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1

High field strength element/rare earth element fractionation during partial melting in the presence  

E-print Network

High field strength element/rare earth element fractionation during partial melting in the presence-melt trace element partitioning data for key trace elements (Ti, Hf, Zr, U, Th, Sm, and Yb) is used to compare and contrast the trace element signatures imparted on mantle melts by garnets from peridotitic

van Westrenen, Wim

2

The impact of vegetation on fractionation of rare earth elements (REE) during waterrock interaction  

E-print Network

The impact of vegetation on fractionation of rare earth elements (REE) during water, might be an important factor controlling the LREE depletion in river waters. Keywords: Rare earth The fractionation of the rare earth elements (REE) in river water, as well as the immobilization of REE in the river

Mailhes, Corinne

3

Fractionation in the solar nebula - Condensation of yttrium and the rare earth elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The condensation of Y and the rare earth elements (REE) from the solar nebula may be controlled by thermodynamic equilibrium between gas and condensed solids. Highly fractionated REE patterns may result if condensates are removed from the gas before condensation is complete. It is found that the fractionation is not a smooth function of REE ionic radius but varies in

W. V. Boynton

1975-01-01

4

Geochemical fractionation of rare earth elements in lacustrine deposits from Qaidam Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the concentration and distribution pattern analysis of the rare earth elements (REEs) at the Shell Bar section from\\u000a Qaidam Basin, we studied the geochemical fractionations of REE in paleolake deposits and their paleo-environmental significance.\\u000a Our results show that the REE concentration in AS (acid soluble) and AR (acid residual) fractions are 20.9 ?g\\/g and 95.4 ?g\\/g\\u000a (except element

HuCai Zhang; WenXiang Zhang; FengQin Chang; LunQing Yang; GuoLiang Lei; MingSheng Yang; Yang Pu; YangBin Lei

2009-01-01

5

Efficient mobilization and fractionation of rare-earth elements by aqueous fluids upon slab dehydration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic REE fractionation pattern in arc magmas compared to MOR-basalts results from the selective mobilization of light rare-earth elements (LREE) by slab-derived mobile components. However, the nature and composition of the slab flux, and the actual mechanisms responsible for the transfer of rare-earth elements (REE) from the slab to the mantle wedge remain unclear. We present experimental data on the solubility of selected REE in ligand-bearing aqueous fluids and a hydrous haplogranitic melt at 2.6 GPa and 600-800 °C, spanning the conditions relevant to slab dehydration and melting. The solubilities of REE in aqueous fluids increase more than an order of magnitude with temperature increasing from 600 to 800 °C. Addition of ligands such as Cl-, F-, CO32-, SO42- in relatively small concentrations (0.3-1.5 m [mol/kg H2O]) has a pronounced effect further enhancing REE solubilities. Each ligand yields a characteristic REE pattern by preferential dissolution of either the light or the heavy REE. For example, the addition of NaCl to the aqueous fluids yields highly elevated LREE/HREE ratios (La/Yb=17.4±4.3), whereas the addition of fluoride and sulfate ligands significantly increases the solubility of all REE with moderate LREE/HREE fractionation (La/Yb?4). The addition of Na2CO3 results in preferential increase of HREE solubilities, and yields La/Yb ratio of 1.6±0.5 by flattening the moderately fractionated REE pattern seen in pure aqueous fluids. The solubilities in hydrous haplogranite melt are moderate in comparison to those observed in aqueous fluids and do not lead to pronounced REE fractionation. Therefore, REE can be effectively mobilized and fractionated by aqueous fluids, compared to felsic hydrous melts. Furthermore, the aqueous fluid chemistry has a major role in determining REE mobilities and fractionation upon slab dehydration in addition to the significant control exerted by temperature. Our results show that chloride-bearing slab-derived aqueous fluids have a significant contribution to the formation of REE-signatures in arc-magmas, especially at lower slab surface temperatures.

