and XbaI profiles were heterogeneous. Strains isolated from humans yielded seven sequence types (STs) clustering in three distantly related lineages. The first lineage, comprising five STs, represented mainly strains belonging to ST43 and ST149. The other two lineages were represented only by one ST each, ST28 and ST88. The relatedness of strains based on the pathogenicity gene repertoire (102 markers tested) was mostly in agreement with the multilocus sequence type. Because ST28 was frequently isolated from poultry but rarely in humans over the 9-year period investigated, overall, this study indicates that in Germany S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B (dT+) poses a health risk preferentially by contact with reptiles and, to a less extent, by exposure to poultry or poultry meat. PMID:22885742

Toboldt, Anne; Tietze, Erhard; Helmuth, Reiner; Fruth, Angelika; Junker, Ernst

2012-01-01

414

Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at, or Prior to, Establishment of Double-Strand Breaks  

PubMed Central

Meiotic recombination is sexually dimorphic in most mammalian species, including humans, but the basis for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events of double-strand break (DSB) formation and synaptic initiation. Specifically, we utilized the DNA mismatch repair protein MLH1 as a marker of recombination events, the RecA homologue RAD51 as a surrogate for DSBs, and the synaptonemal complex proteins SYCP3 and/or SYCP1 to examine synapsis between homologs. Consistent with linkage studies, genome-wide recombination levels were higher in females than in males, and the placement of exchanges varied between the sexes. Subsequent analyses of DSBs and synaptic initiation sites indicated similar male:female differences, providing strong evidence that sex-specific differences in recombination rates are established at or before the formation of meiotic DSBs. We then asked whether these differences might be linked to variation in the organization of the meiotic axis and/or axis-associated DNA and, indeed, we observed striking male:female differences in synaptonemal complex (SC) length and DNA loop size. Taken together, our observations suggest that sex specific differences in recombination in humans may derive from chromatin differences established prior to the onset of the recombination pathway. PMID:24376867

Gruhn, Jennifer R.; Rubio, Carmen; Broman, Karl W.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Hassold, Terry

2013-01-01

415

Cytological studies of human meiosis: sex-specific differences in recombination originate at, or prior to, establishment of double-strand breaks.  

PubMed

Meiotic recombination is sexually dimorphic in most mammalian species, including humans, but the basis for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events of double-strand break (DSB) formation and synaptic initiation. Specifically, we utilized the DNA mismatch repair protein MLH1 as a marker of recombination events, the RecA homologue RAD51 as a surrogate for DSBs, and the synaptonemal complex proteins SYCP3 and/or SYCP1 to examine synapsis between homologs. Consistent with linkage studies, genome-wide recombination levels were higher in females than in males, and the placement of exchanges varied between the sexes. Subsequent analyses of DSBs and synaptic initiation sites indicated similar male:female differences, providing strong evidence that sex-specific differences in recombination rates are established at or before the formation of meiotic DSBs. We then asked whether these differences might be linked to variation in the organization of the meiotic axis and/or axis-associated DNA and, indeed, we observed striking male:female differences in synaptonemal complex (SC) length and DNA loop size. Taken together, our observations suggest that sex specific differences in recombination in humans may derive from chromatin differences established prior to the onset of the recombination pathway. PMID:24376867

Gruhn, Jennifer R; Rubio, Carmen; Broman, Karl W; Hunt, Patricia A; Hassold, Terry

2013-01-01

416

Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.  

PubMed

The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals. PMID:15902255

Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

2005-05-19

417

1/31/12 9:39 AMGains in DNA Are Speeding Research Into Human Origins -NYTimes.com Page 1 of 3http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/science/gains-in-dna-are-speeding-research-into-human-origins.html?_r=2  

E-print Network

and bred with at least two groups of ancient humans in relatively recent times: the Neanderthals, who lived, Germany, to map the genomes of both the Neanderthals and the Denisovans. Comparing genomes, scientists concluded that today's humans outside Africa carry an average of 2.5 percent Neanderthal DNA

Reich, David

418

The Origins of Options  

PubMed Central

Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

2012-01-01

419

Bioenergetics in human evolution and disease: implications for the origins of biological complexity and the missing genetic variation of common diseases.  

