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1

Recovering the geographic origin of early modern humans by realistic and spatially explicit simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most genetic and archeological evidence argue in favor of a recent and unique origin of modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa, but no attempt has ever been made at quantifying the likelihood of this model, relative to alternative hypotheses of human evolution. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using multilocus genetic data to correctly infer the geographic origin of

Nicolas Ray; Mathias Currat; Pierre Berthier; Laurent Excoffier

2005-01-01

2

East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins  

PubMed Central

The environmental backdrop to the evolution and spread of early Homo sapiens in East Africa is known mainly from isolated outcrops and distant marine sediment cores. Here we present results from new scientific drill cores from Lake Malawi, the first long and continuous, high-fidelity records of tropical climate change from the continent itself. Our record shows periods of severe aridity between 135 and 75 thousand years (kyr) ago, when the lake's water volume was reduced by at least 95%. Surprisingly, these intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the period previously recognized as one of the most arid of the Quaternary. From these cores and from records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa), we document a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions over much of tropical Africa after ?70 kyr ago. This transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with diminished orbital eccentricity, and a reduction in precession-dominated climatic extremes. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but our records provide evidence for dramatically wetter conditions after 70 kyr ago. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations. PMID:17785420

Scholz, Christopher A.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Peck, John A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Talbot, Michael R.; Brown, Erik T.; Kalindekafe, Leonard; Amoako, Philip Y. O.; Lyons, Robert P.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Castañeda, Isla S.; Heil, Clifford W.; Forman, Steven L.; McHargue, Lanny R.; Beuning, Kristina R.; Gomez, Jeanette; Pierson, James

2007-01-01

3

Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario  

PubMed Central

The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

2009-01-01

4

Late Pleistocene Neandertal-Early Modern Human Population Dynamics: The Dental Evidence  

E-print Network

Recent genetic studies have confirmed that there was admixture between African early modern humans and archaic populations throughout the Old World. In this dissertation, I examine European early modern human dental morphology to assess...

Springer, Victoria Suzanne

2013-04-11

5

European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals  

PubMed Central

A consideration of the morphological aspects of the earliest modern humans in Europe (more than ?33,000 B.P.) and the subsequent Gravettian human remains indicates that they possess an anatomical pattern congruent with the autapomorphic (derived) morphology of the earliest (Middle Paleolithic) African modern humans. However, they exhibit a variable suite of features that are either distinctive Neandertal traits and/or plesiomorphic (ancestral) aspects that had been lost among the African Middle Paleolithic modern humans. These features include aspects of neurocranial shape, basicranial external morphology, mandibular ramal and symphyseal form, dental morphology and size, and anteroposterior dental proportions, as well as aspects of the clavicles, scapulae, metacarpals, and appendicular proportions. The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe. This interpretation is in agreement with current analyses of recent and past human molecular data. PMID:17452632

Trinkaus, Erik

2007-01-01

6

An early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China  

PubMed Central

Thirty-four elements of an early modern human (EMH) were found in Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China in 2003. Dated to 42,000–39,000 calendrical years before present by using direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon, the Tianyuan 1 skeleton is among the oldest directly dated EMHs in eastern Eurasia. Morphological comparison shows Tianyuan 1 to have a series of derived modern human characteristics, including a projecting tuber symphyseos, a high anterior symphyseal angle, a broad scapular glenoid fossa, a reduced hamulus, a gluteal buttress, and a pilaster on the femora. Other features of Tianyuan 1 that are more common among EMHs are its modest humeral pectoralis major tuberosities, anteriorly rotated radial tuberosity, reduced radial curvature, and modest talar trochlea. It also lacks several mandibular features common among western Eurasian late archaic humans, including mandibular foramen bridging, mandibular notch asymmetry, and a large superior medial pterygoid tubercle. However, Tianyuan 1 exhibits several late archaic human features, such as its anterior to posterior dental proportions, a large hamulus length, and a broad and rounded distal phalangeal tuberosity. This morphological pattern implies that a simple spread of modern humans from Africa is unlikely. PMID:17416672

Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Zhang, Shuangquan; Chen, Fuyou; Trinkaus, Erik

2007-01-01

7

Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human  

PubMed Central

We report here on the isotopic analysis of the diet of one of the oldest modern humans found in Eurasia, the Tianyuan 1 early modern human dating to ?40,000 calendar years ago from Tianyuan Cave (Tianyuandong) in the Zhoukoudian region of China. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of the human and associated faunal remains indicate a diet high in animal protein, and the high nitrogen isotope values suggest the consumption of freshwater fish. To confirm this inference, we measured the sulfur isotope values of terrestrial and freshwater animals around the Zhoukoudian area and of the Tianyuan 1 human, which also support the interpretation of a substantial portion of the diet from freshwater fish. This analysis provides the direct evidence for the consumption of aquatic resources by early modern humans in China and has implications for early modern human subsistence and demography. PMID:19581579

Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Nehlich, Olaf; Liu, Wu; Zhao, Chaohong; Yu, Jincheng; Wang, Changsui; Trinkaus, Erik; Richards, Michael P.

2009-01-01

8

Early Modern Humans and Morphological Variation in Southeast Asia: Fossil Evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling‘s cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3. PMID:25849125

Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura; Westaway, Kira; Duringer, Philippe; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wu, Xiujie; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Barnes, Lani; Boyon, Marc; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Sénégas, Frank; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Coppens, Yves; Braga, José

2015-01-01

9

The Ob?azowa 1 early modern human pollical phalanx and Late Pleistocene distal thumb proportions.  

PubMed

The human distal thumb phalanx from the earlier Upper Paleolithic of Ob?azowa Cave, southern Poland, exhibits features of its palmar surface that align it morphologically principally with early modern humans. These aspects include the configurations of the proximal palmar fossa, the flexor pollicis longus tendon insertion, the proximal margin of the palmar apical tuft, and especially its low ulnar deviation angle. If it is assumed that it possessed the pollical phalangeal length proportions of an early modern human, it would exhibit modest base and tuft breadths. However, given Late Pleistocene archaic-modern contrasts in relative pollical phalanx lengths, the isolated nature of the phalanx prevents secure assessment of its radioulnar interphalangeal articular and apicaltuft hypertrophy. Similar constraints apply to the assessment of other Pleistocene Homo pollical phalanges. PMID:24616929

Trinkaus, E; Haduch, E; Valde-Nowak, P W; Wojtal, P

2014-02-01

10

Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans  

PubMed Central

We report here on the direct isotopic evidence for Neanderthal and early modern human diets in Europe. Isotopic methods indicate the sources of dietary protein over many years of life, and show that Neanderthals had a similar diet through time (?120,000 to ?37,000 cal BP) and in different regions of Europe. The isotopic evidence indicates that in all cases Neanderthals were top-level carnivores and obtained all, or most, of their dietary protein from large herbivores. In contrast, early modern humans (?40,000 to ?27,000 cal BP) exhibited a wider range of isotopic values, and a number of individuals had evidence for the consumption of aquatic (marine and freshwater) resources. This pattern includes Oase 1, the oldest directly dated modern human in Europe (?40,000 cal BP) with the highest nitrogen isotope value of all of the humans studied, likely because of freshwater fish consumption. As Oase 1 was close in time to the last Neanderthals, these data may indicate a significant dietary shift associated with the changing population dynamics of modern human emergence in Europe. PMID:19706482

Richards, Michael P.; Trinkaus, Erik

2009-01-01

11

Plant foods and the dietary ecology of Neanderthals and early modern humans.  

PubMed

One of the most important challenges in anthropology is understanding the disappearance of Neanderthals. Previous research suggests that Neanderthals had a narrower diet than early modern humans, in part because they lacked various social and technological advances that lead to greater dietary variety, such as a sexual division of labor and the use of complex projectile weapons. The wider diet of early modern humans would have provided more calories and nutrients, increasing fertility, decreasing mortality and supporting large population sizes, allowing them to out-compete Neanderthals. However, this model for Neanderthal dietary behavior is based on analysis of animal remains, stable isotopes, and other methods that provide evidence only of animal food in the diet. This model does not take into account the potential role of plant food. Here we present results from the first broad comparison of plant foods in the diets of Neanderthals and early modern humans from several populations in Europe, the Near East, and Africa. Our data comes from the analysis of plant microremains (starch grains and phytoliths) in dental calculus and on stone tools. Our results suggest that both species consumed a similarly wide array of plant foods, including foods that are often considered low-ranked, like underground storage organs and grass seeds. Plants were consumed across the entire range of individuals and sites we examined, and none of the expected predictors of variation (species, geographic region, or associated stone tool technology) had a strong influence on the number of plant species consumed. Our data suggest that Neanderthal dietary ecology was more complex than previously thought. This implies that the relationship between Neanderthal technology, social behavior, and food acquisition strategies must be better explored. PMID:24612646

Henry, Amanda G; Brooks, Alison S; Piperno, Dolores R

2014-04-01

12

Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards.  

PubMed

Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C; Stringer, Chris B; Tomlinson, Emma L; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C

2012-08-21

13

Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards  

PubMed Central

Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S.; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C.; Stringer, Chris B.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Bori?, Dušan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C.; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

2012-01-01

14

A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000  

E-print Network

A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120­200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains contro- versial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant 120­90 ka

Rohling, Eelco

15

Behavioral inferences from the Skhul/Qafzeh early modern human hand remains  

PubMed Central

Two groups of humans are found in the Near East ?100,000 years ago, the late archaic Neanderthals and the early modern Skhul/Qafzeh humans. Observations that Neanderthals were more heavily muscled, had stronger upper-limb bones, and possessed unusual shapes and orientations of some upper-limb joint complexes relative to the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids, have led some researchers to conclude that significant between-group upper-limb-related behavioral differences must have been present, despite the association of the two groups with similar Middle Paleolithic archeological complexes. A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the hand remains of the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids, Neanderthals, early and late Upper Paleolithic humans, and Holocene humans supports the dichotomy. The Skhul/Qafzeh carpometacarpal remains do not have any unique morphologies relative to the other fossil samples remains examined. However, in the functionally significant metacarpal 1 and 3 bases they resemble Upper Paleolithic humans, not Neanderthals. Furthermore, the Skhul/Qafzeh sample differs significantly from the Neanderthals in many other aspects of hand functional anatomy. Given the correlations between changes in tool technologies and functional adaptations seen in the hands of Upper Paleolithic humans, it is concluded that the Skhul/Qafzeh hand remains were adapted to Upper Paleolithic-like manipulative repertoires. These results support the inference of significant behavioral differences between Neanderthals and the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids and indicate that a significant shift in human manipulative behaviors was associated with the earliest stages of the emergence of modern humans. PMID:11248017

Niewoehner, Wesley A.

2001-01-01

16

Radiocarbon dating of interstratified Neanderthal and early modern human occupations at the Chatelperronian type-site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the coexistence and potential interaction between the last Neanderthal and the earliest intrusive populations of anatomically modern humans in Europe has recently emerged as a topic of lively debate in the archaeological and anthropological literature. Here we report the results of radiocarbon accelerator dating for what has been reported as an interstratified sequence of late Neanderthal and

Brad Gravina; Paul Mellars; Christopher Bronk Ramsey

2005-01-01

17

A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa ?150–200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant ?120–90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130–117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of—now buried—fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa. PMID:18936490

Osborne, Anne H.; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J.; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

2008-01-01

18

A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration "Out of Africa" of early modern humans 120,000 years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climatic history of the Sahara in the Quaternary is likely to have been a key control on the history of human migrations out of Africa. For example, it is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub- Saharan Africa around 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyper-arid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant around 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during the humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of - now buried - fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. This would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age (MSA) Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. We have previously used neodymium and oxygen isotope data to suggest that there was enhanced Nile outflow to the Levantine Sea during Saharan humid periods in Stage 5e and the Holocene1. Here, however, we present further geochemical data which suggest that the freshwater signal from Africa was much stronger further west in the Ionian Sea. Furthermore, analyses of shell samples retrieved from the Libyan fossil river channels traces the geochemical signature found in the Ionian Sea to the Tibesti Mountains in the southern Sahara. These data demonstrate that water in the fossil river systems of the Sahara derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular, confirming the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa. 1Scrivner, A.E. et al. (2004) Geology 32, 565-568.

Osborne, A. H.; Vance, D.; Rohling, E. J.; Barton, N.; Rogerson, M.; Fello, N.

2008-12-01

19

Epicureanism and Early Modern Naturalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often suggested that certain forms of early modern philosophy are naturalistic. Although I have some sympathy with this description, I argue that applying the category of naturalism to early modern philosophy is not useful. There is another category that does most of the work we want the category of naturalism to do – one that, unlike naturalism, was actually used

Antonia LoLordo

2011-01-01

20

Queer Theory, Historicism, and Early Modern Sexualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queer\\/Early\\/Modern (Carla Freccero) Before Intimacy: Asocial Sexuality in Early Modern England (Daniel Juan Gil) Incest and Agency in Elizabeth’s England (Maureen Quilligan) Constructions of Female Homoeroticism in Early Modern Drama (Denise A. Walen)

Mario Digangi

2012-01-01

21

Recovering the geographic origin of early modern humans by realistic and spatially explicit simulations  

E-print Network

evidence globally favor a complete re- placement of previous representatives of the genus Homo by early nuclear genes (Hawks et al. 2000), or the inference of pre-H. sapiens range expansions from current

Batzoglou, Serafim

22

Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus.  

PubMed

Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins. PMID:21047863

Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

2011-05-22

23

Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus  

PubMed Central

Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins. PMID:21047863

Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

2011-01-01

24

EARLY MODERN BRAVE NEW WORLDS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay investigates how early modern maps of t he New World both as a mode of representation (i.e. a view of the self) and as a scopic instrument (i.e. a view of the other) translated the European view of the other as a mons trous (and) female body (the latter on the verge of object -ification), consonant with its

ESTELLA ANTOANETA CIOBANU

25

A review of "Fallen Nature, Fallen Selves: Early Modern French Thought II" by Michael Moriarty  

E-print Network

of classical rhetoric, Tridentine theology, mystical literature, the sister arts, and the devotional po- etry of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Michael Moriarty. Fallen Nature, Fallen Selves: Early Modern French Thought II. Oxford... might be called a kind of proto-psychology ?a study of human behavioral motivation with a pronounced focus on subjective interiority. He traces his theme from its roots in neo-Augustinian conceptions of original sin to the problematic nature of self...

Janke, Todd

2007-01-01

26

Cioclovina (Romania): affinities of an early modern European.  

PubMed

The current modern human origins debate centers on the possibility and degree of admixture between indigenous archaic humans and modern human populations migrating out of Africa into Europe and Asia in the Late Pleistocene. Evidence for such admixture must be sought in the earliest fossil record of modern humans outside Africa, as it is those populations that would have encountered, and possibly interbred with, archaic hominins. In the case of Europe, the recent application of direct dating techniques has eliminated several specimens from the Upper Paleolithic fossil record, while confirming early ages for others. Among these earliest reliably dated specimens is the Cioclovina calvaria from Romania. This individual is of highest importance for the understanding of modern human origins in Europe, and has recently been proposed to represent a Neanderthal-modern human hybrid. We present a short description and a three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analysis of the Cioclovina specimen using a large geographic sample of recent humans, Neanderthals and Middle and Late Pleistocene fossil hominins from Europe, Africa, and the Levant, in order to establish its phenetic affinities and to evaluate its morphology for evidence of admixture between Neanderthals and early modern Europeans. Our results show Cioclovina to be entirely modern in its cranial shape, and do not support the hypothesis that it represents a hybrid. PMID:18001819

Harvati, Katerina; Gunz, Philipp; Grigorescu, Dan

2007-12-01

27

Fleck, anatomical drawings and early modern history.  

PubMed

In 2003, the historian of medicine Michael Stolberg, contested the argument--developed by Thomas Laqueur and Londa Schiebinger--that in the XVIII century, anatomists shifted from a one-sex to a two-sexes model. Laqueur and Schiebinger linked the new focus on anatomical differences between the sexes to the rise of egalitarian aspirations during the Enlightenment, and a consecutive need to ground male domination in invariable "laws of nature". Stolberg claimed that the shift to the two sexes model occurred in the early modern period, and was mainly motivated by developments within medicine. This article examines the 2003 debate on the origin of "two sexes" model in the light of a 1939 controversy that opposed the historian of medicine Tadeusz Bilikiewicz, who advocated a focus on a "spirit" of an earlier epoch, and the pioneer of sociology of science Ludwik Fleck, who promoted the study of the "thought styles" of specific scientific communities. PMID:19848216

Lowy, Ilana

2008-01-01

28

Sodomy and heresy in early modern Switzerland.  

PubMed

The author compares records, from the early modern era, of sodomy trials in two parts of French Switzerland (Geneva, a Protestant city, and Fribourg, A Catholic pastoral area) and presents evidence that: (1) men charged with "sodomy" were prosecuted more often for homosexuality in cities and for bestiality in rural areas, (2) male homosexual subcultures were associated with the growth of large urban centers, (3) sodomy was punished with greater severity than any other crime than infanticide, (4) in both Geneva and Fribourg repression of sodomy increased during periods of religious zeal. With the advent of the Enlightenment, the number of sodomy trials fell as prosecutions for crimes of personal violence declined and prosecutions for crimes against property increased. This is the first English translation of Monter's article, originally written in French. PMID:7042829

Monter, E W

29

Casebooks in Early Modern England:  

PubMed Central

summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

Kassell, Lauren

2014-01-01

30

Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment  

PubMed Central

The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages—demonstrably made by modern humans—are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2014-01-01

31

Subjectivity, Theory and Early Modern Drama  

Microsoft Academic Search

This forum has been organized, introduced, and edited by Viviana Comensoli with the aim of exploring current theoretical and critical approaches to the conceptualization and representation of subjectivity in English Renaissance drama. The introduction provides an overview of various poststructuralist theoretical approaches that since the 1980s have guided our thinking about the representation of early modern subjectivities, and calls for

Viviana Comensoli Viviana; Theodora Jankowski; Bryan Reynolds

2004-01-01

32

Sodomy and Heresy In Early Modern Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author compares records, form the early modern era, of sodomy trials in two parts of French Switzerland (Geneva, and Protestant city, and Fribourg, and Catholic pastoral area) and presents evidence that: (1) men charged with “sodomy” were prosecuted more often for homosexuality in cities and for bestiality in rural areas, (2) male homosexual subcultures were associated with the growth

E. William Monter

1981-01-01

33

Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment  

E-print Network

attrition and finally a terminal decline during a severe cold event (22). Evaluating these scenarios of the Neanderthal-modern human replacement requires data on Neanderthal and modern human technology, subsistence, and settlement patterns but also high... that AH 3 was not affected by large-scale, post-depositional reworking. The new collection is attributed to the Early Aurignacian based on the bladelet technology. Refitted artifacts between the new and old collection confirm this classification...

Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2014-09-22

34

"With much nausea, loathing, and foetor": William Harvey, dissection, and dispassion in early modern medicine.  

PubMed

In early modern England accumulating knowledge of normal and morbid anatomy through dissecting the human body not only led to a better understanding of nature, but also defined the identity of the people who engaged in this activity. This essay analyses the relationship between systemically dismembering the dead and how this pursuit shaped the attitudes and emotions of early modern medical men toward the living. I focus on the most famous anatomist in early modern Britain - the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, William Harvey (1578-1657). PMID:12715788

Payne, Lynda

2002-12-01

35

Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

DuPlessis, Robert S.

1988-01-01

36

A review of "Books and Readers in Early Modern England: Material Studies." by J. Anderson and E. Sauer eds.  

E-print Network

. Afterword by Stephen Orgel. Books and Readers in Early Modern England: Material Studies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. 295 pp. + 22 illus. $55.00. Review by GARY KUCHAR, MCMASTER UNIVERSITY. This ambitious volume of original...

Gary Kuchar

2004-01-01

37

Zooarchaeology and the Archaeology of Early Modern Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the bulk of existing early modern Icelandic zooarchaeological data together for the fi rst time. The early modern period in Iceland was generally a time of great stress and hardship. These zooarchaeological data present a view of the responses to these hard times and suggest, contrary to a number of historical interpretations, that the people of Iceland

George Hambrecht

2009-01-01

38

Astrology in Early Modern Scotland ca. 1560-1726   

E-print Network

Over the last generation scholars have demonstrated the fundamental importance of astrology in the early modern European worldview. While detailed studies have been undertaken of England and many areas of continental ...

Ridder-Patrick, Janet Harkness; Patrick, Janet Harkness Ridder

2012-11-30

39

Pestera cu Oase 2 and the cranial morphology of early modern Europeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 2003 and 2005, the Pe?tera cu Oase, Romania yielded a largely complete early modern human cranium, Oase 2, scattered on the surface of a Late Pleistocene hydraulically displaced bone bed containing principally the remains of Ursus spelaeus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate an age of ?40.5 thousand calendar years before the present (?35 ka ¹?C B.P.). Morphological comparison of

Hélène Rougier; S. Milota; Ricardo Rodrigo; Mircea Gherase; L. Sarcina; Oana Moldovan; J. Zilhao; Silviu Constantin; R. G. Franciscus; C. P. E. Zollikofer; M. Ponce de Leon; Erik Trinkaus

2007-01-01

40

Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.  

PubMed

This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends. PMID:12938716

Keiser, George R

2003-07-01

41

"Old Poems Have Heart": Teenage Students Reading Early Modern Poetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals for the revised National Curriculum in English suggest limiting the pre-twentieth century poetry that GCSE pupils read to "representative Romantic poetry" (Department for Education [DFE], 2013, p. 4). This paper argues that poetry of the early modern period is challenging and enriching study for adolescent pupils and that…

Naylor, Amanda

2013-01-01

42

Early Modern Experimentation on Live Animals* DOMENICO BERTOLONI MELI  

E-print Network

Early Modern Experimentation on Live Animals* DOMENICO BERTOLONI MELI Indiana University to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive

Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

43

Wealth Inequalities and Population Dynamics in Early Modern Northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the wealth and population of early modern Ivreabased on the estimi, or property tax, records; the correzioni degli estimi, a continuous series of tax records rarely found elsewhere and hardly ever used before; the census of 1613, another unique and informative source; and other archival recordsfinds that the city's concentration and distribution of wealth was resilient even

Guido Alfani

2010-01-01

44

Wealth Inequalities and Population Dynamics in Early Modern Northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the wealth and population of early modern Ivrea—based on the estimi, or property tax, records; the correzioni degli estimi, a continuous series of tax records rarely found elsewhere and hardly ever used before; the census of 1613, another unique and informative source; and other archival records—finds that the city's concentration and distribution of wealth was resilient even

Guido Alfani

2010-01-01

45

Cioclovina (Romania): affinities of an early modern European  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current modern human origins debate centers on the possibility and degree of admixture between indigenous archaic humans and modern human populations migrating out of Africa into Europe and Asia in the Late Pleistocene. Evidence for such admixture must be sought in the earliest fossil record of modern humans outside Africa, as it is those populations that would have encountered,

Katerina Harvati; Philipp Gunz; Dan Grigorescu

2007-01-01

46

Evidence for a (15)N positive excursion in terrestrial foodwebs at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France: Implications for early modern human palaeodiet and palaeoenvironment.  

PubMed

The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition around 35,000 years ago coincides with the replacement of Neanderthals by anatomically modern humans in Europe. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this replacement, one of them being the ability of anatomically modern humans to broaden their dietary spectrum beyond the large ungulate prey that Neanderthals consumed exclusively. This scenario is notably based on higher nitrogen-15 amounts in early Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern human bone collagen compared with late Neanderthals. In this paper, we document a clear increase of nitrogen-15 in bone collagen of terrestrial herbivores during the early Aurignacian associated with anatomically modern humans compared with the stratigraphically older Châtelperronian and late Mousterian fauna associated with Neanderthals. Carnivores such as wolves also exhibit a significant increase in nitrogen-15, which is similar to that documented for early anatomically modern humans compared with Neanderthals in Europe. A shift in nitrogen-15 at the base of the terrestrial foodweb is responsible for such a pattern, with a preserved foodweb structure before and after the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France. Such an isotopic shift in the terrestrial ecosystem may be due to an increase in aridity during the time of deposition of the early Aurignacian layers. If it occurred across Europe, such a shift in nitrogen-15 in terrestrial foodwebs would be enough to explain the observed isotopic trend between late Neanderthals and early anatomically modern humans, without any significant change in the diet composition at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. PMID:24630359

Bocherens, Hervé; Drucker, Dorothée G; Madelaine, Stéphane

2014-04-01

47

2011-2012BROWNBAGCOLLOQUIUMSERIES "And so they kissed again": Early Modern Crossdressing and Queer  

E-print Network

of the Gender, Sexuality and Women's Studies Program at Wayne State. Her research interests are in Early Modern, sexuality, and convention in early modern literary and dramatic instances in which male-to-female (MTF. One major anxiety about crossdressers (both early modern and modern) is that their sexuality

Berdichevsky, Victor

48

Freedom to, Freedom from, Freedom of: Urban Life and Political Participation in Early Modern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the English experience of urban and national citizenship in the early modern period, arguing for the centrality of the economic rights and privileges of citizenship to the development of political participation in the early modern period. In doing so it also emphasizes that a degree of freedom from the state was critical to early modern citizenship.

David Harris Sacks

2007-01-01

49

‘Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England  

PubMed Central

In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters.

Leong, Elaine

2014-01-01

50

Assessing an early modern Fenland population: Whittlesey (Cambridgeshire).  

PubMed

Improvement writers argued that drainage would bring prosperity and population growth to fenland communities; locals counter-argued that their communities were already thriving. The detailed surviving records from early modern Whittlesey, in the Isle of Ely, are analysed here to test the accuracy of these opposing claims. Using the returns of the 1523 Lay Subsidy, the 1563 ecclesiastical census, the Lady Day 1674 Hearth Tax records and the 1676 Compton Census, together with bishops' transcripts and probate inventories, this article finds that although the population did indeed increase after drainage, the pre-drainage population was also increasing. The Michaelmas 1664 Hearth Tax records are analysed to uncover something of the character of the inhabitants and the 1674 Lady Day returns are then used to test the relative wealth of the community compared with that of sub-regions throughout England identified by Tom Arkell. Finally, there is a discussion of Whittlesey's housing stock. PMID:25080616

Falvey, Heather

2014-01-01

51

Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England.  

PubMed

This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580-1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over 'aggravating' the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous 'cures' including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

Skuse, Alanna

2014-11-01

52

Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England  

PubMed Central

This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580–1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over ‘aggravating’ the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous ‘cures’ including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

Skuse, Alanna

2014-01-01

53

A review of "The Politics of Commonwealth: Citizens and Freemen in Early Modern England." by Phil Withington  

E-print Network

?s book is a useful reinterpretation of early modern English society for scholars of social and cultural history, but a work of limited interest to historians of ideas. Michael Losonsky. Enlightenment and Action from Descartes to Kant: Passionate... Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. xvii + 221 pp. $80.00. Review by JOSEPH M. MCCARTHY, SUFFOLK UNIVERSITY. Immanuel Kant?s famed 1784 essay ?What is Enlightenment? presented a notion of human enlightenment as a liberation of the self...

Kow, Simon

2006-01-01

54

A review of "Courtly Encounters: Translating Courtliness and Violence in Early Modern Eurasia" by Sanjay Subrahmanyam  

E-print Network

in ours. Sanjay Subrahmanyam. Courtly Encounters: Translating Courtliness and Violence in Early Modern Eurasia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, #18;#17;#16;#18;. xvi + #30;#16;#18; pp. $#18;#12;.#12;#14;. Review by #25; #11...: Translating Courtliness and Violence in Early Modern Eurasia, Subrahmanyam oers a valuable addition to his own oeuvre as well as to the #3;eld of early modern global history more broadly. As much a series of micro historical investigations into cross...

Nechtman, Tillman W.

2013-01-01

55

A review of "Comedy, Youth, Manhood in Early Modern England." by Ira Clark  

E-print Network

44 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS this interconnectivity further, and the collection contains numerous articles which should prove useful for scholars working in a variety of disciplines. Ira Clark. Comedy, Youth, Manhood in Early Modern England. Newark..., Youth and Manhood closes by asking some pertinent questions about the extent to which early modern comedies held the mirror up to their audience?s trepidations; and it ends by asking if the early modern audiences did not catch on and were not persuaded...

Byron Nelson

2004-01-01

56

Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.  

PubMed

In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data. PMID:16809862

McGough, Laura J

2006-01-01

57

Amazon Health / Human Origins Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 47-minute radio broadcast discusses a report by biologists that the types of trees in the inner Amazon rainforest are changing. Increasingly, they've found, larger, faster-growing tree species are crowding out smaller slower tree types - even in areas that have not yet been touched by logging or fires. The researchers suggest that increased carbon dioxide levels could be to blame. The second part of the show takes a look at current research into human origins. There is discussion about several recent research projects, including one which discovered six million-year-old fossils that may have come from one of the earliest known human ancestors and a new genetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA that researchers say shows that humans and Neanderthals did not interbreed. The show discusses the fossils of Ardipithecus kadabba; how temperature affects the extraction of DNA from fossils; how 5-7 million years ago the number of great ape species outnumbered that of monkeys; whether human ancestors had greater ability to form speech than Neanderthals; and how the gap in the fossil record of human ancestors is being filled.

58

Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.  

PubMed

Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

Kassell, Lauren

2014-01-01

59

Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

Damsen, Silver

2009-01-01

60

Susan Broomhall - Imagined Domesticities in Early Modern Dutch Dollhouses - Parergon 24:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early modern prescriptive literature about household spatial and social ordering primarily informs us of elite male views. Few contemporary sources exist to suggest women's notions about these issues. Early modern dollhouses could shed some light on the views of both sexes, as makers, patrons, and collectors of such objects. Such artefacts have rarely been considered a source for historic perceptions

Susan Broomhall

2007-01-01

61

A review of "Borders and Travellers in Early Modern Europe" edited by Thomas Betteridge  

E-print Network

worked from very similar assumptions about the need for hermeneutic stability. Thomas Betteridge, ed. Borders and Travellers in Early Modern Europe. Aldershot:: Ashgate, 2007. vi + 196 pp. $99.95. Review by Li n d a McJa n n e t , Be n t L e y un i v... e r s i t y . As described by editor Thomas Betteridge, Borders and Travellers in Early Modern Europe provides ?a trans-European interdisciplinary inter- rogation of borders and travel in early modern Europe? (12). Of the eleven essays...

McJannet, Linda

2008-01-01

62

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on ... United States since 2005 Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

63

A review of "Argument and Authority in Early Modern England: The Presupposition of Oaths and Offices" by Conal Condren  

E-print Network

and Offices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. x + 399 pp. $95.00. Review by PETER JOSEPHSON, SAINT ANSELM COLLEGE. If Conal Condren?s claim in Argument and Authority in Early Modern En- gland is right, then almost everything political... theorists think they know about early modern England is wrong. ?[W]e might dispense with the organising notion of early modern political theory? (10), he writes, either because the early modern framework is misleading or because politics and theory were...

Josephson, Peter

2007-01-01

64

Published in: Early Modern Philosophy: Mind, Matter, and Metaphysics, ed. Christia Mercer and  

E-print Network

Published in: Early Modern Philosophy: Mind, Matter, and Metaphysics, ed. Christia Mercer, Berkeley, Fontenelle 1. Introduction The rich connections between metaphysics and natural philosophy between occasionalist metaphysics and strict mechanism. My focus will be on the work of Nicholas

Downing, Lisa

65

Modern human origins: progress and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the mode of origin of modern humans (Homo sapiens) has dominated palaeoanthropologi- cal debate over the last decade. This review discusses the main models proposed to explain modern human origins, and examines relevant fossil evidence from Eurasia, Africa and Australasia. Archaeological and genetic data are also discussed, as well as problems with the concept of 'modernity' itself.

Chris Stringer

2002-01-01

66

A review of "Excess and the Mean in Early Modern English Literature." by Joshua Scodel  

E-print Network

, Horace, and Augustine that deeply influenced early modern writers. Then his first part describes early modern revisions by John Donne and Francis Bacon. He finds that Donne through satires and epistles developed an idiosyncratic mean whereby... to encourage a skeptical quest for a Christian church and a space among established social identities for personal social mobility. Scodel?s Bacon ingeniously employed the mean in support of a stable commonwealth at the same time that he advocated a flexible...

Ira Clark

2003-01-01

67

A review of "Subordination and Authorship in Early Modern England:" by Betty S. Travitsky  

E-print Network

REVIEWS 287 purposes and of their impact upon the European intellectual and political scene. Betty S. Travitsky. Subordination and Authorship in Early Modern England: The Case of Elizabeth Cavendish Egerton and Her ?Loose Papers.? Tempe: Arizona... not just an edition of Elizabeth Cavendish Egerton?s ?Loose Papers,? but she has used the occasion of editing the papers to produce a book-length ?case study?: a 170-page consideration of the conditions of early modern authorship, particularly for women...

Lisa J. Schnell

2002-01-01

68

A review of "Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature" by Bernadette Andrea  

E-print Network

. Bernadette Andrea. Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 185 pp. ?45.00. Review by jyotsna g. singh, michigan state university. Women and Islam in Early Modern Literature makes an important con... to the eighteenth century is bold and innovative (1). English engagements with the Islamic world in the period extended into regions of the Mediterranean, Persia, and India, but Andrea?s scope includes the first two regions, to the exclusion of the latter...

Singh, Jyotsna G.

2010-01-01

69

A Review of "Poetry and Parental Bereavement in Early Modern Lutheran Germany" by Anna Linton  

E-print Network

204 seventeenth-century news Anna Linton. Poetry and Parental Bereavement in Early Modern Lutheran Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. xvi + 319 pp. $110.00. Review by susan r. boettcher, university of texas at austin. Anna Linton... among Lutheran authors in early modern Germany. As sources, she uses sixteenth- and seventeenth-century commemorative poetry, books of consolation, and funeral publications found at the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenb...

Boettcher, Susan R.

2009-01-01

70

Terrorists and witches: popular ideas of evil in the early modern period  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early modern period (16–18th centuries), churches and state administrations alike strove to eradicate Evil. Neither they nor society at large accepted a conceptual differentiation between crime and sin.The two worst kinds of Evil early modern societies could imagine were organized arson and witchcraft. Although both of them were delusions, they nevertheless promoted state building. Networks of itinerant street

Johannes Dillinger

2004-01-01

71

A review of "British Interventions in Early Modern Ireland." by Ciaran Brady and Jane Ohlmeyer eds.  

E-print Network

200 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Ciaran Brady and Jane Ohlmeyer, eds. British Interventions in Early Modern Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. xx + 210 pp. + 1 illus. $80.00. Review by B. R. SIEGFRIED, BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY.... The editors of British Interventions in Early Modern Ireland, Ciaran Brady and Jane Ohlmeyer, have collected sixteen essays in honor of Aidan Clarke whose scrupulous and energetic work as teacher and historian is acknowledged throughout the volume. Marshaling...

B. R. Siegfried

2005-01-01

72

A review of "Women and Religious Writing in Early Modern England." by Erica Longfellow  

E-print Network

Longfellow. Women and Religious Writing in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ix + 241 pp. $75.00. Review by FRANCES M. MALPEZZI, ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY. Erica Longfellow?s Women and Religious Writing in Early Modern... on Eliza?s babes, poems and prose meditations that are the offspring of the anonymous author?s marriage to Christ. While Eliza?s personal and religious identity have been variously ascribed, Longfellow sees her as a moderate Protestant royalist...

Frances M. Malpezzi

2005-01-01

73

Published as: Jeffrey K. McDonough, "The Heyday of Teleology and Early Modern Philosophy," in John Carriero, ed. Early Modern Philosophy Reconsidered, Midwest Studies in  

E-print Network

1 Published as: Jeffrey K. McDonough, "The Heyday of Teleology and Early Modern Philosophy of teleological modes of explanation (Ethics 1, Appendix/Geb 2:80). Finally, Leibniz's repeated assurances-brush picture of traditional teleology as assailed on one front by mainstream proponents of the New Science

McDonough, Jeffrey

74

Human evolution: Origins of modern humans still look recent  

Microsoft Academic Search

That modern humans have a relatively ancient origin has been suggested on the basis of fossil and genetic evidence. But DNA sequences from an extinct neanderthal, and phylogenetic analyses of hundreds of human and ape sequences, continue to support a recent origin for modern humans.

Todd R. Disotell

1999-01-01

75

Human evolution: origins of modern humans still look recent.  

PubMed

That modern humans have a relatively ancient origin has been suggested on the basis of fossil and genetic evidence. But DNA sequences from an extinct neanderthal, and phylogenetic analyses of hundreds of human and ape sequences, continue to support a recent origin for modern humans. PMID:10508573

Disotell, T R

1999-09-01

76

The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory.  

PubMed

Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention. Medical psychology in the ancient world can only be correctly understood by relating it to psychological thought in other fields, such as ethics and rhetoric. The concept that ties these various domains together is character (êthos), which involves a view of human beings focused on clearly distinguishable psychological types that can be recognized on the basis of external signs. Psychological ideas based on humoral theory remained influential well into the early modern period. Yet, in 17th-century medicine and philosophy, humoral physiology and psychology started to lose ground to other theoretical perspectives on the mind and its relation to the body. This decline of humoralist medical psychology can be related to a broader reorientation of psychological thought in which the traditional concept of character lost its central position. Instead of the focus on types and stable character traits, a perspective emerged that was primarily concerned with individuality and transient passions. PMID:20213950

Bos, Jacques

2009-07-01

77

Modern human origins: progress and prospects.  

PubMed Central

The question of the mode of origin of modern humans (Homo sapiens) has dominated palaeoanthropological debate over the last decade. This review discusses the main models proposed to explain modern human origins, and examines relevant fossil evidence from Eurasia, Africa and Australasia. Archaeological and genetic data are also discussed, as well as problems with the concept of 'modernity' itself. It is concluded that a recent African origin can be supported for H. sapiens, morphologically, behaviourally and genetically, but that more evidence will be needed, both from Africa and elsewhere, before an absolute African origin for our species and its behavioural characteristics can be established and explained. PMID:12028792

Stringer, Chris

2002-01-01

78

Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark.  

PubMed

To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons. PMID:25624493

Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

2015-02-10

79

HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

in promoting socio-emotional behaviors. Keywords: trust, oxytocin, social cognition, prosocial behavior, social.00004 Oxytocin receptor genetic variation promotes human trust behavior Frank Krueger1,2 *, Raja Parasuraman2A1, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA. e-mail: fkrueger@gmu.edu Given that human trust behavior is heritable

Parasuraman, Raja

80

[The "good doctor". Physicians' morality and the self-conception of medicine since the early modern period].  

PubMed

The article examines the historical change in medical ethics since the beginning of the early modern period, drawing on normative sources, mostly of German origin. The theoretical frame of reference is provided by historical moral sociology and the history of the modernisation, as expounded in Niklas Luhmann's system theory. In a first step, evidence for the change in the moral codes of the various social systems (science, economy etc.) of the early modern period is assembled (1) in order to approach the question, taking the medieval medical doctrines of salvation as a starting point (2), whether structurally analogous processes of change can be made out in the medical system. These are identified in the removal of a moral evaluation of disease and in the moral neutralization of doctors' behaviour which is reflected in the spread of medical happiness doctrines (3). Following an interim reflection on moral theory (4), the enforcement of a modern behavioural code in 19th-century medical deontology is outlined, which was based on moral restraint (5) and the specific professional identity of the doctor (6). A summary of the results leads to a concluding outlook on current trends in medical ethics discourse (7). PMID:23213865

Polianski, Igor J

2011-01-01

81

Human embryos in the original position?  

PubMed

Two different discussions in John Rawls' A Theory of Justice lead naturally to a rather conservative position on the moral status of the human embryo. When discussing paternalism, he claims that the parties in the original position would seek to protect themselves in case they end up as incapacitated or undeveloped human beings when the veil of ignorance is lifted. Since human embryos are examples of such beings, the parties in the original position would seek to protect themselves from their embryonic stages onward. When discussing the basis of equality, Rawls claims that the parties in the original position would guarantee basic rights for all those with the capacity to take part in this original position. To guarantee the basic rights of infants and young children, he goes on to interpret this capacity as a "potentiality that is ordinarily realized in due course." Since human embryos have this potentiality, they too should have basic rights. PMID:16036460

DiSilvestro, Russell

2005-06-01

82

Origin of the Human Adaptive Pattern 24-450 Chapter 24. ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN ADAPTIVE  

E-print Network

the basic differences between humans and our primate relatives, and to introduce you to the dataOrigin of the Human Adaptive Pattern 24-450 Chapter 24. ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN ADAPTIVE PATTERN Contrast the title of this book by Charles Darwin: The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex

Richerson, Peter J.

83

Sharing cases: the Observationes in early modern medicine.  