Tsay, A.; Zajacz, Z.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

2014-07-01

6

Effect of Exogenous Rare Earth Elements on Fraction of Heavy Metals in Soils and Bioaccumulation by Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of exogenous rare earth elements (REEs) in fertilizer on fraction of heavy metals chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in 15 Chinese soils and their bioaccumulation by wheat root and shoot were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Using a three-stage fraction analysis method suggested by the Standard and Testing Program of the

Zhongwen Wang; Xiao-quan Shan; Shuzhen Zhang

2003-01-01

7

Ocean particle chemistry: The fractionation of rare earth elements between suspended particles and seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sargasso Sea suspended particles were sequentially digested with three chemical treatments (acetic acid, mild HCl\\/HNO[sub 3], and HF\\/HNO[sub 3]\\/HCl in a bomb). The latter two treatments dissolve detrital minerals, while the acetic acid removes surface coatings (organic matter and Mn oxides). The rare earth element (REE) composition of the surface coatings, in marked contrast to the crust-like REE composition of

E. R. Sholkovitz; W. M. Landing; B. L. Lewis

1994-01-01

8

Fractionation of Rare Earth Elements during Soil Formation along Feather River Basin Hillslopes in the California Sierra Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobility of rare earth elements (REE) has been debated by scientists for years. This study presents soil and soil moisture data from an ongoing study that examines how REEs fractionate as rock weathers into soil. The Middle Fork Feather River in Northern California, the location of the study site, takes advantage of an erosional signal propagating through the basin and compares traditional methods of REE normalization then contrasts them with elemental losses based on mass balance calculations (tau). Analyzed by ICP-MS using the whole-rock Li-borate dissolution method, soil and water sample collection took place along two differentially eroding hill slopes (a shallow slope above the knick-point and a more inclined slope below the knick-point). Using Zr as an immobile element, the mass-balance method clearly portrays REE fractionation occurring within the soils, whereas traditional REE normalization patterns do not clearly display fractionation relative to the parent material. While REEs fractionate approximately to the same extent in the topmost soils of both hill slopes, the more actively eroding hill slope fractionates REEs faster because of a faster rate of soil chemical weathering. While the full meaning of this work is still underway, current progress indicates that significant REE fractionation occurs during chemical weathering, implying that using REEs as tracers for surfaces processes requires significant care.

Steinert, T.; Weinman, B.; Yoo, K.; Mudd, S. M.; Kouba, C. M.; Maher, K.

2013-12-01

9

Assessment of the bioavailability of rare earth elements in soils by chemical fractionation and multiple regression analysis.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of rare earth elements (REEs) in soils was evaluated, based on the combination of chemical fractionation and multiple regression analysis. REEs in soils were partitioned by a sequential extraction procedure into water soluble (F(ws)), exchangeable (F(ec)), bound to carbonates (F(cb)), bound to organic matter (F(om)), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (F(fm)) and residual (F(rd)) fractions. Alfalfa (Medicago Staiva Linn.) had been grown on the soils in a pot-culture experiment under greenhouse conditions for 35 days. The concentrations of REEs in fractions and plant were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Chemical fractionation showed that (F(ws)) fraction of REEs was less than 0.1% and residual (F(rd)) was the dominant form, more than 60% in soils. Bioaccumulation of REEs was observed in Alfalfa. REE availability to the plant was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. F(ws), F(ec), F(cb) and F(om) fractions were significantly correlated with REE uptake by alfalfa. But the exchangeable Pr(F(ec)) was significantly correlated with Pr concentration in alfalfa. F(ec), F(cb) and F(om) greatly contributed to La and Nd bioavailability; F(ec) and F(om) to Ce, Gd and Dy; F(ec) and F(cb) to Yb; and F(ws), F(ec) and F(om) to total REEs. This meant that the bioavailability of different species of REEs varied with individual REE. The results of this study indicated that the sequential extraction procedure, in conjunction with multiple regression analysis, may be useful for the prediction of plant uptake of REEs from soils. PMID:10665441