PubMed

Two major inconsistencies exist in the current neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory that random chromosomal mutations acted on by natural selection generate new species. First, natural selection does not require the evolution of ever increasing complexity, yet this is the hallmark of biology. Second, human chromosomal DNA sequence variation is predominantly either neutral or deleterious and is insufficient to provide the variation required for speciation or for predilection to common diseases. Complexity is explained by the continuous flow of energy through the biosphere that drives the accumulation of nucleic acids and information. Information then encodes complex forms. In animals, energy flow is primarily mediated by mitochondria whose maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) codes for key genes for energy metabolism. In mammals, the mtDNA has a very high mutation rate, but the deleterious mutations are removed by an ovarian selection system. Hence, new mutations that subtly alter energy metabolism are continuously introduced into the species, permitting adaptation to regional differences in energy environments. Therefore, the most phenotypically significant gene variants arise in the mtDNA, are regional, and permit animals to occupy peripheral energy environments where rarer nuclear DNA (nDNA) variants can accumulate, leading to speciation. The neutralist-selectionist debate is then a consequence of mammals having two different evolutionary strategies: a fast mtDNA strategy for intra-specific radiation and a slow nDNA strategy for speciation. Furthermore, the missing genetic variation for common human diseases is primarily mtDNA variation plus regional nDNA variants, both of which have been missed by large, inter-population association studies. PMID:23754818

Wallace, Douglas C

2013-07-19

420

Bioenergetics in human evolution and disease: implications for the origins of biological complexity and the missing genetic variation of common diseases  

PubMed Central

Two major inconsistencies exist in the current neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory that random chromosomal mutations acted on by natural selection generate new species. First, natural selection does not require the evolution of ever increasing complexity, yet this is the hallmark of biology. Second, human chromosomal DNA sequence variation is predominantly either neutral or deleterious and is insufficient to provide the variation required for speciation or for predilection to common diseases. Complexity is explained by the continuous flow of energy through the biosphere that drives the accumulation of nucleic acids and information. Information then encodes complex forms. In animals, energy flow is primarily mediated by mitochondria whose maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) codes for key genes for energy metabolism. In mammals, the mtDNA has a very high mutation rate, but the deleterious mutations are removed by an ovarian selection system. Hence, new mutations that subtly alter energy metabolism are continuously introduced into the species, permitting adaptation to regional differences in energy environments. Therefore, the most phenotypically significant gene variants arise in the mtDNA, are regional, and permit animals to occupy peripheral energy environments where rarer nuclear DNA (nDNA) variants can accumulate, leading to speciation. The neutralist–selectionist debate is then a consequence of mammals having two different evolutionary strategies: a fast mtDNA strategy for intra-specific radiation and a slow nDNA strategy for speciation. Furthermore, the missing genetic variation for common human diseases is primarily mtDNA variation plus regional nDNA variants, both of which have been missed by large, inter-population association studies. PMID:23754818

Wallace, Douglas C.

2013-01-01

421

Structural basis for the binding specificity of human Recepteur d'Origine Nantais (RON) receptor tyrosine kinase to macrophage-stimulating protein.  

PubMed

Recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, serum macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), play important roles in inflammation, cell growth, migration, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition during tumor development. The binding of mature MSP?? (disulfide-linked ?- and ?-chains) to RON ectodomain modulates receptor dimerization, followed by autophosphorylation of tyrosines in the cytoplasmic receptor kinase domains. Receptor recognition is mediated by binding of MSP ?-chain (MSP?) to the RON Sema. Here we report the structure of RON Sema-PSI-IPT1 (SPI1) domains in complex with MSP? at 3.0 Å resolution. The MSP? serine protease-like ?-barrel uses the degenerate serine protease active site to recognize blades 2, 3, and 4 of the ?-propeller fold of RON Sema. Despite the sequence homology between RON and MET receptor tyrosine kinase and between MSP and hepatocyte growth factor, it is well established that there is no cross-reactivity between the two receptor-ligand systems. Comparison of the structure of RON SPI1 in complex with MSP? and that of MET receptor tyrosine kinase Sema-PSI in complex with hepatocyte growth factor ?-chain reveals the receptor-ligand selectivity determinants. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies of the SPI1-MSP? interaction confirm the formation of a 1:1 complex. SPI1 and MSP?? also associate primarily as a 1:1 complex with a binding affinity similar to that of SPI1-MSP?. In addition, the SPI1-MSP?? ultracentrifuge studies reveal a low abundance 2:2 complex with ? 10-fold lower binding affinity compared with the 1:1 species. These results support the hypothesis that the ?-chain of MSP?? mediates RON dimerization. PMID:25193665