PubMed

This paper examines the rise of an epistemic genre, the Observationes, a new form of medical writing that emerged in Renaissance humanistic medicine. The Observationes (collections of case-histories) originated in the second half of the sixteenth century, grew rapidly over the course of the seventeenth, and had become a primary form of medical writing by the eighteenth century. The genre developed initially as a form of self-advertisement by court and town physicians, who stressed success in practice, over and above academic learning, as a core element of their professional identity. This unprecedented emphasis on practice as a source of knowledge remained a key feature of the Observationes in its subsequent development. As the genre evolved, the original emphasis on therapeutic success gave way to a new focus on the descriptive knowledge of disease through detailed observation. The authorial identity projected by the writers of Observationes was increasingly that of the learned and experienced observer, bent on comparing notes and sharing his cases with the fellow members of the res publica medica. This paper charts the development of the genre, examining how its growth contributed to the new epistemological value of observation in the age of the Scientific Revolution. PMID:20695394

Pomata, Gianna

2010-01-01

84

A Review of "The Poetry of Religious Sorrow in Early Modern England" by Gary Kuchar  

E-print Network

of Religious Sorrow in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. xii + 242 pp. $99.00. Review by P. G. sTANwOOD, UNiversiTY OF BriTisH COLUMBiA. The opening sentence of this book anticipates well what follows in the long... is descriptive of the way in which this study unfolds, for the reader confronts a ?technology? of complicated inter- relationships of wheels within wheels. Early modern religious poets are, indeed, often concerned with grief, sorrow, and tears; they try...

Stanwood, P.G.

2009-01-01

85

A review of "Women and Race in Early Modern Texts." by Joyce Green MacDonald  

E-print Network

. Women and Race in Early Modern Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ix + 188 pp. $55.00. Review by LISA J. SCHNELL, UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT. Joyce Green MacDonald?s Women and Race in Early Modern Texts deals with a broad range of material... and accessible La Mirtilla enlarges the scope of Renaissance scholarship, provides a welcome addition to the pastoral, women?s studies, and the drama canon, and it brings a successful, although lesser-studied author, to new readership. Joyce Green MacDonald...

Lisa J. Schnell

2003-01-01

86

A review of "Devising, Dying and Dispute: Probate Litigation in Early Modern England" by Lloyd Bonfield  

E-print Network

150 #2;#3;#4;#3;#5;#6;#3;#3;#5;#6;#7;-#8;#3;#5;#6; #11; #5;#3;#12;#2; Lloyd Bon#23; eld. Devising, Dying and Dispute: Probate Litigation in Early Modern England. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012. xvi + 290. $119.95. Review by #30; #3;#30; #31...;#5;#3; #17;#3;#15;, #5; #4;#3; #2; #6;#11; #14;#19; #8;#14;#5;#5;#3;#8;#6; #8; #6;. Any monograph that casts light into the shadowy corners of early modern law is to be welcomed, especially one that is accessible to a non-specialist audience for whom most...

Kneidel, Greg

2012-01-01

87

A review of "Domestic Arrangements in Early Modern England." by Kari McBride ed.  

E-print Network

their extensive knowledge of the period, the discipline, and the history of the Jesuits in this important volume. Kari McBride, ed. Domestic Arrangements in Early Modern England. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2002. 342 pp. $60.00. Review by KAREN L... but collectively argue for broader, structural readings of the REVIEWS 99 imaginative and ideological work a category like ?the domestic? does for early moderns. As Kari McBride puts it in her introduction, ?All legal obligations, social ties, and economic...

Karen L. Raber

2004-01-01

88

A review of "Early Modern French Thought: The Age of Suspicion." by Michael Moriarty  

E-print Network

REVIEWS 83 Michael Moriarty. Early Modern French Thought: The Age of Suspicion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. xii + 271 pp. $120.00. Review by TODD JANKE, CLAYTON STATE UNIVERSITY. For those with an interest in early modern philosophy..., this book by Michael Moriarty is a welcome addition to the field. Unlike what is characteristic of many texts dealing with philosophy of the period, Moriarty?s prose is a de- light to read, and the arguments are compelling, enticing us to adopt a new...

Todd Janke

2006-01-01

89

Early Modern ET, Reflexive Telescopics, and Their Relevance Today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The period from the discovery of Tycho's New Star in 1572 to Galileo's "geometrization of astronomical space" in 1610 (and the years following) saw the disintegration of the boundary between the sublunary and superlunary spheres—between the "lower storey" and "upper storey" of the Aristotelian Universe. This establishment of a strong physical affinity between the universe "up there" and the earthly realm "down here" was also complemented by the rise of Copernicanism: for once the Earth was seen as a planet, the other planets could readily be imagined as other Earths. This analogy suggested not only physical but also biological affinities and supported the plausibility of humans' capacity to travel to the Moon and beyond. Robert Burton—given the demise of Aristotle's physics—declared in 1621 that "If the heavens be penetrable … it were not amiss in this aerial progress to make wings and fly up." John Wilkins and Francis Godwin in the 1630s actively imagined creatures in the Moon and human journeys thither. The epic poet John Milton in 1667 hinted that "every star [is] perhaps a world / Of destined habitation." Moreover, space travel was no one-way street: Thomas Traherne in the 1670s imagined a dweller among the stars visiting Earth and remarking on what must be the condition of its inhabitants. In these and other ways, seventeenth-century writers offered serious and impressive speculation about extraterrestrial life and its possible perceptions of Earth. Such speculations remain pertinent to astrobiological theory today. What Hans Blumenberg in the 1970s called "reflexive telescopics"—the examination of Earth from an imagined extraterrestrial viewpoint—is an important counterpart to the search for life "out there." It serves as a reminder of the obvious but profound premise that Earth is part of the cosmos. At a popular level we often continue to speak of "outer space" as if the old "two-storey" picture of the universe still had some residual legitimacy. However, if Galileo, Wilkins, and other devotees of the New Astronomy were right about Earth's being a full participant in "the dance of the stars," then "outer" is a merely relative and parochial term, not a scientific or qualitative one. And it is no trivial claim to assert that the search for intelligent life in the universe has already identified its first specimens.

Danielson, Dennis

90

From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

Chamberland, Celeste

2013-01-01

91

Class, Authority, and the Querelle des Femmes: A Women's Community of Resistance in Early Modern Europe  

E-print Network

in London, all of whom attempted to create communities of learned and literary women within their texts. In their works, all four women boldly reject the misogyny prevalent in early modern culture; however, they do so without being able to withdraw from...

Lawrence, Dana Eatman

2010-10-12

92

The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in Early Modern English Drama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…

Cady, Christina J.

2010-01-01

93

Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.  

PubMed

This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21797075

Kahn, Didier

2011-03-01

94

The Medical Diagnosis of Demonic Possession in an Early Modern English Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early modern England both ordinary and learned people believed that certain kinds of illness might be the result of maleficium (harmful magic) or demonic possession. While belief in witchcraft and demons may have declined somewhat during the course of the seventeenth century, it remained acceptable to attribute certain forms of disease to the Devil, particularly certain types of mental

Judith Bonzol

2009-01-01

95

A review of "The Challenges of Orpheus: Lyric Poetry and Early Modern England" by Heather Dubrow  

E-print Network

poetry, Heather Dubrow is surely the most flexibly-minded. Like her reviews 37 other three book-length studies of early modern poetry, Captive Vic- tors: Shakespeare?s Narrative Poems and Sonnets (1987), A Happier Eden: The Politics of Marriage...

Hedley, Jane

2009-01-01

96

A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…

Maffioli, Cesare S.

2013-01-01

97

Repression and Change in the Sexual Life of Young People in Medieval and Early Modern Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

French demographic historians have not taken sufficient notice of the hypothesis that sexual repression intensified throughout the early modern period and they have too readily assumed that it was demolished by their statistical data. It is therefore useful to explain what makes the hypothesis plausible. (Author)

Flandrin, J. L.

1977-01-01

98

Neither master nor laborer: The identity of the unincorporated worker in early modern Lyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seventeenth and eighteenth century Lyon, as in other early modern French cities, a carnivalesque economy of mustard hawkers, cesspool cleaners, horse-skinners, rag-pickers, shoe shines, cap cleaners, stocking menders, muleteers, faggot-porters, chimney-sweeps, women ferry pilots, water carriers, litter bearers, market women, and laundresses operated alongside the regulated world of artisanal guilds. These \\

Dean Thornburg Ferguson

1997-01-01

99

Fashioning the Early Modern: Innovation and Creativity in Europe, 1500-1800  

E-print Network

and cultural force in the past helps shape our understanding of the same issues today. Draft Programme Friday.00 Framing Early Modern Knitting Maj Ringgaard (National Museum of Denmark) 15.20 Refreshments Session Three. Transnational and transmedial circulation of European print culture Patrik Steorn (Centre for Fashion Studies

100

Elementary education and the practices of literacy in Catholic girls’ schools in early modern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls’ schools in the early modern era were largely run by nuns and can therefore be distinguished as Catholic institutions of learning. These schools flourished in the Catholic parts of Europe since the turn of the seventeenth century. Despite their focus on religious education, elementary skills such as reading, writing and sometimes arithmetic were taught as well. Based on curricula,

Andreas Rutz

2012-01-01

101

Elementary education and the practices of literacy in Catholic girls’ schools in early modern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls’ schools in the early modern era were largely run by nuns and can therefore be distinguished as Catholic institutions of learning. These schools flourished in the Catholic parts of Europe since the turn of the seventeenth century. Despite their focus on religious education, elementary skills such as reading, writing and sometimes arithmetic were taught as well. Based on curricula,

Andreas Rutz

2011-01-01

102

Between Charity and Education: Orphans and Orphanages in Early Modern Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early modern times orphans have been children who could not expect sufficient support from their family because of lack of at least one parent, in most cases the father. This article will clarify of whom we are talking if we talk about orphans and what have been the conditions of living in a society which was organised by a high variety of…

Jacobi, Juliane

2009-01-01

103

A Step towards Clerical Preferment: Secondary School Teachers' Careers in Early Modern Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in early modern Sweden. The study is restricted to the eighty-nine teachers serving at Pitea Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from 1650 to 1849. The investigation pays considerable attention to the…

Lindmark, Daniel

2004-01-01

104

Trading secrets: Jews and the early modern quest for clandestine knowledge.  

PubMed

This essay explores the significance and function of secrecy and secret sciences in Jewish-Christian relations and in Jewish culture in the early modern period. It shows how the trade in clandestine knowledge and the practice of secret sciences became a complex, sometimes hazardous space for contact between Jews and Christians. By examining this trade, the essay clarifies the role of secrecy in the early modern marketplace of knowledge. The attribution of secretiveness to Jews was a widespread topos in early modern European thought. However, relatively little is known about the implications of such beliefs in science or in daily life. The essay pays special attention to the fact that trade in secret knowledge frequently offered Jews a path to the center of power, especially at court. Furthermore, it becomes clear that the practice of secret sciences, the trade in clandestine knowledge, and a mercantile agenda were often inextricably interwoven. Special attention is paid to the Italian-Jewish alchemist, engineer, and entrepreneur Abramo Colorni (ca. 1544-1599), whose career illustrates the opportunities provided by the marketplace of secrets at that time. Much scholarly (and less scholarly) attention has been devoted to whether and what Jews "contributed" to what is commonly called the "Scientific Revolution." This essay argues that the question is misdirected and that, instead, we should pay more attention to the distinctive opportunities offered by the early modern economy of secrecy. PMID:23488236

Jütte, Daniel

2012-12-01

105

Teaching the Past in the Early Modern Era: Two Different Ways to Make Use of History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Were teachers, of the early modern era not longing for the present? Most colleges of that time did not offer a history course. Still, they did teach a lot about the past since the teaching consisted in the reading of the works of ancient writers. This is because ancient science and literature were considered much more advanced than the science and…

Bruter, Annie

2012-01-01

106

‘A WONDERFULL MONSTER BORNE IN GERMANY’: HAIRY GIRLS IN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN GERMAN BOOK, COURT AND PERFORMANCE CULTURE  

PubMed Central

Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. Modern investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most early modern European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, modern historians routinely link early modern reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising early modern awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives. One concerns an Italian girl taken to Prague in 1355 by the Holy Roman Empress, Anna von Schweidnitz. Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the ‘Wild Man’ of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the 1580s. The third and fourth cases consider the medieval bearded Sankt Kümmernis (also known as St Wilgefortis or St Uncumber), and the seventeenth-century Bavarian fairground performer Barbara Urslerin. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u.a. genetische Veländerungen und Vererbung, verschiedene Krebserkrankungen und hormonelle Störungen gehören. Die moderne Hirsutismus-Forschung ist im 19. Jh. von deutschen Forschern initiiert worden. Die meisten europäischen frühneuzeitlichen Erscheinungen von Hypertrichose (dem genetisch bedingten Haarwuchs am gesamten Körper und im Gesicht) gehen auf deutschsprachige Eltern oder Förderer zurück und sind in Deutschland in den Druck gelangt. Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des Wilden Mannes zieht die aktuelle geschichtswissenschaftliche Forschung in der Regel Verbindungslinien zwischen der frühneuzeitlichen Wahrnehmung von Hypertrichose-Fällen und Fragen der Ethnizität, ohne jedoch zu beachten, dass in der Frühen Neuzeit die Verbindung zwischen temporärem Hirsutismus und der krankhaften Verknüpfung von Unterernährung und Anorexie bekannt war. Im vorliegenden Beitragwerden vier Fälle von an Hirsutismus erkrankten Frauen neu analysiert, unter Einbezug dieser medizinischen Perspektive und unter Beachtung von Texten und Abbildungen, die meine jüngsten Forschungen in der Herzog August Bibliothek und an deutschen Archiven ans Licht gefördert haben. Die hier betrachteten Fälle betreffen ein italienisches Mädchen, das 1355 von Anna von Schweidnitz, Kaiserin des Hl. Römischen Reichs, nach Prag gebracht wurde; Madeleine und Antonietta Gonzalez, die Töchter des ‘Wilden Manns’ von Teneriffa, die in den 1580er Jahren an deutschen Höfen bezeugt sind; die bärtige Sankt Kümmernis (Wilgefortis), und die bayerische Jahrmarktkünstlerin Barbara Urslerin. PMID:25598545

Katritzky, M. A.

2014-01-01

107

MIXING METAPHORS: SCIENCE AND RELIGION OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper1 is historiographical: How have historians understood the relationship between science and religion in early modern Europe? This discussion bears directly on current re-considerations of the historiographical utility of the concept of the Scientific Revolution.2 One of the assumptions embedded in the traditional historiography of science is that disciplinary bounda- ries have remained static throughout history.3

Margaret J. Osler

1998-01-01

108

A review of "Gender and Heroism in Early Modern English Literature." by Mary Beth Rose  

E-print Network

a work as The Cry of a Stone warrants consid- eration in less familiar terms. That said, I affirm Ms. Hinds? service in making this remarkable work available in a modern edition. Mary Beth Rose. Gender and Heroism in Early Modern English Lit... figures strive for omnipotence using means that transcend violence. They seek to ?monopolize all dominant subject positions? which are gendered (114). In doing so, they adopt attitudes and behaviors usually gendered female and transform the male heroic...

M. J. Vecchio

2002-01-01

109

A review of "English Ethnicity and Race in Early Modern Drama." by Mary Floyd-Wilson  

E-print Network

of early modern texts, sixteenth- and seventeenth century theories of humoral medicine can appear esoteric, convoluted, or downright nonsensical. Given the genre?s characteristic contradictions, reading a second or third text in the hope of corroborating... one?s knowledge often yields greater confu- sion. Where, for example, one text insists that ?southerners? are hot, dry, and melancholic, another finds them cool, moist, and phleg- matic. By indicating how these ?scientific? texts are never socially...

Jonathan Burton

2003-01-01

110

A Review of "Desire and Dramatic Form in Early Modern England" by Judith Haber  

E-print Network

and heterosexist ideologies embedded in con- ventional dramatic structures, particularly in tragedy. This study also enables the reader to see how feminist and queer theories? interests 38 seventeenth-century news can be applied in fruitful ways to formal....00. Review by elisa oh, howard university. Departing from New Historicist emphasis on early modern plays? social and political context, Judith Haber?s study raises the provocative question of how sexuality and sexual difference affect formal aesthet- ics...

Oh, Elisa

2011-01-01

111

Demonic possession and mental disorder in medieval and early modern Europe.  

PubMed

Western European belief in demonic possession as a cause of mental disorder has been traced through the medieval and early modern periods. Generally it appears that the range of disorders attributed to demonic possession has gradually narrowed. In any period, however, there seem to have been marked individual and cultural differences in outlook; some of these differences are still evident today in the survival of belief in demonic possession in pentecostal sects. PMID:3554292

Kemp, S; Williams, K

1987-02-01

112

A review of "Locke, Language and Early-Modern Philosophy" by Hannah Dawson  

E-print Network

of the health of seventeenth-century French studies, in which there is something for any seventeenth-century French student and specialist. Hannah Dawson. Locke, Language and Early-Modern Philosophy. (Ideas in Context Series) Cambridge: Cambridge University... Press, 2007. xii + 361 pp. $90.00. Review by karin susan fester, university of wales. Hannah Dawson?s book is an impressive work about John Locke?s philosophy of language, in particular his critique of words, making it a valuable contribution...

Fester, Karin Susan

2010-01-01

113

A review of "Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern England." by Juliet Fleming  

E-print Network

scholarly project that promises to be very useful to art and theatre historians as well as to cultural critics. Juliet Fleming. Graffiti and the Writing Arts of Early Modern En- gland. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. vi + 224 pp.... + 33 illus. $35.00. Review by THOMAS H. LUXON, DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. This book recovers for critical attention a range of early mod- ern writing practices hitherto either unknown or under-appreci- ated: ?graffiti, tattooing, and the inscription of verse...

Thomas H. Luxon

2002-01-01

114

A review of "Carnival and Literature in Early Modern England" by Jennifer C. Vaught  

E-print Network

. In addition, a compilation of Profes- sor Morrill’s distinguished body of work would have been appropri- ate. That being said, this collection of essays is a fitting tribute to an outstanding historian. Jennifer C. Vaught. Carnival and Literature in Early..., analysis of literary appropriations of carnival and festive rituals in early modern England. Vaught sets out to contest the ideological rigidity of prior studies on the subject, namely their tendency to understand carnival as the province of either...

Laam, Kevin

2014-01-01

115

A review of "The Duel in Early Modern England: Civility, Politeness and Honour." by Markku Peltonen  

E-print Network

198 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS available in such a handy format. Markku Peltonen. The Duel in Early Modern England: Civility, Politeness and Honour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ix + 355 pp. $60.00. Review by BRETT F. PARKER... Renaissance notion of civility and increasingly served to legitimate native political and social values. By tracing the arguments underlying the duel, Peltonen demonstrates the considerable flexibility of the ideology of civility and its attendant notion...

Brett F. Parker

2005-01-01

116

Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the Early Modern English Household.  

PubMed

When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this 'treasury for health.' Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax 'family books,' this essay traces on the process through which early modern recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of early modern recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in early modern households. PMID:23926360

Leong, Elaine

2013-05-01

117

A review of "Staging Women and the Soul-Body Dynamic in Early Modern England" by Sarah E. Johnson  

E-print Network

Women and the Soul-Body Dynamic in Early Modern England. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014. xi + 185 pp. $60.00. Review by Jessica L. Malay, University of Huddersfield. Johnson opens her discussion of the soul-body dynamic in early modern England with a... brief discussion of John Donne’s Why hath the common opinion affoorded woemen Soules in order to introduce the ambiguity surrounding the female soul. The early modern gen- dering of the soul as masculine and the body as feminine along...

Malay, Jessica L.

2015-01-01

118

Human Origins Program: In Search of What Makes Us Human  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Human Origins Program at the Smithsonian "is dedicated to understanding the biological and cultural foundations of human life." Their new site gives visitors an accessible and informative tour of the current state of human paleontology. At the heart of the site is a hypertext family tree of early human phylogeny that helps users see not only the relations between various incarnations of human ancestors, but lets them click on parts of the timetable to examine fossil evidence and read about the discovery of and conclusions drawn from crucial skull bones and fragments. Another section allows users to examine three key fossilized skulls with QuickTime, so that one can rotate the skull and zoom in on key features. The What's Hot! in Paleoanthropology section offers readable summaries of key professional articles published in the field in the last three years. Finally, users are invited to ask questions via email of the paleontologists at the Human Origins Program. Some of these will, no doubt, be posted in the yet-to-be completed Frequently Asked Questions portion of the site. Ironically enough, materials for the latest entries in the human family tree, including Homo sapiens, are still under construction.

119

Genetic and Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of living Homo sapiens has once again been the subject of much debate. Genetic data on present human population relationships and data from the Pleistocene fossil hominid record are used to compare two contrasting models for the origin of modern humans. Both genetics and paleontology support a recent African origin for modern humans rather than a long period

C. B. Stringer; P. Andrews

1988-01-01

120

A review of "Full of all knowledg: George Herbert's Country Parson and Early Modern Social Discourse" by Ronald W. Cooley.  

E-print Network

?: George Herbert?s Country Parson and Early Modern Social Discourse. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004. 238 pp. + 1 illus. $50.00 Review by MARGARET J. OAKES, FURMAN UNIVERSITY. It has become a commonplace to warn students encountering...

Margaret J. Oakes

2004-01-01

121

A review of "Old Worlds: Egypt, Southwest Asia, India, and Russia in Early Modern English Writing." by John Michael Archer  

E-print Network

232 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS John Michael Archer. Old Worlds: Egypt, Southwest Asia, India, and Russia in Early Modern English Writing. Stanford: Stanford Univer- sity Press, 2001. ix + 240 pp. $49.50. Review by GALINA YERMOLENKO, DESALES...

Galina Yermolenko

2002-01-01

122

A review of "Ritual and Conflict: The Social Relations of Childbirth in Early Modern England" Adrian Wilson  

E-print Network

-century drama, legal history, and the intellectual history of England’s evolution toward royalist and parliamentary polarization. Adrian Wilson. Ritual and Conflict: The Social Relations of Childbirth in Early Modern England. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013. vii + 261... pp. $124.95. Review by karol kovalovich weaver, susquehanna university. Adrian Wilson’s Ritual and Conflict: The Social Relations of Child- birth in Early Modern England considers the social networks that shaped childbirth in seventeenth...

Weaver, Karol Kovalovich

2014-01-01

123

A Review of "Quoting Death in Early Modern England: The Poetics of Epitaphs Beyond the Tomb" by Scott L. Newstok  

E-print Network

, encourages us to take a second look at the enchanted artifacts that remain. Scott L. Newstok. Quoting Death in Early Modern England: The Poetics of Epitaphs Beyond the Tomb. New York: Palgrave, 2009. Xiv + 228 pp. + 13 illus. $80.00. Review by greg... bentley, mississippi state university. Individual and cultural responses to death were varied and numer- ous in early modern England, and the commentaries on death since then have been equally varied and numerous. So much so that the 174 seventeenth...

Bentley, Greg

2010-01-01

124

A review of "The Ends of Life: Roads to Fulfilment in Early Modern England" by Keith Thomas  

E-print Network

dualistic split: between science and art. This book highlights the important role of early modern thought in how we understand and express our psychic selves today. In a nearly transparent transla- tion by Jane Marie Todd... Keith Thomas. The Ends... of Life: Roads to Fulfilment in Early Modern England. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xvi + 393 pp. + 14 illus. $60.00. Review by catherine patterson, university of houston In this wide-ranging and engaging book, Keith Thomas brings...

Patterson, Catherine

2010-01-01

125

A Review of "Writing the Forest in Early Modern England: A Sylvan Pastoral Nation" by Jeffrey Theis  

E-print Network

seventeenth-century news sionally frustrated?albeit with an ineffable sense of having absorbed something significant. Ernest Gilman. Plague Writing in Early Modern England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. xi + 256 pp. index. bibl. $35.00. Review..., satire and philosophy?all a part of the plague discourse ostensibly designed to help its residents recognize, interpret and survive the epidemic. In Plague Writing in Early Modern England, Ernest Gilman examines the matrix of such texts actively...

Sherman, Donovan

2010-01-01

126

A review of "Radical Religion from Shakespeare to Milton: Figures of Nonconformity in Early Modern England." by Kristen Poole  

E-print Network

REVIEWS 39 Kristen Poole. Radical Religion from Shakespeare to Milton: Figures of Nonconformity in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. xiii + 272 pp. $59.95. Review by ELIZABETH SAUER, BROCK UNIVERSITY. While... early modern radical religion has preoccupied his- torians like B. Reay, Phyllis Mack, Brian Manning, Christopher Hill, and Patrick Collinson for decades, literary scholars, with the exception of critics like Nigel Smith and David Loewenstein, are only...

Elizabeth Sauer

2002-01-01

127

Men on the road: beggars and vagrants in early modern drama (William Shakespeare, John Fletcher, and Richard Brome)  

E-print Network

MEN ON THE ROAD: BEGGARS AND VAGRANTS IN EARLY MODERN DRAMA (WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, JOHN FLETCHER, AND RICHARD BROME) A Dissertation by MI-SU KIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2004 Major Subject: English MEN ON THE ROAD: BEGGARS AND VAGRANTS IN EARLY MODERN DRAMA (WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, JOHN FLETCHER...

Kim, Mi-Su

2004-09-30

128

A review of "Autobiography in Early Modern England" by Adam Smyth  

E-print Network

for those who want to learn more about the subject. e language of the book is professional and clear, its structure is very good, and it makes a valuable contribution to the ever growing area of utopian research writings. Adam Smyth. Autobiography...;#28;#15;#29;#30;#23;#31;#15;#27;#22;. Annotated almanacs, #14;nancial account records, commonplace books, parish registers: in these four ostensibly mundane sources, Adam Smyth uncovers a network of textual practices through which early modern individuals wrote their own lives. e term...

Trettien, Whitney Anne

2011-01-01

129

A Review of "Magic and Masculinity in Early Modern English Drama" by Ian McAdam  

E-print Network

? (163, my emphasis). Comus?s Lady?s ?magical, virginal potency can be related to??not ?is related to??the renewed English interest in the mid-seventeenth century? in hermetic philosophy (360), and another scholar?s argument about Othello ?seems to me.... Their magicians were early-modern therapists: ?[a]n astrologer is like a skilled psychiatrist, plumbing the depths of the patient?s unconscious and discovering connections to his or her broader social and physical context? (186). In Othello, ?the movement from...

Tiffany, Grace

2011-01-01

130

A review of "Renaissance Tropologies: The Cultural Imagination of Early Modern England" by Jeanne Shami  

E-print Network

for his renuncia- reviews 5 tion of all the world?s goods. The ?journey trope? receives further, less metaphorical treatment, in A. E. B. Coldiron?s study of the many texts connected with the marriage of Mary Tudor and Louis XII in 1514. Louis... contributors so that the volume is coherent. But ?cultural imagination? is obviously not well or fully contained in such loose baggage as these tropologies might wish to hold or embrace. Bernadette Andrea. Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature...

Stanwood, P.G.

2010-01-01

131

A review of "Digressive Voices in Early Modern English Literature" by Anne Cotterill  

E-print Network

rare to find an author who can treat Donne and Dryden with equal authority and sensitivity to historical nuance. Anne Cotterill proves herself one such in her study, Digressive Voices in Early Modern Literature, a book that succeeds brilliantly... these discussions of digression and patronage are readings of Thomas Browne?s Hydriotaphia (1658) and Milton?s Paradise Lost (1667;1674). Chapter 3 deals with Browne?s text within the context of Roy- alist defeat and Interregnum politics: this focus, and Browne...

McDayter, Mark

2007-01-01

132

A review of "Literacy and Written Culture in Early Modern Central Europe" by Istvan Gyorgy Toth.  

E-print Network

in the emergence of a public sphere. Istv?n Gy?rgy T?th. Literacy and Written Culture in Early Modern Central Europe. Central European University Press, 2000. x + 266 pp. Includes b&w illustrations, 31 tables and 2 maps. ?13.95 paper. Review by JAKUB BASISTA... examined part of Central Europe. Paul M. Hunneyball. Architecture and Image-Building in Seventeenth- Century Hertfordshire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. xiv + 218pp. + 12 maps and plans + 42 illus. $99.00. Review by MARTYN BENNETT, NOTTINGHAM...

Jakub Basista

2004-01-01

133

All that glitters: fool's gold in the early-modern era.  

PubMed

Natural philosophers of the early-modern period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the early Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones. PMID:19019438

Roos, Anna Marie

2008-12-01

134

["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].  

PubMed

In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition. PMID:9333999

Freller, T

1997-01-01

135

[The aging woman in early modern medicine--a "forgotten" group of the elderly].  

PubMed

The scarcity of normative texts from the areas of early geriatric and gynaecological specialist literature as well as of common handbooks for women, makes it difficult to make any general statements on the ageing woman in the early modern times. It is only with the emancipation from antique tradition in the 18th century that greater attention was given to "new" topics such as the menopause and its consequences. The aim of this paper is firstly to use non-medical sources to examine what was for a long time a negative picture of the older woman, before then analysing fragments on anatomy and physiology, pathology and therapy of the female in old age from early modern times, as well as references to longevity and rejuvenation. There was no unified concept of female old age within medicine, and certainly no indication of the medicalisation of older women; social realities had at best a marginal influence on these ideas. There seemed to be no autonomous pathogenetic principle of female old age; it would seem that the loss of menstruation (and with it of her sexual identity) was considered to bring the elderly woman nearer to the masculine physiology of ageing, although the ageing process in the female sex was also characterised by hypersexualisation and longevity. PMID:12852095

Schäfer, Daniel

2003-01-01

136

[Searching for science. A critique of experimental and mathematical traditions in the early modern period].  

PubMed

The article revisits the claim by Thomas Kuhn, that early modern science really consisted of two separate traditions, each with its own development: a mathematical and an experimental (or Baconian) tradition. It is argued that on close inspection, the grounds for this division appear rather arbitrary. Kuhn's Baconian tradition seems to have been modelled after an idealised concept of science that developed in circles of the Royal Society. It should be stressed, however, that such ideas were not the natural products of a tradition, but constructions which responded to local circumstances. The various forms of scientific practice are by no means an indication of parallel development. In fact, during the early modern era disciplinary boundaries were extremely fluid; the divisions of knowledge that were acknowledged do not have the character of modern disciplines. After all, science was as yet non-existent. It came into being as a result of intellectual experimentation and boundary-crossing, bringing together elements from various fields, rather than by the development of one or two traditions. PMID:11624772

Vermij, R

1996-01-01

137

The ‘spiteful’ origins of human cooperation  

PubMed Central

We analyse generosity, second-party (‘spiteful’) punishment (2PP), and third-party (‘altruistic’) punishment (3PP) in a cross-cultural experimental economics project. We show that smaller societies are less generous in the Dictator Game but no less prone to 2PP in the Ultimatum Game. We might assume people everywhere would be more willing to punish someone who hurt them directly (2PP) than someone who hurt an anonymous third person (3PP). While this is true of small societies, people in large societies are actually more likely to engage in 3PP than 2PP. Strong reciprocity, including generous offers and 3PP, exists mostly in large, complex societies that face numerous challenging collective action problems. We argue that ‘spiteful’ 2PP, motivated by the basic emotion of anger, is more universal than 3PP and sufficient to explain the origins of human cooperation. PMID:21159680

Marlowe, Frank W.; Berbesque, J. Colette; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Gurven, Michael; Tracer, David

2011-01-01

138

The origin recognition complex in human diseases  

PubMed Central

ORC (origin recognition complex) serves as the initiator for the assembly of the pre-RC (pre-replication complex) and the subsequent DNA replication. Together with many of its non-replication functions, ORC is a pivotal regulator of various cellular processes. Notably, a number of reports connect ORC to numerous human diseases, including MGS (Meier–Gorlin syndrome), EBV (Epstein–Barr virus)-infected diseases, American trypanosomiasis and African trypanosomiasis. However, much of the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In those genetic diseases, mutations in ORC alter its function and lead to the dysregulated phenotypes; whereas in some pathogen-induced symptoms, host ORC and archaeal-like ORC are exploited by these organisms to maintain their own genomes. In this review, I provide detailed examples of ORC-related human diseases, and summarize the current findings on how ORC is involved and/or dysregulated. I further discuss how these discoveries can be generalized as model systems, which can then be applied to elucidating other related diseases and revealing potential targets for developing effective therapies. PMID:23662735

Shen, Zhen

2013-01-01

139

Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.  

PubMed

Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism. PMID:21874692

Chang, Ku-ming

2011-06-01

140

Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit  

PubMed Central

During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

McHugh, Tim

2012-01-01

141

Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.  

PubMed

Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear. PMID:25080642

Anstey, Peter R

2014-01-01

142

ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia and mouse brain the experimental-wise false discovery rate. A human acute leukemia dataset corrected from 38 leukemia patients

Gu, Xun

143

Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents the two theories about the origin of modern humans: 1) they arose in one place -- Africa and and 2) pre-modern humans migrated from Africa to become modern humans in other parts of the world. Most evidence points to the first theory because: fossils of modern-like humans are found in Africa, stone tools and other artifacts support African origin, and DNA studies suggest a founding population in Africa.

Donald Johanson (Arizona State University; )

2001-05-01

144

"The Root is Hidden and the Material Uncertain": the challenges of prosecuting witchcraft in early modern Venice.  

PubMed

The rich archival records of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Venice have yielded much information about early modern society and culture. The transcripts of witchcraft trials held before the Inquisition reveal the complexities of early modern conceptions of natural and supernatural. The tribunal found itself entirely unable to convict individuals charged with performing harmful magic, or maleficio, as different worldviews clashed in the courtroom. Physicians, exorcists, and inquisitors all had different approaches to distinguishing natural phenomena from supernatural, and without a consensus guilty verdicts could not be obtained. PMID:19618523

Seitz, Jonathan

2009-01-01

145

Mitochondrial COII Sequences and Modern Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to measure human mitochondrial sequence variability in the relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit II (CO11 ) and to estimate when the the human common ancestral mitochondrial type existed. New CO11 gene sequences were determined for five humans (Homo sap- iens), including some of the most mitochondrially divergent humans known; for two

Maryellen Ruvolo; Sarah Zehr; Miranda von Dornum; Deborah Pan; Belinda Chang; Jenny Lin

1993-01-01

146

Origin of trisomies in human spontaneous abortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome heteromorphisms of 34 trisomic abortuses and their parents were compared to determine the origin of the extra chromosome. Fourteen of the trisomies were maternal in origin, ten resulting from a first-meiotic-division error and four from either first- or second-meiotic-division errors. No paternally derived trisomy was identified.

Terry Hassold; Aileen Matsuyama

1979-01-01

147

Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part I--Preliminary survey.  

PubMed

This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21465995

Kahn, Didier

2010-11-01

148

A review of "The Navy and Government in Early Modern France 1572-1661." by Alan James  

E-print Network

, in addition to warships and their munitions?may have presented the incumbent with problems insoluble in an early modern state. When one realizes that Brittany, a major maritime center, and the Medi- terranean galley fleet lay outside the scope of the admiral...

Edward M. Furgol

2005-01-01

149

BEAUTY in Middle English and Early Modern English: a Historical Study of a Lexical-Semantic Field   

E-print Network

This dissertation describes and presents in detail the developments and changes in the lexical-semantic field of BEAUTY that occurred in the Middle English and Early Modern English periods. It uses data from the Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle...

Howlett, Brittany

2012-11-28

150

A review of "Private and Domestic Devotion in Early Modern Britain" edited by Jessica Martin and Alec Ryrie  

E-print Network

-1720: Partners and Victims of Crime. Woodbridge, UK.: The Boydell Press, 2013. v + 264 pp. + 13 illus. $ 95.00. Review by melinda s. zook, purdue university. This book makes a strong contribution to the history of English piracy in the early modern world...

Landrum, Robert

2014-01-01

151

The origin and diversity of human retroviruses  

PubMed Central

Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), T-cell lymphotrophic viruses (STLV), and foamy viruses (SFV) from non-human primates (NHP) have crossed the species barrier to humans at several occasions, leading to the HIV and HTLV epidemic and to sporadic cases of human infections with simian foamy viruses, respectively. Efficient infection and spread in humans differs between SFV, STLV and SIV, but seems also to differ among the different viruses from the same simian lineage, as illustrated by the different spread of HIV-1 M, N O, P or for the different HIV-2 groups. Among the four HIV-1 groups, only HIV-1 group M has spread worldwide and the actual diversity within HIV-1 M (subtypes, Circulating Recombinants) is the result of subsequent evolution and spread in the human population. HIV-2 did only spread to some extent in West Africa, and similarly as for HIV-1, the nine HIV-2 groups have also a different epidemic spread. Four types of HTLV, type 1 to 4, have been described in humans and for 3 of them simian counterparts (STLV-1, STLV-2, STLV-3) have been identified in multiple NHP species. The majority of human infections are with HTLV-1 which is present throughout the world as clusters of high endemicity. Humans are susceptible to a wide variety of SFVs and seem to acquire these viruses more readily than SIVs or STLVs but no signs of disease in humans nor human-to-human transmission of SFV has been documented yet. The current HIV-1 M epidemic illustrates the impact of a single cross-species transmission. The recent discovery of HIV-1 P, HIV-2 I, new HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 variants as well as SFV infections in humans in Central Africa, show that our knowledge of genetic diversity and cross-species transmissions of simian retroviruses are still incomplete. PMID:24584106

Peeters, Martine; D’Arc, Mirela; Delaporte, Eric

2014-01-01

152

Genetic Evidence on Modern Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of genetic evidence leads to the following conclusions concerning human population history: (1) Between 33,000 and 150,000 years ago, the human population expanded from an initial size of perhaps 10,000 breeding individuals to reach a size of at least 300,000. (2) Although the initial population was small, it contained at least 1,000 breeding individuals. (3) The human races

Alan R. Rogers; Lynn B. Jorde

153

Differences and similarities in the regulation of medical practice between early modern Vienna and Osijek.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the regulation of medical practice from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries in two Habsburg cities, Vienna and Osijek, in the light of the spread of medical knowledge and practice from the centre to the periphery of the Habsburg Monarchy. Although both cities were part of the Habsburg Monarchy for much of the early modern period, there were more differences than similarities between them. This may be explained by appealing to a variety of factors, including geographical position, population structure, religion, government type, and professional organisations, all of which contributed to making medical practice very different in the two cities. The divergence occurred in spite of a central agenda for ensuring uniformity of medical practice throughout the Habsburg Monarchy. Although the legislation governing medical practice was the same in both cities, it was more strictly implemented in Vienna than in Osijek. In consequence, Osijek was the setting for some unique patterns of medical practice not to be found in the Habsburg capital. PMID:22580020

Atalic, Bruno

2012-09-01

154

Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.  

PubMed

Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos. PMID:24341260

Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

2013-09-01

155

Origins of the human genome project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Human Genome Project has become a reality. Several genome projects are now in full stride around the world, and more are likely to form in the next several years. The purpose of genome projects is to assemble data on the structure of DNA in human chromosomes and those of other organisms. A second goal is to develop new technologies

Cook-Deegan; Robert Mullan Cook-deegan

1991-01-01

156

Original article Human recombinant interleukin-2 augments porcine  

E-print Network

Original article Human recombinant interleukin-2 augments porcine natural killer cell cytotoxicity 1989) Summary ― Immunological parameters of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells after bacterin on day 0. Cytolytic activity to porcine fibroblasts (PK-15) was increased (P

Boyer, Edmond

157

Human Behaviour and the Origin of Man  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of origin and evolution of man gives new perspective for understanding his behavior. Physical behaviors such as walking and throwing are results of biological evolution which has not kept pace with sociocultural evolution. Irrational decisions by man in social, cultural, and political fields are results of this brain activity. (PS)

Raleigh, M. J.; Washburn, S. L.

1973-01-01

158

Virtual assessment of the endocranial morphology of the early modern European fossil calvaria from cioclovina, romania.  