Cao, X; Wang, X; Zhao, G

2000-01-01

10

Fractionation of rare-earth elements in allanite and monazite as related to geology of the Mt. Wheeler mine area, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rare-earth contents of 20 allanites and 13 monazites, accessory minerals from a restricted outcrop area of intrusive granitic rocks, are reported. A quantity called sigma (??), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce and Pr, is used as an index of composition with respect to the rare-earth elements. Values of sigma vary from 61.3 to 80.9 at.% for these allanites and monazites, representing an appreciable range of composition in terms of the rare-earth elements. Degree of fractionation of rare earths varies directly with CaO content of the granitic rocks, which in turn depends largely on proximity of limestone. Four xenoliths included in the study suggest that spotty mosaic equilibria are superimposed on the regional gradients and that locally the degree of fractionation of rare earths responds to whole rock composition over distances of a few yards or less. The chemistry of the granitic rocks under study appears to be similar in some respects to that of alkalio rocks and carbonatites. Allanites from the most calcium-rich rocks show a pronounced concentration of the most basic rare earths, and whole-rock concentrations of such rare constituents as total cerium earths, Zr, F, Ti, Ba and Sr increase sympathetically with whole-rock calcium. The explanation for the concentration gradients observed in this chemical system must involve assimilation more than magmatic differentiation. ?? 1967.

Lee, D.E.; Bastron, H.

1967-01-01

11

Mobility and fractionation of rare earth elements during supergene weathering and gossan formation and chemical modification of massive sulfide gossan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary massive sulfide gossans (MSG) in the Bathurst Mining Camp (BMC), New Brunswick, Canada, are characterized by relative enrichment of Au, Sb, and As, formation of jarosite group minerals (jarosite, plumbojarosite, and argentojarosite) and little or no fractionation in the rare earth elements (REE), including preservation of large positive Eu anomalies (average [Eu/Eu*] NASC = 4.14 in MSG; 6.61 in massive sulfide mineralization; 0.60 in host rocks). The chemical and mineralogical characteristics of MSG (e.g., Halfmile Lake deposit) imply low pH (<3) and relatively oxidizing conditions during gossan formation; oxidation of a volcanogenic massive sulfide body (comprising pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite) with a falling water table. The lack of light REE or heavy REE fractionation and preservation of positive Eu anomalies characteristic of the original (465 Ma) hydrothermal fluid is consistent with relatively large water-rock ratios during massive sulfide mineralization oxidation, and removal of the REE predominantly as sulfate complexes (LnSO 4+, Ln(SO 4) 2-). Low pH groundwaters recovered from past producing mines in the BMC display REE patterns reflecting those inferred to have occurred during gossan formation. Gossan at the Restigouche deposit, in contrast to the Halfmile Lake deposit, displays mineralogical and chemical evidence for having been chemically reworked since primary gossan formation. Evidence for chemical reworking includes loss of primary massive sulfide mineralization textures, replacement of plumbojarosite with anglesite, almost complete removal of jarosite minerals, loss of Au, Sb, and As and apparent preferential removal of Eu, resulting in loss of positive Eu anomalies for most samples (average [Eu/Eu*] NASC = 1.21 in the gossan, with many displaying strong negative anomalies; 3.65 in massive sulfide mineralization; 0.54 in host rocks). Based on geochemical modeling, conditions inferred for the chemical reworking of the Restigouche deposit include near neutral conditions and either relatively oxidizing conditions with Eu 2+ hosted in a preferentially weathered mineral host (possibly through substitution for Pb in plumbojarosite and beudantite) or cycling between reduced and oxidized conditions during gossan reworking.

Leybourne, Matthew I.; Peter, Jan M.; Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Volesky, John; Boyle, Dan R.