Chao, Kinlin L; Gorlatova, Natalia V; Eisenstein, Edward; Herzberg, Osnat

2014-10-24

422

Structure and Sequence of the Human Fast Skeletal Troponin T (TNNT3) Gene: Insight Into the Evolution of the Gene and the Origin of the Developmentally Regulated Isoforms  

PubMed Central

We describe the cloning, sequencing and structure of the human fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5. The single-copy gene encodes 19 exons and 18 introns. Eleven of these exons, 1–3, 9–15 and 18, are constitutively spliced, whereas exons 4–8 are alternatively spliced. The gene contains an additional subset of developmentally regulated and alternatively spliced exons, including a foetal exon located between exon 8 and 9 and exon 16 or ? (adult) and 17 or ? (foetal and neonatal). Exon phasing suggests that the majority of the alternatively spliced exons located at the 5? end of the gene may have evolved as a result of exon shuffling, because they are of the same phase class. In contrast, the 3? exons encoding an evolutionarily conserved heptad repeat domain, shared by both TnT and troponin I (TnI), may be remnants of an ancient ancestral gene. The sequence of the 5? flanking region shows that the putative promoter contains motifs including binding sites for MyoD, MEF-2 and several transcription factors which may play a role in transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of TnT. The coding region of TNNT3 exhibits strong similarity to the corresponding rat sequence. However, unlike the rat TnT gene, TNNT3 possesses two repeat regions of CCA and TC. The exclusive presence of these repetitive elements in the human gene indicates divergence in the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian TnT genes. Homologous muscle-specific splicing enhancer motifs are present in the introns upstream and downstream of the foetal exon, and may play a role in the developmental pattern of alternative splicing of the gene. The genomic correlates of TNNT3 are relevant to our understanding of the evolution and regulation of expression of the gene, as well as the structure and function of the protein isoforms. The nucleotide sequence of TNNT3 has been submitted to EMBL/GenBank under Accession No. AF026276. PMID:18629027

Stefancsik, Raymund; Randall, Jeffrey D.; Mao, Chengjian

2003-01-01

423

Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka.  

PubMed

Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51-46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ~63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic-modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ~50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. PMID:22908291

Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

2012-09-01

424

Isolation and characterization of the human aldehyde oxidase gene: conservation of intron/exon boundaries with the xanthine oxidoreductase gene indicates a common origin.  

PubMed Central

Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a molybdo-flavo enzyme involved in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous N-heterocyclic compounds of pharmacological and toxicological importance. The enzyme is the product of a gene which is implicated in the aetio-pathogenesis of familial recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we report the cloning and structural characterization of the human AO gene. AO is a single copy gene approximately 85 kb long with 35 transcribed exons. The transcription-initiation site and the sequence of the 5'-flanking region, containing several putative regulatory elements, were determined. The 5'-flanking region contains a functional promoter, as assessed by appropriate reporter constructs in transient transfection experiments. Comparison of the AO gene structure shows conservation of the position and type of exon/intron junctions relative to those observed in the gene coding for another molybdo-flavoprotein, i.e. xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). As the two genes code for proteins with a high level of amino acid identity, our results strongly suggest that the AO and XOR genetic loci arose as the consequence of a duplication event. Southern blot analysis conducted on genomic DNA from various animal species with specific cDNA probes indicates that the AO gene is less conserved than the XOR gene during evolution. PMID:9601067

Terao, M; Kurosaki, M; Demontis, S; Zanotta, S; Garattini, E

1998-01-01

425

A foxy view of human beauty: implications of the farm fox experiment for understanding the origins of structural and experiential aspects of facial attractiveness.  