PubMed

Endocasts provide evidence on size and shape characteristics, blood supply trajectories, and neurological features of the brain, allowing comparative analyses of fossil hominins crucial to our understanding of human brain evolution. Here, we assess the morphological features of the virtual endocast of the Cioclovina Upper Paleolithic calvarium, one of the earliest reliably dated European modern human fossils. Our study was conducted on a computed tomography (CT) scan of the original specimen. The endocranial profile was approximated via a semiautomatic segmentation of the CT data. Virtual reconstructions of the endocast were used for assessing the morphological features of the endocranium and for the estimation of the endocranial volume. Cioclovina exhibits a clockwise torque with a small anterior extension of the left frontal lobe over the right one and a protrusion of the right occipital lobe over the left, most likely due to the superior sagittal sinus coursing over the occipital pole. There is an obvious right predominance of the posterior drainage system. Interestingly, the area of the frontal sinus is occupied by dense bony tissue with small air cells corresponding probably to a natural bony loss in the diploë and to vascular spaces. An estimated endocranial volume of 1498.53 cc was calculated. The convolutional details of the third inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's caps) are indistinguishable from those found in modern Homo sapiens, and the left occipital lobe appears wider than the right, a possible correlate of right-handedness. Our metric analysis of endocranial measurements also aligns Cioclovina with modern humans. PMID:21634023

Kranioti, Elena F; Holloway, Ralph; Senck, Sascha; Ciprut, Tudor; Grigorescu, Dan; Harvati, Katerina

2011-07-01

159

Identification of New Human Origins of DNA Replication by an Origin-Trapping Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metazoan genomes contain thousands of replication origins, but only a limited number have been charac- terized so far. We developed a two-step origin-trapping assay in which human chromatin fragments associated with origin recognition complex (ORC) in vivo were first enriched by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In a second step, these fragments were screened for transient replication competence in a plasmid-based assay utilizing

Jeannine Gerhardt; Samira Jafar; Mark-Peter Spindler; Elisabeth Ott; Aloys Schepers

2006-01-01

160

Phenotypic Differentiation of Bifidobacteria of Human and Animal Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotypes of 153 strains belonging or related to the genus Bijidobacterium were studied. These organisms included 38 collection strains and 115 wild strains (41 strains of human origin, 56 strains of animal origin, and 18 strains obtained from rivers or sewage). Our phenotypic analysis revealed seven main groups that were subdivided into 20 subgroups. Seven subgroups contained no type

FRANCOISE GAVINI; ANNE-MARIE POURCHER; CHRISTEL NEUT; DANIEL MONGET; CHARLES ROMOND; CATHERINE OGER; DANIEL IZARD

161

Patenting Stem Cells of Human Origin   

E-print Network

The author discusses the impact of the European Union's Directive for the legal protection of biotechnological inventions (Directive 98/44/EC of 6 July 1998. Specific attention is given to the absence from provisions of the mention of human stem...

Laurie, Graeme

2004-01-01

162

GENETIC PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN ORIGINS AND DIFFERENTIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract This is a review of genetic evidence about the ancient demography of the ancestors of our species and about the genesis of worldwide human diversity. The issue of whether or not a population size bottleneck occurred among our ancestors is under debate among geneticists as well as among anthropologists. The bottleneck, if it occurred, would confirm the Garden

Henry Harpending; Alan Rogers

2000-01-01

163

Reconstructing human origins in the genomic era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of recently acquired genomic sequence data are leading to important insights into the early evolution of anatomically modern humans, as well as into the more recent demographic processes that accompanied the global radiation of Homo sapiens. Some of the new results contradict early, but still influential, conclusions that were based on analyses of gene trees from mitochondrial DNA and

Daniel Garrigan; Michael F. Hammer

2006-01-01

164

‘Very Sore Nights and Days’: The Child’s Experience of Illness in Early Modern England, c.1580–1720  

PubMed Central

Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children’s experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfilment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children’s emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors’ casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308

NEWTON, HANNAH

2011-01-01

165

'Very sore nights and days': the child's experience of illness in early modern England, c.1580-1720.  

PubMed

Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children's experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfillment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children's emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors' casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308

Newton, Hannah

2011-04-01

166

Exploring early modern chemistry: the first twenty-five years of the Society for the Study of Alchemy & Early Modern Chemistry 1935-1960.  

PubMed

The article uses the recently deposited archives of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry to explore the ideas, motives and disagreements of its founders and officers between 1935 and 1960. The origin of the title Ambix for the society's journal is also explained. An appendix identifies the initial membership of the society. PMID:22397154

Brock, W H

2011-11-01

167

Understanding Human Trafficking Origin: A Cross-Country Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist work on global human trafficking has highlighted the conceptual difficulty of differentiating between trafficking and migration. This contribution uses a cross-country United Nations Office on Crime and Drugs dataset on human trafficking from 2006 to empirically evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of high-trafficking origin countries and compare them with patterns that have emerged in the literature on migration. In particular,

Smriti Rao; Christina Presenti

2012-01-01

168

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical  

E-print Network

, biomechanical modelling of the human upper airway has received a growing interest since it allows a better of the biomechanical properties of the upper airway (geometry, rheology). This makes them of interest to improveORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical simulations using

Payan, Yohan

169

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical  

E-print Network

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome 1 Introduction Since the 1990s, biomechanical modelling of the human upper properties of the upper airway (geometry, rheology). This makes them of interest to improve the qualityORIGINAL ARTICLE Modelling the human pharyngeal airway: validation of numerical simulations using

Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

170

A review of "‘A moving Rhetoricke’: Gender and Silence in Early Modern England. Review" by Christina Luckyj  

E-print Network

subjectivity that is beyond the definition and control of male-dominated language. After establishing these categories of early modern discourses of silence, Luckyj shows how they are manifested in dramatic texts and how silent characters can embody more than... as at once eloquence, resistance to social exchange, effeminate defeat, and stoic masculinity, while Volumnia?s equally complex and indeterminate silence can be seen as feigned submission, pride, and/or self-suffi- ciency. For male writers...

Elisa Oh

2003-01-01

171

A review of "Patterned Lives: The Lutheran Funeral Biography in Early Modern Germany" by Cornelia Niekus Moore  

E-print Network

. As Maurice Aymard concludes: ?[Venice] suddenly draws nearer to us, more alive, less exceptional, but also more European, without, however, ceasing to surprise us.? Cornelia Niekus Moore. Patterned Lives: The Lutheran Funeral Biography in Early Modern... Germany. Wolfenb?tteler Forschungen 111. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2006. 403 pp. Review by AMY NELSON BURNETT, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA-LINCOLN To those unfamiliar with the Lutheran funeral work, a book devoted to the biographies that were an important...

Burnett, Amy Nelson

2007-01-01

172

A review of "Becoming Criminal: Transversal Performance and Cultural Dissidence in Early Modern England." by Bryan Reynolds  

E-print Network

Bibliothek Wolfenb?ttel and the Forschungsbibliothek Gotha. Gerhard (1582- 1637), a theology professor at the University of Jena, was the most meaningful representative of early Lutheran orthodoxy. Having been born concurrently with the Book of Concord... is the result of an interdisciplinary program that Steiger has been following for several years to rehabilitate the long-disdained works of Lutheran orthodoxy in early modern Germany as valuable texts in their own right, a goal followed in the critical studies...

William E. Engel

2003-01-01

173

A review of "Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage" by John Considine  

E-print Network

book tells an upbeat story of some learned but melancholy men: the lexicographers of sixteenth- and seven- teenth-century Europe. These erudite pioneers saw themselves as performing labors akin to those of Hercules, whom they repeatedly invoke... reviews 1 John Considine. Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. xiv + 393 pp. $99.00. Review by eugene d. hill, mount holyoke college. John Considine?s fine...

Hill, Eugene D.

2010-01-01

174

A Review of "New World Gold: Cultural Anxiety and Monetary Disorder in Early Modern Spain" by Elvira Vilches  

E-print Network

the practices and theories of censorship and of recent work on the early Enlightenment. Elvira Vilches. New World Gold: Cultural Anxiety and Monetary Disorder in Early Modern Spain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010. xi + 361 pp. $45. Review... by elizabeth r. wright, university of georgia. The six chapters of New World Gold attest to an ambitious, pre- scient and impressively executed research project, in which Elvira Vilches combined the analytical tools of a cultural critic and an economic...

Wright, Elizabeth R.

2011-01-01

175

A review of "Theaters of Intention: Drama and the Law in Early Modern England." by Luke Wilson  

E-print Network

that follow, then, are not meant to 104 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS diminish that significance, but instead to convey the range of what the book makes available. In chapter 1, ?Hamlet, Hales v Petit, and the Hysteresis of Action,? Wilson takes up what... Wilson. Theaters of Intention: Drama and the Law in Early Modern England. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000. x + REVIEWS 103 362 pp. + 13 illus. $55.00. Review by DOUGLAS BRUSTER, THE UNI- VERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN. Most Shakespeareans...

Douglas Bruster

2003-01-01

176

A review of "The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture." by Brendan Dooley  

E-print Network

. Brendan Dooley. The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. viii + 213 pp. $42.95. Review by LAURA CRUZ, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY. Brendan... the REVIEWS 129 wiles of the market, whether in the seventeenth century or the twenty-first. When information becomes a commodity, then truth, understanding, and order are impeded and progress of all sorts is disrupted. Like modern tabloid journalists...

Laura Cruz

2002-01-01

177

Anatomy, behavior, and modern human origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fossil record suggests that modern human morphology evolved in Africa between 150,000 and 50,000 years ago, when the sole inhabitants of Eurasia were the Neanderthals and other equally nonmodern people. However, the earliest modern or near-modern Africans were behaviorally (archaeologically) indistinguishable from their nonmodern, Eurasian contemporaries, and it was only around 50,000-40,000 years ago that a major behavioral difference

Richard G. Klein

1995-01-01

178

On the origin of the human treponematoses  

PubMed Central

A close relationship between the four human treponematoses is suggested by their clinical and epidemiological characteristics and by such limited knowledge of the treponemes as there is at present. No treponeme of this group (except for that of the rabbit) is known other than in man, but the human treponemes probably arose long ago from an animal infection. The long period of infectiousness of pinta suggests that it may have been the earliest human treponematosis. It may have been spread throughout the world by about 15 000 B.C., being subsequently isolated in the Americas when the Bering Strait was flooded. About 10 000 B.C. in the Afro-Asian land mass environmental conditions might have favoured treponeme mutants leading to yaws; from these, about 7000 B.C., endemic syphilis perhaps developed, to give rise to venereal syphilis about 3000 B.C. in south-west Asia as big cities developed there. Towards the end of the fifteenth century A.D. a further mutation may have resulted in a more severe venereal syphilis in Europe which, with European exploration and geographical expansion, was subsequently carried throughout the then treponemally uncommitted world. These suggestions find some tentative support in climatic changes which might have influenced the selection of those treponemes which still survive in humid or arid climates. Venereal transmission would presumably remove the treponeme from the direct influence of climate. The author makes a plea for further investigation of many aspects of this subject while this is still possible. PMID:14043755

Hackett, C. J.

1963-01-01

179

A review of "Genre and Women's Life Writing in Early Modern England" edited by Michelle M. Dowd and Julie A. Eckerle  

E-print Network

that these essays will ?resuscitate early modern women?s life writing in the history of early modern writing generally? (10). Some of the early modern women whose life writings are featured most prominently in this volume include Margaret Cavendish, Eliza- beth... of Lanyer, Wroth, Osborne, and Cavendish, they will #14;nd it rewarding to learn many other names?for example, of Mouls- worth (who wrote a remarkable autobiographical poem in 1632 which was not published until 1993), of Richardson (who wrote a mother...

Beck, Jeffrey P.

2011-01-01

180

Evidence on human origins from haemoglobins of African apes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular data have influenced views concerning human origins, first, by supporting the genealogical classification of Pan (chimpanzee) and Gorilla with Homo rather than with Pongo (orangutan)1,2 and, second, by suggesting that only a few million years separate humans and chimpanzees from their last common ancestor3,4. Indeed, the cladistic distances in phylogenetic trees constructed from amino acid sequence data, on detecting

Morris Goodman; Gerhard Braunitzer; Anton Stangl; Barbara Schrank

1983-01-01

181

The origin and distribution of human lice in the world.  

PubMed

Two genera of lice parasitize humans: Pthirus and Pediculus. The latter is of significant public health importance and comprises two ecotypes: the body louse and the head louse. These ecotypes are morphologically and genetically notably similar; the body louse is responsible for three infectious diseases: Louse-borne epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown that there are three obviously divergent clades of head lice (A, B and C), and only one clade of body lice is shared with head lice (clade A). Each clade has a unique geographic distribution. Lice have been parasitizing humans for millions of years and likely dispersed throughout the World with the human migrations out of Africa, so they can be good markers for studying human evolution. Here, we present an overview of the origin of human lice and their role in vector pathogenic bacteria that caused epidemics, and we review the association between lice clades and human migrations. PMID:24524985

Boutellis, Amina; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Raoult, Didier

2014-04-01

182

RESEARCH Open Access Inference of human continental origin and  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Inference of human continental origin and admixture proportions using a highly the seven continental regions Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Central/ South Asia, East Asia, the Americas be geographically restricted because of evolutionary forces such as mutation, genetic drift, mi- gration and natural

Kidd, Kenneth

183

Original article The deleterious effects of human erythropoietin  

E-print Network

contrôle du pro- moteur du gène de la whey acidic protein de lapin chez des lapins transgéniques. Le gèneOriginal article The deleterious effects of human erythropoietin gene driven by the rabbit whey acidic protein gene promoter in transgenic rabbits M Massoud J Attal2 D Thépot H Pointu MG Stinnakre MC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Turner syndrome and the evolution of human sexual  

E-print Network

. Similarly, Williams syndrome, caused by deletions of a region of chromo- some 7, involves an unusual of the Williams-syndrome region, by contrast, involve high rates of autism, with expressive language abilitiesORIGINAL ARTICLE Turner syndrome and the evolution of human sexual dimorphism Bernard Crespi

Crespi, Bernard J.

185

Original article 789 Genetic polymorphisms and benzene metabolism in humans  

E-print Network

Original article 789 Genetic polymorphisms and benzene metabolism in humans exposed to a wide Range on levels of benzene metabolites in 250 benzene-exposed and 136 control workers in Tianjin, China (for all, catechol, and hydroquinone) and nine polymorphisms in seven genes coding for key enzymes in benzene

California at Berkeley, University of

186

Body proportions in Late Pleistocene Europe and modern human origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body proportions covary with climate, apparently as the result of climatic selection. Ontogenetic research and migrant studies have demonstrated that body proportions are largely genetically controlled and are under low selective rates; thus studies of body form can provide evidence for evolutionarily short-term dispersals and\\/or gene flow. Following these observations, competing models of modern human origins yield different predictions concerning

Trenton W. Holliday

1997-01-01

187

Human Communication Research ISSN 0360-3989 ORIGINAL ARTICLE  

E-print Network

­396 © 2010 International Communication Association #12;M.-L. Mares & Y. Sun TV & Aging Age differencesHuman Communication Research ISSN 0360-3989 ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Multiple Meanings of Age for Television Content Preferences Marie-Louise Mares1 & Ye Sun2 1 Department of Communication Arts, University

Sprott, Julien Clinton

188

A review of "New Worlds Reflected. Travel and Utopia in the Early Modern Period" edited by Chloë Houston  

E-print Network

with David Harris Sacks?s ?Rebuild- ing Solomon?s Temple: Richard Hakluyt?s Great Instauration,? which focuses on two early modern authors (Hakluyt and Bacon) and tries to #14;nd the link between them. One of them, Richard Hakluyt, who described journeys... showing their deeply spiritual meaning and stressing the importance of a possible reunion (here in one true faith) which is about to happen with the English help, and which leads us to Bacon?s Solomon?s Temple?a utopian symbol of that reunion. e...

Janik, Jakub

2011-01-01

189

A review of "Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England." by Nancy Cox and Karin Dannehl  

E-print Network

to trade and retail in early modern Britain, available at http:// www.british-history.ac.uk/source.asp?pubid=739. Nigel Goose and Lien Luu, eds. Immigrants in Tudor and Stuart England. Brighton and Portland, OR: Sussex Academic Press. 2005. x + 263 pp... introduction and conclusion, using Cunningham?s landmark work as a touchstone and positioning their own book as its direct successor. Between Goose?s introduction and Luu?s conclusion are ten essays arranged into three parts: ?Immigrant Communities...

Hayworth, Gene

2008-01-01

190

A review of "Performing Maternity in Early Modern England" edited by Kathryn M. Moncrief and Kathryn R. McPherson  

E-print Network

230 s e v e n t e e n t h -c e n t u r y n e w s Kathryn M. Moncrief and Kathryn R. McPherson, eds. Performing Maternity in Early Modern England. Hampshire, England: Ashgate, 2007. 241 pp. + 14 figures. $99.95. Review by na n c y M. Bu n k e r... , Ma c o n st a t e co l l e g e . In this ambitious volume, editors Kathryn M. Moncrief and Kathryn R. McPherson collected seventeen essays, each contribut- ing to a unity of purpose?maternity as ?performed and performa- tive;? its activity laced...

Bunker, Nancy M.

2008-01-01

191

A review of "The Self in Early Modern Literature: For the Common Good" by Terry G. Sherwood  

E-print Network

r e v i e w s 161 Terry G. Sherwood. The Self in Early Modern Literature: For the Common Good. Duquesne University Press, 2007. viii + 384pp. $60.00. Review by Ch r i s t o p h e r Ba k e r , Armstrong Atlantic State University Postmodern... as decentered, fragmented, or otherwise so fluidly conceived as to negate any possibility of ascertaining a fixed or continuing identity. Terry Sherwood takes issue with this view in his new essay, a decidedly historical approach which views the cultural...

Baker, Christopher

2008-01-01

192

A review of "State Formation in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1700." by Michael J. Braddick  

E-print Network

of French government propa- ganda than as anything else. Michael J. Braddick. State Formation in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. x + 447 pp. $28.00. Review by MOLLY MCCLAIN, UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO. What... connects the study of witchcraft trials to a book on the English navy? What links a history of the English civil wars with a study of the Society for the Preservation of Christian Knowl- edge (SPCK)? The answer, according to Michael Braddick, is the early...

Molly Mcclain

2002-01-01

193

The origin of human multi-modal communication.  

PubMed

One reason for the apparent gulf between animal and human communication systems is that the focus has been on the presence or the absence of language as a complex expressive system built on speech. But language normally occurs embedded within an interactional exchange of multi-modal signals. If this larger perspective takes central focus, then it becomes apparent that human communication has a layered structure, where the layers may be plausibly assigned different phylogenetic and evolutionary origins--especially in the light of recent thoughts on the emergence of voluntary breathing and spoken language. This perspective helps us to appreciate the different roles that the different modalities play in human communication, as well as how they function as one integrated system despite their different roles and origins. It also offers possibilities for reconciling the 'gesture-first hypothesis' with that of gesture and speech having evolved together, hand in hand--or hand in mouth, rather--as one system. PMID:25092670

Levinson, Stephen C; Holler, Judith

2014-09-19

194

Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland  

PubMed Central

Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500–1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400–1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change. PMID:24403343

Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M.; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

2014-01-01

195

Subcortical origins of human and monkey neocortical interneurons.  

PubMed

Cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons have crucial roles in the development and function of the cerebral cortex. In rodents, nearly all neocortical interneurons are generated from the subcortical ganglionic eminences. In humans and nonhuman primates, however, the developmental origin of neocortical GABAergic interneurons remains unclear. Here we show that the expression patterns of several key transcription factors in the developing primate telencephalon are very similar to those in rodents, delineating the three main subcortical progenitor domains (the medial, lateral and caudal ganglionic eminences) and the interneurons tangentially migrating from them. On the basis of the continuity of Sox6, COUP-TFII and Sp8 transcription factor expression and evidence from cell migration and cell fate analyses, we propose that the majority of primate neocortical GABAergic interneurons originate from ganglionic eminences of the ventral telencephalon. Our findings reveal that the mammalian neocortex shares basic rules for interneuron development, substantially reshaping our understanding of the origin and classification of primate neocortical interneurons. PMID:24097041

Ma, Tong; Wang, Congmin; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Xing; Tian, Miao; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Yue; Li, Jiwen; Liu, Zhidong; Cai, Yuqun; Liu, Fang; You, Yan; Chen, Chao; Campbell, Kenneth; Song, Hongjun; Ma, Lan; Rubenstein, John L; Yang, Zhengang

2013-11-01

196

Renaissance Fare: Appetite and Authority on the Early Modern English Stage  

E-print Network

significant subset of the human population experiences the flavor of the herb cilantro as identical to the flavor of soap can dramatically affect the experience of cilantro for those who previously enjoyed the herb. I engage this phenomenon – the materiality...

Behre, Keri Sanburn

2011-05-31

197

Human Origins and Evolution Humans belong to the Order Primates within the Class Mammalia  

E-print Network

1 Human Origins and Evolution Humans belong to the Order Primates within the Class Mammalia Key Primates apart Monkeys are called Old World if they are found in Africa or Asia & New World if they are found in the Americas New World monkeys may have prehensile (grabbing) tails; Old World monkeys never do

Brown, Christopher A.

198

Histological determination of the human origin of bone fragments.  

PubMed

A frequently encountered task in the forensic scenario is verification of the human origin of severely degraded fragments of bone. In these cases histological methods which consider osteon size and morphology can prove to be useful. The authors in the present study verify the applicability of published algorithms to flat and subadult bones from human, dog, cat, cow, rabbit, sheep, pig, chicken, quail, and turkey samples. Metric analysis was performed on 2031 Haversian canals. Analyses carried out on human samples confirmed a success rate of around 70% on long adult bones; however the percentage of wrong answers was particularly high in the case of newborns and older subadults as well as on flat bones in general. Results therefore suggest that such regression equations should be limited only to bone fragments from long adult bones. PMID:19298464

Cattaneo, Cristina; Porta, David; Gibelli, Daniele; Gamba, Corrado

2009-05-01

199

Timing the origin of human malarias: the lemur puzzle  

PubMed Central

Background Timing the origin of human malarias has been a focus of great interest. Previous studies on the mitochondrial genome concluded that Plasmodium in primates, including those parasitic to humans, radiated relatively recently during a process where host switches were common. Those investigations, however, assumed constant rate of evolution and tightly bound (fixed) calibration points based on host fossils or host distribution. We investigate the effect of such assumptions using different molecular dating methods. We include parasites from Lemuroidea since their distribution provides an external validation to time estimates allowing us to disregard scenarios that cannot explain their introduction in Madagascar. Results We reject the assumption that the Plasmodium mitochondrial genome, as a unit or each gene separately, evolves at a constant rate. Our analyses show that Lemuroidea parasites are a monophyletic group that shares a common ancestor with all Catarrhini malarias except those related to P. falciparum. However, we found no evidence that this group of parasites branched with their hosts early in the evolution of primates. We applied relaxed clock methods and different calibrations points to explore the origin of primate malarias including those found in African apes. We showed that previous studies likely underestimated the origin of malarial parasites in primates. Conclusions The use of fossils from the host as absolute calibration and the assumption of a strict clock likely underestimate time when performing molecular dating analyses on malarial parasites. Indeed, by exploring different calibration points, we found that the time for the radiation of primate parasites may have taken place in the Eocene, a time consistent with the radiation of African anthropoids. The radiation of the four human parasite lineages was part of such events. The time frame estimated in this investigation, together with our phylogenetic analyses, made plausible a scenario where gorillas and humans acquired malaria from a Pan lineage. PMID:21992100

2011-01-01

200

[Strategies of medical self-authorization in early modern medicine: the example of Volcher Coiter (1534-1576)].  

PubMed

Based on the example of Volcher Coiter--a town physician at Nuremberg and one of the leading anatomists in early modern medicine--, this essay points out that the authoritative status of contemporary physicians mainly was predicated on an interplay of self-fashioning and outside perception. It provides ample evidence that Coiter made use of several characteristic rhetorical and discourse-related strategies of self-authorisation such as the participation in social networks, a highly convincing technique of self-fashioning by emphasizing particular erudition, the presentation of academic medicine as a science authorised by god and the concurrent devaluation of non-academic healers. Furthermore, graphic and visual strategies of self-authorisation could be ascertained: Coiter took care for a premium typography of his books. He also used his talent as a graphic artist in his books to visualise his medical concepts. Moreover, the so-called 'Nuremberg Portrait' of Coiter served to illustrate his outstanding authority. PMID:16382689

Gross, Dominik; Steinmetzer, Jan

2005-01-01

201

Step-Dame Study's Purpose: Early Modern Literature and Critical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given what seems a constant barrage of criticism aimed at the academy from politicians and the public--and the great concern for buzz words like accountability and transparency--it has become fairly routine to see a defense of the humanities in opinion pieces in "Inside Higher Education," "The Chronicle of Higher Education," "The New York Times,"…

Isaacson, Emily Ruth

2013-01-01

202

Fossils and human origins, Mark StonekingSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Mark Stoneking DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>migrations Geneticist Mark Stoneking, co-author of an early mitochondrial DNA paper, talks about the competing theories of human origins.

2008-10-06

203

African origin of human-specific polymorphic Alu insertions.  

PubMed Central

Alu elements are a family of interspersed repeats that have mobilized throughout primate genomes by retroposition from a few "master" genes. Among the 500,000 Alu elements in the human genome are members of the human-specific subfamily that are not fixed in the human species; that is, not all chromosomes carry an Alu element at a particular locus. Four such polymorphic human-specific Alu insertions were analyzed by a rapid, PCR-based assay that uses primers that flank the insertion point to determine genotypes based on the presence or absence of the Alu element. These four polymorphic Alu insertions were shown to be absent from the genomes of a number of nonhuman primates, consistent with their arising as human genetic polymorphisms sometime after the human/African ape divergence. Analysis of 664 unrelated individuals from 16 population groups from around the world revealed substantial levels of variation within population groups and significant genetic differentiation among groups. No significant associations were found among the four loci, consistent with their location on different chromosomes. A maximum-likelihood tree of population relationships showed four major groupings consisting of Africa, Europe, Asia/Americas, and Australia/New Guinea, which is concordant with similar trees based on other loci. A particularly useful feature of the polymorphic Alu insertions is that the ancestral state is known to be the absence of the Alu element, and the presence of the Alu element at a particular chromosomal site reflects a single, unique event in human evolution. A hypothetical ancestral group can then be included in the tree analysis, with the frequency of each insertion set to zero. The ancestral group connected to the maximum-likelihood tree within the African branch, which suggests an African origin of these polymorphic Alu insertions. These data are concordant with other diverse data sets, which lends further support to the recent African origin hypothesis for modern humans. Polymorphic Alu insertions represent a source of genetic variation for studying human population structure and evolution. Images PMID:7991620

Batzer, M A; Stoneking, M; Alegria-Hartman, M; Bazan, H; Kass, D H; Shaikh, T H; Novick, G E; Ioannou, P A; Scheer, W D; Herrera, R J

1994-01-01

204

Middle cranial fossa anatomy and the origin of modern humans.  

PubMed

Anatomically, modern humans differ from archaic forms in possessing a globular neurocranium and a retracted face and in cognitive functions, many of which are associated with the temporal lobes. The middle cranial fossa (MCF) interacts during growth and development with the temporal lobes, the midface, and the mandible. It has been proposed that evolutionary transformations of the MCF (perhaps from modification of the temporal lobes) can have substantial influences on craniofacial morphology. Here, we use three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics and computer reconstructions of computed tomography-scanned fossil hominids, fossil and recent modern humans and chimpanzees to address this issue further. Mean comparisons and permutation analyses of scaled 3D basicranial landmarks confirm that the MCF of Homo sapiens is highly significantly different (P < 0.001) from H. neanderthalensis, H. heidelbergensis, and Pan troglodytes. Modern humans have a unique configuration with relatively more anterolateral projection of the MCF pole relative to the optic chiasm and the foramen rotundum. These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary changes in craniofacial morphology and the origins of modern human autapomorphies. In particular, the findings of this study point to variations in the temporal lobe, which, through effects on the MCF and face, are central to the evolution of modern human facial form. PMID:18213701

Bastir, Markus; Rosas, Antonio; Lieberman, Daniel E; O'Higgins, Paul

2008-02-01

205

The motor origins of human and avian song structure  

PubMed Central

Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:69–80]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples. PMID:21876156

Tierney, Adam T.; Russo, Frank A.; Patel, Aniruddh D.

2011-01-01

206

Chordophone Culture in Two Early Modern Societies: A Pipa-Vihuela Duet  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make the case for more attention by world historians to music as a universal human phenomenon, this article compares the socioeconomic niches, cultural associa­tions, and technical and technological development of plucked stringed instruments in sixteenth-century Spain and Ming China. An examination of the interrelation­ship of vihuela, lute, and guitarra, on the one hand, with the guqin and pipa, on

James A. Millward

2012-01-01

207

Beyond Consumption: Functionality, Artifact Biography, and Early Modernity in a European Periphery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the functionality and biographies of artifacts in the context of historical archaeology. It is argued\\u000a that in order to understand how human life in the recent past unfolded in relation with material culture, artifacts must be\\u000a recognized to perform various unobvious functions and also be conceived as processes rather than bounded physical objects.\\u000a The paper begins with

Vesa-Pekka Herva; Risto Nurmi

2009-01-01

208

Human origins and evolution: Cold Spring Harbor, deja vu.  

PubMed

The Cold Spring Harbor Symposia of the 1950s were key to integrating human evolutionary studies into biology. That integration provided a solid foundation for systematic and functional interpretations of an expanding base of fossil and molecular evidence during the latter half of the 20th century. Today, the paleontological record of human evolution amassed during the last 150 years illuminates the human clade on life's tree. However, the rise of Hennegian parsimony cladistics and punctuationalism during the end of the last century witnessed the partial abandonment of classificatory conventions cemented by Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and others at Cold Spring Harbor. This has led to an artificial, postmillennial amplification of apparent species diversity in the hominid clade. Work on a stratigraphically thick and temporally deep sedimentary sequence in the Middle Awash study area of Ethiopia's Afar Depression reveals an assembly order of hominid anatomies and behaviors that was impossible for Darwin to discern. Large parts of that record appear to reflect phyletic evolution, consistent with the lessons and expectations of Cold Spring Harbor in 1950. Molecular biology cannot reveal the assembly sequences or contexts of human origins and evolution without reference to adequate geological, geochronological, paleobiological, and archaeological records. Today's consilience of these disparate data sets would have impressed Charles Darwin. PMID:19776166

White, T D

2009-01-01

209

A review of "The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton’s Lives." by Mary Jo Kietzman  

E-print Network

144 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Mary Jo Kietzman. The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton?s Lives. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004. 350 pp. + 12 illus. $79.95. Review by TIM REINKE-WILLIAMS, UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK. Mary Jo...

Tim Reinke-Williams

2005-01-01

210

Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant. PMID:25080643

de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

2014-01-01

211

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community-  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community- associated for a Human Pandemic Clone of2013. Laura E. Spoor, Paul R. McAdam, Lucy A. Weinert, et al. aureus StaphylococcusMethicillin-Resistant Community-Associated Pandemic Clone of Livestock Origin for a Human http

Millar, Andrew J.

212

The Middle\\/Upper Paleolithic interface and the relationship of Neanderthals and early modern humans in the Hrvatsko Zagorje, Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first detailed analysis of the artefacts from the Mousterian level G3 at Vindija Cave and a revision of the artefact analysis for the early Upper Paleolithic levels (j, i) at Velika Pe?ina, both in Croatia. Combined with an assessment of the artefacts from the crucial G1 level at Vindija, results of these analyses are used to

I. Karavani?; F. H. Smith

1998-01-01

213

AFRICAN GENETIC DIVERSITY: Implications for Human Demographic History, Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of ethnically diverse human populations, particularly in Africa, are important for reconstructing human evolutionary history and for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation and complex disease. African populations are characterized by greater levels of genetic diversity, extensive population substructure, and less linkage disequilibrium (LD) among loci compared to non-African populations. Africans also possess a number of genetic adaptations that have evolved in response to diverse climates and diets, as well as exposure to infectious disease. This review summarizes patterns and the evolutionary origins of genetic diversity present in African populations, as well as their implications for the mapping of complex traits, including disease susceptibility. PMID:18593304

Campbell, Michael C.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

2010-01-01

214

Least effort and the origins of scaling in human language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of a complex language is one of the fundamental events of human evolution, and several remarkable features suggest the presence of fundamental principles of organization. These principles seem to be common to all languages. The best known is the so-called Zipf's law, which states that the frequency of a word decays as a (universal) power law of its rank. The possible origins of this law have been controversial, and its meaningfulness is still an open question. In this article, the early hypothesis of Zipf of a principle of least effort for explaining the law is shown to be sound. Simultaneous minimization in the effort of both hearer and speaker is formalized with a simple optimization process operating on a binary matrix of signal-object associations. Zipf's law is found in the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems. Our finding strongly suggests that Zipf's law is a hallmark of symbolic reference and not a meaningless feature. The implications for the evolution of language are discussed. We explain how language evolution can take advantage of a communicative phase transition.

Cancho, Ramon Ferrer I.; Solé, Ricard V.

2003-02-01

215

Least effort and the origins of scaling in human language  

PubMed Central

The emergence of a complex language is one of the fundamental events of human evolution, and several remarkable features suggest the presence of fundamental principles of organization. These principles seem to be common to all languages. The best known is the so-called Zipf's law, which states that the frequency of a word decays as a (universal) power law of its rank. The possible origins of this law have been controversial, and its meaningfulness is still an open question. In this article, the early hypothesis of Zipf of a principle of least effort for explaining the law is shown to be sound. Simultaneous minimization in the effort of both hearer and speaker is formalized with a simple optimization process operating on a binary matrix of signal–object associations. Zipf's law is found in the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems. Our finding strongly suggests that Zipf's law is a hallmark of symbolic reference and not a meaningless feature. The implications for the evolution of language are discussed. We explain how language evolution can take advantage of a communicative phase transition. PMID:12540826

Cancho, Ramon Ferrer i; Solé, Ricard V.

2003-01-01

216

75 FR 33651 - Meetings of Humanities Panel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965...applications for Early Modern European History in Fellowships, submitted to...applications for Modern European History I in Fellowships, submitted...will review applications for Art and Anthropology,...

2010-06-14

217

A review of "Self-Defense and Religious Strife in Early Modern Europe. England and Germany 1530-1630." by Robert von Friedeburg  

E-print Network

of the sixteenth and seven- teenth centuries, Christians were forced to make tough choices when faced with secular authorities they perceived as acting against theological and doctri- nal truth. Given the long-standing consensus surrounding the need for order... to secular authority might easily be regarded as deliberately wrecking social and political stability and thus called for intellectual justification. Robert von Friedeburg demonstrates that such rationalizations for resistance in the early modern period...

Paul M. Dover

2006-01-01

218

A Review of "Living with Religious Diversity in Early-Modern Europe" edited by C. Scott Dixon, Dagmar Freist, and Mark Greengrass  

E-print Network

Building in Early-Modern France? expands on the connection between religious and political fidelity, and in particular the tension between Catholic and Protestant conceptions of conscience. Since conscience signified the relationship between man and God..., it was a powerful and potentially subversive force. It was held that one must follow wherever conscience led, even into an unorthodox denomination. While Catholics emphasised the inherent potential for heresy and political contumacy, Protestants believed...

Swann, Adam

2010-01-01

219

Original Articles The force of selection on the human life cycle  

E-print Network

Original Articles The force of selection on the human life cycle James Holland Jones Department of selection on the human life cycle. The force of selection acts in remarkably invariant ways on human life histories, despite a great abundance of demographic diversity. Human life histories are highly structured

Jones, James Holland

220

Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human  

E-print Network

Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human physical on cross-cultural mate preferences, Buss (1994) Evolution and Human Behavior xx (2009) xxx­xxx This study received 16 June 2009 Abstract A number of traits have been proposed to be important in human mate choice

Little, Tony

221

The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of the model known as the “human revolution” claim that modern human behaviors arose suddenly, and nearly simultaneously, throughout the Old World ca.40–50ka. This fundamental behavioral shift is purported to signal a cognitive advance, a possible reorganization of the brain, and the origin of language. Because the earliest modern human fossils, Homo sapiens sensu stricto, are found in Africa

Sally Mcbrearty; Alison S. Brooks

2000-01-01

222

DNA replication origin interference increases the spacing between initiation events in human cells.  

PubMed

Mammalian DNA replication origins localize to sites that range from base pairs to tens of kilobases. A regular distribution of initiations in individual cell cycles suggests that only a limited number of these numerous potential start sites are converted into activated origins. Origin interference can silence redundant origins; however, it is currently unknown whether interference participates in spacing functional human initiation events. By using a novel hybridization strategy, genomic Morse code, on single combed DNA molecules from primary keratinocytes, we report the initiation sites present on 1.5 Mb of human chromosome 14q11.2. We confirm that initiation zones are widespread in human cells, map to intergenic regions, and contain sequence motifs found at other mammalian initiation zones. Origins used per cell cycle are less abundant than the potential sites of initiation, and their limited use increases the spacing between initiation events. Between-zone interference decreases in proportion to the distance from the active origin, whereas within-zone interference is 100% efficient. These results identify a hierarchical organization of origin activity in human cells. Functional origins govern the probability that nearby origins will fire in the context of multiple potential start sites of DNA replication, and this is mediated by origin interference. PMID:17005913

Lebofsky, Ronald; Heilig, Roland; Sonnleitner, Max; Weissenbach, Jean; Bensimon, Aaron

2006-12-01

223

Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human origins  

PubMed Central

There are numerous anthropological analyses concerning the importance of diet during human evolution. Diet is thought to have had a profound influence on the human phenotype, and dietary differences have been hypothesized to contribute to the dramatic morphological changes seen in modern humans as compared with non-human primates. Here, we attempt to integrate the results of new genomic studies within this well-developed anthropological context. We then review the current evidence for adaptation related to diet, both at the level of sequence changes and gene expression. Finally, we propose some ways in which new technologies can help identify specific genomic adaptations that have resulted in metabolic and morphological differences between humans and non-human primates. PMID:21177690

Babbitt, Courtney C.; Warner, Lisa R.; Fedrigo, Olivier; Wall, Christine E.; Wray, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

224

Mitochondrial DNA and the origin of humans, Douglas WallaceSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Douglas Wallace DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>migrations>Videos Mitochondrial DNA research pioneer Douglas Wallace speaks about mitochondrial DNA and theories of human evolution.

2008-10-06

225

Origins of major human infectious diseases Nathan D. Wolfe1  

E-print Network

pathogens, including virulent viruses like Ebola and Marburg, periodically infect human hosts but then fail­6 . Evolutionary biologists realize that infectious diseases, as a leading cause of human morbidity and mor- tality. We exclude macroparasites (in the sense of ref. 7), as well as normally benign commensals that cause

Boudouresque, Charles F.

226

Original article Treatment of human spermatozoa with follicular  

E-print Network

and the fertilization rate of human in vitro fertilization (Yee and Cummings, 1988; Ghetler et al, 1990). Similarly and motility during in vitro capacitation S Hamamah M Lanson C Barthelemy MA Garrigue J Lansac JP Muh3 D Royere of human follicular fluid (HFF) on the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, we studied the effect of HFF

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

A review of "Self-fashioning and Metamorphosis in Early Modern English Literature" by Olav Lausund and Stein Haugom Olsen, eds.  

E-print Network

these problems, the book contains a number of no- table essays which shine new light on early modern texts. Robin Headlam Wells?s ?The Metamorphosis of Othello? is an intriguing look at the tragedy and its connection to contemporary beliefs about and attitudes... toward the savage (noble or otherwise). After dem- onstrating that the plot of Othello does not conform to the typical revenge tragedy topos of a society with a corrupt or dysfunctional system of justice (as defined by Katherine Maus), Wells argues...

David Grant Moss

2004-01-01

228

Neandertal DNA sequences and the origin of modern humans.  

PubMed

DNA was extracted from the Neandertal-type specimen found in 1856 in western Germany. By sequencing clones from short overlapping PCR products, a hitherto unknown mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence was determined. Multiple controls indicate that this sequence is endogenous to the fossil. Sequence comparisons with human mtDNA sequences, as well as phylogenetic analyses, show that the Neandertal sequence falls outside the variation of modern humans. Furthermore, the age of the common ancestor of the Neandertal and modern human mtDNAs is estimated to be four times greater than that of the common ancestor of human mtDNAs. This suggests that Neandertals went extinct without contributing mtDNA to modern humans. PMID:9230299

Krings, M; Stone, A; Schmitz, R W; Krainitzki, H; Stoneking, M; Pääbo, S

1997-07-11

229

Original Contribution Confidence Intervals for Biomarker-based Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

E-print Network

Original Contribution Confidence Intervals for Biomarker-based Human Immunodeficiency Virus approaches to confidence interval (CI) estimation for this incidence measure have included 1) ignoring simulation; confidence intervals; HIV; incidence; Monte Carlo method; statistics Abbreviations: AIDS

Cole, Stephen R.

230

Exploring the Origins of the Human Brain through Molecular Evolution  

PubMed Central

The emergence of the human brain is one of evolution’s most compelling mysteries. With its singular importance and astounding complexity, understanding the forces that gave rise to the human brain is a major undertaking. Recently, the identification and publication of the complete genomic sequence of humans, mice, chimpanzees, and macaques has allowed for large-scale studies looking for the genic substrates of this natural selection. These investigations into positive selection, however, have generally produced incongruous results. Here we consider some of these studies and their differences in methodologies with an eye towards how they affect the results. We also clarify the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches and discuss how these can be synthesized to develop a more complete understanding of the genetic correlates behind the human brain and the selective events that have acted upon them. PMID:18836262

Vallender, Eric J.