2006-03-01

12

Condensation and fractionation of rare earths in the solar nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The condensation behavior of the rare earth elements in the solar nebula is calculated on the basis of the most recent thermodynamic data in order to construct a model explaining group II rare earth element patterns in Allende inclusions. Models considered all involve the removal of large fractions of the more refractory heavy rare earth elements in an early condensate,

A. M. Davis; L. Grossman

1979-01-01

13

Impact of plant species, substrate types and porosity on the fractionation of rare-earth elements in plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and content of rare-earth elements (REEs) were determined in two radish species (Raphanus sativus and Raphanus raphanistrum) that were grown under laboratory-controlled conditions, in three substrates consisting in illite for one and in smectite for the two others, the two latter being of the same type but with different porosities. The plants were split into two segments: the leaves and the stems+roots. The results indicate that both species pick up systematically higher amounts of REEs when grown in the illite substrate, considering that the smectite contains about 3 times more REEs. In R. sativus, the REE concentration of the leaves and of the stems+roots, whatever the substrate, ranges from 1.4 to 1.9 ?g/g. After normalization to the substrate in which they grew, the distribution patterns for the leaves of those from illite substrate are nearly flat, but irregular with a positive Eu anomaly. Those for the stems+roots are similar, but enriched in heavy REEs, also with a positive Eu anomaly. The REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots of R. sativus grown in smectite are analytically similar at 1.6 and 1.4 ?g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two organs, normalized again to those of the substrate, are very similar, flat with a distinct Eu anomaly. The heavy REE of the stems+roots of R. sativus grown on illite are enriched relative to those of the leaves, and a distinct positive Eu anomaly is observed in both the leaves and stems+roots from species grown on both illite and smectite. In the case of R. raphanistrum, the REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots for those grown in the illite substrate were found to be significantly different at 11.0 and 6.6 ?g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two different plant organs normalized to those of the substrates were found to be quite similar, all being quite flat, with a more or less pronounced Ce negative anomaly, and a prominent positive Gd anomaly. When grown on smectite, the REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots were about 7.2 and 6.3 ?g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the leaves and the stems+roots normalized to the corresponding smectite substrate are very closely similar, each having a nearly flat pattern with a slight but not significant negative Ce anomaly and a similar positive Gd anomaly. When grown on the smectite substrate with a different porosity, the leaves and the stems+roots had significantly higher REE concentrations of 9.3 and 19.7 ?g/g, respectively. Relative to the substrate REE pattern, the two organs had nearly identical flat REE distribution patterns, with a slight negative Ce anomaly and positive Gd and Er anomalies, In summary, the REE take up is more plant species dependent than mineral composition dependent: R. raphanistrum takes up 3.5 to 6.7 times more REEs than R. sativus, depending on the substrate, its porosity and the considered plant segments. Increased substrate porosity favors the pick up of the REEs, but no particular uptake is observed in leaves relative to that in the combined stems and roots. The transfer of the REEs from minerals to plant organs does not appear to induce systematically identical patterns. The effect of the plant species in the elemental uptake suggests that the root exudates are different, with a varied control on the micro-organism activity in the rhizosphere and probably different microbial compounds. New questionings about the identification of the organic compounds that influence and control the process of elemental exchanges activated by the root exudates in the soils within the rhizosphere, are also raised.

Semhi, K.; Clauer, N.; Chaudhuri, S.

2009-04-01

14

Distribution of rare earth elements in anionic, cationic and particulate fractions in boreal humus-rich streams affected by acid sulphate soils.  