PubMed

Within 20 years, experimental selection of quantified "not too aggressive, not too fearful" behavior to human approach was shown in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to produce a neotenic package of traits in adults: ability to seek, induce, and sustain contact (called friendly or rapport behavior); relatively short limbs and foreshortened skull/face; and light pigmentation areas. Earlier sexual maturation, prolonged receptivity, and larger litters were also noted. The increased estradiol supporting these changes was apparently also responsible for faster skeletal maturation, including earlier fusion of the basicranium causing tooth crowding, but also paedomorphic craniofacial proportions that we find attractive in our own and other species. In this paper, these important findings of the farm fox experiment are juxtaposed with insights from social psychology, physical anthropology, and neuroscience about facial beauty and reaction to it. Since many unrelated species show some or all of the neotenic package or domestication profile when they have achieved rapport past the juvenile stage, craniofacial proportions considered attractive are discussed as genetically and hormonally linked to the evolution of rapport--social contact, trust, and cooperation--whether by natural, intuitive, intentional, or mixed paths of selection. PMID:24053070

Elia, I E

2013-09-01

426

Intramuscular Delivery of Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vector Expressing Humanized Protective Antigen Induces Rapid Protection against Anthrax That May Bypass Intranasally Originated Preexisting Adenovirus Immunity  

PubMed Central

Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a single dose of 108 infectious units of Ad5-PAopt achieved 100% protection from challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of anthrax lethal toxin 7 days after vaccination. Although preexisting intranasally induced immunity to Ad5 slightly weakened the humoral and cellular immune responses to Ad5-PAopt via intramuscular inoculation, 100% protection was achieved 15 days after vaccination in Fisher 344 rats. The protective efficacy conferred by intramuscular vaccination in the presence of preexisting intranasally induced immunity was significantly better than that of intranasal delivery of Ad5-PAopt and intramuscular injection with recombinant PA and aluminum adjuvant without preexisting immunity. As natural Ad5 infection often occurs via the mucosal route, the work here largely illuminates that intramuscular inoculation with Ad5-PAopt can overcome the negative effects of immunity induced by prior adenovirus infection and represents an efficient approach for protecting against emerging anthrax. PMID:24307239

Wu, Shipo; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ying; Song, Xiaohong; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Ju; Chen, Jianqin; Yin, Ying; Xu, Junjie

2014-01-01

427

Intramuscular delivery of adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing humanized protective antigen induces rapid protection against anthrax that may bypass intranasally originated preexisting adenovirus immunity.  

PubMed

Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a single dose of 10? infectious units of Ad5-PAopt achieved 100% protection from challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD??) of anthrax lethal toxin 7 days after vaccination. Although preexisting intranasally induced immunity to Ad5 slightly weakened the humoral and cellular immune responses to Ad5-PAopt via intramuscular inoculation, 100% protection was achieved 15 days after vaccination in Fisher 344 rats. The protective efficacy conferred by intramuscular vaccination in the presence of preexisting intranasally induced immunity was significantly better than that of intranasal delivery of Ad5-PAopt and intramuscular injection with recombinant PA and aluminum adjuvant without preexisting immunity. As natural Ad5 infection often occurs via the mucosal route, the work here largely illuminates that intramuscular inoculation with Ad5-PAopt can overcome the negative effects of immunity induced by prior adenovirus infection and represents an efficient approach for protecting against emerging anthrax. PMID:24307239

Wu, Shipo; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ying; Song, Xiaohong; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Ju; Chen, Jianqin; Yin, Ying; Xu, Junjie; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

2014-02-01

428

Identification to the species level of Lactobacillus isolated in probiotic prospecting studies of human, animal or food origin by 16S-23S rRNA restriction profiling  