2009-01-01

231

ORIGINAL RESEARCH PCNA improves image analysis of human ovaries  

E-print Network

in prepared ovarian tissue. Previous studies involving human tissue have used hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain microns) are taken at regular intervals, and these are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE). Sample

St Andrews, University of

232

The First Humans: A Summary Perspective on the Origin and Early Evolution of the Genus Homo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Origin, adaptation and diversity are eternal themes in human evolution. These issues are equally timeless with respect to\\u000a our own lineage. Human paleontologists continue to grapple with questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of our\\u000a own genus. How do we identify the earliest members the genus Homo? How many species of Homo were there in the Pliocene and Pleistocene,

Frederick E. Grine; John G. Fleagle

233

Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes Present Conflicting Portraits of Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

polymorphism patterns could be caused by different sample origins for the different data sets. To examine the mtDNA-nuclear difference more closely, DNA sequences were generated from a portion of the X-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase Ela subunit (PDHAl) locus and from a portion of mitochondrial control region I (CRI) from each of eight individuals, four from sub-Saharan Africa. The two genes revealed

Jody Hey

234

The origin of human pathogens: evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease.  

PubMed

Many significant diseases of human civilization are thought to have arisen concurrently with the advent of agriculture in human society. It has been hypothesised that the food produced by farming increased population sizes to allow the maintenance of virulent pathogens, i.e. civilization pathogens, while domestic animals provided sources of disease to humans. To determine the relationship between pathogens in humans and domestic animals, I examined phylogenetic data for several human pathogens that are commonly evolutionarily linked to domestic animals: measles, pertussis, smallpox, tuberculosis, taenid worms, and falciparal malaria. The majority are civilization pathogens, although I have included others whose evolutionary origins have traditionally been ascribed to domestic animals. The strongest evidence for a domestic-animal origin exists for measles and pertussis, although the data do not exclude a non-domestic origin. As for the other pathogens, the evidence currently available makes it difficult to determine if the domestic-origin hypothesis is supported or refuted; in fact, intriguing data for tuberculosis and taenid worms suggests that transmission may occur as easily from humans to domestic animals. These findings do not abrogate the importance of agriculture in disease transmission; rather, if anything, they suggest an alternative, more complex series of effects than previously elucidated. Rather than domestication, the broader force for human pathogen evolution could be ecological change, namely anthropogenic modification of the environment. This is supported by evidence that many current emerging infectious diseases are associated with human modification of the environment. Agriculture may have changed the transmission ecology of pre-existing human pathogens, increased the success of pre-existing pathogen vectors, resulted in novel interactions between humans and wildlife, and, through the domestication of animals, provided a stable conduit for human infection by wildlife diseases. PMID:16672105

Pearce-Duvet, Jessica M C

2006-08-01

235

Identification of a Binding Region for Human Origin Recognition Complex Proteins 1 and 2 That Coincides with an Origin of DNA Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the binding regions of components of the origin recognition complex (ORC) in the human genome. For this purpose, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with antibodies against human Orc1 and Orc2 proteins. We identified a binding region for human Orc proteins 1 and 2 in a <1-kbp segment between two divergently transcribed human genes. The region is characterized by

Eva-Maria Ladenburger; Christian Keller; Rolf Knippers

2002-01-01

236

Neandertal DNA Sequences and the Origin of Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA was extracted from the Neandertal-type specimen found in 1856 in western Germany. By sequencing clones from short overlapping PCR products, a hitherto unknown mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence was determined. Multiple controls indicate that this sequence is endogenous to the fossil. Sequence comparisons with human mtDNA sequences, as well as phylogenetic analyses, show that the Neandertal sequence falls outside the

Matthias Krings; Anne Stone; Ralf W. Schmitz; Heike Krainitzki; Mark Stoneking; Svante Pääbo

1997-01-01

237

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evolutionary genomics of human intellectual disability  

E-print Network

to Charles Darwin, and from Erasmus Darwin to Francis Galton. Zechner et al. (2001) extended Lehrke et al. 2004; Ropers and Hamel 2005; Arden and Plomin 2006; Plomin et al. 2006). Darwin's own pedi development of cognitive abilities during human evolution', an idea inspired by the apparent differential

Crespi, Bernard J.

238

The Renaissance. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.8. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Standard 7.8 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and diffusion of the Renaissance," in terms of the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts affected a new interest in humanism; the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of…

Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

239

Human origins family treeSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>our family tree Meet the extended family Until the late 1900s, many researchers believed that humans evolved from an apelike ancestor through a linear series of stages. There are now many different theories about the relationships between species. It appears that we may just be one of the twigs on a vast family tree.

2009-04-10

240

Open chromatin encoded in DNA sequence is the signature of 'master' replication origins in human cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, progress in elucidating the mechanisms underlying replication initiation and its coupling to transcriptional activities and to local chromatin structure has been hampered by the small number (approximately 30) of well-established origins in the human genome and more generally in mammalian genomes. Recent in silico studies of compositional strand asymmetries revealed a high level of organ- ization of human

Benjamin Audit; Lamia Zaghloul; C. Vaillant; G. Chevereau; Y. d'Aubenton-Carafa; C. Thermes; A. Arneodo

2009-01-01

241

HOPEGM REPORT Primate Origins of Human Evolution: From Genes to Mind  

E-print Network

HOPEGM REPORT Primate Origins of Human Evolution: From Genes to Mind Japan Society of Human Evolution: From Genes to Mind" (HOPE GM) , is a program funded by the Japan Society in these meetings a beautiful example of Japanese hospitality. Prof. Matsuzawa was dedicating his precious time

Takada, Shoji

242

Carbohydrate catabolic diversity of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli of human origin.  

PubMed

Because increased proportions of particular commensal bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been linked to human health through a variety of mechanisms, there is corresponding interest in identifying carbohydrates that promote growth and metabolic activity of these bacteria. We evaluated the ability of 20 carbohydrates, including several commercially available carbohydrates that are sold as prebiotic ingredients, to support growth of 32 human-derived isolates belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, including those isolated from healthy elderly subjects. In general, bifidobacterial strains were shown to display more diverse carbohydrate utilization profiles compared to the tested Lactobacillus species, with several bifidobacterial strains capable of metabolizing xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS), arabinoxylan, maltodextrin, galactan and carbohydrates containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) components. In contrast, maltodextrin, galactan, arabinogalactan and galactomannan did not support robust growth (?0.8 OD600nm) of any of the Lactobacillus strains assessed. Carbohydrate fermentation was variable among strains tested of the same species for both genera. This study advances our knowledge of polysaccharide utilization by human gut commensals, and provides information for the rational design of selective prebiotic food ingredients. PMID:25817019

McLaughlin, Heather P; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Lakshminarayanan, Bhuvaneswari; Stanton, Catherine; Paul Ross, R; Brulc, Jennifer; Menon, Ravi; O'Toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

2015-06-16

243

Electrostatic origin of in vitro aggregation of human ?-crystallin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proteins ?-, ?-, and ?-crystallins are the major components of the lens in the human eye. Using dynamic light scattering method, we have performed in vitro investigations of protein-protein interactions in dilute solutions of human ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin. We find that ?-crystallin spontaneously aggregates into finite-sized clusters in phosphate buffer solutions. There are two distinct populations of unaggregated and aggregated ?-crystallins in these solutions. On the other hand, ?-crystallin molecules are not aggregated into large clusters in solutions of ?-crystallin alone. When ?-crystallin and ?-crystallin are mixed in phosphate buffer solutions, we demonstrate that the clusters of ?-crystallin are prevented. By further investigating the roles of temperature, protein concentration, pH, salt concentration, and a reducing agent, we show that the aggregation of ?-crystallin under our in vitro conditions arises from non-covalent electrostatic interactions. In addition, we show that aggregation of ?-crystallin occurs under the dilute in vitro conditions even in the absence of oxidizing agents that can induce disulfide cross-links, long considered to be responsible for human cataracts. Aggregation of ?-crystallin when maintained under reducing conditions suggests that oxidation does not contribute to the aggregation in dilute solutions.

Mohr, Benjamin G.; Dobson, Cassidy M.; Garman, Scott C.; Muthukumar, Murugappan

2013-09-01

244

Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate  

PubMed Central

Although there is a general consensus on African origin of early modern humans, there is disagreement about how and when they dispersed to Eurasia. This paper reviews genetic and Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic archaeological literature from northeast Africa, Arabia, and the Levant to assess the timing and geographic backgrounds of Upper Pleistocene human colonization of Eurasia. At the center of the discussion lies the question of whether eastern Africa alone was the source of Upper Pleistocene human dispersals into Eurasia or were there other loci of human expansions outside of Africa? The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: (i) from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5), (ii) from a rapid dispersal out of East Africa via the Southern Route (across the Red Sea basin), dating to ~74–60?kya. PMID:21716744

Beyin, Amanuel

2011-01-01

245

The origin of remarkable resilience of human tooth enamel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of human tooth enamel depend not only on test locations but also on the indentation depth. However, it remains uncertain what roles the depth-dependant properties play in mechanical performance of enamel. Here we reveal that a change in the mechanical properties of enamel, in particular its strength, with increasing indentation depth promotes inelastic deformation in material. In doing so, the severity and extent of stress concentration is reduced. Furthermore, we observed that following unloading, self-recovery occurs in enamel. These findings improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the remarkable resilience of enamel.

Zhao, Xiaoli; O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Abbott, Paul; Munroe, Paul; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

2013-12-01

246

Bridging the gap: human diploid cell strains and the origin of AIDS.  

PubMed

Recent descriptions of the first human and chimpanzee cases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-related retroviral infections dating from 1959 have stirred interest in the origin of AIDS. Although the theory of a chimpanzee origin of HIV-1 with cross-species transfer to man has now gained popularity, a more likely scenario is that chimps and humans were infected by an HIV-1 precursor virus derived from a contaminated poliovaccine. The reason for the rapidity and ease of cross-species transfer of this precursor virus has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that the poliovaccine was passaged in a human diploid cell strain. This simple manipulation allowed the retrovirus to adapt to human tissues and may have spawned the AIDS pandemic. PMID:10833351

Goldberg, B; Stricker, R B

2000-06-21

247

Human physiological reaction to geomagnetic disturbances of solar origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades publications about the influence of geomagnetic activity on human health increase but there are not still strong evidences for this relationship. We performed measurements and observations of 86 working volunteers during the period of autumn and spring equinox. We examined systolic, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate. We also collected data for some personal health condition complaints. Four-way analyses of variance (MANOVA method) were employed and the influence of factors geomagnetic activity level, sequence of the days of measurements with respect to the increased geomagnetic activity, medicaments and sex was investigated. We also performed three-way analyses of variance and investigated influence of atmospheric pressure, medicaments and sex on the physiological parameters under consideration. Our investigations indicate that most of the persons examined irrespectively to their health status could be sensitive to the geomagnetic changes, which influence directly self-confidence and working ability.

Dimitrova, Sv.; Stoilova, I.

2002-12-01

248

Human microRNAs originated from two periods at accelerated rates in mammalian evolution.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that modulate genes posttranscriptionally. Frequent gains and losses of miRNA genes have been reported to occur during evolution. However, little is known systematically about the periods of evolutionary origin of the present miRNA gene repertoire of an extant mammalian species. Thus, in this study, we estimated the evolutionary periods during which each of 1,433 present human miRNA genes originated within 15 periods, from human to platypus-human common ancestral branch and a class "conserved beyond theria," primarily using multiple genome alignments of 38 species, plus the pairwise genome alignments of five species. The results showed two peak periods in which the human miRNA genes originated at significantly accelerated rates. The most accelerated rate appeared in the period of the initial phase of hominoid lineage, and the second appeared shortly before Laurasiatherian divergence. Approximately 53% of the present human miRNA genes have originated within the simian lineage to human. In particular, approximately 28% originated within the hominoid lineage. The early phase of placental mammal radiation comprises approximately 28%, while no more than 15% of human miRNAs have been conserved beyond placental mammals. We also clearly showed a general trend, in which the miRNA expression level decreases as the miRNA becomes younger. Intriguingly, amid this decreasing trend of expression, we found one significant rise in the expression level that corresponded to the initial phase of the hominoid lineage, suggesting that increased functional acquisitions of miRNAs originated at this particular period. PMID:23171859

Iwama, Hisakazu; Kato, Kiyohito; Imachi, Hitomi; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

249

In Vivo Liver Regeneration Potential of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Diverse Origins  

PubMed Central

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a potential source of hepatocytes for liver transplantation to treat end-stage liver disease. In vitro differentiation of human iPSCs into hepatic cells has been achieved using a multistage differentiation protocol, but whether these cells are functional and capable of engrafting and regenerating diseased liver tissue is not clear. We show that human iPSC-derived hepatic cells at various differentiation stages can engraft the liver in a mouse transplantation model. Using the same differentiation and transplantation protocols, we also assessed the ability of human iPSCs derived from each of the three developmental germ layer tissues (that is, ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) to regenerate mouse liver. These iPSC lines, with similar but distinct global DNA methylation patterns, differentiated into multistage hepatic cells with an efficiency similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Human hepatic cells at various differentiation stages derived from iPSC lines of different origins successfully repopulated the liver tissue of mice with liver cirrhosis. They also secreted human-specific liver proteins into mouse blood at concentrations comparable to that of proteins secreted by human primary hepatocytes. Our results demonstrate the engraftment and liver regenerative capabilities of human iPSC-derived multistage hepatic cells in vivo and suggest that human iPSCs of distinct origins and regardless of their parental epigenetic memory can efficiently differentiate along the hepatic lineage. PMID:21562231

Liu, Hua; Kim, Yonghak; Sharkis, Saul; Marchionni, Luigi; Jang, Yoon-Young

2012-01-01

250

Origins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

251

On the Origins of Suboptimality in Human Probabilistic Inference  

PubMed Central

Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors), in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal). Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the priors, and by variability in the decision process, which we represent as a noisy or stochastic posterior. PMID:24945142

Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M.

2014-01-01

252

On the origins of suboptimality in human probabilistic inference.  

PubMed

Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors), in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal). Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the priors, and by variability in the decision process, which we represent as a noisy or stochastic posterior. PMID:24945142

Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M

2014-06-01

253

Introductions and Evolution of Human-Origin Seasonal Influenza A Viruses in Multinational Swine Populations  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The capacity of influenza A viruses to cross species barriers presents a continual threat to human and animal health. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. We sequenced the genomes of 141 influenza viruses collected from North American swine during 2002 to 2011 and identified a swine virus that possessed all eight genome segments of human seasonal A/H3N2 virus origin. A molecular clock analysis indicates that this virus—A/sw/Saskatchewan/02903/2009(H3N2)—has likely circulated undetected in swine for at least 7 years. For historical context, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of an additional 1,404 whole-genome sequences from swine influenza A viruses collected globally during 1931 to 2013. Human-to-swine transmission occurred frequently over this time period, with 20 discrete introductions of human seasonal influenza A viruses showing sustained onward transmission in swine for at least 1 year since 1965. Notably, human-origin hemagglutinin (H1 and H3) and neuraminidase (particularly N2) segments were detected in swine at a much higher rate than the six internal gene segments, suggesting an association between the acquisition of swine-origin internal genes via reassortment and the adaptation of human influenza viruses to new swine hosts. Further understanding of the fitness constraints on the adaptation of human viruses to swine, and vice versa, at a genomic level is central to understanding the complex multihost ecology of influenza and the disease threats that swine and humans pose to each other. IMPORTANCE The swine origin of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscored the importance of understanding how influenza A virus evolves in these animals hosts. While the importance of reassortment in generating genetically diverse influenza viruses in swine is well documented, the role of human-to-swine transmission has not been as intensively studied. Through a large-scale sequencing effort, we identified a novel influenza virus of wholly human origin that has been circulating undetected in swine for at least 7 years. In addition, we demonstrate that human-to-swine transmission has occurred frequently on a global scale over the past decades but that there is little persistence of human virus internal gene segments in swine. PMID:24965467

Wentworth, David E.; Culhane, Marie R.; Vincent, Amy L.; Viboud, Cecile; LaPointe, Matthew P.; Lin, Xudong; Holmes, Edward C.; Detmer, Susan E.

2014-01-01

254

Failure to replicate effect of Kibra on human memory in two large cohorts of European origin.  

PubMed

It was recently suggested that the Kibra polymorphism rs17070145 has a strong effect on multiple episodic memory tasks in humans. We attempted to replicate this using two cohorts of European genetic origin (n = 319 and n = 365). We found no association with either the original SNP or a set of tagging SNPs in the Kibra gene with multiple verbal memory tasks, including one that was an exact replication (Auditory Verbal Learning Task, AVLT). These results suggest that Kibra does not have a strong and general effect on human memory. PMID:18205171

Need, Anna C; Attix, Deborah K; McEvoy, Jill M; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Linney, Kristen N; Wagoner, Ana Patricia; Gumbs, Curtis E; Giegling, Ina; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Francks, Clyde; Muglia, Pierandrea; Roses, Allen; Gibson, Greg; Weale, Mike E; Rujescu, Dan; Goldstein, David B

2008-07-01

255

New potent inhibitors of aquaporins: silver and gold compounds inhibit aquaporins of plant and human origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver and gold compounds were tested as potential inhibitors of aquaporins of plant- and human origin. Silver as AgNO3 or silver sulfadiazine inhibited with high potency (EC50 1–10 ?M) the water permeability of the peribacteroid membrane from soybean (containing Nodulin 26), the water permeability of plasma membrane from roots (containing plasma membrane integral proteins), and the water permeability of human

Christa M Niemietz; Stephen D Tyerman

2002-01-01

256

Prostate Cancer Cells with Stem Cell Characteristics Reconstitute the Original Human Tumor In vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer may arise from a cancer stem\\/progenitor cell that shares characteristics with its normal counterpart. We report the reconstitution of the original human prostate cancer specimen from epithelial cell lines (termed HPET for human prostate epithelial\\/hTERT) derived from this sample. These tumors can be described in terms of Gleason score, a classification not applied to any of the transgenic mouse

Guangyu Gu; Jialing Yuan; Marcia Wills; Susan Kasper

2007-01-01

257

Human resource practices and firm performance of multinational corporations: influences of country origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing from a cultural values perspective, we investigate the effects of country origins on HR (human resource) practices of firms from the United States, Great Britain, Japan and Hong Kong operating in Hong Kong. In general, results supported hypothesized differences in HR practices of firms from different countries. In addition, results indicated that HR practices, specifically structural training and development

Hang-Yue Ngo; Daniel Turban; Chung-Ming Lau; Siu-Yu Lui

1998-01-01

258

ORIGINAL ARTICLE P-glycoprotein functions as an immunomodulator in healthy human primary  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE P-glycoprotein functions as an immunomodulator in healthy human primary nasal E. Feldman, BA1 and Xue Han, PhD2 Background: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an adenosine triphosphate-AAOA, LLC. Key Words: P-glycoprotein; multidrug resistance; nasal epithelium; cell culture; cytokine

Han, Xue

259

Sensitivity to differences in the motor origin of drawings: from human to robot.  

PubMed

This study explores the idea that an observer is sensitive to differences in the static traces of drawings that are due to differences in motor origin. In particular, our aim was to test if an observer is able to discriminate between drawings made by a robot and by a human in the case where the drawings contain salient kinematic cues for discrimination and in the case where the drawings only contain more subtle kinematic cues. We hypothesized that participants would be able to correctly attribute the drawing to a human or a robot origin when salient kinematic cues are present. In addition, our study shows that observers are also able to detect the producer behind the drawings in the absence of these salient kinematic cues. The design was such that in the absence of salient kinematic cues, the drawings are visually very similar, i.e. only differing in subtle kinematic differences. Observers thus had to rely on these subtle kinematic differences in the line trajectories between drawings. However, not only motor origin (human versus robot) but also motor style (natural versus mechanic) plays a role in attributing a drawing to the correct producer, because participants scored less high when the human hand draws in a relatively mechanical way. Overall, this study suggests that observers are sensitive to subtle kinematic differences between visually similar marks in drawings that have a different motor origin. We offer some possible interpretations inspired by the idea of "motor resonance". PMID:25014198

De Preester, Helena; Tsakiris, Manos

2014-01-01

260

Original Research Article Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in  

E-print Network

Original Research Article Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max: Objectives: This study explores whether cardiovascular fitness levels and senescent decline are simi- lar- mane, we examine whether morbidity predicts lower levels and faster decline of cardiovascular fitness

Gurven, Michael

261

Skeletal Variation Among Early Holocene North American Humans: Implications for Origins and  

E-print Network

that the colonizing population was isolated from other Asian populations for an extended period before proceedingSkeletal Variation Among Early Holocene North American Humans: Implications for Origins the remains of the five most complete North American male early Holocene skeletons to examine pat- terns

Auerbach, Benjamin M.

262

Sensitivity to Differences in the Motor Origin of Drawings: From Human to Robot  

PubMed Central

This study explores the idea that an observer is sensitive to differences in the static traces of drawings that are due to differences in motor origin. In particular, our aim was to test if an observer is able to discriminate between drawings made by a robot and by a human in the case where the drawings contain salient kinematic cues for discrimination and in the case where the drawings only contain more subtle kinematic cues. We hypothesized that participants would be able to correctly attribute the drawing to a human or a robot origin when salient kinematic cues are present. In addition, our study shows that observers are also able to detect the producer behind the drawings in the absence of these salient kinematic cues. The design was such that in the absence of salient kinematic cues, the drawings are visually very similar, i.e. only differing in subtle kinematic differences. Observers thus had to rely on these subtle kinematic differences in the line trajectories between drawings. However, not only motor origin (human versus robot) but also motor style (natural versus mechanic) plays a role in attributing a drawing to the correct producer, because participants scored less high when the human hand draws in a relatively mechanical way. Overall, this study suggests that observers are sensitive to subtle kinematic differences between visually similar marks in drawings that have a different motor origin. We offer some possible interpretations inspired by the idea of “motor resonance”. PMID:25014198

De Preester, Helena; Tsakiris, Manos

2014-01-01

263

Built for Speed: Pleistocene Climate Variation and the Origin of Human Culture  

E-print Network

prevented many animal lineages in the remote past from evolving a similar adaptive complex of tools of evolution by natural selection, change results from adaptation to local environments. ScholarsBuilt for Speed: Pleistocene Climate Variation and the Origin of Human Culture Peter J. Richerson

Richerson, Peter J.

264

A New Approach to Studying Modern Human Origins: Hypothesis Testing with Coalescence Time Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for testing hypotheses about modern human origins using molecular divergence dates is presented. Coalescence times from many unlinked loci are needed to test the alternative models. Hypotheses are evaluated on the basis of their differing predicted distribution patterns of coalescence times from multiple genes. No single coalescence time from one genetic system is sufficient to reject any

Maryellen Ruvolo

1996-01-01

265

Origins of XMRV deciphered, undermining claims for a role in human disease  

Cancer.gov

Delineation of the origin of the retrovirus known as XMRV from the genomes of laboratory mice indicates that the virus is unlikely to be responsible for either prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome in humans, as has been widely published. The virus arose because of genetic recombination of two mouse viruses.

266

A General Theory Concerning the Prenatal Origins of Cerebral Lateralization in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of cerebral lateralization in humans are traced to the asymmetric prenatal development of the ear and labyrinth. Aural lateralization is hypothesized to result from an asymmetry in craniofacial development, whereas vestibular dominance is traced to the position of the fetus during the final trimester. A right-ear sensitivity advantage may contribute to a left-hemispheric advantage in speech perception and

Fred H. Previc

1991-01-01

267

Chimpanzee Vocal Signaling Points to a Multimodal Origin of Human Language  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary origin of human language and its neurobiological foundations has long been the object of intense scientific debate. Although a number of theories have been proposed, one particularly contentious model suggests that human language evolved from a manual gestural communication system in a common ape-human ancestor. Consistent with a gestural origins theory are data indicating that chimpanzees intentionally and referentially communicate via manual gestures, and the production of manual gestures, in conjunction with vocalizations, activates the chimpanzee Broca’s area homologue – a region in the human brain that is critical for the planning and execution of language. However, it is not known if this activity observed in the chimpanzee Broca’s area is the result of the chimpanzees producing manual communicative gestures, communicative sounds, or both. This information is critical for evaluating the theory that human language evolved from a strictly manual gestural system. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (PET) to examine the neural metabolic activity in the chimpanzee brain. We collected PET data in 4 subjects, all of whom produced manual communicative gestures. However, 2 of these subjects also produced so-called attention-getting vocalizations directed towards a human experimenter. Interestingly, only the two subjects that produced these attention-getting sounds showed greater mean metabolic activity in the Broca’s area homologue as compared to a baseline scan. The two subjects that did not produce attention-getting sounds did not. These data contradict an exclusive “gestural origins” theory for they suggest that it is vocal signaling that selectively activates the Broca’s area homologue in chimpanzees. In other words, the activity observed in the Broca’s area homologue reflects the production of vocal signals by the chimpanzees, suggesting thast this critical human language region was involved in vocal signaling in the common ancestor of both modern humans and chimpanzees. PMID:21533079

Taglialatela, Jared P.; Russell, Jamie L.; Schaeffer, Jennifer A.; Hopkins, William D.

2011-01-01

268

The effect of the intra-S-phase checkpoint on origins of replication in human cells.  

PubMed

Although many chemotherapy drugs activate the intra-S-phase checkpoint pathway to block S-phase progression, not much is known about how and where the intra-S-phase checkpoint regulates origins of replication in human chromosomes. A genomic analysis of replication in human cells in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU) revealed that only the earliest origins fire, but the forks stall within 2 kb and neighboring clusters of dormant origins are activated. The initiation events are located near expressed genes with a preference for transcription start and end sites, and when they are located in intergenic regions they are located near regulatory factor-binding regions (RFBR). The activation of clustered neo-origins by HU suggests that there are many potential replication initiation sites in permissive parts of the genome, most of which are not used in a normal S phase. Consistent with this redundancy, we see multiple sites bound to MCM3 (representative of the helicase) in the region flanking three out of three origins studied in detail. Bypass of the intra-S-phase checkpoint by caffeine activates many new origins in mid- and late-replicating parts of the genome. The intra-S-phase checkpoint suppresses origin firing after the loading of Mcm10, but before the recruitment of Cdc45 and AND-1/CTF4; i.e., after helicase loading but before helicase activation and polymerase loading. Interestingly, Cdc45 recruitment upon checkpoint bypass was accompanied by the restoration of global Cdk2 kinase activity and decrease in both global and origin-bound histone H3 Lys 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), consistent with the suggestion that both of these factors are important for Cdc45 recruitment. PMID:21406556

Karnani, Neerja; Dutta, Anindya

2011-03-15

269

Rapid morphological change in living humans: implications for modern human origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human body size and body proportions are interpreted as markers of ethnicity, ‘race,’ adaptation to temperature, nutritional history and socioeconomic status. Some studies emphasize only one of these indicators and other studies consider combinations of indicators. To better understand the biocultural nature of human size and proportions a new study of the growth of Maya-American youngsters was undertaken in 1999

Barry Bogin; Luis Rios

2003-01-01

270

A monkey's tale: The origin of Plasmodium vivax as a human malaria parasite  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of Duffy negativity (lack of the Duffy blood group antigen) among human populations in sub-Saharan Africa has been used to argue that Plasmodium vivax originated on that continent. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 10 species of Plasmodium that infect primates by using three genes, two nuclear (?-tubulin and cell division cycle 2) and a gene from the plastid genome (the elongation factor Tu). We find compelling evidence that P. vivax is derived from a species that inhabited macaques in Southeast Asia. Specifically, those phylogenies that include P. vivax as an ancient lineage from which all of the macaque parasites could originate are significantly less likely to explain the data. We estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor at four neutral gene loci from Asian and South American isolates (a minimum sample of seven isolates per locus). Our analysis estimates that the extant populations of P. vivax originated between 45,680 and 81,607 years ago. The phylogeny and the estimated time frame for the origination of current P. vivax populations are consistent with an “out of Asia” origin for P. vivax as hominoid parasite. The current debate regarding how the Duffy negative trait became fixed in Africa needs to be revisited, taking into account not only human genetic data but also the genetic diversity observed in the extant P. vivax populations and the phylogeny of the genus Plasmodium. PMID:15684081

Escalante, Ananias A.; Cornejo, Omar E.; Freeland, Denise E.; Poe, Amanda C.; Durrego, Ester; Collins, William E.; Lal, Altaf A.

2005-01-01

271

Novel swine-origin influenza A virus in humans: another pandemic knocking at the door  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza A viruses represent a continuous pandemic threat. In April 2009, a novel influenza A virus, the so-called swine-origin\\u000a influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), was identified in Mexico. Although S-OIV originates from triple-reassortant swine influenza\\u000a A (H1) that has been circulating in North American pig herds since the end of the 1990s, S-OIV is readily transmitted between\\u000a humans but is

Martin Michaelis; Hans Wilhem Doerr; Jindrich Cinatl Jr

2009-01-01

272

Accelerated protein evolution and origins of human-specific features: Foxp2 as an example.  

PubMed Central

Genes responsible for human-specific phenotypes may have been under altered selective pressures in human evolution and thus exhibit changes in substitution rate and pattern at the protein sequence level. Using comparative analysis of human, chimpanzee, and mouse protein sequences, we identified two genes (PRM2 and FOXP2) with significantly enhanced evolutionary rates in the hominid lineage. PRM2 is a histone-like protein essential to spermatogenesis and was previously reported to be a likely target of sexual selection in humans and chimpanzees. FOXP2 is a transcription factor involved in speech and language development. Human FOXP2 experienced a >60-fold increase in substitution rate and incorporated two fixed amino acid changes in a broadly defined transcription suppression domain. A survey of a diverse group of placental mammals reveals the uniqueness of the human FOXP2 sequence and a population genetic analysis indicates possible adaptive selection behind the accelerated evolution. Taken together, our results suggest an important role that FOXP2 may have played in the origin of human speech and demonstrate a strategy for identifying candidate genes underlying the emergences of human-specific features. PMID:12524352

Zhang, Jianzhi; Webb, David M; Podlaha, Ondrej

2002-01-01

273

Replication Fork Velocities at Adjacent Replication Origins Are Coordinately Modified during DNA Replication in Human Cells  

PubMed Central

The spatial organization of replicons into clusters is believed to be of critical importance for genome duplication in higher eukaryotes, but its functional organization still remains to be fully clarified. The coordinated activation of origins is insufficient on its own to account for a timely completion of genome duplication when interorigin distances vary significantly and fork velocities are constant. Mechanisms coordinating origin distribution with fork progression are still poorly elucidated, because of technical difficulties of visualizing the process. Taking advantage of a single molecule approach, we delineated and compared the DNA replication kinetics at the genome level in human normal primary and malignant cells. Our results show that replication forks moving from one origin, as well as from neighboring origins, tend to exhibit the same velocity, although the plasticity of the replication program allows for their adaptation to variable interorigin distances. We also found that forks that emanated from closely spaced origins tended to move slower than those associated with long replicons. Taken together, our results indicate a functional role for origin clustering in the dynamic regulation of genome duplication. PMID:17522385

Conti, Chiara; Saccà, Barbara; Herrick, John; Lalou, Claude; Pommier, Yves

2007-01-01

274

SIV infection of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin: a suitable model for HIV infection in humans  

PubMed Central

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (RM) has been widely used as a well-established nonhuman primate (NHP) model for HIV/AIDS research. However, there have been a growing number of studies using Chinese RM to evaluate immunopathogenesis of SIV infection. In this paper, we have for the first time reviewed and discussed the major publications related to SIV or SHIV infection of Chinese RM in the past decades. We have compared the differences in the pathogenesis of SIV infection between Chinese RM and Indian RM with regard to viral infection, immunological response, and host genetic background. Given AIDS is a disease that affects humans of diverse origins, it is of importance to study animals with different geographical background. Therefore, to examine and compare results obtained from RM models of Indian and Chinese origins should lead to further validation and improvement of these animal models for HIV/AIDS research. PMID:23947613

2013-01-01

275

Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 genetic marker in isolates of bovine origin.  

PubMed

The antiterminator Q gene of bacteriophage 933W (Q933) was identified upstream of the stx2 gene in 90% of human disease-origin Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates and in 44.5% of bovine isolates. Shiga toxin production was higher in Q933-positive isolates than Q933-negative isolates. This genetic marker may provide a useful molecular tool for epidemiologic studies. PMID:15496255

Lejeune, Jeffrey T; Abedon, Stephen T; Takemura, Kaori; Christie, Nicholas P; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2004-08-01

276

Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genetic Marker in Isolates of Bovine Origin  

PubMed Central

The antiterminator Q gene of bacteriophage 933W (Q933) was identified upstream of the stx2 gene in 90% of human disease–origin Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates and in 44.5% of bovine isolates. Shiga toxin production was higher in Q933-positive isolates than Q933-negative isolates. This genetic marker may provide a useful molecular tool for epidemiologic studies. PMID:15496255

Abedon, Stephen T.; Takemura, Kaori; Christie, Nicholas P.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2004-01-01

277

Emergence of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND On April 15 and April 17, 2009, novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified in specimens obtained from two epidemiologically unlinked patients in the United States. The same strain of the virus was identified in Mexico, Canada, and elsewhere. We describe 642 confirmed cases of human S-OIV infection identi- fied from the rapidly evolving U.S. outbreak. METHODS

Seema Jain; Lyn Finelli; Michael W. Shaw; Stephen Lindstrom; Rebecca J. Garten; Larisa V. Gubareva; Xiyan Xu; Carolyn B. Bridges; Timothy M. Uyeki

2009-01-01

278

Start Sites of Bidirectional DNA Synthesis at the Human Lamin B2 Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation sites of bidirectional synthesis at the DNA replication origin located at the 3' end of the human lamin B2 gene were investigated. RNA-primed nascent DNA molecules were subjected to second-strand synthesis with appropriate primers, amplified by ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction, and size fractionated. Evidence for precise start sites was obtained. Exploration of close to 1 kilobase, coupled to

Gulnara Abdurashidova; Marta Deganuto; Raffaella Klima; Silvano Riva; Giuseppe Biamonti; Mauro Giacca; Arturo Falaschi

2000-01-01

279

The Inquiring Eye: Early Modernism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide introduces students to early 20th century European and American art. Through critically viewing and discussing art images and participating in related activities, students are encouraged to explore the historical and cultural context within which the art was created. This guide includes background information and an overview…

Wisotzki, Paula

280

Desmin is a specific marker for rhabdomyosarcomas of human and rat origin.  

PubMed Central

Putative human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has been divided into two groups according to desmin content. Twenty-five tumors with histologic features consistent with but not necessarily sufficient to prove a diagnosis of RMS were desmin-positive. More than 95% of the tumor cells were desmin-positive, suggesting a muscle origin and supporting the diagnosis of RMS. Nine tumors for which the preferred first histologic diagnosis was also RMS were desmin-negative. Reexamination of the original histologic slides together with results from intermediate filament typing resulted in a diagnosis other than RMS for all tumors in this second group, and in several instances other tests were used to prove the correctness of the final diagnosis. The results on human material were extended to a rat model system in which RMS was induced by nickel sulfide. Again, all 24 tumors tested were desmin-positive. Vimentin was coexpressed in a varying percentage of tumor cells in RMS of human and rat origin. The results show that desmin is an excellent marker for rhabdomyosarcoma, yielding few if any false-positive or false-negative results in frozen or alcohol-fixed material. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3881039

Altmannsberger, M.; Weber, K.; Droste, R.; Osborn, M.

1985-01-01

281

Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: the spread of modern humans in Europe.  

PubMed

The earliest credible evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe is an archaeological proxy in the form of several artifact assemblages (Bohunician) found in South-Central and possibly Eastern Europe, dating to < or =48,000 calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal BP). They are similar to assemblages probably made by modern humans in the Levant (Emiran) at an earlier date and apparently represent a population movement into the Balkans during a warm climate interval [Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI 12)]. A second population movement may be represented by a diverse set of artifact assemblages (sometimes termed Proto-Aurignacian) found in the Balkans, parts of Southwest Europe, and probably in Eastern Europe, and dating to several brief interstadials (GI 11-GI 9) that preceded the beginning of cold Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) (approximately 40,000 cal BP). They are similar to contemporaneous assemblages made by modern humans in the Levant (Ahmarian). The earliest known human skeletal remains in Europe that may be unequivocally assigned to H. sapiens (Peçstera cu Oase, Romania) date to this time period (approximately 42,000 cal BP) but are not associated with artifacts. After the Campanian Ignimbrite volcanic eruption (40,000 cal BP) and the beginning of HE4, artifact assemblages assigned to the classic Aurignacian, an industry associated with modern human skeletal remains that seems to have developed in Europe, spread throughout the continent. PMID:19571003

Hoffecker, John F

2009-09-22

282

Origins and relatedness of human leukocyte antigen class I allele supertypes.  

PubMed

Class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles can be classified into supertypes based on the epitope specificity of their peptide binding grooves. The evolutionary origin of these supertypes has been the topic of prior research and remains an important question because of the increasing interest in HLA supertypes in the contexts of infection and cancer epidemiology and vaccine development. Here I re-examine the origins of HLA class I supertypes using the nucleotide sequences of 88 HLA-A alleles and 117 HLA-B alleles. Phylogenetic trees with ancestral character state reconstruction show that the HLA-A02, A03, and A24 supertypes largely form clades with a single ancestral origin while HLA-A01 shows multiple independent origins all from HLA-A03 ancestors. HLA-B supertypes show multiple origins for the B07, B08, and B27 supertypes, while the B44, B58, and B62 supertypes largely form clades with a single ancestor. Supertypes arising multiple times show different amino acid substitutions in each clade. These findings suggest that convergent evolution has occurred in only a few HLA allele supertypes and may indicate different evolutionary pressures shaping certain supertypes. PMID:20600449

Naugler, Christopher

2010-09-01

283

Evolution and the loss of hierarchies: Dubreuil’s “Human evolution and the origin of hierarchies: the state of nature”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benoit Dubreuil’s Human Evolution and the Origins of Hierarchies, according to the jacket cover, is intended to provide ‘‘a natural history of [human social] hierarchies’’, and in particular to explain two transitions in the history of those hierarchies. The first transition is one that moved humans from social groups characterized by dominance hierarchies (such as those presumably had by our

Catherine Driscoll

284

Early Origin for Human-Like Precision Grasping: A Comparative Study of Pollical Distal Phalanges in Fossil  

E-print Network

Early Origin for Human-Like Precision Grasping: A Comparative Study of Pollical Distal Phalanges pollical distal phalanges (PDP) closely reflects the adaptation of human hands for refined precision grip has been related to human-like hand proportions (i.e. short hands with a long thumb) enabling

Dever, Jennifer A.

285

Haplotypes in the Dystrophin DNA Segment Point to a Mosaic Origin of Modern Human Diversity  

PubMed Central

Although Africa has played a central role in human evolutionary history, certain studies have suggested that not all contemporary human genetic diversity is of recent African origin. We investigated 35 simple polymorphic sites and one Tn microsatellite in an 8-kb segment of the dystrophin gene. We found 86 haplotypes in 1,343 chromosomes from around the world. Although a classical out-of-Africa topology was observed in trees based on the variant frequencies, the tree of haplotype sequences reveals three lineages accounting for present-day diversity. The proportion of new recombinants and the diversity of the Tn microsatellite were used to estimate the age of haplotype lineages and the time of colonization events. The lineage that underwent the great expansion originated in Africa prior to the Upper Paleolithic (27,000–56,000 years ago). A second group, of structurally distinct haplotypes that occupy a central position on the tree, has never left Africa. The third lineage is represented by the haplotype that lies closest to the root, is virtually absent in Africa, and appears older than the recent out-of-Africa expansion. We propose that this lineage could have left Africa before the expansion (as early as 160,000 years ago) and admixed, outside of Africa, with the expanding lineage. Contemporary human diversity, although dominated by the recently expanded African lineage, thus represents a mosaic of different contributions. PMID:14513410

Zi?tkiewicz, Ewa; Yotova, Vania; Gehl, Dominik; Wambach, Tina; Arrieta, Isabel; Batzer, Mark; Cole, David E. C.; Hechtman, Peter; Kaplan, Feige; Modiano, David; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Michalski, Roman; Labuda, Damian

2003-01-01

286

Tracing the origin of functional and conserved domains in the human proteome: implications for protein evolution at the modular level  

PubMed Central

Background The functional repertoire of the human proteome is an incremental collection of functions accomplished by protein domains evolved along the Homo sapiens lineage. Therefore, knowledge on the origin of these functionalities provides a better understanding of the domain and protein evolution in human. The lack of proper comprehension about such origin has impelled us to study the evolutionary origin of human proteome in a unique way as detailed in this study. Results This study reports a unique approach for understanding the evolution of human proteome by tracing the origin of its constituting domains hierarchically, along the Homo sapiens lineage. The uniqueness of this method lies in subtractive searching of functional and conserved domains in the human proteome resulting in higher efficiency of detecting their origins. From these analyses the nature of protein evolution and trends in domain evolution can be observed in the context of the entire human proteome data. The method adopted here also helps delineate the degree of divergence of functional families occurred during the course of evolution. Conclusion This approach to trace the evolutionary origin of functional domains in the human proteome facilitates better understanding of their functional versatility as well as provides insights into the functionality of hypothetical proteins present in the human proteome. This work elucidates the origin of functional and conserved domains in human proteins, their distribution along the Homo sapiens lineage, occurrence frequency of different domain combinations and proteome-wide patterns of their distribution, providing insights into the evolutionary solution to the increased complexity of the human proteome. PMID:17090320

Pal, Lipika R; Guda, Chittibabu

2006-01-01

287

A review of "Bodily Extremities: Preoccupations with the Human Body in Early Modern European Culture." by Florike Egmond and Robert Zwijnenberg eds.  