PubMed Central

Background The accurate identification of Lactobacillus and other co-isolated bacteria during microbial ecological studies of ecosystems such as the human or animal intestinal tracts and food products is a hard task by phenotypic methods requiring additional tests such as protein and/or lipids profiling. Results Bacteria isolated in different probiotic prospecting studies, using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS), were typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR products. The set of enzymes chosen differentiates most species of Lactobacillus genus and also co-isolated bacteria such as Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella, Staphylococcus, and Escherichia species. The in silico predictions of restriction patterns generated by the Lactobacillus shorter spacers digested with 11 restriction enzymes with 6 bp specificities allowed us to distinguish almost all isolates at the species level but not at the subspecies one. Simultaneous theoretical digestions of the three spacers (long, medium and short) with the same set of enzymes provided more complex patterns and allowed us to distinguish the species without purifying and cloning of PCR products. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolates and several other strains of bacteria co-isolated on MRS medium from gastrointestinal ecosystem and fermented food products could be identified using DNA fingerprints generated by restriction endonucleases. The methodology based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) is easier, faster and more accurate than the current methodologies based on fermentation profiles, used in most laboratories for the purpose of identification of these bacteria in different prospecting studies. PMID:15788104

Moreira, João Luiz S; Mota, Rodrigo M; Horta, Maria F; Teixeira, Santuza MR; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nicoli, Jacques R; Nunes, Álvaro C

2005-01-01

429

Origin of Human Losses due to the Emilia Romagna, Italy, M5.9 Earthquake of 20 May 2012 and their Estimate in Real Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating human losses within less than an hour worldwide requires assumptions and simplifications. Earthquake for which losses are accurately recorded after the event provide clues concerning the influence of error sources. If final observations and real time estimates differ significantly, data and methods to calculate losses may be modified or calibrated. In the case of the earthquake in the Emilia Romagna region with M5.9 on May 20th, the real time epicenter estimates of the GFZ and the USGS differed from the ultimate location by the INGV by 6 and 9 km, respectively. Fatalities estimated within an hour of the earthquake by the loss estimating tool QLARM, based on these two epicenters, numbered 20 and 31, whereas 7 were reported in the end, and 12 would have been calculated if the ultimate epicenter released by INGV had been used. These four numbers being small, do not differ statistically. Thus, the epicenter errors in this case did not appreciably influence the results. The QUEST team of INGV has reported intensities with I ? 5 at 40 locations with accuracies of 0.5 units and QLARM estimated I > 4.5 at 224 locations. The differences between the observed and calculated values at the 23 common locations show that the calculation in the 17 instances with significant differences were too high on average by one unit. By assuming higher than average attenuation within standard bounds for worldwide loss estimates, the calculated intensities model the observed ones better: For 57% of the locations, the difference was not significant; for the others, the calculated intensities were still somewhat higher than the observed ones. Using a generic attenuation law with higher than average attenuation, but not tailored to the region, the number of estimated fatalities becomes 12 compared to 7 reported ones. Thus, attenuation in this case decreased the discrepancy between observed and reported death by approximately a factor of two. The source of the fatalities is perplexing: Most fatalities occurred in industrial facilities where few workers are present at 4AM, while the vast majority of the population at home survived. QLARM contains a function modeling the occupancy rate of buildings as a function of the hour of day for residential buildings. The possibility that two-year old industrial plants may collapse and kill workers within a stone's throw from abandoned, old, brick farm houses that do not collapse, as it happened near Sant'Agostino on 20th May 2012, is not considered in QLARM or any loss estimating method. The dismal performance of the many new industrial plants in Emilia Romagna, which collapsed, lost their roofs, or their walls, shows that regional building practices can remain hidden from the world community trying to estimate earthquake risk and lead to surprises and unnecessary fatalities.

Wyss, M.

2012-12-01

430

Original Article The establishment of communication systems depends  

E-print Network

; Experimental semiotics 1. Introduction Explaining the origin of human communication has been a long). This new approach, called "experimental semiotics" (Galantucci, 2009), has allowed for the investigation

Rankin, Daniel

431

Original Articles Geometric Control of Cardiomyogenic Induction  

E-print Network

embryonic stem cell (hESC) cardiac tissue development, and to test the hypothesis that hESC aggregate sizeOriginal Articles Geometric Control of Cardiomyogenic Induction in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, an incomplete understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying human pluripotent stem cell

Zandstra, Peter W.

432

ORIGINAL PAPER Economic growth and biodiversity  

E-print Network

- dination. To alleviate the problem of biodiversity loss we should address these failures. Keywords biologically diverse. The root causes of biodiversity losses are human preferences and human inefficienciesORIGINAL PAPER Economic growth and biodiversity Marcelino Fuentes Received: 14 January 2011

Fuentes, Marcelino

433

Feline Origin of Rotavirus Strain, Tunisia, 2008  

PubMed Central

In Tunisia in 2008, an unusual G6P[9] rotavirus, RVA/human-wt/TUN/17237/2008/G6P[9], rarely found in humans, was detected in a child. To determine the origin of this strain, we conducted phylogenetic analyses and found a unique genotype constellation resembling rotaviruses belonging to the feline BA222-like genotype constellation. The strain probably resulted from direct cat-to-human transmission. PMID:23631866

Fredj, Mouna Ben Hadj; Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Fodha, Imene; Benhamida-Rebai, Meriam; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

2013-01-01

434

Perspective De Novo Origins of Human Genes  

E-print Network

plausible. The potential evolution of complex features such as intron splicing and protein domains within de genes [9,17], and the appearance of protein domains by convergent evolution may be more likely than previously thought [2]. The operational definition of a de novo gene used by Wu et al. [15] means

McLysaght, Aoife

435

Original Research Measuring Human Cardiac Tissue Sodium  

E-print Network

relaxed, very short-echo, 23 Na twisted projection imaging (TPI) with adia- batic half passage (AHP this sequence suitable for applications that use surface coil excitation. An AHP 23 Na TPI sequence was used the utility of 23 Na MRI for quantifying absolute TSC levels. Because twisted projection imaging (TPI

Ouwerkerk, Ronald

436

The epigenetic progenitor origin of human cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is widely perceived as a heterogeneous group of disorders with markedly different biological properties, which are caused by a series of clonally selected genetic changes in key tumour-suppressor genes and oncogenes. However, recent data suggest that cancer has a fundamentally common basis that is grounded in a polyclonal epigenetic disruption of stem\\/progenitor cells, mediated by 'tumour-progenitor genes'. Furthermore, tumour

Rolf Ohlsson; Steven Henikoff; Andrew P. Feinberg

2006-01-01

437

The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.  

PubMed Central

The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

Barrett, James H.; Locker, Alison M.; Roberts, Callum M.

2004-01-01

438

Transcriptomic Characterization of the Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus: Specific Host Response and Responses Intermediate between Avian (H5N1 and H7N7) and Human (H3N2) Viruses and Implications for Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus (IAV) emerged in China in 2013, causing mild to lethal human respiratory infections. H7N9 originated with multiple reassortment events between avian viruses and carries genetic markers of human adaptation. Determining whether H7N9 induces a host response closer to that with human or avian IAV is important in order to better characterize this emerging virus. Here we compared the human lung epithelial cell response to infection with A/Anhui/01/13 (H7N9) or highly pathogenic avian-origin H5N1, H7N7, or human seasonal H3N2 IAV. The transcriptomic response to H7N9 was highly specific to this strain but was more similar to the response to human H3N2 than to that to other avian IAVs. H7N9 and H3N2 both elicited responses related to eicosanoid signaling and chromatin modification, whereas H7N9 specifically induced genes regulating the cell cycle and transcription. Among avian IAVs, the response to H7N9 was closest to that elicited by H5N1 virus. Host responses common to H7N9 and the other avian viruses included the lack of induction of the antigen presentation pathway and reduced proinflammatory cytokine induction compared to that with H3N2. Repression of these responses could have an important impact on the immunogenicity and virulence of H7N9 in humans. Finally, using a genome-based drug repurposing approach, we identified several drugs predicted to regulate the host response to H7N9 that may act as potential antivirals, including several kinase inhibitors, as well as FDA-approved drugs, such as troglitazone and minocycline. Importantly, we validated that minocycline inhibited H7N9 replication in vitro, suggesting that our computational approach holds promise for identifying novel antivirals. PMID:24496798

Josset, Laurence; Zeng, Hui; Kelly, Sara M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Katze, Michael G.