E-print Network

that the reader must allow Bunyan?s theology of grace to push into the background any awareness of the determinism central to both Calvinist and Lutheran theologies. Bunyan?s theology, we are assured, focuses upon covenanted grace which is an altogether adequate...

Rebecca De Haas

2004-01-01

288

The distribution of the cortical origin of the corticoreticular pathway in the human brain: a diffusion tensor imaging study.  

PubMed

We investigated the distribution of the cortical origin of the corticoreticular pathway (CRP) in the human brain. Forty normal subjects were recruited and CRPs from four cortical areas were reconstructed. The first cortical origin area of the CRP was the premotor cortex and the next was the primary motor cortex. Although the CRP fibers also originated from the primary somatosensory cortex and prefrontal cortex, they occupied the smallest portion among four regions of interest. PMID:24915055

Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

2014-12-01

289

Common variants spanning PLK4 are associated with mitotic-origin aneuploidy in human embryos.  

PubMed

Aneuploidy, the inheritance of an atypical chromosome complement, is common in early human development and is the primary cause of pregnancy loss. By screening day-3 embryos during in vitro fertilization cycles, we identified an association between aneuploidy of putative mitotic origin and linked genetic variants on chromosome 4 of maternal genomes. This associated region contains a candidate gene, Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), that plays a well-characterized role in centriole duplication and has the ability to alter mitotic fidelity upon minor dysregulation. Mothers with the high-risk genotypes contributed fewer embryos for testing at day 5, suggesting that their embryos are less likely to survive to blastocyst formation. The associated region coincides with a signature of a selective sweep in ancient humans, suggesting that the causal variant was either the target of selection or hitchhiked to substantial frequency. PMID:25859044

McCoy, Rajiv C; Demko, Zachary; Ryan, Allison; Banjevic, Milena; Hill, Matthew; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Rabinowitz, Matthew; Fraser, Hunter B; Petrov, Dmitri A

2015-04-10

290

Uptake, accumulation, and egress of erythromycin by tissue culture cells of human origin.  

PubMed Central

The ability of erythromycin A base to penetrate and accumulate in tissue culture cells of human origin was investigated. The antibiotic was highly concentrated by early passage cells of normal bronchus, kidney, liver, lung, and skin and by cancer cells derived from breast, liver, and lung. Intracellular levels 4 to 12 times that of the extracellular milieu were obtained in both early-passage and transformed cells. The total quantity of erythromycin accumulated depended on the extracellular concentration of antibiotic, but the cellular/extracellular ratios were, for the most part, independent of the initial extracellular drug concentration. In all cell types tested, the accumulated antibiotic rapidly egressed when cells were incubated in antibiotic-free medium. Bioactivity assays demonstrated that the expelled drug was unmetabolized, fully active antibiotic. The concentration of erythromycin by a variety of human cell types probably accounts, in part, for the effectiveness of the antibiotic against intracellular parasites such as Legionella and Chlamydia spp. PMID:3994346

Martin, J R; Johnson, P; Miller, M F

1985-01-01

291

The origin and evolution of human ampliconic gene families and ampliconic structure.  

PubMed

Out of the nine male-specific gene families in the human Y chromosome amplicons, we investigate the origin and evolution of seven families for which gametologous and orthologous sequences are available. Proto-X/Y gene pairs in the original mammalian sex chromosomes played major roles in origins and gave rise to five gene families: XKRY, VCY, HSFY, RBMY, and TSPY. The divergence times between gametologous X- and Y-linked copies in these families are well correlated with the former X-chromosomal locations. The CDY and DAZ families originated exceptionally by retroposition and transposition of autosomal copies, respectively, but CDY possesses an X-linked copy of enigmatic origin. We also investigate the evolutionary relatedness among Y-linked copies of a gene family in light of their ampliconic locations (palindromes, inverted repeats, and the TSPY array). Although any pair of copies located at the same arm positions within a palindrome is identical or nearly so by frequent gene conversion, copies located at different arm positions are distinctively different. Since these and other distinct copies in various gene families were amplified almost simultaneously in the stem lineage of Catarrhini, we take these simultaneous amplifications as evidence for the elaborate formation of Y ampliconic structure. Curiously, some copies in a gene family located at different palindromes exhibit high sequence similarity, and in most cases, such similarity greatly extends to repeat units that harbor these copies. It appears that such palindromic repeat units have evolved by and large en bloc, but they have undergone frequent exchanges between palindromes. PMID:17185645

Bhowmick, Bejon Kumar; Satta, Yoko; Takahata, Naoyuki

2007-04-01

292

Long-term persistence of cytomegalovirus genome in cultured human cells of prostatic origin.  

PubMed Central

Cells from prostatic tissue obtained from a 3-year-old male donor exhibited scattered foci of cytopathology on primary culture. A virus was isolated and shown by serological analysis to be cytomegalovirus (CMV). After a number of cell culture passages, a cell line (disignated CMV-Mj-P) was obtained in which foci of infection could no longer be demonstrated, nor could virus be rescued. On continued passage the doubling time of the cells decreased markedly, and the fibroblastoid cells ceased to demonstrate contact inhibition. CMV-specific antigen(s) was detected on the surface of the cells by indirect immunofluorescence techniques after exposure of the cultures to iododeoxyuridine. Microcytotoxocity tests established that CMV-Mj-P cells, but not control human prostate cells or human embryonic lung cells, share a membrane antigen with hamster cells transformed by CMV. Nucleic acid hybridization studies revealed that virus genetic information was carried by the human prostate cells and that the cells contained an average of about 10 to 15 genome equivalents of CMV DNA. Karyotypic analysis confirmed that the CMV-Mj-P cells were of human male origin. These results indicate that the cells either have been transformed by CMV or are chronically infected with CMV and releasing virus at levels below detection. Images PMID:170426

Rapp, F; Geder, L; Murasko, D; Lausch, R; Ladda, R; Huang, E S; Webber, M M

1975-01-01

293

[Spectrum pattern and determination of ganglioside from human primary liver cancer of different origins].  

PubMed

Ganglioside on the cell membrane surface was isolated from human primary liver cancer of different origins (10 surgical specimens from patients, 4 tumor tissues from nude rats bearing transplanted human liver cancer and 2 human liver cancer cell lines) and compared with that of normal liver from men and nude rats. The results of TLC pattern showed that GM3 was the main constituent, comprising about 95% of the total gangliosides in the normal liver. However, it decreased in liver cancer whereas GM2 was increased markedly in most of the liver cancers, GD3 came next. By CS-910 scanning, the contents of GM3, GM2 and GD3 were 60.2%, 20.6% and 7.9% in surgical specimens; 46.1%, 29.7% and 11.9% in nude rats bearing human liver cancer and 25.2%, 47.6% and 0% in cell lines. GM2 and GD3 on the cell surface of liver cancer were determined with monoclonal antibodies or anti-serum against gangliosides. The results obtained conformed with the TLC pattern. PMID:2276322

Lin, Z Y

1990-09-01

294

Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins  

PubMed Central

The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans’ place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700?km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000–130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50?km of their villages. GPS’s accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S.; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G.; Owings, Amanda C.; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R.; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R. Spencer; Acosta, Oscar; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Hui; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Merchant, Nirav C.; Mitchell, John R.; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Sandoval, Jose Raul; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Ziegle, Janet S.

2014-01-01

295

Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins.  

PubMed

The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans' place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000-130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS's accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G; Gaieski, Jill B; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G; Owings, Amanda C; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R Spencer

2014-01-01

296

The Origin of Novel Avian Influenza A (H7N9) and Mutation Dynamics for Its Human-To-Human Transmissible Capacity  

PubMed Central

In February 2013, H7N9 (A/H7N9/2013_China), a novel avian influenza virus, broke out in eastern China and caused human death. It is a global priority to discover its origin and the point in time at which it will become transmittable between humans. We present here an interdisciplinary method to track the origin of H7N9 virus in China and to establish an evolutionary dynamics model for its human-to-human transmission via mutations. After comparing influenza viruses from China since 1983, we established an A/H7N9/2013_China virus evolutionary phylogenetic tree and found that the human instances of virus infection were of avian origin and clustered into an independent line. Comparing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of A/H7N9/2013_China viruses with all human-to-human, avian, and swine influenza viruses in China in the past 30 years, we found that A/H7N9/2013_China viruses originated from Baer’s Pochard H7N1 virus of Hu Nan Province 2010 (HA gene, EPI: 370846, similarity with H7N9 is 95.5%) and duck influenza viruses of Nanchang city 2000 (NA gene, EPI: 387555, similarity with H7N9 is 97%) through genetic re-assortment. HA and NA gene sequence comparison indicated that A/H7N9/2013_China virus was not similar to human-to-human transmittable influenza viruses. To simulate the evolution dynamics required for human-to-human transmission mutations of H7N9 virus, we employed the Markov model. The result of this calculation indicated that the virus would acquire properties for human-to-human transmission in 11.3 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.2–11.3, HA gene). PMID:24671138

Lin, Yi-xiao; Lu, Charles Damien; Xu, Ya-wei; Zeng, Jun

2014-01-01

297

The Ribagorda sand gully (east-central Spain): Sediment yield and human-induced origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gullies are developed under different climatic conditions and lithologies; however, those formed on sands have been scarcely described. This paper reports the study of the Ribagorda sand gully, 2.57 ha in area (east-central Spain). The main objectives were to characterize and quantify its geomorphic dynamics and to trace its origin. We described the landforms of the gully and measured the surface strength of the sand. We monitored, for six years, the filling of the storage areas of three check dams built downstream from the gully, and related it with rainfall characteristics. We also described the nature of the sediments trapped by the dams and estimated the amount of sediment eroded since the gully formation. Finally, we consulted historical records and maps to determine past land uses and transformations that may have affected the origin of the gully. The study shows a high diversity of landforms, denoting active processes, consistent with a measured mean annual sediment yield of 114 Mg ha- 1 yr- 1. A statistically significant relationship exists between the mass of sediment (Mg) and: 1) the total rainfall (mm) (P = 0.0007) or 2) the analysed rainfall intensities. Among five identified facies in the sedimentary wedge, the sandy ones are predominant. The total amount of sediment eroded by the Ribagorda gully since its origin was 962,800 Mg. The results are unequivocal signs of an intense geomorphic activity within the gully, with an alluvial-fan type deposition in the dams. We interpret that the Ribagorda gully was initiated by deforestation after the 13th century, when forests began to be intensively logged, and before the 18th century, when the gully was first indirectly described in print. The age, origin, evolution and dynamics of this gully indicate that this landscape is currently evolving towards a new steady state, after human disturbances over centuries. Given the gully evolution and local extent, we suggest that no correction measures are needed for its management.

Martín-Moreno, C.; Fidalgo Hijano, C.; Martín Duque, J. F.; González Martín, J. A.; Zapico Alonso, I.; Laronne, J. B.

2014-11-01

298

Relatedness of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis clinical isolates of human and porcine origins assessed by MLVA.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an important opportunistic pathogen, infecting humans and animals, notably pigs. Several methods have been used to characterize MAH strains. RFLP and PFGE typing techniques have been used as standard methods but are technically demanding. In contrast, the analysis of VNTR loci is a simpler, affordable and highly reliable PCR-based technique, allowing a numerical and reproductive digitalization of typing data. In this study, the analysis of Mycobacterium avium tandem repeats (MATRs) loci was adapted to evaluate the genetic diversity of epidemiological unrelated MAH clinical strains of human (n=28) and porcine (n=69) origins, collected from diverse geographical regions across mainland Portugal. These MAH isolates were found to be genetically diverse and genotypes are randomly distributed across the country. Some of the human strains shared identical VNTR profiles with porcine isolates. Our study shows that the VNTR genotyping using selected MATR loci is a useful analysis technique for assessing the genetic diversity of MAH isolates from Portugal. This typing method could be successfully applied in other countries toward the implementation of a worldwide open-access database of MATR-VNTR profiles of MAH isolates, allowing a better assessment of the global epidemiology traits of this important pathogenic species. PMID:25085520

Leão, Célia; Canto, Ana; Machado, Diana; Sanches, Ilda Santos; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João; Botelho, Ana

2014-09-17

299

The origins of genetic variation between individual human oocytes and embryos: implications for infertility.  

PubMed

Human fertility is low in comparison with that seen in other well-studied mammals. The main reason for this state of affairs seems to be the frequent occurrence and persistence of chromosomal errors in the human conceptus. Evidence obtained over the past two decades shows that the exceptionally high incidence of chromosomal anomalies seen in human preimplantation embryos is the result of errors that may occur at various stages during gamete and embryo formation. In rare cases, an error may exist or arise in the premeiotic germ cells; much more commonly it may arise during the first or second meiotic division in the male or female. Highly efficient cell cycle checkpoints in the male ensure that the incidence of aneuploidy in mature sperm is low compared to that in the oocyte. Most 3-day-old embryos created by IVF are chromosomal mosaics, and this persists to a lesser degree to the blastocyst stage on day 5. While aneuploidy of meiotic origin is a major factor affecting the fertility of older women, embryos from most younger women will have predominantly post-zygotic mitotic errors. Couples experiencing RIF are particularly likely to produce highly abnormal (chaotic) embryos by post-zygotic mechanisms. PMID:24164188

Delhanty, Joy D A

2013-12-01

300

An early and enduring advanced technology originating 71,000 years ago in South Africa.  

PubMed

There is consensus that the modern human lineage appeared in Africa before 100,000 years ago. But there is debate as to when cultural and cognitive characteristics typical of modern humans first appeared, and the role that these had in the expansion of modern humans out of Africa. Scientists rely on symbolically specific proxies, such as artistic expression, to document the origins of complex cognition. Advanced technologies with elaborate chains of production are also proxies, as these often demand high-fidelity transmission and thus language. Some argue that advanced technologies in Africa appear and disappear and thus do not indicate complex cognition exclusive to early modern humans in Africa. The origins of composite tools and advanced projectile weapons figure prominently in modern human evolution research, and the latter have been argued to have been in the exclusive possession of modern humans. Here we describe a previously unrecognized advanced stone tool technology from Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 on the south coast of South Africa, originating approximately 71,000 years ago. This technology is dominated by the production of small bladelets (microliths) primarily from heat-treated stone. There is agreement that microlithic technology was used to create composite tool components as part of advanced projectile weapons. Microliths were common worldwide by the mid-Holocene epoch, but have a patchy pattern of first appearance that is rarely earlier than 40,000 years ago, and were thought to appear briefly between 65,000 and 60,000 years ago in South Africa and then disappear. Our research extends this record to ~71,000 years, shows that microlithic technology originated early in South Africa, evolved over a vast time span (~11,000 years), and was typically coupled to complex heat treatment that persisted for nearly 100,000 years. Advanced technologies in Africa were early and enduring; a small sample of excavated sites in Africa is the best explanation for any perceived 'flickering' pattern. PMID:23135405

Brown, Kyle S; Marean, Curtis W; Jacobs, Zenobia; Schoville, Benjamin J; Oestmo, Simen; Fisher, Erich C; Bernatchez, Jocelyn; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Matthews, Thalassa

2012-11-22

301

Coexpression of CPR from various origins enhances biotransformation activity of human CYPs in S. pombe.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs or P450s) are the most important enzymes involved in the phase I metabolism of drugs (and other xenobiotics) in humans, and the corresponding drug metabolites are needed as reference substances for their structural confirmation and for pharmacological or toxicological characterization. We have previously shown that biotechnological synthesis of such metabolites is feasible by whole-cell biotransformation with human CYPs recombinantly expressed in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. It was the aim of this study to compare the activity of seven human microsomal CYPs (CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP17, and CYP21) upon coexpression with NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (CPRs) from various origins, namely, human CPR (hCPR) and its homologues from fission yeast (ccr1) and the bishop's weed Ammi majus (AmCPR), respectively. For this purpose, 28 recombinant strains were needed, with five of them having been constructed previously and 23 strains being newly constructed. Bioconversion experiments showed that coexpression of a CPR does not only influence the reaction rate but, in some cases, also exerts an influence on the metabolite pattern. For CYP3A enzymes, coexpression of hCPR yielded the best results, while for another two, hCPR was equally helpful as ccr1 (both CYP17 and CYP21) or AmCPR (CYP17 only), respectively. Interestingly, CYP2D6 displayed its highest activity when coexpressed with ccr1 and CYP2C9 with AmCPR. These results corroborate the view of CPR as a well-suited bio-brick in synthetic biology for the construction of artificial enzyme complexes. PMID:23737303

Neunzig, Ina; Widjaja, Maria; Peters, Frank T; Maurer, Hans H; Hehn, Alain; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Bureik, Matthias

2013-08-01

302

Local origins impart conserved bone type-related differences in human osteoblast behaviour.  

PubMed

Osteogenic behaviour of osteoblasts from trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone were examined to determine any bone type-selective differences in samples from both osteoarthritic (OA) and osteoporotic (OP) patients. Cell growth, differentiation; alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) mRNA and activity, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), SP7-transcription factor (SP7), bone sialoprotein-II (BSP-II), osteocalcin/bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (BGLAP), osteoprotegerin (OPG, TNFRSF11B), receptor activator of nuclear factor-?? ligand (RANKL, TNFSF11) mRNA levels and proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) mRNA and protein release were assessed in osteoblasts from paired humeral head samples from age-matched, human OA/OP (n = 5/4) patients. Initial outgrowth and increase in cell number were significantly faster (p < 0.01) in subchondral and cortical than trabecular osteoblasts, in OA and OP, and this bone type-related differences were conserved despite consistently faster growth in OA. RUNX2/SP7 levels and TNAP mRNA and protein activity were, however, greater in trabecular than subchondral and cortical osteoblasts in OA and OP. BSP-II levels were significantly greater in trabecular and lowest in cortical osteoblasts in both OA and OP. In contrast, BGLAP levels showed divergent bone type-selective behaviour; highest in osteoblasts from subchondral origins in OA and trabecular origins in OP. We found virtually identical bone type-related differences, however, in TNFRSF11B:TNFSF11 in OA and OP, consistent with greater potential for paracrine effects on osteoclasts in trabecular osteoblasts. Subchondral osteoblasts (OA) exhibited highest VEGF-A mRNA levels and release. Our data indicate that human osteoblasts in trabecular, subchondral and cortical bone have inherent, programmed diversity, with specific bone type-related differences in growth, differentiation and pro-angiogenic potential in vitro. PMID:25738584

Shah, M; Gburcik, V; Reilly, P; Sankey, R A; Emery, R J; Clarkin, C E; Pitsillides, A A

2015-01-01

303

Human pharmacokinetic profile of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-glycoside of herbal origin.  

PubMed

A natural form of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the active metabolite of vitamin D, was identified in glycosylated form in Solanum glaucophyllum (SG). Solbone P, an extract of SG with high and homogenous content of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3, was chemically characterized and produced under GMP conditions. Three different doses of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 were given as single oral dose to 16 healthy volunteers in a first-in-man trial. The oral pharmacokinetic properties of 1,25(OH)2D3 of SG origin were established and the subjects were monitored until day 28 for safety reasons. This included regular monitoring of vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) data, calcium, phosphate and creatinine values. Subjects were exposed to up to the equivalent of a 40-fold level of the recommended human daily dose for synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 (0.5?g/subject/day) without experiencing any untoward effects. When compared with the historically established pharmacokinetics profile of synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3, glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 of herbal origin exhibited delayed absorption characteristics. The phenomenon is species independent, as similar pharmacokinetic patterns were observed in rats and chickens. This modified release pattern may be attributed to the glycosylation of herbal 1,25(OH)2D3 because de-glycosylation by ubiquitous intestinal enzymes prior to intestinal uptake of the unmodified 1,25(OH)2D3 is the rate-limiting step. The major relevance of this finding is that the human pharmacokinetic profile of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 of herbal origin is reminiscent of a delayed release formulation of free 1,25(OH)2D3, resulting in a wider therapeutic window, a potentially longer therapeutic effectiveness, and thus, a better pharmacologic tolerance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24316430

Mathis, G A; Toggenburger, A; Pokorny, R; Autzen, S; Ibanez, R; Romeis, P; Bachmann, H

2014-10-01

304

A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism of Human Neuropeptide S Gene Originated from Europe Shows Decreased Bioactivity  

PubMed Central

Using accumulating SNP (Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism) data, we performed a genome-wide search for polypeptide hormone ligands showing changes in the mature regions to elucidate genotype/phenotype diversity among various human populations. Neuropeptide S (NPS), a brain peptide hormone highly conserved in vertebrates, has diverse physiological effects on anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, food intake, and sleeping time through its cognate receptor-NPSR. Here, we report a SNP rs4751440 (L6-NPS) causing non-synonymous substitution on the 6th position (V to L) of the NPS mature peptide region. L6-NPS has a higher allele frequency in Europeans than other populations and probably originated from European ancestors ?25,000 yrs ago based on haplotype analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Functional analyses indicate that L6-NPS exhibits a significant lower bioactivity than the wild type NPS, with ?20-fold higher EC50 values in the stimulation of NPSR. Additional evolutionary and mutagenesis studies further demonstrate the importance of the valine residue in the 6th position for NPS functions. Given the known physiological roles of NPS receptor in inflammatory bowel diseases, asthma pathogenesis, macrophage immune responses, and brain functions, our study provides the basis to elucidate NPS evolution and signaling diversity among human populations. PMID:24386135

Hsueh, Aaron J. W.

2013-01-01

305

A novel family of human leukocyte antigen class II receptors may have its origin in archaic human species.  

PubMed

HLA class II ? and ? chains form receptors for antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells. Numerous pairings of class II ? and ? subunits from the wide range of haplotypes and isotypes may form, but most of these combinations, in particular those produced by isotype mixing, yielded mismatched dimers. It is unclear how selection of functional receptors is achieved. At the atomic level, it is not known which interactions of class II residues regulate selection of matched ?? heterodimers and the evolutionary origin of matched isotype mixed dimer formation. In this study we investigated assembly of isotype-mixed HLA class II ? and ? heterodimers. Assembly and carbohydrate maturation of various HLA-class II isotype-mixed ? and ? subunits was dependent on the groove binding section of the invariant chain (Ii). By mutation of polymorphic DP? sequences, we identified two motifs, Lys-69 and GGPM-(84-87), that are engaged in Ii-dependent assembly of DP? with DR?. We identified five members of a family of DP? chains containing Lys-69 and GGPM 84-87, which assemble with DR?. The Lys/GGPM motif is present in the DP? sequence of the Neanderthal genome, and this ancient sequence is related to the human allele DPB1*0401. By site-directed mutagenesis, we inspected Neanderthal amino acid residues that differ from the DPB1*0401 allele and aimed to determine whether matched heterodimers are formed by assembly of DP? mutants with DR?. Because the *0401 allele is rare in the sub-Saharan population but frequent in the European population, it may have arisen in modern humans by admixture with Neanderthals in Europe. PMID:24214983

Temme, Sebastian; Zacharias, Martin; Neumann, Jürgen; Wohlfromm, Sebastian; König, Angelika; Temme, Nadine; Springer, Sebastian; Trowsdale, John; Koch, Norbert

2014-01-10

306

Excitation-emission matrices measurements of human cutaneous lesions: tool for fluorescence origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light induced fluorescence (LIF) technique has the potential of providing real-time diagnosis of malignant and premalignant skin tissue; however, human skin is a multilayered and inhomogeneous organ with different optical properties that complicate the analysis of cutaneous fluorescence spectra. In spite of the difficulties related to the detection and analysis of fluorescent data from skin lesions, this technique is among the most widely applied techniques in laboratorial and pre-clinical investigations for early skin neoplasia diagnosis. The important point is to evaluate all sources of intrinsic fluorescence and find any significant alterations distinguishing the normal skin from a cancerous state of the tissue; this would make the autofluorescence signal obtained useful for the development of a non-invasive diagnostic tool for the dermatological practice. Our investigations presented here were based on ex vivo point-by-point measurements of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) from excised tumor lesions and the surrounding skin taken during the daily clinical practice of Queen Jiovanna- ISUL University Hospital, Sofia, the local Ethical Committee's approval having already been obtained. The fluorescence emission was measured between 300 nm and 800 nm using excitation in the 280-440 nm spectral range. In the process of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) measurements we could establish the origin of the autofluorescence and the compounds related by assigning the excitation and emission maxima obtained during the experiments. The EEM were compared for normal human skin, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, benign nevi and malignant melanoma lesions to obtain information for the most common skin malignancies and their precursors. The main spectral features and the applicability of the technique of autofluorescent spectroscopy of human skin in general as an initial diagnostic tool are discussed as well.

Zhelyazkova, A.; Borisova, E.; Angelova, L.; Pavlova, E.; Keremedchiev, M.

2013-11-01

307

*These Procedures were originally issued as the Columbia University Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Special Operating Procedures on December 21, 2005.  

E-print Network

by fertilization, parthenogenesis, cloning or any other means from one or more human gametes or human diploid cells____________ *These Procedures were originally issued as the Columbia University Human Embryonic HUMAN EMBRYO AND HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH SPECIAL OPERATING PROCEDURES* I. INTRODUCTION

Shepard, Kenneth

308

An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

2007-01-01

309

The dispanins: a novel gene family of ancient origin that contains 14 human members.  

PubMed

The Interferon induced transmembrane proteins (IFITM) are a family of transmembrane proteins that is known to inhibit cell invasion of viruses such as HIV-1 and influenza. We show that the IFITM genes are a subfamily in a larger family of transmembrane (TM) proteins that we call Dispanins, which refers to a common 2TM structure. We mined the Dispanins in 36 eukaryotic species, covering all major eukaryotic groups, and investigated their evolutionary history using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to infer a phylogenetic tree. We identified ten human genes that together with the known IFITM genes form the Dispanin family. We show that the Dispanins first emerged in eukaryotes in a common ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoa, and that the family later expanded in vertebrates where it forms four subfamilies (A-D). Interestingly, we also find that the family is found in several different phyla of bacteria and propose that it was horizontally transferred to eukaryotes from bacteria in the common ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoa. The bacterial and eukaryotic sequences have a considerably conserved protein structure. In conclusion, we introduce a novel family, the Dispanins, together with a nomenclature based on the evolutionary origin. PMID:22363774

Sällman Almén, Markus; Bringeland, Nathalie; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

2012-01-01

310

Social Origins of Rhythm? Synchrony and Temporal Regularity in Human Vocalization  

PubMed Central

Humans have a capacity to perceive and synchronize with rhythms. This is unusual in that only a minority of other species exhibit similar behavior. Study of synchronizing species (particularly anurans and insects) suggests that simultaneous signal production by different individuals may play a critical role in the development of regular temporal signaling. Accordingly, we investigated the link between simultaneous signal production and temporal regularity in our own species. Specifically, we asked whether inter-individual synchronization of a behavior that is typically irregular in time, speech, could lead to evenly-paced or “isochronous” temporal patterns. Participants read nonsense phrases aloud with and without partners, and we found that synchronous reading resulted in greater regularity of durational intervals between words. Comparison of same-gender pairings showed that males and females were able to synchronize their temporal speech patterns with equal skill. These results demonstrate that the shared goal of synchronization can lead to the development of temporal regularity in vocalizations, suggesting that the origins of musical rhythm may lie in cooperative social interaction rather than in sexual selection. PMID:24312214

Bowling, Daniel L.; Herbst, Christian T.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

2013-01-01

311

A human origin type II strain of Toxoplasma gondii causing severe encephalitis in mice.  

PubMed

Despite its capacity for sexual reproduction and global distribution, Toxoplasma gondii has a highly clonal structure, with the majority of isolates belonging to three distinct clonal types. Congenital toxoplasmosis has been associated with type I and type II strains. We here present the first characterization of a T. gondii strain (BGD1) from South-East Europe, isolated from the umbilical blood of a 24-week-old fetus in Serbia. Genotyping, performed by PCR-RFLP using a set of nested PCR markers (5'SAG2, 3'SAG2, BTUB, SAG3, and GRA6), showed that the BGD1 strain possessed a type II genotype. The cytokine patterns in Swiss-Webster mice inoculated with brain cysts of BGD1 and the prototype type II ME49 strain were similar until 180 days post-infection, with highly elevated IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-10 by d7 and decreasing thereafter. While both strains induced pneumonia and hepatitis in acute infection (d14), chronic infection (d56) was characterized, in addition to hepatitis, by severe meningoencephalitis, associated with numerous brain cysts. Thus, the BGD1 strain of T. gondii has type II genotypic and immunologic characteristics, but unlike other type II strains of human origin, induces severe encephalitis, making it an alternative to the sheep-derived ME49 strain for experimental models of infection. PMID:16797199

Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica; Klun, Ivana; Khan, Asis; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Knezevi?-Usaj, Slavica; Bobi?, Branko; Sibley, L David

2006-07-01

312

Parental origin of triploidy in human fetuses: evidence for genomic imprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two distinct phenotypes of triploid fetuses have been previously described and a correlation with parental origin of the triploidy has been suggested. We have studied the parental origin of the extra haploid set of chromosomes in nine triploid fetuses using analysis of DNA polymorphisms at a variety of loci. Maternal origin of the triploidy (digyny) was demonstrated in six fetuses

Deborah E. McFadden; Linda C. Kwong; Irene Y. L. Yam; Sylvie Langlois

1993-01-01

313

Compte rendu de De Waal, Frans (1996). Good natured: The origins of right and wrong in humans and other animals. London, Harvard University Press.  

E-print Network

Compte rendu de De Waal, Frans (1996). Good natured: The origins of right and wrong in humans and other animals. London, Harvard University Press. Good Natured. The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans bon et mauvais. Selon de Waal la moralité humaine a été acquise au cours de l'évolution et, en suivant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Multilocus Sequence-Based Analysis Delineates a Clonal Population of Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) of Human Origin ?  

PubMed Central

The genus Agrobacterium includes plant-associated bacteria and opportunistic human pathogens. Taxonomy and nomenclature within the genus remain controversial. In particular, isolates of human origin were all affiliated with the species Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) radiobacter, while phytopathogenic strains were designated under the synonym denomination Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In order to study the relative distribution of Agrobacterium strains according to their origins, we performed a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA) on a large collection of 89 clinical and environmental strains from various origins. We proposed an MLSA scheme based on the partial sequence of 7 housekeeping genes (atpD, zwf, trpE, groEL, dnaK, glnA, and rpoB) present on the circular chromosome of A. tumefaciens C58. Multilocus phylogeny revealed that 88% of the clinical strains belong to genovar A7, which formed a homogeneous population with linkage disequilibrium, suggesting a low rate of recombination. Comparison of genomic fingerprints obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that the strains of genovar A7 were epidemiologically unrelated. We present genetic evidence that genovar A7 may constitute a human-associated population distinct from the environmental population. Also, phenotypic characteristics, such as culture at 42°C, agree with this statement. This human-associated population might represent a potential novel species in the genus Agrobacterium. PMID:21398532

Aujoulat, Fabien; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Masnou, Agnès; Sallé, Fanny; Faure, Denis; Segonds, Christine; Marchandin, Hélène; Teyssier, Corinne

2011-01-01

315

Diplospermy II indicated as the origin of a liveborn human triploid (69,XXX).  

PubMed Central

A 69,XXX liveborn baby was shown to have the Rh genotype CDe/cDE/cde which suggested that 46 of her chromosomes were of paternal origin. Studies on C band polymorphisms and other genetic markers indicated that the most likely origin of this triploid was a failure of male meiosis II. Images PMID:6948962

Page, B M; Robson, E B; Cook, P J; Sanger, R; Watt, J L

1981-01-01

316

Antiproliferative activity of the non-myelotoxic antitumour agent of plant origin, Thaliblastine, on two human glioma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The antiproliferative activity of the non-myelotoxic antitumour agent of plant origin, Thaliblastine, on two human glioma cell lines is described. Thaliblastine was added once one day following start of culture; proliferation was monitored over 7 days. The anti-proliferative activity of Thaliblastine was strongly dependent on concentration and time of incubation. The ID50 of Thaliblastine in T406 and GW27 glioma

D. K. Todorov; W. J. Zeller

1992-01-01

317

Analysis of transcribed human endogenous retrovirus W env loci clarifies the origin of multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus env sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) RNA sequences have been detected in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and are related to the multi-copy human endogenous retrovirus family type W (HERV-W). Only one HERV-W locus (ERVWE1) codes for a complete HERV-W Env protein (Syncytin-1). Syncytin-1 and the putative MSRV Env protein have been involved in the pathogenesis of MS. The origin of

Georg Laufer; Jens Mayer; Benedikt F Mueller; Nikolaus Mueller-Lantzsch; Klemens Ruprecht

2009-01-01

318

Short Tandem-Repeat Polymorphism\\/ Alu Haplotype Variation at the PLAT Locus: Implications for Modern Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two dinucleotide short tandem-repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and a polymorphic Alu element spanning a 22-kb region of the PLAT locus on chromosome 8p12-q11.2 were typed in 1,287-1,420 individuals originating from 30 geographically diverse human populations, as well as in 29 great apes. These data were analyzed as haplotypes consisting of each of the dinucleotide repeats and the flanking Alu insertion\\/deletion polymorphism.

S. A. Tishkoff; A. J. Pakstis; M. Stoneking; J. R. Kidd; G. Destro-Bisol; A. Sanjantila; R.-b. Lu; A. S. Deinard; G. Sirugo; T. Jenkins; K. K. Kidd; A. G. Clark

2000-01-01

319

Human Origin Recognition Complex Large Subunit Is Degraded by Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteolysis after Initiation of DNA Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells possess overlapping mechanisms to ensure that DNA replication is restricted to the S phase of the cell cycle. The levels of hOrc1p, the largest subunit of the human origin recognition complex, vary during the cell division cycle. In rapidly proliferating cells, hOrc1p is expressed and targeted to chromatin as cells exit mitosis and prereplicative complexes are formed. Later,

Juan Méndez; X. Helena Zou-Yang; So-Young Kim; Masumi Hidaka; William P. Tansey; Bruce Stillman

2002-01-01

320

Presence of erm gene classes in Gram-positive bacteria of animal and human origin in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classification of the different erm gene classes based on published sequences was performed, and specific primers to detect some of these classes designed. The presence of ermA (Tn554), ermB (class IV) and ermC (class VI) was determined by PCR in a total of 113 enterococcal, 77 streptococcal and 68 staphylococcal erythromycin resistant isolates of animal and human origin. At

Lars Bogø Jensen; Niels Frimodt-Møller; Frank M Aarestrup

1999-01-01

321

Genetic relatedness between Japanese and European isolates of Clostridium difficile originating from piglets and their risk associated with human health  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile colonization in pig intestine has been a public health concern. We analyzed C. difficile prevalence among piglets in Japan to clarify their origin and extent of the associated risk by using molecular and microbiological methods for both swine and human clinical isolates and foreign isolates. C. difficile was isolated from 120 neonatal piglet fecal samples. Toxin gene profile, antimicrobial susceptibilities, PCR ribotype, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) type of swine isolates were determined and compared with those of human clinical and foreign isolates. One-hundred C. difficile strains were isolated from 69 (57.5%) samples, and 61 isolates (61%) were toxin gene-positive. Some isolates were resistant to antimicrobials, contributing to antibiotic-associated diarrhea by C. difficile. These results suggest that C. difficile, prevalent among Japanese pigs, is a potential risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Furthermore, PCR ribotype 078 (12 isolates), which has been linked to multiple outbreaks worldwide, was the third-most frequently isolated of the 14 PCR ribotypes identified. Moreover, MLVA revealed that all 12 PCR ribotype 078 isolates were genetically related to European PCR ribotype 078 strains found in both humans and pigs. To date, in Japan, many breeding pigs have been imported from European countries. The genetic relatedness of C. difficile isolates of Japanese swine origin to those of European origin suggests that they were introduced into Japan via imported pigs. PMID:25339943

Usui, Masaru; Nanbu, Yukie; Oka, Kentaro; Takahashi, Motomichi; Inamatsu, Takashi; Asai, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Shigeru; Tamura, Yutaka

2014-01-01

322

Relationship Between Human Physiological Parameters And Geomagnetic Variations Of Solar Origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study attempts to assess the influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure, heart rate and general well-being of 86 volunteers were measured (the latter by means of a standardized questionnaire) on work days in autumn 2001 (01/10 to 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 to 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether, 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The three factors were the following: 1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; 2) gender - males and females; 3) blood pressure degree - persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors' levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure reached 9%, which deserves attention from a medical point of view. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase. During severe geomagnetic storms 30% of the persons examined reported subjective complaints and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females. The results obtained add further evidence that blood pressure seems to be affected by geomagnetic variations of solar origin. The examinations and analyses performed show that space weather prediction may be utilized for the purpose of pharmacological and regime measures to limit the adverse physiological reactions to geomagnetic storms.

Dimitrova, S.

323

The parental origin correlates with the karyotype of human embryos developing from tripronuclear zygotes  

PubMed Central

Objective It has previously been suggested that embryos developing from intracytoplasmic sperm-injected (ICSI) zygotes with three pronuclei (3PN) are endowed with a mechanism for self-correction of triploidy to diploidy. 3PN are also observed in zygotes after conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). The parental origin, however, differs between the two fertilization methods. Whereas the vast majority of 3PN IVF zygotes are of dispermic origin and thus more likely to have two centrioles, the 3PN ICSI zygotes are digynic in origin and therefore, more likely to have one centriole. In the present study, we examine whether the parental origin of 3PN embryos correlates with the karyotype. Methods The karyotype of each nucleus was estimated using four sequential fluorescence in situ hybridizations-each with two probes-resulting in quantitative information of 8 different chromosomes. The karyotypes were then compared and correlated to the parental origin. Results 3PN ICSI embryos displayed a significantly larger and more coordinated reduction from the assumed initial 3 sets of chromosomes than 3PN IVF embryos. Conclusion The differences in the parental origin-and hence the number of centrioles-between the 3PN IVF and the 3PN ICSI zygotes are likely to be the cause of the differences in karyotypes. PMID:25874169

Labouriau, Rodrigo; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Stougaard, Magnus; Kolevraa, Steen; Bolund, Lars; Agerholm, Inge Errebo; Sunde, Lone

2015-01-01

324

Characterization of Verotoxin-Encoding Phages from Escherichia coli O103:H2 Strains of Bovine and Human Origins?  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to induce and characterize verotoxin-encoding phages from a collection of 91 verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O103:H2 strains of human and bovine origins. All the strains carried the vt1 gene, and two carried the vt2 gene as well. The phages were induced by UV irradiation and characterized by DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), genome size, morphology, and Q and P genes, characteristic of lambdoid phages. A total of 32 vt-positive phages were induced and isolated from 31 VTEC O103:H2 strains. Thirty phages were vt1 positive, and two were vt2 positive. Ten of the 30 vt1-positive phages (33.3%) were from cattle strains, and 20 (66.6%) were from human strains. The two vt2-positive phages were from human strains. Phages belonged to 21 RFLP profiles, of which 17 were single-phage profiles and 4 were multiple-phage profiles. The estimated genome size of the phages ranged from 34 to 84 kb. Two phages that were examined by electron microscopy possessed hexagonal heads with long tails, and one had an elongated head with a long tail. The Q and P genes were amplified in all 32 phages, and the Q-stxA1 gene region yielded an amplicon in 19 phages (59.3%). It is concluded that the VTEC O103:H2 strains of human origin were more readily inducible than those of bovine origin and that the genotypic profiles of verotoxin-encoding phages were highly diverse, as revealed by their RFLP profiles. PMID:18552193

Karama, Musafiri; Gyles, Carlton L.