2014-01-01

439

The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe.  

PubMed

The earliest anatomically modern humans in Europe are thought to have appeared around 43,000-42,000 calendar years before present (43-42 kyr cal BP), by association with Aurignacian sites and lithic assemblages assumed to have been made by modern humans rather than by Neanderthals. However, the actual physical evidence for modern humans is extremely rare, and direct dates reach no farther back than about 41-39 kyr cal BP, leaving a gap. Here we show, using stratigraphic, chronological and archaeological data, that a fragment of human maxilla from the Kent's Cavern site, UK, dates to the earlier period. The maxilla (KC4), which was excavated in 1927, was initially diagnosed as Upper Palaeolithic modern human. In 1989, it was directly radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry to 36.4-34.7 kyr cal BP. Using a Bayesian analysis of new ultrafiltered bone collagen dates in an ordered stratigraphic sequence at the site, we show that this date is a considerable underestimate. Instead, KC4 dates to 44.2-41.5 kyr cal BP. This makes it older than any other equivalently dated modern human specimen and directly contemporary with the latest European Neanderthals, thus making its taxonomic attribution crucial. We also show that in 13 dental traits KC4 possesses modern human rather than Neanderthal characteristics; three other traits show Neanderthal affinities and a further seven are ambiguous. KC4 therefore represents the oldest known anatomically modern human fossil in northwestern Europe, fills a key gap between the earliest dated Aurignacian remains and the earliest human skeletal remains, and demonstrates the wide and rapid dispersal of early modern humans across Europe more than 40 kyr ago. PMID:22048314

Higham, Tom; Compton, Tim; Stringer, Chris; Jacobi, Roger; Shapiro, Beth; Trinkaus, Erik; Chandler, Barry; Gröning, Flora; Collins, Chris; Hillson, Simon; O'Higgins, Paul; FitzGerald, Charles; Fagan, Michael

2011-11-24

440

On Being Human: Biology and Anthropology of Human Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Jenny McFarland and Tom Murphy at Edmonds Community College, this site presents a coordinated studies course quantifying and incorporating biology and genetics into anthropology. Here, visitors will find overview information of the project as well as student examples of work. It's a great resource for anthropology and biology educators to introduce mathematics in an applied and meaningful fashion to students.

Mcfarland, Jenny; Murphy, Tom

2008-08-13

441

Genetic Origins: Mitochondrial Control Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dolan DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory presents this multi-faceted educational Web site as part of the online feature "Genetic Origins: The study of human evolution begins with your own DNA." The Mitochondrial Control Region Web pages provides a comprehensive introduction (including first-hand lab experience) to the same methods researchers use to retrace the common maternal lineage of modern humans and our relationship to Neandertal. The site includes detailed introductory material (complete with animations and a video interview with the director of the Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute); procedures for DNA isolation, amplification, and analysis; in-depth lab exercises; and much more. College level or advanced high school biology classes with sufficient time and resources shouldn't hesitate to take full advantage of the challenging activities and opportunities offered through this Web site.

2000-01-01

442

Genetic Origins: Mitochondrial Control Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dolan DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory presents this multi-faceted educational Web site as part of the online feature "Genetic Origins: The study of human evolution begins with your own DNA." The Mitochondrial Control Region Web pages provides a comprehensive introduction (including first-hand lab experience) to the same methods researchers use to retrace the common maternal lineage of modern humans and our relationship to Neandertal. The site includes detailed introductory material (complete with animations and a video interview with the director of the Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute); procedures for DNA isolation, amplification, and analysis; in-depth lab exercises; and much more. College level or advanced high school biology classes with sufficient time and resources shouldn't hesitate to take full advantage of the challenging activities and opportunities offered through this Web site.