2008-01-01

325

Molecular Structure and Evolutionary Origin of Human Cardiac Muscle Actin Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recombinant phages that contain cardiac muscle actin gene were isolated from a human DNA library and their structures were determined. Restriction analysis indicates that both clones carry the same EcoRI 13-kilobase fragment where the coding sequence is mapped. The cloned DNA hybridized with polyadenylylated RNA from human fibroblasts, which directs the synthesis of cytoplasmic beta - and gamma -action

Hiroshi Hamada; Marianne G. Petrino; Takeo Kakunaga

1982-01-01

326

Melanchthon’s rhetoric and the practical origins of Reformation human science  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the 16th century in Germany, religious ends and human art joined forces to produce a sacred rhetoric: a rhetoric that could transform human nature, and explain at the same time how such transformation was possible according to both science and scripture. No longer was it enough to ask in Scholastic fashion ‘What is man?’ - his

Daniel M. Gross

2000-01-01

327

ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

328

Understanding human original actions directed at real-world goals: the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

Adaptive, original actions, which can succeed in multiple contextual situations, require understanding of what is relevant to a goal. Recognizing what is relevant may also help in predicting kinematics of observed, original actions. During action observation, comparisons between sensory input and expected action kinematics have been argued critical to accurate goal inference. Experimental studies with laboratory tasks, both in humans and nonhuman primates, demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) can learn, hierarchically organize, and use goal-relevant information. To determine whether this LPFC capacity is generalizable to real-world cognition, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the human brain during comprehension of original and usual object-directed actions embedded in video-depictions of real-life behaviors. We hypothesized that LPFC will contribute to forming goal-relevant representations necessary for kinematic predictions of original actions. Additionally, resting-state fMRI was employed to examine functional connectivity between the brain regions delineated in the video fMRI experiment. According to behavioral data, original videos could be understood by identifying elements relevant to real-life goals at different levels of abstraction. Patterns of enhanced activity in four regions in the left LPFC, evoked by original, relative to usual, video scenes, were consistent with previous neuroimaging findings on representing abstract and concrete stimuli dimensions relevant to laboratory goals. In the anterior left LPFC, the activity increased selectively when representations of broad classes of objects and actions, which could achieve the perceived overall behavioral goal, were likely to bias kinematic predictions of original actions. In contrast, in the more posterior regions, the activity increased even when concrete properties of the target object were more likely to bias the kinematic prediction. Functional connectivity was observed between contiguous regions along the rostro-caudal LPFC axis, but not between the regions that were not immediately adjacent. These findings generalize the representational hierarchy account of LPFC function to diverse core principles that can govern both production and comprehension of flexible real-life behavior. PMID:25224997

Sitnikova, Tatiana; Rosen, Bruce R; Lord, Louis-David; West, W Caroline

2014-12-01

329

Cumulative impacts of human activities on urban garden soils: origin and accumulation of metals.  

PubMed

The concentration of heavy metals and soil properties in fifty urban garden soils of Szeged (SE Hungary) were determined to evaluate the cumulative impacts of urbanization and cultivation on these soils. Using two enrichment factors (EFs) (based on reference horizon; Ti as reference element) and multivariate statistical analysis (PCA), the origin of the studied elements was defined. According to statistical coincidence of EFs confirmed by t-test, anthropogenic enrichment of Cu (EF = 4), Zn (EF = 2.7) and Pb (EF = 2.5) was significant in topsoils. Moreover, PCA also revealed the geogenic origin of Ni, Co, Cr and As and differentiated two groups of the anthropogenic metals [Pb, Zn] [Cu]. Spatial distribution of the metals visualized by GIS reflected the traffic origin of Pb; while based on ANOVA, the anthropogenic source of Cu is relevant (mainly pesticides) and there is a statistically significant difference in its concentration depending on land use. PMID:23500047

Szolnoki, Zs; Farsang, A; Puskás, I

2013-06-01

330

The Origin of Human Chromosome 1 and Its Homologs in Placental Mammals  

PubMed Central

Developing ordered gene maps from multiple mammalian species coupled with chromosome-painting data provide a powerful resource for resolving the evolutionary history of chromosomes and whole genomes. In this work, we recapitulate the evolutionary history of human chromosome 1 and its homologs in placental mammals, putatively the largest physical unit in the ancestral placental genome. Precise definition of translocation exchange breakpoints in human, carnivore, cetartiodactyl, and rodent-ordered gene maps demonstrate that chromosome breakpoints, previously considered as equivalent, actually represent distinct chromosome positions and exchange events. Multidirectional chromosome painting, using probes from homologs to chromosome 1 in seven mammal species from six orders of placental mammals, confirm the gene-mapping results and indicate that the multiple human chromosome 1 homologs in these species are derived from independent fissions of a single ancestral chromosome. Chromosome painting using human chromosome 1 probes identifies a single human chromosome 1 homolog in phylogenetically distant taxa, the two-toed sloth, cetaceans, and higher primates. The diverse phylogenetic occurrence of a single Hsa1 synteny among the major clades of placental mammals suggests that human chromosome 1 represents an intact ancestral chromosome, which was variously fissioned in the majority of placental species. We find that the number of human chromosome 1 fissions in a specific lineage reflects its general rate of genomic evolution. Further, historic chromosome exchange appears to have been disproportionately clustered in two breakpoint hotspots on the long arm. PMID:12869576

Murphy, William J.; Frönicke, Lutz; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Stanyon, Roscoe

2003-01-01

331

Novel avian-origin human influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between ferrets via respiratory droplets.  

PubMed

The outbreak of human infections caused by novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) in China since March 2013 underscores the need to better understand the pathogenicity and transmissibility of these viruses in mammals. In a ferret model, the pathogenicity of influenza A(H7N9) was found to be less than that of an influenza A(H5N1) strain but comparable to that of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), based on the clinical signs, mortality, virus dissemination, and results of histopathologic analyses. Influenza A(H7N9) could replicate in the upper and lower respiratory tract, the heart, the liver, and the olfactory bulb. It is worth noting that influenza A(H7N9) exhibited a low level of transmission between ferrets via respiratory droplets. There were 4 mutations in the virus isolated from the contact ferret: D678Y in the gene encoding PB2, R157K in the gene encoding hemagglutinin (H3 numbering), I109T in the gene encoding nucleoprotein, and T10I in the gene encoding neuraminidase. These data emphasized that avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between mammals, highlighting its potential for human-to-human transmissibility. PMID:23990570

Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Deng, Wei; Dong, Libo; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Ting; Lv, Qi; Li, Fengdi; Yuan, Jing; Xiang, Zhiguang; Gao, Kai; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Jiangning; Yao, Yanfeng; Yu, Pin; Li, Xiyan; Huang, Weijuan; Zhao, Xiang; Lan, Yu; Guo, Junfeng; Yong, Weidong; Wei, Qiang; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan

2014-02-15

332

Replicon typing of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 in Enterobacteriaceae of animal, environmental and human origin  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the plasmid replicon profiles of a collection of blaCTX-M-1-positive enterobacterial strains. The isolates originated from chicken in the production pyramid, healthy food-producing animals at slaughter (chicken, calves, and pigs), chicken retail meat, environmental isolates originating from water bodies, and isolates from humans. A selection of IncI and IncN plasmids were characterized by multilocus sequence typing in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness. Methods: Transconjugants of 74 blaCTX-M-1-positive isolates were analyzed by PCR-based replicon typing and by PCR-based plasmid multilocus sequence typing. Results: The incompatibility groups detected among the blaCTX-M-1-harboring plasmids included IncI1, IncN, IncHI1B, IncF, IncFIIS, IncFIB, and IncB/O, with plasmid lineage IncI1/ST3 predominating in isolates from chicken and from humans. Lineage IncN/ST1 was detected mainly in isolates from pigs. For the first time, blaCTX-M-1 genes encoded on IncHI1 plasmids were detected in isolates from cattle and from water bodies. Conclusions: This study identifies plasmid lineages that are contributing to the dissemination of blaCTX-M-1 genes in the food chain, the environment, and humans. PMID:25400623

Zurfluh, Katrin; Jakobi, Gianna; Stephan, Roger; Hächler, Herbert; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena

2014-01-01

333

Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis in Genotyping Yersinia enterocolitica Strains from Human and Porcine Origins  

PubMed Central

Sporadic and epidemiologically linked Yersinia enterocolitica strains (n = 379) isolated from fecal samples from human patients, tonsil or fecal samples from pigs collected at slaughterhouses, and pork samples collected at meat stores were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) with six loci, i.e., V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9. In total, 312 different MLVA types were found. Similar types were detected (i) in fecal samples collected from human patients over 2 to 3 consecutive years, (ii) in samples from humans and pigs, and (iii) in samples from pigs that originated from the same farms. Among porcine strains, we found farm-specific MLVA profiles. Variations in the numbers of tandem repeats from one to four for variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci V2A, V5, V6, and V7 were observed within a farm. MLVA was applicable for serotypes O:3, O:5,27, and O:9 and appeared to be a highly discriminating tool for distinguishing sporadic and outbreak-related strains. With long-term use, interpretation of the results became more challenging due to variations in more-discriminating loci, as was observed for strains originating from pig farms. Additionally, we encountered unexpectedly short V2A VNTR fragments and sequenced them. According to the sequencing results, updated guidelines for interpreting V2A VNTR results were prepared. PMID:23637293

Laukkanen-Ninios, R.; Ortiz Martínez, P.; Siitonen, A.; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.; Korkeala, H.

2013-01-01

334

Uterine Vasculature Remodeling in Human Pregnancy Involves Functional Macrochimerism by Endothelial Colony Forming Cells of Fetal Origin  

PubMed Central

The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149–471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health. PMID:23554274

Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, HÉlène; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P

2013-01-01

335

The relationship between the human state and external perturbations of atmospheric, geomagnetic and solar origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the state of human body and the external factors such as the different phenomena of solar activity, geomagnetic perturbations and local atmospheric characteristics is studied. The monitoring of blood pressure and electro-conductivity of human body in acupuncture points for a group fo 28 people over the period of 1.5 year has been performed daily from February 2001 to August 2002 in Capodimonte Observatory in Naples, Italy. The modified Voll method of electropuncture diagnostics was used. The strong correlation between the human body state and meteo conditions is found and the probable correlation with geomagnetic perturbations is discussed.

Gavryuseva, E.; Kroussanova, N.

2002-12-01

336

Complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): implications for human migrations in Oceania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae), a traditional starch crop in Oceania, has enjoyed legendary status ever since its role in the infamous mutiny aboard the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789, yet its origins remain unclear. Breadfruit's closest relatives are A. camansi and A. mariannensis. DNA fingerprinting data (AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphisms) from over 200 breadfruit cultivars, 30 A. camansi, and 24

NYREE J. C. ZEREGA; DIANE RAGONE; TIMOTHY J. MOTLEY

2004-01-01

337

Original Article Human readiness to throw: the sizeweight illusion is not an illusion when  

E-print Network

in American football or the throw to home plate or wicket from the outfield in baseball or cricket. During the prey down (Meltzer, 2009). Also, when global temperature dropped and Evolution and Human Behavior 32

Indiana University

338

Tracking the evolutionary origins of dog-human cooperation: the "Canine Cooperation Hypothesis".  

PubMed

At present, beyond the fact that dogs can be easier socialized with humans than wolves, we know little about the motivational and cognitive effects of domestication. Despite this, it has been suggested that during domestication dogs have become socially more tolerant and attentive than wolves. These two characteristics are crucial for cooperation, and it has been argued that these changes allowed dogs to successfully live and work with humans. However, these domestication hypotheses have been put forward mainly based on dog-wolf differences reported in regard to their interactions with humans. Thus, it is possible that these differences reflect only an improved capability of dogs to accept humans as social partners instead of an increase of their general tolerance, attentiveness and cooperativeness. At the Wolf Science Center, in order to detangle these two explanations, we raise and keep dogs and wolves similarly socializing them with conspecifics and humans and then test them in interactions not just with humans but also conspecifics. When investigating attentiveness toward human and conspecific partners using different paradigms, we found that the wolves were at least as attentive as the dogs to their social partners and their actions. Based on these findings and the social ecology of wolves, we propose the Canine Cooperation Hypothesis suggesting that wolves are characterized with high social attentiveness and tolerance and are highly cooperative. This is in contrast with the implications of most domestication hypotheses about wolves. We argue, however, that these characteristics of wolves likely provided a good basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation. PMID:25642203

Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

2014-01-01

339

PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile isolates originating from human and animal sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates from animals and humans may be useful for evaluation ofthepossibilityforinterspecies transmission.Theobjectiveofthisstudywastoevaluate C. difficile isolates from domestic animals and humans using PCR ribotyping. Isolates were also tested using PCR for the presence of genes encoding toxins A and B. One hundred and thirty-three isolatesofC.difficilefromdogs(n ¼ 92),horses(n ¼ 21)andhumans(n ¼ 20),plusoneeachfrom a cat and a calf,

L. G Arroyo; Stephen A. Kruth; Barbara M. Willey; Henry R. Staempfli; Don E. Low

2005-01-01

340

Origin and Evolution of GBV-C\\/Hepatitis G Virus and Relationships with Ancient Human Migrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C\\/HGV) is a newly identified human RNA virus, belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Persistent infection by GBV-C\\/HGV is common in humans, and genetically divergent isolates have been identified in\\u000a different parts of the world. Due to the absence of a real pathogenic role of GBV-C\\/HGV in liver disease and its extremely\\u000a low mutation

Angelo Pavesi

2001-01-01

341

Patterns of Polymorphism and Linkage Disequilibrium Suggest Independent Origins of the Human Growth Hormone Gene Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) detected in the human growth hormone-human chorionic somatomammotropin (hGH-hCS) gene cluster were studied in Mediterraneans, Northern Europeans, and American Blacks; the polymorphisms showed that, on the average, one of 500 bases in this cluster is variant. Haplotypes constructed for four of these RFLPs display strong nonrandom associations. However, the strongest associations were between RFLPs

Aravinda Chakravarti; John A. Phillips; Kenneth H. Mellits; Kenneth H. Buetow; Peter H. Seeburg

1984-01-01

342

A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans  

PubMed Central

Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named “Melaka virus”) isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family members developed similar symptoms ?1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus. Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house ?1 week before the onset of the father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans. PMID:17592121

Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; Yu, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2007-01-01

343

Origins of Human Malaria: Rare Genomic Changes and Full Mitochondrial Genomes Confirm the Relationship of Plasmodium falciparum to Other Mammalian Parasites but Complicate the Origins of Plasmodium vivax  

PubMed Central

Despite substantial work, the phylogeny of malaria parasites remains debated. The matter is complicated by concerns about patterns of evolution in potentially strongly selected genes as well as the extreme AT bias of some Plasmodium genomes. Particularly contentious has been the position of the most virulent human parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whether grouped with avian parasites or within a larger clade of mammalian parasites. Here, we study 3 classes of rare genomic changes, as well as the sequences of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We report 3 lines of support for a clade of mammalian parasites: 1) we find no instances of spliceosomal intron loss in a hypothetical ancestor of P. falciparum and the avian parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, suggesting against a close relationship between those species; 2) we find 4 genomic mitochondrial indels supporting a mammalian clade, but none grouping P. falciparum with avian parasites; and 3) slowly evolving mitochondrial rRNA sequences support a mammalian parasite clade with 100% posterior probability. We further report a large deletion in the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene, which suggests a subclade including both African and Asian parasites within the clade of closely related primate malarias. This contrasts with previous studies that provided strong support for separate Asian and African clades, and reduces certainty about the historical and geographic origins of Plasmodium vivax. Finally, we find a lack of synapomorphic gene losses, suggesting a low rate of ancestral gene loss in Plasmodium. PMID:18359945

Irimia, Manuel

2008-01-01

344

First ancient mitochondrial human genome from a prepastoralist southern African.  

PubMed

The oldest contemporary human mitochondrial lineages arose in Africa. The earliest divergent extant maternal offshoot, namely haplogroup L0d, is represented by click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa. Broadly defined as Khoesan, contemporary Khoesan are today largely restricted to the semidesert regions of Namibia and Botswana, whereas archeological, historical, and genetic evidence promotes a once broader southerly dispersal of click-speaking peoples including southward migrating pastoralists and indigenous marine-foragers. No genetic data have been recovered from the indigenous peoples that once sustained life along the southern coastal waters of Africa prepastoral arrival. In this study we generate a complete mitochondrial genome from a 2,330-year-old male skeleton, confirmed through osteological and archeological analysis as practicing a marine-based forager existence. The ancient mtDNA represents a new L0d2c lineage (L0d2c1c) that is today, unlike its Khoe-language based sister-clades (L0d2c1a and L0d2c1b) most closely related to contemporary indigenous San-speakers (specifically Ju). Providing the first genomic evidence that prepastoral Southern African marine foragers carried the earliest diverged maternal modern human lineages, this study emphasizes the significance of Southern African archeological remains in defining early modern human origins. PMID:25212860

Morris, Alan G; Heinze, Anja; Chan, Eva K F; Smith, Andrew B; Hayes, Vanessa M

2014-10-01

345

First Ancient Mitochondrial Human Genome from a Prepastoralist Southern African  

PubMed Central

The oldest contemporary human mitochondrial lineages arose in Africa. The earliest divergent extant maternal offshoot, namely haplogroup L0d, is represented by click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa. Broadly defined as Khoesan, contemporary Khoesan are today largely restricted to the semidesert regions of Namibia and Botswana, whereas archeological, historical, and genetic evidence promotes a once broader southerly dispersal of click-speaking peoples including southward migrating pastoralists and indigenous marine-foragers. No genetic data have been recovered from the indigenous peoples that once sustained life along the southern coastal waters of Africa prepastoral arrival. In this study we generate a complete mitochondrial genome from a 2,330-year-old male skeleton, confirmed through osteological and archeological analysis as practicing a marine-based forager existence. The ancient mtDNA represents a new L0d2c lineage (L0d2c1c) that is today, unlike its Khoe-language based sister-clades (L0d2c1a and L0d2c1b) most closely related to contemporary indigenous San-speakers (specifically Ju). Providing the first genomic evidence that prepastoral Southern African marine foragers carried the earliest diverged maternal modern human lineages, this study emphasizes the significance of Southern African archeological remains in defining early modern human origins. PMID:25212860

Smith, Andrew B.; Hayes, Vanessa M.

2014-01-01

346

Anatomical variations in the origin of the human ophthalmic artery with special reference to the cavernous sinus and surrounding meninges.  

PubMed

The origin of the human ophthalmic artery (OA) and surrounding structures was investigated in 109 cadavers by three different methods: macroscopic, stereomicroscopic, and histological observations. The following results were obtained. (1) Macroscopic observation: In 39% of the specimens the origin of the OA was observable in the cranial cavity and defined as the intradural (i.d.) type. The other 61% were named the extradural (e.d.) type. (2) Stereomicroscopic observation: In 59% of the cases, the OA originated from the internal carotid artery over or on the cavernous roof and at least a part of the OA was exposed within the cranial cavity. In the other 41% the OA originated within the cavernous wall or cavity and entered directly the optic dural sheath, thus no part of the OA was visible in the cranial cavity. Therefore, approximately 20% of the origins of the OA might be of the i.d. type, although they could not be macroscopically identified in the cranial cavity since they might emanate from the internal carotid artery between the optic canal and the optic nerve, even above the cavernous roof. (3) Histological observation: The proximal portion of the OA runs alongside the optic nerve within the subarachnoid space in the cases of the i.d. type. In contrast, the corresponding portion of the e.d. type was embedded in the dense fibrous tissue which was continuous both with the dura mater of the cavernous wall and the periosteum of the sphenoid. These anatomical data may provide important information for understanding the variety of the pathology in this region and is also useful for designing operative strategies. PMID:10352889

Matsumura, Y; Nagashima, M

1999-01-01

347

Evolutionary origin and human-specific expansion of a cancer/testis antigen gene family.  

PubMed

Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are encoded by germline genes and are aberrantly expressed in a number of human cancers. Interestingly, CT antigens are frequently involved in gene families that are highly expressed in germ cells. Here, we presented an evolutionary analysis of the CTAGE (cutaneous T-cell-lymphoma-associated antigen) gene family to delineate its molecular history and functional significance during primate evolution. Comparisons among human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, macaque, marmoset, and other mammals show a rapid and primate specific expansion of CTAGE family, which starts with an ancestral retroposition in the haplorhini ancestor. Subsequent DNA-based duplications lead to the prosperity of single-exon CTAGE copies in catarrhines, especially in humans. Positive selection was identified on the single-exon copies in comparison with functional constraint on the multiexon copies. Further sequence analysis suggests that the newly derived CTAGE genes may obtain regulatory elements from long terminal repeats. Our result indicates the dynamic evolution of primate genomes, and the recent expansion of this CT antigen family in humans may confer advantageous phenotypic traits during early human evolution. PMID:24916032

Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

2014-09-01

348

Regional variation in the postcranial robusticity of late upper paleolithic humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early modern humans from the Euro- pean Upper Paleolithic (UP) demonstrate trends in post- cranial biomechanical features that coincide with the last glacial maximum (LGM). These features have been interpreted as evidence that ecological changes of the LGM played a critical role in cultural and biological ad- aptation in European UP populations. In areas outside of Europe, similar environmental changes

Laura L. Shackelford

2007-01-01

349

How trade saved humanity from biological exclusion: an economic theory of Neanderthal extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the great puzzles in science concerns the rise of early modern humans and the fall of Neanderthals. A number of theories exist, and many support the biological principle of competitive exclusion. But the evidence for such mechanistic theories in which biology is destiny is limited. In response, this paper develops a behavioral model of Neanderthal extinction. We show

Richard D. Horan; Erwin Bulte; Jason F. Shogren

2005-01-01

350

Defined conditions for the isolation and expansion of Basal prostate progenitor cells of mouse and human origin.  

PubMed

Methods to isolate and culture primary prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells (PESCs) have proven difficult and ineffective. Here, we present a method to grow and expand both murine and human basal PESCs long term in serum- and feeder-free conditions. The method enriches for adherent mouse basal PESCs with a Lin(-)SCA-1(+)CD49f(+)TROP2(high) phenotype. Progesterone and sodium selenite are additionally required for the growth of human Lin(-)CD49f(+)TROP2(high) PESCs. The gene-expression profiles of expanded basal PESCs show similarities to ESCs, and NF-kB function is critical for epithelial differentiation of sphere-cultured PESCs. When transplanted in combination with urogenital sinus mesenchyme, expanded mouse and human PESCs generate ectopic prostatic tubules, demonstrating their stem cell activity in vivo. This novel method will facilitate the molecular, genomic, and functional characterization of normal and pathologic prostate glands of mouse and human origin. PMID:25702639

Höfner, Thomas; Eisen, Christian; Klein, Corinna; Rigo-Watermeier, Teresa; Goeppinger, Stephan M; Jauch, Anna; Schoell, Brigitte; Vogel, Vanessa; Noll, Elisa; Weichert, Wilko; Baccelli, Irène; Schillert, Anja; Wagner, Steve; Pahernik, Sascha; Sprick, Martin R; Trumpp, Andreas

2015-03-10

351

Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples  

PubMed Central

Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking). In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples. PMID:23762826

Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet

2013-01-01

352

Defined Conditions for the Isolation and Expansion of Basal Prostate Progenitor Cells of Mouse and Human Origin  

PubMed Central

Summary Methods to isolate and culture primary prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells (PESCs) have proven difficult and ineffective. Here, we present a method to grow and expand both murine and human basal PESCs long term in serum- and feeder-free conditions. The method enriches for adherent mouse basal PESCs with a Lin?SCA-1+CD49f+TROP2high phenotype. Progesterone and sodium selenite are additionally required for the growth of human Lin?CD49f+TROP2high PESCs. The gene-expression profiles of expanded basal PESCs show similarities to ESCs, and NF-kB function is critical for epithelial differentiation of sphere-cultured PESCs. When transplanted in combination with urogenital sinus mesenchyme, expanded mouse and human PESCs generate ectopic prostatic tubules, demonstrating their stem cell activity in vivo. This novel method will facilitate the molecular, genomic, and functional characterization of normal and pathologic prostate glands of mouse and human origin. PMID:25702639

Höfner, Thomas; Eisen, Christian; Klein, Corinna; Rigo-Watermeier, Teresa; Goeppinger, Stephan M.; Jauch, Anna; Schoell, Brigitte; Vogel, Vanessa; Noll, Elisa; Weichert, Wilko; Baccelli, Irène; Schillert, Anja; Wagner, Steve; Pahernik, Sascha; Sprick, Martin R.; Trumpp, Andreas

2015-01-01

353

A new Late Miocene great ape from Kenya and its implications for the origins of African great apes and humans  

PubMed Central

Extant African great apes and humans are thought to have diverged from each other in the Late Miocene. However, few hominoid fossils are known from Africa during this period. Here we describe a new genus of great ape (Nakalipithecus nakayamai gen. et sp. nov.) recently discovered from the early Late Miocene of Nakali, Kenya. The new genus resembles Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (9.6–8.7 Ma, Greece) in size and some features but retains less specialized characters, such as less inflated cusps and better-developed cingula on cheek teeth, and it was recovered from a slightly older age (9.9–9.8 Ma). Although the affinity of Ouranopithecus to the extant African apes and humans has often been inferred, the former is known only from southeastern Europe. The discovery of N. nakayamai in East Africa, therefore, provides new evidence on the origins of African great apes and humans. N. nakayamai could be close to the last common ancestor of the extant African apes and humans. In addition, the associated primate fauna from Nakali shows that hominoids and other non-cercopithecoid catarrhines retained higher diversity into the early Late Miocene in East Africa than previously recognized. PMID:18024593

Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Masayuki; Hyodo, Hironobu; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Nakaya, Hideo; Saegusa, Haruo; Mazurier, Arnaud; Saneyoshi, Mototaka; Tsujikawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ayumi; Mbua, Emma

2007-01-01

354

Dendritic Cell Ontogeny: A Human Dendritic Cell Lineage of Myeloid Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DC) have been thought to represent a family of closely related cells with similar functions and developmental pathways. The best-characterized precursors are the epidermal Langerhans cells, which migrate to lymphoid organs and become activated DC in response to inflammatory stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that a large subset of DC in the T cell-dependent areas of human lymphoid organs

Johanna Olweus; Andrew Bitmansour; Roger Warnke; Peter A. Thompson; Jose Carballido; Louis J. Picker; Fridtjof Lund-Johansen

1997-01-01

355

Diverse Genetic Markers Concordantly Identify Bovine Origin Escherichia coli O157 Genotypes Underrepresented in Human Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic markers previously reported to occur at significantly different frequencies in isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 obtained from cattle and from clinically affected humans are congruent and delineate at least five groups. Isolates in three of these groups consistently carry one or more mark...

356

Intraspecific Genotypic Characterization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains Intended for Probiotic Use and Isolates of Human Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 118 strains of the species Lactobacillus rhamnosus was collected, including probiotic strains, research strains with potential probiotic properties, food starter cultures, and human isolates. The majority of the strains were collected from companies, hospitals, or culture collections or were obtained after contacting authors who reported clinical case studies in the literature. The present work aimed to reveal

M. Vancanneyt; G. Huys; K. Lefebvre; V. Vankerckhoven; H. Goossens; J. Swings

2006-01-01

357

Inhibition of in vitro growth of enteropathogens by new Lactobacillus isolates of human intestinal origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three human Lactobacillus strains, coded B21060, B21070 and B21190, have recently been isolated. The strains show a series of features (acid and bile resistance, adhesion to various types of mucosal cell) which make them particularly promising for the preparation of probiotic products. In the present study, the ability of the strains to inhibit the growth of pathogens in coculture was

Lorenzo Drago; Maria Rita Gismondo; Alessandra Lombardi; Christoph de Haën; Luigia Gozzini

1997-01-01

358

The Origins of Sex Differences in Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions versus Social Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores whether evolved disposition that differs by sex or social structure explains sex differences in human behavior. Illustrates the explanatory power of each theory, and reviews a study (D. Buss, 1989) that supports the social structural theory with respect to mate preference. (SLD)

Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

1999-01-01

359

Improved Analyses of Human mtDNA Sequences Support a Recent African Origin for Homo sapiens  

Microsoft Academic Search

New quantitative methods are applied to the 135 human mitochondrial sequences from the Vigilant et al. data set. General problems in analyzing large numbers of short sequences are discussed, and an improved strategy is suggested. A key feature is to focus not on individual trees but on the general \\

David Penny; Mike Steel; Peter J. Waddell; Michael D. Hendy

1995-01-01

360

Phylogenetic Classification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains of Human and Bovine Origin Using a Novel Set of Nucleotide Polymorphisms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background Cattle are a reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157), and are known to harbor subtypes not typically found in clinically-ill humans. Consequently, nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered via isolates originating from human outbreaks may be restricte...

361

Evolution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157: eight major lineages of human and cattle origin strain signature genotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cattle are a major reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) and harbor genetic subtypes that do not all associate with human disease. STEC O157 evolved from an E. coli O55:H7 progenitor, however, depauperate nucleotide polymorphism discovery from cattle and human origin...

362

Homeotic Evolution in the Mammalia: Diversification of Therian Axial Seriation and the Morphogenetic Basis of Human Origins  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the rising interest in homeotic genes, little has been known about the course and pattern of evolution of homeotic traits across the mammalian radiation. An array of emerging and diversifying homeotic gradients revealed by this study appear to generate new body plans and drive evolution at a large scale. Methodology/Principal Findings This study identifies and evaluates a set of homeotic gradients across 250 extant and fossil mammalian species and their antecedents over a period of 220 million years. These traits are generally expressed as co-linear gradients along the body axis rather than as distinct segmental identities. Relative position or occurrence sequence vary independently and are subject to polarity reversal and mirroring. Five major gradient modification sets are identified: (1)–quantitative changes of primary segmental identity pattern that appeared at the origin of the tetrapods ; (2)–frame shift relation of costal and vertebral identity which diversifies from the time of amniote origins; (3)–duplication, mirroring, splitting and diversification of the neomorphic laminar process first commencing at the dawn of mammals; (4)–emergence of homologically variable lumbar lateral processes upon commencement of the radiation of therian mammals and ; (5)–inflexions and transpositions of the relative position of the horizontal septum of the body and the neuraxis at the emergence of various orders of therian mammals. Convergent functional changes under homeotic control include laminar articular engagement with septo-neural transposition and ventrally arrayed lumbar transverse process support systems. Conclusion/Significance Clusters of homeotic transformations mark the emergence point of mammals in the Triassic and the radiation of therians in the Cretaceous. A cluster of homeotic changes in the Miocene hominoid Morotopithecus that are still seen in humans supports establishment of a new “hominiform” clade and suggests a homeotic origin for the human upright body plan. PMID:17925867

Filler, Aaron G.

2007-01-01

363

Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba  

PubMed Central

Background Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I) and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals. Results The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times. PMID:18644108

2008-01-01

364

Cervical cancer epidemiology in foreign women in Northern Italy: role of human papillomavirus prevalence in country of origin.  

PubMed

This study compares the incidence and treatments of cervical neoplasia in foreigners from high migration countries and Italians in the Reggio Emilia province (Northern Italy) in 2002-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and cancer were calculated for foreigners versus Italian women; foreigners were also classified according to the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in their country of origin. The proportion of hysterectomies is presented as an indicator of inappropriate surgery in CIN3 and microinvasive cancers. A higher risk was observed in women from high human papillomavirus prevalence countries (HHPVC) both for cancer and for CIN3 (SIR=4.1, 95% CI=2.2-6.9; SIR=2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.5, respectively), whereas in those from low human papillomavirus prevalence countries (LHPVC), no difference for cancer and a lower risk for CIN3 were observed (SIR=1.0, 95% CI 0.2-2.2; SIR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, respectively). A lower CIN3/cancer ratio was found in women from HHPVC (2.6) and in women from LHPVC (3.6) than in Italians (7.4). The percentage of hysterectomies for CIN3 or microinvasive cancers was 3.4 in foreigners and 4.7 in Italians. A higher risk of cervical cancer was found in women from HHPVC compared with Italians and women from LHPVC, suggesting a role of HPV prevalence in the country of origin in the excess risk. The CIN3/cancer ratio was lower for both women from HHPVC and women from LHPVC, also suggesting a role of low screening uptake for cervical cancer incidence in immigrants. PMID:25714783

Di Felice, Enza; Caroli, Stefania; Paterlini, Luisa; Campari, Cinzia; Prandi, Sonia; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

2015-05-01

365

Soluble phosphate glasses: in vitro studies using human cells of hard and soft tissue origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the short-term response of two typical cellular components of a hard\\/soft tissue interface such as the periodontal ligament\\/mandible and patellar tendon\\/tibia. Tissue engineering of such interfaces requires a contiguous scaffold system with at least two cell types associated with it. Human oral osteoblasts, oral fibroblasts and hand flexor tendon fibroblasts were seeded on phosphate-based glasses of different

Malak Bitar; Vehid Salih; Vivek Mudera; Jonathan C. Knowles; Mark P. Lewis

2004-01-01

366

The Circuitous Origins of the Gender Perspective in Human Rights Advocacy: A Challenge for Transnational Feminisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article pieces together a complex genealogy of the multiple contexts that helped reshape women’s international organizing and create a global women’s human rights movement following the United Nations (UN) Decade for Women, 1975–85. It maps a multilayered history consisting of many different strands of women’s activities around the globe that increasingly converged in the 1970s, although in unanticipated ways.

Jean H. Quataert

2011-01-01

367

Evidence Supporting a Zoonotic Origin of Human Coronavirus Strain NL63  

PubMed Central

The relationship between bats and coronaviruses (CoVs) has received considerable attention since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoV was identified in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae) in 2005. Since then, several bats throughout the world have been shown to shed CoV sequences, and presumably CoVs, in the feces; however, no bat CoVs have been isolated from nature. Moreover, there are very few bat cell lines or reagents available for investigating CoV replication in bat cells or for isolating bat CoVs adapted to specific bat species. Here, we show by molecular clock analysis that alphacoronavirus (?-CoV) sequences derived from the North American tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) are predicted to share common ancestry with human CoV (HCoV)-NL63, with the most recent common ancestor between these viruses occurring approximately 563 to 822 years ago. Further, we developed immortalized bat cell lines from the lungs of this bat species to determine if these cells were capable of supporting infection with HCoVs. While SARS-CoV, mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15), and chimeric SARS-CoVs bearing the spike genes of early human strains replicated inefficiently, HCoV-NL63 replicated for multiple passages in the immortalized lung cells from this bat species. These observations support the hypothesis that human CoVs are capable of establishing zoonotic-reverse zoonotic transmission cycles that may allow some CoVs to readily circulate and exchange genetic material between strains found in bats and other mammals, including humans. PMID:22993147

Huynh, Jeremy; Li, Shimena; Yount, Boyd; Smith, Alexander; Sturges, Leslie; Olsen, John C.; Nagel, Juliet; Johnson, Joshua B.; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gates, J. Edward; Frieman, Matthew B.; Baric, Ralph S.

2012-01-01

368

Recent African Origin of Modern Humans Revealed by Complete Sequences of Hominoid Mitochondrial DNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of three humans (African, European, and Japanese), three African apes (common and pygmy chimpanzees, and gorilla), and one orangutan in an attempt to estimate most accurately the substitution rates and divergence times of hominoid mtDNAs. Nonsynonymous substitutions and substitutions in RNA genes have accumulated with an approximately clock-like regularity. From these substitutions

Satoshi Horai; Kenji Hayasaka; Rumi Kondo; Kazuo Tsugane; Naoyuki Takahata

1995-01-01

369

Cytotoxic evaluation of cubic boron nitride in human origin cultured cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of cubic boron nitride (cBN), a component of surgical cutting tools. The small quantities of cBN that typically remain on implants as a result of the manufacturing process may act as abrasives, injuring tissues surrounding the implant. To determine how cBN affects cells, we treated human neuroblastoma cells (NB-1) and

Kenjiro Koga; Akira Kaji; Kenichi Hirosaki; Yukako Hata; Tsutomu Ogura; Osamu Fujishita; Kazuhiro Shintani

2006-01-01

370

The Early Modern English Dictionaries Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Ian Lancashire of the Department of English at the University of Toronto this online database offers access to 127,000 word-entries from eleven dictionaries from 1530 to 1657. Several search options are available and users may select individual dictionaries or all of them. Additional resources at the site include a helpful overview of EMEDD, a short piece on Renaissance word-meaning, a select bibliography, and dictionary profiles.

1999-01-01

371

Early Origins of Adult Disease: Approaches for Investigating the Programmable Epigenome in Humans, Nonhuman Primates, and Rodents  

PubMed Central

According to the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, in utero experiences reprogram an individual for immediate adaptation to gestational perturbations, with the sequelae of later-in-life risk of metabolic disease. An altered gestational milieu with resultant adult metabolic disease has been observed in instances of both in utero constraint (e.g., from famine or uteroplacental insufficiency) and overt caloric abundance (e.g., from a maternal high-fat, caloric-dense diet). The commonality of the adult metabolic phenotype begs the question of how diverse in utero experiences (i.e., reprogramming events) converge on common metabolic pathways and how the memory of these events is maintained across the lifespan. We and others have investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying fetal programming and observed that epigenetic modifications to the fetal and placental epigenome accompany these reprogramming events. Based on several lines of emerging data in human and nonhuman primates, it is now felt that modified epigenetic signature—and the histone code in particular—underlies alterations in postnatal gene expression and metabolic pathways central to accurate functioning and maintenance of health. Because of the tissue lineage specificity of many of these modifications, nonhuman primates serve as an apt model system for the capacity to recapitulate human gene expression and regulation during development. This review summarizes recent epigenetic advances using rodent and primate (both human and nonhuman) models during in utero development and contributing to adult diseases later in life. PMID:23744969

Ganu, Radhika S.; Harris, R. Alan; Collins, Kiara; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

2012-01-01

372

The origin, function, and diagnostic potential of RNA within extracellular vesicles present in human biological fluids  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that tumor cells release membranous structures into their extracellular environment, which are termed exosomes, microvesicles or extracellular vesicles depending on specific characteristics, including size, composition and biogenesis pathway. These cell-derived vesicles can exhibit an array of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids derived from the originating tumor. This review focuses of the transcriptome (RNA) of these extracellular vesicles. Based on current data, these vesicular components play essential roles as conveyers of intercellular communication and mediators of many of the pathological conditions associated with cancer development, progression and therapeutic failures. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, signal pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer, chemoresistance, and genetic exchange. These tumor-derived extracellular vesicles not only to represent a central mediator of the tumor microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for tumor biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. PMID:23908664

Taylor, Douglas D.; Gercel-Taylor, Cicek

2013-01-01

373

Unraveling the origin of exponential law in intra-urban human mobility  

E-print Network

The vast majority of travel takes place within cities. Recently, new data has become available which allows for the discovery of urban mobility patterns which differ from established results about long distance travel. Specifically, the latest evidence increasingly points to exponential trip length distributions, contrary to the scaling laws observed on larger scales. In this paper, in order to explore the origin of the exponential law, we propose a new model which can predict individual flows in urban areas better. Based on the model, we explain the exponential law of intra-urban mobility as a result of the exponential decrease in average population density in urban areas. Indeed, both empirical and analytical results indicate that the trip length and the population density share the same exponential decaying rate.

Liang, Xiao; Dong, Li; Xu, Ke

2013-01-01

374

[Human castration: historical notes].  

PubMed

Human castration has been performed from early times for different reasons: to punish and revenge, to display one's religious fanaticism, to protect or to control women, for eunuchs' trade, for therapeutical purposes. In early modern times men were castrated to obtain sopranos voices, or for eugenic or racial reasons. Nowadays chemical castration is used as a therapeutic treatment or as a way to punish rape and other criminal behaviours. Castration is surgical or chemical act that may obviously cause serious physical and psychological consequences. PMID:12375586

Serarcangeli, C; Rispoli, G

2001-01-01

375

Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India  

PubMed Central

Background Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed individuals. Methods In this study, serum samples (n=282) from cases of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) (n=243), and occupationally exposed individuals (n=39) were collected and tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), indirect ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA. Blood culture for isolation of Brucella was performed for 10 serologically positive patients using BACTEC 9050 automated blood culture system. Biochemical tests and PCR techniques were used for confirmation of the isolates. Results Of the samples tested, 4.25%, 3.54%, 6.02% and 4.96% samples were positive by RBPT, SAT, indirect ELISA and IgG ELISA, respectively. None of the sample was positive for IgM ELISA. Of the 10 blood samples cultured bacteriologically, one Brucella isolate was recovered. The isolate was confirmed as Brucella abortus. Amplification of the bcsp31 and IS711 genes was also observed. Conclusion Seropositivity for brucellosis was observed among PUO cases, animal handlers and dairy workers in Goa, India. The serological tests showed variable results. One Brucella isolate was obtained by performing blood culture. Confirmation of the case was done rapidly using molecular tools. General awareness about clinical symptoms should be increased which will improve proper diagnosis within short time frame. PMID:24762925

Pathak, Ajay D.; Dubal, Zunjar B.; Doijad, Swapnil; Raorane, Abhay; Rodrigues, Savio; Naik, Rajeshwar; Naik-Gaonkar, Shraddha; Kalorey, Dewanand R.; Kurkure, Nitin V.; Naik, Rajesh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B.

2014-01-01

376

Origins of chromosomal rearrangement hotspots in the human genome: evidence from the AZFadeletion hotspots  

E-print Network

and other hominoids and the effective population size of the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68: 444-456. Collier, S., M. Tassabehji, and T. Strachan. 1993. A de novo pathological point mutation at the 21-hydroxylase locus... novo fashion. To this end, we have devised a statistic, the concerted index (CI), which varies between 0 and 1, revealing areas of low and high concerted evolution, respectively (see Materials and methods for details). This sta- tistic can be calculated...

Hurles, Matthew E; Willey, David; Matthews, Lucy; Hussain, Syed Sufyan

2004-07-14

377

The origins of polarimetric image contrast between healthy and cancerous human colon tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimentally measured spectral Mueller matrix images of ex vivo human colon tissue revealed the contrast enhancement between healthy and cancerous zones of colon specimen compared to unpolarized intensity images. Cancer development starts with abnormal changes which being not yet visible macroscopically may alter the polarization of reflected light. We have shown with experiments and modeling that light scattering by small (sub wavelength) scatterers and light absorption (mainly due to blood hemoglobin) are the key factors for observed polarimetric image contrast. These findings can pave the way for the alternative optical technique for the monitoring and early detection of cancer.

Novikova, T.; Pierangelo, A.; Manhas, S.; Benali, A.; Validire, P.; Gayet, B.; De Martino, A.

2013-06-01

378

Human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit isoforms: origins and expression.  

PubMed Central

A majority of the autoantibodies in the disease myasthenia gravis (MG) are directed against the alpha-subunit of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Unlike AChR alpha-subunits previously characterised from other species, the human alpha-subunit exists as two isoforms. The isoforms are generated by alternate splicing of an additional exon located between exons P3 and P4, termed P3A. The 25 amino acids encoded by the P3A exon are incorporated into the extracellular region of the alpha-subunit, and so may be relevant to the pathogenesis of MG. Genomic sequences from rhesus monkey, and from dog and cat, which are susceptible to MG, were characterised between AChR alpha-subunit exons P3 and P4. Although regions homologous to the P3A exon were identified for each of these species, analysis by RT-PCR showed that they are not expressed. At variance with a previous report, constitutive expression of mRNA encoding the human P3A+ alpha-subunit isoform was not detected in heart, kidney, liver, lung or brain. Differential expression of the two alpha-subunit isoforms was not seen during fetal muscle development or in muscle from MG patients. In all cases where mRNAs encoding the two alpha-subunit isoforms have been detected, they are present at an approximate 1:1 ratio. Images PMID:8265363

MacLennan, C; Beeson, D; Vincent, A; Newsom-Davis, J

1993-01-01

379

Cytotoxic evaluation of cubic boron nitride in human origin cultured cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of cubic boron nitride (cBN), a component of surgical cutting tools. The small quantities of cBN that typically remain on implants as a result of the manufacturing process may act as abrasives, injuring tissues surrounding the implant. To determine how cBN affects cells, we treated human neuroblastoma cells (NB-1) and human articular chondrocytes (nHAC-kn) with different concentrations of cBN powder and assessed cell growth and cell survival using the methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and a fluorescence probe assay. We also assessed the effects of tungsten carbide (WC) and cobalt (Co), two common components of joint implants, on cell growth and cell survival. Both cBN and WC moderately inhibited NB-1 and nHAC-kn cell growth. However, cBN and WC did not affect cell survival, even at high concentrations (40 microg/ml). By contrast, Co affected cell survival, inducing cell death in both cell types at increasing concentrations. These results suggest that cBN may be less toxic than WC alloys containing Co. PMID:16890396

Koga, Kenjiro; Kaji, Akira; Hirosaki, Kenichi; Hata, Yukako; Ogura, Tsutomu; Fujishita, Osamu; Shintani, Kazuhiro

2006-12-01

380

Evolutionary origins of human apoptosis and genome-stability gene networks  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is essential for complex multicellular organisms and its failure is associated with genome instability and cancer. Interactions between apoptosis and genome-maintenance mechanisms have been extensively documented and include transactivation-independent and -dependent functions, in which the tumor-suppressor protein p53 works as a ‘molecular node’ in the DNA-damage response. Although apoptosis and genome stability have been identified as ancient pathways in eukaryote phylogeny, the biological evolution underlying the emergence of an integrated system remains largely unknown. Here, using computational methods, we reconstruct the evolutionary scenario that linked apoptosis with genome stability pathways in a functional human gene/protein association network. We found that the entanglement of DNA repair, chromosome stability and apoptosis gene networks appears with the caspase gene family and the antiapoptotic gene BCL2. Also, several critical nodes that entangle apoptosis and genome stability are cancer genes (e.g. ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and TP53), although their orthologs have arisen in different points of evolution. Our results demonstrate how genome stability and apoptosis were co-opted during evolution recruiting genes that merge both systems. We also provide several examples to exploit this evolutionary platform, where we have judiciously extended information on gene essentiality inferred from model organisms to human. PMID:18832373

Castro, Mauro A. A.; Dalmolin, Rodrigo J. S.; Moreira, José C. F.; Mombach, José C. M.

2008-01-01

381

Human genes involved in copy number variation: mechanisms of origin, functional effects and implications for disease  

PubMed Central

Copy number variants (CNVs) overlap over 7000 genes, many of which are pivotal in biological pathways. The implications of this are profound, with consequences for evolutionary studies, population genetics, gene function and human phenotype, including elucidation of genetic susceptibility to major common diseases, the heritability of which has thus far defied full explanation. Even though this research is still in its infancy, CNVs have already been associated with a number of monogenic, syndromic and complex diseases: the development of high throughput and high resolution techniques for CNV screening is likely to bring further new insights into the contribution of copy number variation to common diseases. Amongst genes overlapped by CNVs, significant enrichments for certain gene ontology categories have been identified, including those related to immune responses and interactions with the environment. Genes in both of these categories are thought to be important in evolutionary adaptation and to be particular targets of natural selection. Thus, a full appreciation of copy number variation may be important for our understanding of human evolution. PMID:19287135

de Smith, A.J.; Walters, R.G.; Froguel, P.; Blakemore, A.I.

2009-01-01

382

A Novel Human-Infection-Derived Bacterium Provides Insights into the Evolutionary Origins of Mutualistic Insect–Bacterial Symbioses  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive study, little is known about the origins of the mutualistic bacterial endosymbionts that inhabit approximately 10% of the world's insects. In this study, we characterized a novel opportunistic human pathogen, designated “strain HS,” and found that it is a close relative of the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius. Our results indicate that ancestral relatives of strain HS have served as progenitors for the independent descent of Sodalis-allied endosymbionts found in several insect hosts. Comparative analyses indicate that the gene inventories of the insect endosymbionts were independently derived from a common ancestral template through a combination of irreversible degenerative changes. Our results provide compelling support for the notion that mutualists evolve from pathogenic progenitors. They also elucidate the role of degenerative evolutionary processes in shaping the gene inventories of symbiotic bacteria at a very early stage in these mutualistic associations. PMID:23166503

Clayton, Adam L.; Oakeson, Kelly F.; Gutin, Maria; Pontes, Arthur; Dunn, Diane M.; von Niederhausern, Andrew C.; Weiss, Robert B.; Fisher, Mark; Dale, Colin

2012-01-01

383

Original histologic findings in arteries of the right ventricle papillary muscles in human hearts.  

PubMed

In this study we describe original histologic findings of the right ventricle papillary muscle (PM) arteries in people under 30 years old. We examined 666 samples taken from the tip, mid-portion, and base of the PM in 56 males and 55 females, as well as samples from the rest of the right ventricle. The amount of smooth muscle cell (SMC) fibers in the tunica media (TM) led to their division into three groups: Group 1: 351 samples (53%); normal amount, normal lumen. The amount of SMCs increased from the tip (20%) to the base (48%). Group 2: 226 samples (34%); mild to moderately increased amount of SMCs, with narrowness, eccentric displacement, and uneven lumen shape. They decreased from the tip (42%) to the base (23%). Group 3: 89 samples (13%), with abundant SMCs that duplicated the arterial size, contrary to the other two groups. Their shape was round and their extremely narrow, centrally located lumen had a round or oval shape. These changes were restricted only to PM arteries and decreased from the tip (65%) to the mid-portion (35%). This type of artery predominated compared to the other two groups, probably because of the narrow lumen. No inflammatory reaction or chronic ischemic changes were found in the PM and its arteries. The SMC changes in groups 2 and 3 were found in subjects older than 2 months. The above findings will provide anatomists, cardiologists, and physiologists with valuable knowledge. PMID:11870597

Nerantzis, Christos E; Koutsaftis, Philip N; Marianou, Soultana K; Karakoukis, Nikolaos G; Cafiris, Nikolaos A; Kontogeorgos, George

2002-03-01

384

Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer  

PubMed Central

Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic substitutions, which exhibited dramatic replicative strand bias, predominantly C > T and A > G on the mitochondrial heavy strand. This strand-asymmetric signature differs from those found in nuclear cancer genomes but matches the inferred germline process shaping primate mtDNA sequence content. A number of mtDNA mutations showed considerable heterogeneity across tumor types. Missense mutations were selectively neutral and often gradually drifted towards homoplasmy over time. In contrast, mutations resulting in protein truncation undergo negative selection and were almost exclusively heteroplasmic. Our findings indicate that the endogenous mutational mechanism has far greater impact than any other external mutagens in mitochondria and is fundamentally linked to mtDNA replication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02935.001 PMID:25271376

Ju, Young Seok; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Gerstung, Moritz; Martincorena, Inigo; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Davies, Helen R; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Gundem, Gunes; Shlien, Adam; Bolli, Niccolo; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Nangalia, Jyoti; Massie, Charles E; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Vassiliou, George S; Green, Anthony R; Du, Ming-Qing; Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Pimanda, John E; Teh, Bin Tean; Munshi, Nikhil; Greaves, Mel; Vyas, Paresh; El-Naggar, Adel K; Santarius, Tom; Collins, V Peter; Grundy, Richard; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, D Neil; Malkin, David; Foster, Christopher S; Warren, Anne Y; Whitaker, Hayley C; Brewer, Daniel; Eeles, Rosalind; Cooper, Colin; Neal, David; Visakorpi, Tapio; Isaacs, William B; Bova, G Steven; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Futreal, P Andrew; Lynch, Andy G; Chinnery, Patrick F; McDermott, Ultan; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J

2014-01-01

385

Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer.  

PubMed

Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic substitutions, which exhibited dramatic replicative strand bias, predominantly C > T and A > G on the mitochondrial heavy strand. This strand-asymmetric signature differs from those found in nuclear cancer genomes but matches the inferred germline process shaping primate mtDNA sequence content. A number of mtDNA mutations showed considerable heterogeneity across tumor types. Missense mutations were selectively neutral and often gradually drifted towards homoplasmy over time. In contrast, mutations resulting in protein truncation undergo negative selection and were almost exclusively heteroplasmic. Our findings indicate that the endogenous mutational mechanism has far greater impact than any other external mutagens in mitochondria and is fundamentally linked to mtDNA replication. PMID:25271376

Ju, Young Seok; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Gerstung, Moritz; Martincorena, Inigo; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Davies, Helen R; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Gundem, Gunes; Shlien, Adam; Bolli, Niccolo; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Nangalia, Jyoti; Massie, Charles E; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Vassiliou, George S; Green, Anthony R; Du, Ming-Qing; Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Pimanda, John E; Teh, Bin Tean; Munshi, Nikhil; Greaves, Mel; Vyas, Paresh; El-Naggar, Adel K; Santarius, Tom; Collins, V Peter; Grundy, Richard; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, D Neil; Malkin, David; Foster, Christopher S; Warren, Anne Y; Whitaker, Hayley C; Brewer, Daniel; Eeles, Rosalind; Cooper, Colin; Neal, David; Visakorpi, Tapio; Isaacs, William B; Bova, G Steven; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Futreal, P Andrew; Lynch, Andy G; Chinnery, Patrick F; McDermott, Ultan; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J

2014-01-01

386

On the multiscale origins of fracture resistance in human bone and its biological degradation  

SciTech Connect

Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length-scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone?s strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length-scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation and disease. Indeed aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length-scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to the initiation and growth of cracks.

Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Barth, Holly D.; Ritchie, Robert O.

2012-03-09

387

Origins of power-law degree distribution in the heterogeneity of human activity in social networks  

E-print Network

The probability distribution of number of ties of an individual in a social network follows a scale-free power-law. However, how this distribution arises has not been conclusively demonstrated in direct analyses of people's actions in social networks. Here, we perform a causal inference analysis and find an underlying cause for this phenomenon. Our analysis indicates that heavy-tailed degree distribution is causally determined by similarly skewed distribution of human activity. Specifically, the degree of an individual is entirely random - following a "maximum entropy attachment" model - except for its mean value which depends deterministically on the volume of the users' activity. This relation cannot be explained by interactive models, like preferential attachment, since the observed actions are not likely to be caused by interactions with other people.

Muchnik, Lev; Parra, Lucas C; Reis, Saulo D S; Andrade,, Jose S; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernan A

2013-01-01

388

Different sensitivity to apoptosis in cells of monocytic or lymphocytic origin chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1.  

PubMed

Apoptotic death of CD4+ T lymphocytes is a major cause of the immunodeficiency caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but it is still unclear how this process precisely occurs. To characterize a potentially useful cellular model, we have analyzed the tendency of chronically HIV-infected CD4+ human cell lines of different origin to undergo apoptosis. We studied ACH-2 and U1 lines, derived from the CD4+ T-cell A301 and the promonocytic U937 cell lines, respectively, and induced apoptosis via several stimuli that trigger different pathways. Their capacity to regulate plasma membrane CD95 expression and to produce soluble CD95 was also analyzed. Using staurosporine, TNF-alpha plus cycloheximide, and gamma-radiations, we observed that ACH-2 were more sensitive to programmed cell death than A301, while U1 were less sensitive than U937. Both infected cell types had a lower sensitivity to CD95-induced apoptosis; the analysis of changes in mitochondrial membrane potential corroborated these observations. Plasma membrane CD95 was similarly regulated in all cell types, which, however, presented a different capacity to produce soluble CD95 molecules. Our in vitro results may offer a new perspective for developing further studies on the pathogenesis of HIV infection. A chronically infected cell line of lymphocytic origin is more susceptible to apoptosis than its parental cell type, while infected monocytic cells are less sensitive than their uninfected counterpart. Thus, it is possible to hypothesize that one of the reasons by which circulating monocytes survive and represent a viral reservoir is the capacity of HIV to decrease the sensitivity to apoptosis of this cell type. However, further studies on ex-vivo collected fresh cells, as well as on other cell lines, are urgently needed to confirm such hypothesis. PMID:14681550

Pinti, Marcello; Biswas, Priscilla; Troiano, Leonarda; Nasi, Milena; Ferraresi, Roberta; Mussini, Cristina; Vecchiet, Jacopo; Esposito, Roberto; Paganelli, Roberto; Cossarizza, Andrea

2003-12-01

389

A crypto-Dravidian origin for the nontribal communities of South India based on human leukocyte antigen class I diversity.  

PubMed

The Dravidian communities are considered to be the original inhabitants of India, now restricted to South India. The southern most state, Kerala, is socio-culturally stratified into Hindus, Muslims and Christians on the basis of religion. The origin of these religious communities in Kerala is considered to be unique in comparison with that in other parts of the country. These communities were later influenced by the hierarchical caste structure established by the Hindu Brahmins. In the present study, we compared six nontribal (Namboothiri, Nair, Ezhava, Pulaya, Malabar Muslim and Syrian Christian) communities belonging to the major religious groups in Kerala (Hindu, Muslim and Christian) based on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B and -C diversity. Our aim was to understand the genomic substructuring associated with the changing social scenario in various caste and religious groups and compare it with the Dravidian tribal and other world populations. The present study reveals that the HLA diversity of the Dravidian communities is very distinct from that in the other world populations. It is obvious that the nontribal communities of Kerala display a greater Dravidian influence, but traces of genetic admixture with the Mediterranean, western European, central Asian and East Asian populations can be observed. This characterizes the crypto-Dravidian features of the nontribal communities of Kerala. Demic diffusion of the local progressive communities with the migrant communities may have given rise to crypto-Dravidian features among the nontribal communities of Kerala. PMID:16948643

Thomas, R; Nair, S B; Banerjee, M

2006-09-01

390

Development of the stratified squamous epithelium of the human tympanic membrane and external canal: the origin of auditory epithelial migration.  

PubMed

The development of the stratified squamous epithelium of the tympanic membrane and external canal was studied in 167 embryonic, fetal, and postnatal human ears. It originates as a tube derived from the epithelium of the fundus of the primary external canal (zone 1). The tube is composed of a thin, flat epithelium on the medial side (zone 2), continuous with a thicker one (zone 3) on the lateral side; zone 3 thereafter merges with the external epithelium of the primary external canal (zone 4). Proliferative activity, as indicated by a thickened epithelium, with rete ridges in later fetal life, is present mainly in zones 1 and 3. Cornification at 18 weeks gestation is followed by clearing of keratinous debris to the exterior. Subsequently the canal widens, zone 1 now covering the pars flaccida region, a tongue-shaped area passing inferiorly from it and a part of the postero-superior deep canal adjacent to it; zone 2 covers the pars tensa and zone 3 most of the deep external canal. On the basis of the original embryonic growth, migratory epithelial movement throughout life is postulated to be generated in zone 1 by mitotic interposition and then to pass to zone 2. It then moves en masse through to zone 3, where unilateral progression by mitotic means takes the epithelium up to the cartilaginous canal. Such a pathway is approximately that seen in the marked, living eardrum and canal. PMID:2756906

Michaels, L; Soucek, S

1989-04-01

391

Origin of sound-evoked EMG responses in human masseter muscles.  

PubMed

Sound is a natural stimulus for both cochlear and saccular receptors. At high intensities it evokes in active masseter muscles of healthy subjects two overlapping reflexes: p11/n15 and p16/n21 waves, whose origin has not yet been demonstrated. Our purpose was to test which receptor in the inner ear is responsible for these reflexes. We compared masseter EMG responses induced in normal subjects (n = 9) by loud clicks (70-100 dB normal hearing level (NHL), 0.1 ms, 3 Hz) to those evoked in subjects with a selective lesion of the cochlea (n = 5), of the vestibule (n = 1) or with mixed cochlear-vestibular failure (n = 5). In controls, 100 dB clicks induced bilaterally, in the unrectified mean EMG (unrEMG), a clear p11 wave followed by a less clear n15 wave and a subsequent n21 wave. Lowering the intensity to 70 dB clicks abolished the p11/n15 wave, while a p16 wave appeared. Rectified mean EMG (rectEMG) showed, at all intensities, an inhibitory deflection corresponding to the p16/n21 wave in the unrEMG. Compared to controls, all deaf subjects had a normal p11 wave, together with more prominent n15 wave; however, the p16/n21 waves, and their corresponding inhibition in the rectEMG, were absent. The vestibular patient had bilaterally clear p11 waves only when 100 dB clicks were delivered bilaterally or to the unaffected ear. Stimulation of the affected ear induced only p16/n21 waves. Data from mixed patients were consistent with those of deaf and vestibular patients. We conclude that click-induced masseter p11/n15 waves are vestibular dependent, while p16/n21 waves depend on cochlear integrity. PMID:17234698

Deriu, Franca; Ortu, Enzo; Capobianco, Saverio; Giaconi, Elena; Melis, Francesco; Aiello, Elena; Rothwell, John C; Tolu, Eusebio

2007-04-01

392

Origin of sound-evoked EMG responses in human masseter muscles  

PubMed Central

Sound is a natural stimulus for both cochlear and saccular receptors. At high intensities it evokes in active masseter muscles of healthy subjects two overlapping reflexes: p11/n15 and p16/n21 waves, whose origin has not yet been demonstrated. Our purpose was to test which receptor in the inner ear is responsible for these reflexes. We compared masseter EMG responses induced in normal subjects (n = 9) by loud clicks (70–100 dB normal hearing level (NHL), 0.1 ms, 3 Hz) to those evoked in subjects with a selective lesion of the cochlea (n = 5), of the vestibule (n = 1) or with mixed cochlear-vestibular failure (n = 5). In controls, 100 dB clicks induced bilaterally, in the unrectified mean EMG (unrEMG), a clear p11 wave followed by a less clear n15 wave and a subsequent n21 wave. Lowering the intensity to 70 dB clicks abolished the p11/n15 wave, while a p16 wave appeared. Rectified mean EMG (rectEMG) showed, at all intensities, an inhibitory deflection corresponding to the p16/n21 wave in the unrEMG. Compared to controls, all deaf subjects had a normal p11 wave, together with more prominent n15 wave; however, the p16/n21 waves, and their corresponding inhibition in the rectEMG, were absent. The vestibular patient had bilaterally clear p11 waves only when 100 dB clicks were delivered bilaterally or to the unaffected ear. Stimulation of the affected ear induced only p16/n21 waves. Data from mixed patients were consistent with those of deaf and vestibular patients. We conclude that click-induced masseter p11/n15 waves are vestibular dependent, while p16/n21 waves depend on cochlear integrity. PMID:17234698

Deriu, Franca; Ortu, Enzo; Capobianco, Saverio; Giaconi, Elena; Melis, Francesco; Aiello, Elena; Rothwell, John C; Tolu, Eusebio

2007-01-01

393

A cell of origin gene signature indicates human bladder cancer has distinct cellular progenitors.  

PubMed

There are two distinct forms of urothelial (bladder) cancer: muscle-invasive (MI) and nonmuscle invasive (NMI) disease. Since it is currently believed that bladder cancer arises by transformation of urothelial cells of the basal layer, bladder cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been isolated based on expression markers found in such cells. However, these CSCs have only been identified in MI tumors raising the intriguing hypothesis that NMI tumor progenitors do not arise from the basal compartment. To test this hypothesis, we carried out genome-wide expression profiling of laser capture microdissected basal and umbrella cells, the two most histologically distinct cell types in normal urothelium and developed a cell of origin (COO) gene signature that distinguishes these. The COO signature was a better predictor of stage and survival than other bladder, generic, or breast CSC signatures and bladder cell differentiation markers in multiple patient cohorts. To assess whether NMI and MI tumors arise from a distinct progenitor cell (DPC) or common progenitor cell, we developed a novel statistical framework that predicts COO score as a function of known genetic alterations (TP53, HRAS, KDM6A, and FGFR3) that drive either MI or NMI bladder cancer and compared this to the observed COO score of the tumor. Analysis of 874 patients in five cohorts established the DPC model as the best fit to the available data. This observation supports distinct progenitor cells in NMI and MI tumors and provides a paradigm shift in our understanding of bladder cancer biology that has significant diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24357085

Dancik, Garrett M; Owens, Charles R; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Theodorescu, Dan

2014-04-01

394

On the Origins of Signal Variance in FMRI of the Human Midbrain at High Field  

PubMed Central

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in the midbrain at 7 Tesla suffers from unexpectedly low temporal signal to noise ratio (TSNR) compared to other brain regions. Various methodologies were used in this study to quantitatively identify causes of the noise and signal differences in midbrain fMRI data. The influence of physiological noise sources was examined using RETROICOR, phase regression analysis, and power spectral analyses of contributions in the respiratory and cardiac frequency ranges. The impact of between-shot phase shifts in 3-D multi-shot sequences was tested using a one-dimensional (1-D) phase navigator approach. Additionally, the effects of shared noise influences between regions that were temporally, but not functionally, correlated with the midbrain (adjacent white matter and anterior cerebellum) were investigated via analyses with regressors of ‘no interest’. These attempts to reduce noise did not improve the overall TSNR in the midbrain. In addition, the steady state signal and noise were measured in the midbrain and the visual cortex for resting state data. We observed comparable steady state signals from both the midbrain and the cortex. However, the noise was 2–3 times higher in the midbrain relative to the cortex, confirming that the low TSNR in the midbrain was not due to low signal but rather a result of large signal variance. These temporal variations did not behave as known physiological or other noise sources, and were not mitigated by conventional strategies. Upon further investigation, resting state functional connectivity analysis in the midbrain showed strong intrinsic fluctuations between homologous midbrain regions. These data suggest that the low TSNR in the midbrain may originate from larger signal fluctuations arising from functional connectivity compared to cortex, rather than simply reflecting physiological noise. PMID:23658643

Barry, Robert L.; Coaster, Mariam; Rogers, Baxter P.; Newton, Allen T.; Moore, Jay; Anderson, Adam W.; Zald, David H.; Gore, John C.

2013-01-01

395

Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Emerging Enteric Picobirnaviruses of Animal Origin and Their Relationship to Human Strains  

PubMed Central

Picobirnavirus (PBV) which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae.” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior. Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated. Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses. Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach. Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains. PMID:25136620

Malik, Yashpal S.; Kumar, Naveen; Sharma, Kuldeep; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Banyai, Krisztian

2014-01-01

396

Inhibition of human motoneurones, probably of Renshaw origin, elicited by an orthodromic motor discharge  

PubMed Central

1. The pattern of variations of a test H-reflex after a conditioning H-reflex was investigated in human subjects by an experimental design in which both reflexes involved the same soleus motoneurones. This was made possible by using a method based upon a collision in the motor axons between the orthodromic conditioning reflex volley and the antidromic volley elicited by a test stimulus supramaximal for the motor axons. 2. The variations of the test reflex amplitude seen when increasing the conditioning reflex discharge were studied. This was made possible by facilitating the conditioning reflex without changing the strength of the afferent volley. This facilitation was obtained through a soleus stretch elicited by a stimulation of the plantar nerves. 3. The amplitude of the test reflex depended only on the size of the conditioning reflex discharge. 4. As long as the conditioning reflex was of low amplitude, all the motoneurones responsible for the conditioning response could be activated by the test volley, even though these motoneurones were undergoing after-hyperpolarization. This indicates that, in man, the after-hyperpolarization of the most excitable motoneurones can be completely overcome by a large Ia afferent volley. 5. Increasing the conditioning reflex beyond a specific value resulted in an absolute decrease in the number of motoneurones involved in the test reflex. The amount of this decrease was related only to the amplitude of the conditioning reflex. 6. This inhibition decreased progressively as the time interval separating the test stimulus from the conditioning stimulus increased. The time course of this inhibition was studied with conditioning reflexes of different amplitudes. The duration of the inhibition increased with the size of the conditioning reflex. 7. These results strongly suggest that Renshaw cells excited by the conditioning reflex are responsible for this inhibition. The results are in agreement with observations made in animals on recurrent inhibition. PMID:894596

Bussel, B.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E.

1977-01-01

397

Relationship between human physiological parameters and geomagnetic variations of solar origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results presented concern influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure and heart rate of 86 volunteers were measured on working days in autumn 2001 (01/10 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. Questionnaire information about subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also gathered. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were the following: (1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; (2) gender males and females; (3) blood pressure degree persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors’ levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the group examined reached 9%. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females.

Dimitrova, S.

398

Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa  

PubMed Central

The geostrategic location of North Africa as a crossroad between three continents and as a stepping-stone outside Africa has evoked anthropological and genetic interest in this region. Numerous studies have described the genetic landscape of the human population in North Africa employing paternal, maternal, and biparental molecular markers. However, information from these markers which have different inheritance patterns has been mostly assessed independently, resulting in an incomplete description of the region. In this study, we analyze uniparental and genome-wide markers examining similarities or contrasts in the results and consequently provide a comprehensive description of the evolutionary history of North Africa populations. Our results show that both males and females in North Africa underwent a similar admixture history with slight differences in the proportions of admixture components. Consequently, genome-wide diversity show similar patterns with admixture tests suggesting North Africans are a mixture of ancestral populations related to current Africans and Eurasians with more affinity towards the out-of-Africa populations than to sub-Saharan Africans. We estimate from the paternal lineages that most North Africans emerged ?15,000 years ago during the last glacial warming and that population splits started after the desiccation of the Sahara. Although most North Africans share a common admixture history, the Tunisian Berbers show long periods of genetic isolation and appear to have diverged from surrounding populations without subsequent mixture. On the other hand, continuous gene flow from the Middle East made Egyptians genetically closer to Eurasians than to other North Africans. We show that genetic diversity of today's North Africans mostly captures patterns from migrations post Last Glacial Maximum and therefore may be insufficient to inform on the initial population of the region during the Middle Paleolithic period. PMID:24312208

Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Zalloua, Pierre; Benammar Elgaaied, Amel; Comas, David

2013-01-01

399

Origins of enhanced proton transport in the Y7F mutant of human carbonic anhydrase II.  

PubMed

Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II), among the fastest enzymes known, catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO 2 to HCO 3 (-). The rate-limiting step of this reaction is believed to be the formation of an intramolecular water wire and transfer of a proton across the active site cavity from a zinc-bound solvent to a proton shuttling residue (His64). X-ray crystallographic studies have shown this intramolecular water wire to be directly stabilized through hydrogen bonds via a small well-defined set of amino acids, namely, Tyr7, Asn62, Asn67, Thr199, and Thr200. Furthermore, X-ray crystallographic and kinetic studies have shown that the mutation of tyrosine 7 to phenylalanine, Y7F HCA II, has the effect of increasing the proton transfer rate by 7-fold in the dehydration direction of the enzyme reaction compared to wild-type (WT). This increase in the proton transfer rate is postulated to be linked to the formation of a more directional, less branched, water wire. To evaluate this proposal, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to study water wire formation in both the WT and Y7F HCA II mutant. These studies reveal that the Y7F mutant enhances the probability of forming small water wires and significantly extends the water wire lifetime, which may account for the elevated proton transfer seen in the Y7F mutant. Correlation analysis of the enzyme and intramolecular water wire indicates that the Y7F mutant significantly alters the interaction of the active site waters with the enzyme while occupancy data of the water oxygens reveals that the Y7F mutant stabilizes the intramolecular water wire in a manner that maximizes smaller water wire formation. This increase in the number of smaller water wires is likely to elevate the catalytic turnover of an already very efficient enzyme. PMID:18671353

Maupin, C Mark; Saunders, Marissa G; Thorpe, Ian F; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N; Voth, Gregory A

2008-08-27

400

Origins of Enhanced Proton Transport in the Y7F Mutant of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II  

PubMed Central

Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II), among the fastest enzymes known, catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3?. The rate-limiting step of this reaction is believed to be the formation of an intramolecular water wire and transfer of a proton across the active site cavity from a zinc-bound solvent to a proton shuttling residue (His64). X-ray crystallographic studies have shown this intramolecular water wire to be directly stabilized through hydrogen bonds via a small well-defined set of amino acids, namely, Tyr7, Asn62, Asn67, Thr199, and Thr200. Furthermore, X-ray crystallographic and kinetic studies have shown that the mutation of tyrosine 7 to phenylalanine, Y7F HCA II, has the effect of increasing the proton transfer rate by 7-fold in the dehydration direction of the enzyme reaction compared to wild-type (WT). This increase in the proton transfer rate is postulated to be linked to the formation of a more directional, less branched, water wire. To evaluate this proposal, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to study water wire formation in both the WT and Y7F HCA II mutant. These studies reveal that the Y7F mutant enhances the probability of forming small water wires and significantly extends the water wire lifetime, which may account for the elevated proton transfer seen in the Y7F mutant. Correlation analysis of the enzyme and intramolecular water wire indicates that the Y7F mutant significantly alters the interaction of the active site waters with the enzyme while occupancy data of the water oxygens reveals that the Y7F mutant stabilizes the intramolecular water wire in a manner that maximizes smaller water wire formation. This increase in the number of smaller water wires is likely to elevate the catalytic turnover of an already very efficient enzyme. PMID:18671353

Maupin, C. Mark; Saunders, Marissa G.; Thorpe, Ian F.; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.; Voth, Gregory A.

2008-01-01

401

iPS Cells Reprogrammed From Human Mesenchymal-Like Stem/Progenitor Cells of Dental Tissue Origin  

PubMed Central

Generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and other aspects of clinical applications. Many types of cells have been successfully reprogrammed into iPS cells in the mouse system; however, reprogramming human cells have been more difficult. To date, human dermal fibroblasts are the most accessible and feasible cell source for iPS generation. Dental tissues derived from ectomesenchyme harbor mesenchymal-like stem/progenitor cells and some of the tissues have been treated as biomedical wastes, for example, exfoliated primary teeth and extracted third molars. We asked whether stem/progenitor cells from discarded dental tissues can be reprogrammed into iPS cells. The 4 factors Lin28/Nanog/Oct4/Sox2 or c-Myc/Klf4/Oct4/Sox2 carried by viral vectors were used to reprogram 3 different dental stem/progenitor cells: stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We showed that all 3 can be reprogrammed into iPS cells and appeared to be at a higher rate than fibroblasts. They exhibited a morphology indistinguishable from human embryonic stem (hES) cells in cultures and expressed hES cell markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-80, TRA-2-49, Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2. They formed embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo containing tissues of all 3 germ layers. We conclude that cells of ectomesenchymal origin serve as an excellent alternative source for generating iPS cells. PMID:19795982

2010-01-01

402

Characterization of gentamicin resistance plasmids: a comparison of plasmids isolated from the enteric flora of commercial turkeys to plasmids of human origin  

E-print Network

OF COMMERCIAL TURKEYS TO PLASMIDS OF HUMAN ORIGIN A Thesis by JACQUELINE ROBERTA DUI3EL Approved as to style and content by: Co-Chairman o Committee -Ch o Committee Member Member C' -p Head o Department December 1980 ABSTRACT Characterization... of Gentamicin Resistance Plasmids: A Comparison of Plasmids Isolated from the Enter1c Flora oi Coavnercial Turkeys to Plasmids of Human Origin (December 1980) Jacqueline Roberta Dubel, B. S. , Texas A&M University Co-Chairmen of Adv1sory Committee: Dr...

Dubel, Jacqueline Roberta

1980-01-01

403

Phylogenetic classification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains of human and bovine origin using a novel set of nucleotide polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Background Cattle are a reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157), and are known to harbor subtypes not typically found in clinically ill humans. Consequently, nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered via strains originating from human outbreaks may be restricted in their ability to distinguish STEC O157 genetic subtypes present in cattle. The objectives of this study were firstly to identify nucleotide polymorphisms in a diverse sampling of human and bovine STEC O157 strains, secondly to classify strains of either bovine or human origin by polymorphism-derived genotypes, and finally to compare the genotype diversity with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a method currently used for assessing STEC O157 diversity. Results High-throughput 454 sequencing of pooled STEC O157 strain DNAs from human clinical cases (n = 91) and cattle (n = 102) identified 16,218 putative polymorphisms. From those, 178 were selected primarily within genomic regions conserved across E. coli serotypes and genotyped in 261 STEC O157 strains. Forty-two unique genotypes were observed that are tagged by a minimal set of 32 polymorphisms. Phylogenetic trees of the genotypes are divided into clades that represent strains of cattle origin, or cattle and human origin. Although PFGE diversity surpassed genotype diversity overall, ten PFGE patterns each occurred with multiple strains having different genotypes. Conclusions Deep sequencing of pooled STEC O157 DNAs proved highly effective in polymorphism discovery. A polymorphism set has been identified that characterizes genetic diversity within STEC O157 strains of bovine origin, and a subset observed in human strains. The set may complement current techniques used to classify strains implicated in disease outbreaks. PMID:19463166

Clawson, Michael L; Keen, James E; Smith, Timothy PL; Durso, Lisa M; McDaneld, Tara G; Mandrell, Robert E; Davis, Margaret A; Bono, James L

2009-01-01

404

Search for NTRK1 proto-oncogene rearrangements in human thyroid tumours originated after therapeutic radiation  

PubMed Central

Rearrangements of NTRK1 proto-oncogene were detected in ‘spontaneous’ papillary thyroid carcinomas with a frequency varying from 5 to 25% in different studies. These rearrangements result in the formation of chimaeric genes composed of the tyrosine kinase domain of NTRK1 fused to 5? sequences of different genes. To investigate if the NTRK1 gene plays a role in radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis, we looked for the presence of NTRK1 -activating rearrangements in 32 human thyroid tumours (16 follicular adenomas, 14 papillary carcinomas and two lymph-node metastases of papillary thyroid carcinomas) from patients who had received external radiation, using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot and direct sequencing techniques. These data were compared with those obtained in a series of 28 ‘spontaneous’ benign and malignant thyroid tumours, collected from patients without a history of radiation exposure and four in vitro culture cell lines derived from ‘spontaneous’ thyroid cancers. Our results concerning the radiation-associated tumours showed that only rearrangements between NTRK1 and TPM3 genes (TRK oncogene) were detected in 2/14 papillary carcinomas and in one lymph-node metastasis of one of these papillary thyroid carcinomas. All the radiation-associated adenomas were negative. In the ‘spontaneous’ tumours, only one of the 14 papillary carcinomas and one of the four in vitro culture cell lines, derived from a papillary carcinoma, presented a NTRK1 rearrangement also with the TPM3 gene. Twenty-five of this series of radiation-associated tumours were previously studied for the ras and RET/PTC oncogenes. In conclusion, our data: (a) show that the overall frequency of NTRK1 rearrangements is similar between radiation-associated (2/31: 6%) and ‘spontaneous’ epithelial thyroid tumours (2/32: 6%). The frequency, if we consider exclusively the papillary carcinomas, is in both cases 12%; (b) show that the TRK oncogene plays a role in the development of a minority of radiation-associated papillary thyroid carcinomas but not in adenomas; and (c) confirm that RET/PTC rearrangements are the major genetic alteration associated with ionizing radiation-induced thyroid tumorigenesis. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10646882

Bounacer, A; Schlumberger, M; Wicker, R; Du-Villard, J A; Caillou, B; Sarasin, A; Suárez, H G

2000-01-01

405

A Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain of Human Gastrointestinal Microbiota Origin Elicits Killing of Enterovirulent Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by Triggering Lethal Bacterial Membrane Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gastrointestinal microbiota produces antagonistic activities against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. We undertook a study to investigate the mechanism(s) by which a Lactobacillus acidophilus strain of human microbiota origin antagonizes the gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We showed that the cell-free culture supernatant of L. acidophilus strain LB (LB-CFCS) induced the following effects in S. enterica SL1344: (i)

Marie-Helene Coconnier-Polter; Vanessa Lievin-Le Moal; Alain L. Servin

2005-01-01

406

Association of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Hemolysin with Serotypes of Shiga-Like-Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli of Human and Bovine Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated whether the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) hemolysin gene ehxA could be used as an indicator of pathogenicity in Shiga-like-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (SLTEC) isolates. The isolates in a collection of 770 SLTEC strains of human and bovine origins were assigned to group 1 (230 human and 138 bovine SLTEC isolates belonging to serotypes frequently implicated in

CARLTON GYLES; ROGER JOHNSON; ANLI GAO; KIM ZIEBELL; DENIS PIERARD; STOJANKA ALEKSIC; PATRICK BOERLIN

1998-01-01

407

Novel isolation strategy to deliver pure fetal-origin and maternal-origin mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations from human term placenta.  

PubMed

The placenta is an abundant source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Although presumed of translationally-advantageous fetal origin, the literature instead suggests a high incidence of either contaminating or pure maternal MSC. Despite definitional criteria that MSC are CD34-, increasing evidence suggests that fetal MSC may be CD34 positive in vivo. We flow sorted term placental digests based on CD34+ expression and exploited differential culture media to isolate separately pure fetal and maternal MSC populations. This method has considerable translational implications, in particular to clinical trials underway with "placental" MSC of uncertain or decidual origin. PMID:25239220

Patel, J; Shafiee, A; Wang, W; Fisk, N M; Khosrotehrani, K

2014-11-01

408

Aging of corticospinal tract fibers according to the cerebral origin in the human brain: a diffusion tensor imaging study.  

PubMed

The corticospinal tract (CST) is known to originate from multiple cerebral areas, including the primary motor cortex (M1). In this study, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we attempted to investigate the differences of aging of CST fibers according to the cerebral origin in the human brain. Sixty healthy subjects aged from the 20s to the 70s were recruited, and 10 subjects were assigned to each age group. CST fibers were reconstructed from the M1 (Broadmann's area [BA] 4), the secondary motor area (M2, BA 6), and the primary somatosensory cortex (S1, BA 1-3), respectively. Values of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volume (TV) of CST fibers from each cerebral area were measured. Significant differences in the TV values of CST fibers from the M2 were observed between the 70s age group and the other age groups, except the 60s age group (p<0.05). However, no significant difference in the values of FA and MD of CST fibers from the M2 were observed between age group (p>0.05). No significant differences in the values of FA, MD, and TV of CST fibers from the S1 and M1 were observed between age groups (p>0.05). We found that the fiber number of CST fibers from the M2 was decreased in the 70s age group compared with the 20s-50s age groups. Because the main function of the M2 is motor planning and coordination, our results would be helpful in development of strategies for coping with aging of the CST. PMID:25445381

Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

2015-01-12

409

Adhesion of Human and Animal Escherichia coli Strains in Association with Their Virulence-Associated Genes and Phylogenetic Origins  

PubMed Central

Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H.

2013-01-01

410

The origin, evolution, and functional impact of short insertion-deletion variants identified in 179 human genomes.  