2007-03-17

443

Human Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site is an article from the New York Times (1) detailing some recent fossil discoveries that are shaking the paleontological world (free registration is required). Another relatively recent article from Guardian Unlimited (2) discusses a scientific debate surrounding the question of whether "a Western lifestyle now protects humanity from the forces that used to shape Homo sapiens." The third resource (3) includes a likely timeline of events in the history of hominids and a tour of the fossil record. A second timeline from the Huntarian Museum and Art Gallery at the University of Glasgow (4) is less detailed, but links to many major fossil discoveries of human and pre-human history. An "overview of the study of human evolution, and of the currently accepted fossil evidence" (5) is used to inform arguments for creationists and evolutionists. An interesting site from the University of California Santa Barbara (6) (last mentioned in the December 1, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences) presents 3-dimensional views of "modern primate relatives and fossil ancestors of humans." The interactive documentary from the Institute of Human Origins (7) (last mentioned in the April 20, 2001 Scout Report) is a great resource for those with the Flash plug-in and a high speed connection. Lastly, a resource from PBS.org (8) focuses on human evolution in a format aimed at kids.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

444

Origin of cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that there are three 'origins' of cosmic rays; the origin of the particles, the origin of the energy, and the site of the acceleration. The evidence for each origin is discussed and a plausible synthesis outlined for the particles of Galactic origin where the energy comes mainly (but not exclusively) from supernova explosions, the site of the acceleration is at strong collisionless shock waves, and the accelerated particles come from the interstellar and circumstellar material swept over by these shocks. If these shocks are capable (as indicated by recent observations and theoretical work) of significantly amplifying magnetic fields this picture appears capable of explaining the cosmic ray particles at all energies below the 'ankle' at 3 × 1018 eV. The particles above this energy are generally taken to be of extra-galactic origin and possible acceleration sites for these UHE particles are briefly discussed.

Drury, Luke O.'C.

2012-12-01

445

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Jan Babic Jadran Lenarcic  

E-print Network

: soleus and Achilles tendon stiffness and viscosity were deter- mined in the first part whileORIGINAL ARTICLE Jan Babic � Jadran Lenarcic In vivo determination of triceps surae muscle­tendon-Verlag 2004 Abstract Viscoelastic properties of muscles and tendons have an important influence on human

Babic, Jan

446

Initiated: 1964 17.C Original: English  

E-print Network

Initiated: 1964 17.C Original: English WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Ethics declares that, "A physician shall act only in the patient's interest when providing medical care Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Adopted by the 18th WMA General Assembly Helsinki

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

447

Research Article The Origins of Cognitive  

E-print Network

in development? Similarly, are humans unique in their drive to avoid dissonant cognitions, or is this processResearch Article The Origins of Cognitive Dissonance Evidence From Children and Monkeys Louisa C of cognitive dissonance, preschoolers and capuchins were given a choice between two equally preferred

Santos, Laurie R.

448

ORIGINAL PAPER Conservation priorities for carnivores considering  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Conservation priorities for carnivores considering protected natural areas and human Abstract We conducted a prioritization exercise for 47 terrestrial carnivores in North and Central America minimum sets of cells to represent each carnivore either (1) at least once, (2) three times, or (3

Arita, Héctor T.

449

Extraembryonic Origin of Circulating Endothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are contained in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of adult humans and participate to the revascularization of ischemic tissues. These cells represent attractive targets for cell or gene therapy aimed at improving ischemic revascularization or inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The embryonic origin of CEC has not been addressed previously. Here we use quail-chick chimeras to

Luc Pardanaud; Anne Eichmann; Costanza Emanueli

2011-01-01

450

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Anthropogenic disturbance and evolutionary parameters  

E-print Network

and direction of natural selection. Contrary to initial expectations, we found that after the habitat loss loss therefore changed the phenotypes favored by natural selection. Because such human-induced shiftsORIGINAL ARTICLE Anthropogenic disturbance and evolutionary parameters: a lemon shark population

Hendry, Andrew