PubMed

Short insertions and deletions (indels) are the second most abundant form of human genetic variation, but our understanding of their origins and functional effects lags behind that of other types of variants. Using population-scale sequencing, we have identified a high-quality set of 1.6 million indels from 179 individuals representing three diverse human populations. We show that rates of indel mutagenesis are highly heterogeneous, with 43%-48% of indels occurring in 4.03% of the genome, whereas in the remaining 96% their prevalence is 16 times lower than SNPs. Polymerase slippage can explain upwards of three-fourths of all indels, with the remainder being mostly simple deletions in complex sequence. However, insertions do occur and are significantly associated with pseudo-palindromic sequence features compatible with the fork stalling and template switching (FoSTeS) mechanism more commonly associated with large structural variations. We introduce a quantitative model of polymerase slippage, which enables us to identify indel-hypermutagenic protein-coding genes, some of which are associated with recurrent mutations leading to disease. Accounting for mutational rate heterogeneity due to sequence context, we find that indels across functional sequence are generally subject to stronger purifying selection than SNPs. We find that indel length modulates selection strength, and that indels affecting multiple functionally constrained nucleotides undergo stronger purifying selection. We further find that indels are enriched in associations with gene expression and find evidence for a contribution of nonsense-mediated decay. Finally, we show that indels can be integrated in existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS); although we do not find direct evidence that potentially causal protein-coding indels are enriched with associations to known disease-associated SNPs, our findings suggest that the causal variant underlying some of these associations may be indels. PMID:23478400

Montgomery, Stephen B; Goode, David L; Kvikstad, Erika; Albers, Cornelis A; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Ananda, Guruprasad; Howie, Bryan; Karczewski, Konrad J; Smith, Kevin S; Anaya, Vanessa; Richardson, Rhea; Davis, Joe; MacArthur, Daniel G; Sidow, Arend; Duret, Laurent; Gerstein, Mark; Makova, Kateryna D; Marchini, Jonathan; McVean, Gil; Lunter, Gerton

2013-05-01

411

Adhesion of human and animal Escherichia coli strains in association with their virulence-associated genes and phylogenetic origins.  

PubMed

Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H; Schierack, Peter

2013-10-01

412

Camberlin P., 2009 : Nile Basin Climates. In "The Nile : Origin, Environments, Limnology and Human Use", Dumont, Henri J. (Ed.), Monographiae Biologicae, Springer, 307-333.  

E-print Network

1 Camberlin P., 2009 : Nile Basin Climates. In "The Nile : Origin, Environments, Limnology and Human Use", Dumont, Henri J. (Ed.), Monographiae Biologicae, Springer, 307-333. NILE BASIN CLIMATES@u-bourgogne.fr Abstract The climate of the Nile Basin is characterised by a strong latitudinal wetness gradient. Whereas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

Efficacy of a human anthrax vaccine in guinea pigs, rabbits, and rhesus macaques against challenge by Bacillus anthracis isolates of diverse geographical origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of a licensed human anthrax vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA)) was tested in guinea pigs, rabbits, and rhesus macaques against spore challenge by Bacillus anthracis isolates of diverse geographical origin. Initially, groups of Hartley guinea pigs were vaccinated at 0 and 4 weeks with AVA, then challenged intramuscularly at 10 weeks with spores from 33 isolates of B.

P. F. Fellows; M. K. Linscott; B. E. Ivins; M. L. M. Pitt; C. A. Rossi; P. H. Gibbs; A. M. Friedlander

2001-01-01

414

Monday 26 May 09:30 Archaeology of Modern Human Origins. The Greeks and the Mediterranean World, c. 950-500 BC.  

E-print Network

Monday 26 May 09:30 Archaeology of Modern Human Origins. The Greeks and the Mediterranean World, c. Saturday 31 May 09:30 Archaeology of Southern African Hunter-Gatherers. Farming and Early States in Sub America. Tuesday 03 June 09:30 Biological Techniques in Environmental Archaeology. Mesopotamia and Egypt

Oxford, University of

415

The environmental context for the origins of modern human diversity: A synthesis of regional variability in African climate 150,000e30,000 years ago  

E-print Network

of Arizona, 1040 E 4th St., Tucson, AZ 85712, USA b Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology, New York University, 25 Waverly Place, NYC, NY 10003, USA c Department of Anthropology, George increased aridity or humidity were asynchronous across the northern, eastern, tropical and southern portions

Russell, Joellen

416

Linkage of heat-stable enterotoxin activity and ampicillin resistance in a plasmid isolated from an Escherichia coli strain of human origin.  

PubMed Central

In an Escherichia coli strain of human origin, ampicillin resistance and heat-stable enterotoxin activity were shown by EcoRI restriction endonuclease and genetic analysis to be in an 80-megadalton plasmid. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6254890

Stieglitz, H; Fonseca, R; Olarte, J; Kupersztoch-Portnoy, Y M

1980-01-01

417

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in coastal natives of British Columbia: phylogenetic affinities and possible origins.  

PubMed Central

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection has been discovered recently in people of Amerindian descent living in coastal areas of British Columbia, Canada. DNA sequencing combined with phylogenetic analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of HTLV-1 strains recovered from these British Columbia Indians (BCI) was conducted. Sequence-based phylogenetic trees distributed the BCI isolates among the Japanese subcluster (subcluster B) and the geographically widely distributed subcluster (subcluster A) of the large HTLV-1 cosmopolitan cluster. Long terminal repeat (LTR) RFLP typing revealed three distinct, equally frequent LTR cleavage patterns, two of which were of previously recognized Japanese and widely dispersed cosmopolitan types. A third, new cleavage pattern was detected which may have arisen by recombination between two other HTLV-1 genotypes. Our results suggest multiple origins for HTLV-1 in BCI, which are equally consistent with (i) a cluster of recent sporadic infections, (ii) ancient endemic vertical transmission through Amerindian lineages, or (iii) both. PMID:7474147

Picard, F J; Coulthart, M B; Oger, J; King, E E; Kim, S; Arp, J; Rice, G P; Dekaban, G A

1995-01-01

418

Bat origins of MERS-CoV supported by bat coronavirus HKU4 usage of human receptor CD26.  

PubMed

The recently reported Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is phylogenetically closely related to the bat coronaviruses (BatCoVs) HKU4 and HKU5. However, the evolutionary pathway of MERS-CoV is still unclear. A receptor binding domain (RBD) in the MERS-CoV envelope-embedded spike protein specifically engages human CD26 (hCD26) to initiate viral entry. The high sequence identity in the viral spike protein prompted us to investigate if HKU4 and HKU5 can recognize hCD26 for cell entry. We found that HKU4-RBD, but not HKU5-RBD, binds to hCD26, and pseudotyped viruses embedding HKU4 spike can infect cells via hCD26 recognition. The structure of the HKU4-RBD/hCD26 complex revealed a hCD26-binding mode similar overall to that observed for MERS-RBD. HKU4-RBD, however, is less adapted to hCD26 than MERS-RBD, explaining its lower affinity for receptor binding. Our findings support a bat origin for MERS-CoV and indicate the need for surveillance of HKU4-related viruses in bats. PMID:25211075

Wang, Qihui; Qi, Jianxun; Yuan, Yuan; Xuan, Yifang; Han, Pengcheng; Wan, Yuhua; Ji, Wei; Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Wang, Jianwei; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Yan, Jinghua; Lu, Guangwen; Gao, George F

2014-09-10

419

Human DESC1 serine protease confers tumorigenic properties to MDCK cells and it is upregulated in tumours of different origin  

PubMed Central

Proteolysis of the extracellular matrix components plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cellular and physiological processes, and different pathologies have been associated with the loss or gain of function of proteolytic enzymes. DESC1 (differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma gene 1), a member of the TTSP (type II transmembrane serine protease) family of serine proteases, is an epithelial-specific enzyme that has been found downregulated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. We describe new properties of DESC1 suggesting that this protease may be involved in the progression of some type of tumours. Thus, this enzyme hydrolyses some extracellular matrix components, such as fibronectin, gelatin or fibrinogen. Moreover, Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells expressing exogenous human DESC1 acquire properties associated with tumour growth such as enhanced motility and an increase of tubular forms in a 3D collagen lattice following HGF treatment. Finally, we generated polyclonal anti-DESC1 antibodies and immunohistochemical analysis in tissues different from head and neck region indicated that this protease was overexpressed in tumours of diverse origins. Taken together, our results suggest that DESC1 could be considered as a potential therapeutic target in some type of tumours. PMID:17579619

Viloria, C G; Peinado, J R; Astudillo, A; García-Suárez, O; González, M V; Suárez, C; Cal, S

2007-01-01

420

Human DESC1 serine protease confers tumorigenic properties to MDCK cells and it is upregulated in tumours of different origin.  

PubMed

Proteolysis of the extracellular matrix components plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cellular and physiological processes, and different pathologies have been associated with the loss or gain of function of proteolytic enzymes. DESC1 (differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma gene 1), a member of the TTSP (type II transmembrane serine protease) family of serine proteases, is an epithelial-specific enzyme that has been found downregulated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. We describe new properties of DESC1 suggesting that this protease may be involved in the progression of some type of tumours. Thus, this enzyme hydrolyses some extracellular matrix components, such as fibronectin, gelatin or fibrinogen. Moreover, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells expressing exogenous human DESC1 acquire properties associated with tumour growth such as enhanced motility and an increase of tubular forms in a 3D collagen lattice following HGF treatment. Finally, we generated polyclonal anti-DESC1 antibodies and immunohistochemical analysis in tissues different from head and neck region indicated that this protease was overexpressed in tumours of diverse origins. Taken together, our results suggest that DESC1 could be considered as a potential therapeutic target in some type of tumours. PMID:17579619

Viloria, C G; Peinado, J R; Astudillo, A; García-Suárez, O; González, M V; Suárez, C; Cal, S

2007-07-16

421

Human fibroblast-derived cell lines have characteristics of embryonic stem cells and cells of neuro-ectodermal origin.  

PubMed

Fibroblasts are the most ubiquitous cells in complex organisms. They are the main cells of stromal tissue and play an important role in repair and healing of damaged organs. Here we report new data-initially serendipitous findings-that fibroblast-derived cell line (human fetal lung derived cells, MRC-5) have the morphology, growth rate and gene expression pattern characteristic of embryonic stem cells and cells of neuro-ectodermal origin. We have developed a serum-free culture system to maintain these cells in proliferative state. We discovered that, at proliferative state, these cells express transcription factors of pluripotent cells, OCT-3/4 and REX-1, and embryonic cell surface antigens SSEA-1, SSEA-3, and SSEA-4, as well as TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. In addition to embryonic cell markers, the fibroblasts expressed neuroectodermal genes: Musashi-1, nestin, medium neurofilament, and beta-III tubulin. RT-PCR data revealed that mesencephalic transcription factors, Nurr-1 and PTX-3, were also expressed in MRC-5 cells, and that these cells could be induced to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Expression of TH followed down-regulation of genes associated with cell proliferation, OCT-3/4, REX-1, and beta-catenin. These data indicate that the cells commonly known as fibroblasts have some of the characteristics of stem cells, and can be induced to become neuroectodermal cells and perhaps even mature neurons. PMID:16351691

Rieske, Piotr; Krynska, Barbara; Azizi, S Ausim

2005-12-01

422

Bubble-seq analysis of the human genome reveals distinct chromatin-mediated mechanisms for regulating early- and late-firing origins  

PubMed Central

We have devised a method for isolating virtually pure and comprehensive libraries of restriction fragments that contained replication initiation sites (bubbles) in vivo. We have now sequenced and mapped the bubble-containing fragments from GM06990, a near-normal EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line, and have compared origin distributions with a comprehensive replication timing study recently published for this cell line. We find that early-firing origins, which represent ?32% of all origins, overwhelmingly represent zones, associate only marginally with active transcription units, are localized within large domains of open chromatin, and are significantly associated with DNase I hypersensitivity. Origin “density” falls from early- to mid-S-phase, but rises again in late S-phase to levels only 17% lower than in early S-phase. Unexpectedly, late origin density calculated on the 1-Mb scale increases as a function of increasing chromatin compaction. Furthermore, the median efficiency of origins in late-replicating, heterochromatic domains is only 25% lower than in early-replicating euchromatic loci. Thus, the activation of early- and late-firing origins must be regulated by quintessentially different mechanisms. The aggregate data can be unified into a model in which initiation site selection is driven almost entirely by epigenetic factors that fashion both the long-range and local chromatin environments, with underlying DNA sequence and local transcriptional activity playing only minor roles. Importantly, the comprehensive origin map we have prepared for GM06990 overlaps moderately well with origin maps recently reported for the genomes of four different human cell lines based on the distributions of small nascent strands. PMID:23861383

Mesner, Larry D.; Valsakumar, Veena; Cie?lik, Marcin; Pickin, Rebecca; Hamlin, Joyce L.; Bekiranov, Stefan

2013-01-01

423

Glycan analysis of Fonsecaea monophora from clinical and environmental origins reveals different structural profile and human antigenic response  

PubMed Central

Dematiaceous fungi constitute a large and heterogeneous group, characterized by having a dark pigment, the dihydroxynaftalen melanin—DHN, inside their cell walls. In nature they are found mainly as soil microbiota or decomposing organic matter, and are spread in tropical and subtropical regions. The fungus Fonsecaea monophora causes chromoblastomycosis in humans, and possesses essential mechanisms that may enhance pathogenicity, proliferation and dissemination inside the host. Glycoconjugates confer important properties to these pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, structural characterization of glycan structures present in two different strains of F. monophora MMHC82 and FE5p4, from clinical and environmental origins, respectively, was performed. Each one were grown on Minimal Medium (MM) and Czapeck-Dox (CD) medium, and the water soluble cell wall glycoconjugates and exopolysaccharides (EPS) were evaluated by NMR, methylation and principal component analysis (PCA). By combining the methylation and 2D NMR analyses, it was possible to visualize the glycosidic profiles of the complex carbohydrate mixtures. Significant differences were observed in ?-D-Galf-(1?5) and (1?6) linkages, ?- and ?-D-Glcp-(1?3), (1?4), and (1?6) units, as well as in ?-D-Manp. PCA from 1H-NMR data showed that MMHC82 from CD medium showed a higher variation in the cell wall carbohydrates, mainly related to O-2 substituted ?-D-Galf (? 106.0/5.23 and ? 105.3/5.23) units. In order to investigate the antigenic response of the glycoconjugates, these were screened against serum from chromoblastomycosis patients. The antigen which contained the cell wall of MMHC82 grown in MM had ?-D-Manp units that promoted higher antigenic response. The distribution of these fungal species in nature and the knowledge of how cell wall polysaccharides and glycoconjugates structure vary, may contribute to the better understanding and the elucidation of the pathology caused by this fungus. PMID:25401093

Burjack, Juliana R.; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P.; Ruthes, Andrea C.; Riter, Daniel S.; Vicente, Vania A.; Alvarenga, Larissa M.; Sassaki, Guilherme L.

2014-01-01

424

The Origin of Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very concept of the ‘birth’ or ‘origin’ of art may seem inappropriate, since humans are by nature artists and the history of art begins with that of humanity. In their artistic impulses and achievements humans express their vitality, their ability to establish a beneficial and positive relationship with their environment, to humanize nature; their behaviour as artists is one

Michel Lorblanchet

2007-01-01

425

Chromatin Association of Human Origin Recognition Complex, Cdc6, and Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins during the Cell Cycle: Assembly of Prereplication Complexes in Late Mitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence obtained from studies with yeast and Xenopus indicate that the initiation of DNA replication is a multistep process. The origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6p, and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins are required for establishing prereplication complexes, upon which initiation is triggered by the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases and the Dbf4p-dependent kinase Cdc7p. The identification of human homologues of these replication

JUAN MENDEZ; BRUCE STILLMAN

2000-01-01

426

Human Origins: Problems in the Interpretation of New Evidence. Third Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Chautauqua-type short course in human evolution is divided into two parts: The Biochemical Evidence for Human Evolution, and the Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution. The first part covers the comparison of macromolecular differences between species. This includes comparison of DNA base-ratios and amino acid substitution in enzymes and other…

Almquist, Alan J.; Cronin, John E.

427

Time and Place of Human Origins, the African Eve Hypothesis Examined through Modelling: Can High Schools Contribute?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of mitochondrial DNA imply that modern humans arose in Africa 150,000 years ago and spread throughout the world, replacing all prior human groups. But many paleontologists see continuity in human fossils on each continent and over a much longer time. Modeling may help test these alternatives. (Author/MKR)

Oxnard, Charles

1994-01-01

428

Genetically Matched Human iPS Cells Reveal that Propensity for Cartilage and Bone Differentiation Differs with Clones, not Cell Type of Origin  

PubMed Central

Background For regenerative therapy using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, cell type of origin to be reprogrammed should be chosen based on accessibility and reprogramming efficiency. Some studies report that iPSCs exhibited a preference for differentiation into their original cell lineages, while others did not. Therefore, the type of cell which is most appropriate as a source for iPSCs needs to be clarified. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetically matched human iPSCs from different origins were generated using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) of the same donor, and global gene expression profile, DNA methylation status, and differentiation properties into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineage of each clone were analyzed. Although genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation suggested tissue memory in iPSCs, genes expressed differentially in BMSCs and DFs were equally silenced in our bona fide iPSCs. After cell-autonomous and induced differentiation, each iPSC clone exhibited various differentiation properties, which did not correlate with cell-of-origin. Conclusions/Significance The reprogramming process may remove the difference between DFs and BMSCs at least for chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Qualified and genetically matched human iPSC clone sets established in this study are valuable resources for further basic study of clonal differences. PMID:23382851

Nasu, Akira; Ikeya, Makoto; Yamamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Akira; Jin, Yonghui; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Amano, Naoki; Sato, Shingo; Osafune, Kenji; Aoyama, Tomoki; Nakamura, Takashi; Kato, Tomohisa; Toguchida, Junya

2013-01-01

429

Risk Factors for Human Salmonellosis Originating from Pigs, Cattle, Broiler Chickens and Egg Laying Hens: A Combined Case-Control and Source Attribution Analysis  

PubMed Central

Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (?90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case-control studies can be enhanced by incorporating source attribution data and vice versa. PMID:24503703

Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

2014-01-01

430

Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.  

PubMed

Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (? 90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case-control studies can be enhanced by incorporating source attribution data and vice versa. PMID:24503703

Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

2014-01-01

431

Religion: Origins and Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the purpose of study of the origins and development of affect-relevant and religion-relevant hypotheses, and conjectured prediction of proto-religious sequences in pre-human anthropoids and primitive human cultures. We anticipate more comprehensive study of modern cultural outcomes of these origins and developments.

Meyer, John K.

2004-01-01

432

Early Origin for HumanLike Precision Grasping: A Comparative Study of Pollical Distal Phalanges in Fossil Hominins  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe morphology of human pollical distal phalanges (PDP) closely reflects the adaptation of human hands for refined precision grip with pad-to-pad contact. The presence of these precision grip-related traits in the PDP of fossil hominins has been related to human-like hand proportions (i.e. short hands with a long thumb) enabling the thumb and finger pads to contact. Although this has

Sergio Almécija; Salvador Moyà-Solà; David M. Alba; David S. Strait

2010-01-01

433

Origin of intact lactoferrin and its DNA-binding fragments found in the urine of human milk-fed preterm infants. Evaluation by stable isotopic enrichment.  

PubMed

The origin of intact (78-kD) lactoferrin found in the urine of human milk-fed preterm infants was investigated using human milk containing proteins enriched with [13C]leucine and [15N2]lysine or [2H4]lysine. Mothers of infants selected for the study were infused i.v. with [13C] leucine and [15N2]lysine or [2H4]lysine to label milk proteins. The labeled milk was collected from each mother, pooled, fortified with a lyophilized human milk fraction, and fed to her preterm infant by continuous orogastric infusion for a period of 48 h. Urine was collected from each infant for 96 h. Intact lactoferrin (78 kD) and DNA-binding lactoferrin fragments (51 and 39 kD) were purified from the urine by affinity chromatography on columns of immobilized single-stranded DNA-agarose. The concentration and isotopic enrichment of the intact lactoferrin and DNA-binding fragments were determined separately after their isolation by high-performance reverse-phase (phenyl) chromatography. Mass spectral analyses indicated that the isotopic enrichment of the purified urinary lactoferrin was 87 to 100% of that in the labeled human milk lactoferrin. Similar results were obtained for the isolated DNA-binding lactoferrin fragments. The ratios of isotopically labeled leucine to lysine in the purified milk lactoferrins and urinary lactoferrins were similar for each mother/infant pair. Isotopically labeled lysine, added to the milk as free amino acid, was not incorporated into the purified urinary lactoferrin. These results demonstrate that undegraded (78-kD) lactoferrin of maternal origin is absorbed by the gut and excreted intact in the urine of preterm infants; nearly all of the urinary lactoferrin was of maternal origin. The possible immunoregulatory functions of the absorbed intact, maternal lactoferrin are discussed. PMID:1903521

Hutchens, T W; Henry, J F; Yip, T T; Hachey, D L; Schanler, R J; Motil, K J; Garza, C

1991-03-01

434

CROSS-SPECIES TRANSMISSION OF GIARDIA: INOCULATION OF BEAVERS AND MUSKRATS WITH CYSTS OF HUMAN, BEAVER, MOUSE, AND MUSKRAT ORIGIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Giardia cysts isolated from humans, beavers, mice and muskrats were tested in cross-species transmission experiments for their ability to infect either beavers or muskrats. iardia cysts, derived from multiple symptomatic human donors and used for inoculation of beavers ormuskrats...

435

Phylogenetic Affiliation of Ancient and Contemporary Humans Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide sequence analysis of the major non-coding region of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from three major races was extended with data from 27 contemporary Mongoloids (20 from southeast Asia, seven from America) and 11 Ancient Japanese bones (five from Jomon Age; 3000-6000 years BP, six from the early modern Ainu; 200-300 years BP). In both cases, the sequence was determined

Satoshi Horai; Rumi Kondo; Kumiko Murayama; Seiji Hayashi; Hiroko Koike; Nobuyuki Nakai

1991-01-01

436

Patterns of Ancestral Human Diversity: An Analysis of Alu-Insertion and Restriction-Site Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed 35 widely distributed, polymorphic Alu loci in 715 individuals from 31 world populations. The average frequency of Alu insertions (the derived state) is lowest in Africa (.42) but is higher and similar in India (.55), Europe (.56), and Asia (.57). A comparison with 30 restriction-site polymorphisms (RSPs) for which the ancestral state has been determined shows that the frequency of derived RSP alleles is also lower in Africa (.35) than it is in Asia (.45) and in Europe (.46). Neighbor-joining networks based on Alu insertions or RSPs are rooted in Africa and show African populations as separate from other populations, with high statistical support. Correlations between genetic distances based on Alu and nuclear RSPs, short tandem-repeat polymorphisms, and mtDNA, in the same individuals, are high and significant. For the 35 loci, Alu gene diversity and the diversity attributable to population subdivision is highest in Africa but is lower and similar in Europe and Asia. The distribution of ancestral alleles is consistent with an origin of early modern human populations in sub-Saharan Africa, the isolation and preservation of ancestral alleles within Africa, and an expansion out of Africa into Eurasia. This expansion is characterized by increasing frequencies of Alu inserts and by derived RSP alleles with reduced genetic diversity in non-African populations. PMID:11179020

Watkins, W. S.; Ricker, C. E.; Bamshad, M. J.; Carroll, M. L.; Nguyen, S. V.; Batzer, M. A.; Harpending, H. C.; Rogers, A. R.; Jorde, L. B.

2001-01-01

437

Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Attaches to Epithelium in Both Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract of Humans  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses from animal reservoirs have the capacity to adapt to humans and cause influenza pandemics. The occurrence of an influenza pandemic requires efficient virus transmission among humans, which is associated with virus attachment to the upper respiratory tract. Pandemic severity depends on virus ability to cause pneumonia, which is associated with virus attachment to the lower respiratory tract. Recently, a novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus with unknown pandemic potential emerged in humans. We determined the pattern of attachment of two genetically engineered viruses containing the hemagglutinin of either influenza virus A/Shanghai/1/13 or A/Anhui/1/13 to formalin-fixed human respiratory tract tissues using histochemical analysis. Our results show that the emerging H7N9 virus attached moderately or abundantly to both upper and lower respiratory tract, a pattern not seen before for avian influenza A viruses. With the caveat that virus attachment is only the first step in the virus replication cycle, these results suggest that the emerging H7N9 virus has the potential both to transmit efficiently among humans and to cause severe pneumonia. PMID:24029490

van Riel, Debby; Leijten, Lonneke M.E.; de Graaf, Miranda; Siegers, Jurre Y.; Short, Kirsty R.; Spronken, Monique I.J.; Schrauwen, Eefje J.A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Kuiken, Thijs

2014-01-01

438

Human BK Polyomavirus Plasmid pBKV (34-2) (Dunlop) Contains Mutations Not Found in the Originally Published Sequences  

PubMed Central

The plasmid pBKV (34-2) (ATCC 45025) contains the entire BK polyomavirus Dunlop genome. Sequencing revealed 12 point mutations compared to the GenBank sequence, but only 4 point mutations compared to the published sequence. The origin of these differences is unknown, but may impact virological as well as diagnostic research and development. PMID:25814590

Henriksen, Stian; Mittelholzer, Christian; Gosert, Rainer; Hirsch, Hans H.

2015-01-01

439

Germ cell development in the human and marmoset fetal testis and the origins of testicular germ cell tumours   

E-print Network

Normal germ cell development in the human testis is crucial for subsequent fertility and reproductive health. Disruption of testis development in fetal life can result in deleterious health consequences such as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS...

Mitchell, Roderick T.

2010-01-01

440

Genome Sequence of a Circulating Human-Like Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus H3N2 Strain.  

PubMed

The full-genome sequence of A/swine/Henan/1/2010, a strain of influenza A virus isolated in central China, was determined. Phylogenetic analyses show that its eight genomic segments are human-like, and some of its segments have appeared in swine H1N2, swine H1N1, and human H1N2 influenza viruses. PMID:24233586

Li, Xinsheng; Wang, Junya; Chen, Hong-Ying; Yan, Ruoqian; Du, Xiangdang

2013-01-01

441

Inhibitory effect of lactone fractions and individual components from three species of the Achillea millefolium complex of Bulgarian origin on the human neutrophils respiratory burst activity.  

PubMed

Achillea species are widely used in folk medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The inhibitory effect on the human neutrophils respiratory burst activity of total extracts, their fractions and some main constituents of the flower heads from Achillea asplenifolia, A. collina and A. distans belonging to A. millefolium complex of Bulgarian origin, were tested by the modified method of Tan and Berridge. Seven from the investigated fractions showed activity similar or higher than that of indomethacine and might be evaluated as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:17691054

Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Jalil, Saima; Todorova, M; Trendafilova, A; Mikhova, B; Duddeck, H; Atta-ur-Rahman

2007-09-01

442

The Origin and Evolution of Variable Number Tandem Repeat of CLEC4M Gene in the Global Human Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

CLEC4M is a C-type lectin gene serving as cell adhesion receptor and pathogen recognition receptor. It recognizes several pathogens of important public health concern. In particular, a highly polymorphic variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) at the neck-region of CLEC4M had been associated with genetic predisposition to some infectious diseases. To gain insight into the origin and evolution of this VNTR

Hui Li; Jia-Xin Wang; Dong-Dong Wu; Hua-Wei Wang; Nelson Leung-Sang Tang; Ya-Ping Zhang

2012-01-01

443

A glimpse into the early origins of medieval anatomy through the oldest conserved human dissection (Western Europe, 13th c. A.D.)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Medieval autopsy practice is very poorly known in Western Europe, due to a lack of both descriptive medico-surgical texts and conserved dissected human remains. This period is currently considered the dark ages according to a common belief of systematic opposition of Christian religious authorities to the opening of human cadavers. Material and methods The identification in a private collection of an autopsied human individual dated from the 13th century A.D. is an opportunity for better knowledge of such practice in this chrono-cultural context, i.e. the early origins of occidental dissections. A complete forensic anthropological procedure was carried out, completed by radiological and elemental analyses. Results The complete procedure of this body opening and internal organs exploration is explained, and compared with historical data about forensic and anatomical autopsies from this period. During the analysis, a red substance filling all arterial cavities, made of mercury sulfide (cinnabar) mixed with vegetal oil (oleic and palmitic acids) was identified; it was presumably used to highlight vascularization by coloring in red such vessels, and help in the preservation of the body. Conclusions Of particular interest for the description of early medical and anatomical knowledge, this “human preparation” is the oldest known yet, and is particularly important for the fields of history of medicine, surgery and anatomical practice. PMID:24904674

Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Poupon, Joël; Lancelot, Eloïse; Campos, Paula F.; Favier, Dominique; Jeannel, Gaël-François; Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

2013-01-01

444

Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals a recent origin of most human protein-coding variants  

PubMed Central

Establishing the age of each mutation segregating in contemporary human populations is important to fully understand our evolutionary history1,2 and will help facilitate the development of new approaches for disease gene discovery3. Large-scale surveys of human genetic variation have reported signatures of recent explosive population growth4-6, notable for an excess of rare genetic variants, qualitatively suggesting that many mutations arose recently. To more quantitatively assess the distribution of mutation ages, we resequenced 15,336 genes in 6,515 individuals of European (n=4,298) and African (n=2,217) American ancestry and inferred the age of 1,146,401 autosomal single nucleotide variants (SNVs). We estimate that ~73% of all protein-coding SNVs and ~86% of SNVs predicted to be deleterious arose in the past 5,000-10,000 years. The average age of deleterious SNVs varied significantly across molecular pathways, and disease genes contained a significantly higher proportion of recently arisen deleterious SNVs compared to other genes. Furthermore, European Americans had an excess of deleterious variants in essential and Mendelian disease genes compared to African Americans, consistent with weaker purifying selection due to the out-of-Africa dispersal. Our results better delimit the historical details of human protein-coding variation, illustrate the profound effect recent human history has had on the burden of deleterious SNVs segregating in contemporary populations, and provides important practical information that can be used to prioritize variants in disease gene discovery. PMID:23201682

Fu, Wenqing; O'Connor, Timothy D.; Jun, Goo; Kang, Hyun Min; Abecasis, Goncalo; Leal, Suzanne M.; Gabriel, Stacey; Altshuler, David; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; GO, Broad; GO, Seattle; Akey, Joshua M.

2012-01-01

445

Original Contribution The induction of human superoxide dismutase and catalase in vivo: A fundamentally new approach to antioxidant therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composition consisting of extracts of five widely studied medicinal plants (Protandim) was administered to healthy human subjects ranging in age from 20 to 78 years. Individual ingredients were selected on the basis of published findings of induction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and\\/or catalase in rodents in vivo, combined with evidence of decreasing lipid peroxidation. Each ingredient was present at

Sally K. Nelson; Swapan K. Bose; Gary K. Grunwald; Paul Myhill; Joe M. McCord

446

Comparison of Glycopeptide-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolates and Glycopeptide Resistance Genes of Human and Animal Origins  

PubMed Central

One hundred thirty-two glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GREF) isolates from different hospitals and pig and poultry farms in Belgium were compared on the basis of (i) their antibiotic susceptibilities, (ii) their SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, and (iii) the organization of their Tn1546 or related elements in order to detect possible phenotypic and genotypic relationships among both groups of isolates. Human and animal vanA-positive GREF isolates were found to have similar susceptibility patterns; they remained susceptible to gentamicin and were, in general, susceptible to ampicillin. PFGE demonstrated a very high degree of genomic heterogeneity in both groups of isolates. However, indistinguishable isolates were found within different farms or hospitals, and in two instances, epidemiologically unrelated pig and human isolates showed indistinguishable PFGE patterns. In total, eight different transposon types were identified, and all were related to the prototype transposon Tn1546. The two predominant types, Tn1546 and type 2 transposons, which differed at three band positions, were present in both human and animal isolates. Type 2 transposons were significantly associated with pig isolates. The other types were seldom detected. These data suggest a possible exchange of glycopeptide resistance markers between animals and humans. PMID:10428931

Descheemaeker, Patrick R. M.; Chapelle, Sabine; Devriese, Luc A.; Butaye, Patrick; Vandamme, Peter; Goossens, Herman

1999-01-01

447

Do human extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins originate from food-producing animals? A systematic review.  

PubMed

To find out whether food-producing animals (FPAs) are a source of extraintestinal expanded-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESCR-EC) infections in humans, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically reviewed. Thirty-four original, peer-reviewed publications were identified for inclusion. Six molecular epidemiology studies supported the transfer of resistance via whole bacterium transmission (WBT), which was best characterized among poultry in the Netherlands. Thirteen molecular epidemiology studies supported transmission of resistance via mobile genetic elements, which demonstrated greater diversity of geography and host FPA. Seventeen molecular epidemiology studies did not support WBT and two did not support mobile genetic element-mediated transmission. Four observational epidemiology studies were consistent with zoonotic transmission. Overall, there is evidence that a proportion of human extraintestinal ESCR-EC infections originate from FPAs. Poultry, in particular, is probably a source, but the quantitative and geographical extent of the problem is unclear and requires further investigation. PMID:25301206

Lazarus, Benjamin; Paterson, David L; Mollinger, Joanne L; Rogers, Benjamin A

2015-02-01

448

Genome-wide parent-of-origin DNA methylation analysis reveals the intricacies of human imprinting and suggests a germline methylation-independent mechanism of establishment  

PubMed Central

Differential methylation between the two alleles of a gene has been observed in imprinted regions, where the methylation of one allele occurs on a parent-of-origin basis, the inactive X-chromosome in females, and at those loci whose methylation is driven by genetic variants. We have extensively characterized imprinted methylation in a substantial range of normal human tissues, reciprocal genome-wide uniparental disomies, and hydatidiform moles, using a combination of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density methylation microarrays. This approach allowed us to define methylation profiles at known imprinted domains at base-pair resolution, as well as to identify 21 novel loci harboring parent-of-origin methylation, 15 of which are restricted to the placenta. We observe that the extent of imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) is extremely similar between tissues, with the exception of the placenta. This extra-embryonic tissue often adopts a different methylation profile compared to somatic tissues. Further, we profiled all imprinted DMRs in sperm and embryonic stem cells derived from parthenogenetically activated oocytes, individual blastomeres, and blastocysts, in order to identify primary DMRs and reveal the extent of reprogramming during preimplantation development. Intriguingly, we find that in contrast to ubiquitous imprints, the majority of placenta-specific imprinted DMRs are unmethylated in sperm and all human embryonic stem cells. Therefore, placental-specific imprinting provides evidence for an inheritable epigenetic state that is independent of DNA methylation and the existence of a novel imprinting mechanism at these loci. PMID:24402520

Court, Franck; Tayama, Chiharu; Romanelli, Valeria; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Okamura, Kohji; Sugahara, Naoko; Simón, Carlos; Moore, Harry; Harness, Julie V.; Keirstead, Hans; Sanchez-Mut, Jose Vicente; Kaneki, Eisuke; Lapunzina, Pablo; Soejima, Hidenobu; Wake, Norio; Esteller, Manel; Ogata, Tsutomu; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Monk, David

2014-01-01

449

Characterization of a Shiga Toxin 2e-Converting Bacteriophage from an Escherichia coli Strain of Human Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infectious Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e-converting bacteriophage (fP27) was isolated from Stx2e-producing Escherichia coli ONT:H2 isolate 2771\\/97 originating from a patient with diarrhea. The phage could be transduced to E. coli laboratory strain DH5a, and we could show that lysogens were able to produce biologically active toxin in a recA-dependent manner. By DNA sequence analysis of a 6,388-bp HindIII restriction

MAITE MUNIESA; JURGEN RECKTENWALD; MARTINA BIELASZEWSKA; HELGE KARCH; HERBERT SCHMIDT

2000-01-01

450

Origin and Expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae): A Mixture of Historical Natural Expansion and Contemporary Human-Mediated Relocation  

PubMed Central

The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats. PMID:25372458

Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

2014-01-01

451

Origin and expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (coleoptera: scolytinae): a mixture of historical natural expansion and contemporary human-mediated relocation.  

PubMed

The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats. PMID:25372458

Lü, Jun; Hu, Shao-ji; Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

2014-01-01

452

Human microRNA-24 modulates highly pathogenic avian-origin H5N1 influenza A virus infection in A549 cells by targeting secretory pathway furin.  

PubMed

A common critical cellular event that many human enveloped viruses share is the requirement for proteolytic cleavage of the viral glycoprotein by furin in the host secretory pathway. For example, the furin-dependent proteolytic activation of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A (infA) H5 and H7 haemagglutinin precursor (HA0) subtypes is critical for yielding fusion-competent infectious virions. In this study, we hypothesized that viral hijacking of the furin pathway by HP infA viruses to permit cleavage of HA0 could represent a novel molecular mechanism controlling the dynamic production of fusion-competent infectious virus particles during the viral life cycle. We explored the biological role of a newly identified furin-directed human microRNA, miR-24, in this process as a potential post-transcriptional regulator of the furin-mediated activation of HA0 and production of fusion-competent virions in the host secretory pathway. We report that miR-24 and furin are differentially expressed in human A549 cells infected with HP avian-origin infA H5N1. Using miR-24 mimics, we demonstrated a robust decrease in both furin mRNA levels and intracellular furin activity in A549 cells. Importantly, pretreatment of A549 cells with miR-24 mimicked these results: a robust decrease of H5N1 infectious virions and a complete block of H5N1 virus spread that was not observed in A549 cells infected with low-pathogenicity swine-origin infA H1N1 virus. Our results suggest that viral-specific downregulation of furin-directed microRNAs such as miR-24 during the life cycle of HP infA viruses may represent a novel regulatory mechanism that governs furin-mediated proteolytic activation of HA0 glycoproteins and production of infectious virions. PMID:25234642

Loveday, Emma-Kate; Diederich, Sandra; Pasick, John; Jean, François

2015-01-01

453

The origin of the indigenous grasslands of southeastern South Island in relation to pre-human woody ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediately before human settlement, dense tall podocarp-angiosperm forest dominated the moist Southland and southern coastal Otago districts. Open, discontinuous podocarp-angiosperm forest bordered the central Otago dry interior, extending along the north Otago coast. Grassland was mostly patchy within these woody ecosystems, occurring on limited areas of droughty or low-nutrient soils and wetlands, or temporarily after infrequent fire or other disturbance.

M. S. McGlone

2001-01-01

454

An environmental survey of surface waters using mitochondrial DNA from human, bovine and porcine origin as fecal source tracking markers.  

PubMed

Fecal contamination of surface waters is one the major sources of waterborne pathogens and consequently, is an important concern for public health. For reliable fecal source tracking (FST) monitoring, there is a need for a multi-marker toolbox as no single all-encompassing method currently exists. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a source tracking marker has emerged as a promising animal-specific marker. However, very few comprehensive field studies were done on the occurrence of this marker in surface waters. In this report, water samples were obtained from 82 sites in different watersheds over a six year period. The samples were analyzed for the presence of human, bovine and porcine mtDNA by endpoint nested PCR, along with the human-specific Bacteroidales HF183 marker. These sites represented a mix of areas with different anthropogenic activities, natural, urban and agricultural. The occurrences of mitoHu (human), mitoBo (bovine), mitoPo (porcine) and HF183 specific PCR amplifications from the samples were 46%, 23%, 6% and 50%, respectively. The occurrence of mitoHu and HF183 was high in all environment types with higher occurrence in the natural and urban areas, whereas the occurrence of mitoBo was higher in agricultural areas. FST marker concentrations were measured by real-time PCR for samples positive for these markers. The concentration of the mitoHu markers was one order of magnitude lower than HF183. There was co-linearity between the concentrations of the mitoHu and HF183 markers. Co-linearity was also observed between HF183 concentration and fecal coliform levels. Such a relationship was not observed between the mitoHu concentration and fecal coliform levels. In summary, our results showed a high incidence of human fecal pollution throughout the environment while demonstrating the potential of mtDNA as suitable FST markers. PMID:25463935

Villemur, Richard; Imbeau, Marianne; Vuong, Minh N; Masson, Luke; Payment, Pierre

2015-02-01

455

Extensive Evolutionary Changes in Regulatory Element Activity during Human Origins Are Associated with Altered Gene Expression and Positive Selection  

PubMed Central

Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS) sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species. PMID:22761590

Fedrigo, Olivier; Babbitt, Courtney C.; Wortham, Matthew; Tewari, Alok K.; London, Darin; Song, Lingyun; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Margulies, Elliott H.; Wray, Gregory A.; Furey, Terrence S.; Crawford, Gregory E.

2012-01-01

456

Nucleotide sequence comparison between heat-labile toxin B-subunit cistrons from Escherichia coli of human and porcine origin.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequence of the LT-BH cistron (eltBH) from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain infectious for humans was determined and compared with the LT-B cistron sequence from a porcine E. coli isolate. Both cistrons were shown to comprise 375 nucleotide base pairs, and discrepancies were detected at eight positions. Of the nonhomologous base pairs, six resulted in codon changes that would lead to amino acid variations. The nucleotide sequence distal to both LT-B cistrons was also determined, and only three differences were detected in 197 base pairs. An HhaI site unique to eltBH was shown to be present in all the heat-labile (LT) genes from 31 human isolates surveyed, whereas the restriction enzyme recognition site was absent in the gene from 46 porcine E. coli isolates. The results suggest that two genetically discernable LT groups are identifiable and that the groups are also distinguishable by the isolation source (human or porcine) of the infecting E. coli strains. Images PMID:3884513

Leong, J; Vinal, A C; Dallas, W S

1985-01-01