PubMed

The abundance, fractionation and physicochemical forms of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in five boreal humus-rich streams (dissolved organic carbon, DOC = 14-40 mg/l) affected by acid sulphate soils. The sampling was carried out during high-water flow in autumn when the acid sulphate soils are extensively flushed. The analytical procedures included ion-exchange experiments in field and ICP-MS determination. There was a general decrease in pH (range 4.5-6.2) and increase in the REE concentrations (La range 0.82-23 microg/l) as the proportion of the catchment cover of acid sulphate soils increased, explained by high amounts of REEs in the acidic runoff from such soils. In each stream, four different REE fractions were identified: (1) A cationic fraction, which is dominant in the REE-rich runoff from the acid sulphate soils and which is depleted in HREEs due to hydrochemical and/or geochemical processes, (2) an anionic fraction identified as humus-REE complexes, which in general is more abundant the higher the DOC concentrations and which also becomes increasingly abundant across the lanthanide series, (3) a fraction having a well-developed MREE enrichment, presumably consisting of colloidal REEs, and (4) a minor uncharacterised particle-associated fraction. The REE pool in the streams thus consists of several coexisting and contrasting REE species. The identification and quantification of such species is a prerequisite for the precise and accurate characterisation of the REE hydrochemistry of the streams. PMID:12502056

Aström, Mats; Corin, Nina

2003-01-01

15

Condensation and fractionation of rare earths in the solar nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The condensation behavior of the rare earth elements in the solar nebula is calculated on the basis of the most recent thermodynamic data in order to construct a model explaining group II rare earth element patterns in Allende inclusions. Models considered all involve the removal of large fractions of the more refractory heavy rare earth elements in an early condensate, followed by the condensation of the remainder at a lower temperature. It is shown that the model of Boynton (1975) in which one rare earth element component is dissolved nonideally in perovskite according to relative activity coefficients can not reasonably be made to fit the observed group II patterns. A model in which two rare earth components control the patterns and dissolve ideally in perovskite is proposed and shown to be able to account for the 20 patterns by variations of the perovskite removal temperature and the relative proportions of the two components.

Davis, A. M.; Grossman, L.

1979-01-01

16

Binding and transport of rare earth elements by organic and iron-rich nanocolloids in Alaskan rivers, as revealed by field-flow fractionation and ICP-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water samples were collected from six small rivers in the Yukon River basin in central Alaska to examine the role of nanocolloids (0.5-40 nm) in the dynamics and transport of rare earth elements (REEs) in northern high latitude watersheds influenced by permafrost. Total dissolved (<0.45 ?m) concentrations and the 'nanocolloidal size distributions' (0.5-40 nm) of UV-absorbing dissolved organic matter, Fe, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu were determined by on-line coupling of flow field-flow fractionation (FFF) with a UV-absorbance detector and ICP-MS. Total dissolved and nanocolloidal concentrations of the REEs co-varied with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in all rivers and between spring flood and late summer baseflow. The nanocolloidal size distributions indicated the presence of three major components of nanocolloids: the 0.5-3 nm 'fulvic-rich nanocolloids' occurring throughout the sampling season, the 'organic/iron-rich nanocolloids' residing in the <8 nm size range during the spring flood, and the 4-40 nm iron-rich nanocolloids occurring during summer baseflow. REEs associated with all the three components of nanocolloids, but the proportions associated with the fulvic-rich nanocolloids during summer baseflow increased with increasing REE molar mass, which is consistent with the increase in stability of organic REE-complexes with increasing REE molar mass. Normalization of the measured REE-concentrations with the average REE-concentrations of the upper continental crust revealed a dynamic change in the physicochemical fractionation of REEs. During the spring flood, REE-binding in all the rivers was dominated by the <8 nm organic/iron-rich nanocolloids, likely being eroded from the upper organic-rich soil horizon by the strong surface runoff of snowmelt water. During the summer, the REE-binding in rivers with large groundwater input was dominated by small (<0.5 nm) organic and/or inorganic complexes, while lower proportions of the REEs were associated with both the 0.5-3 nm fulvic rich and 4-40 nm iron rich nanocolloids and with larger >40 nm colloids. In a river sampled at higher altitude, the <8 nm organic/iron-rich and 4-40 nm iron-rich nanocolloids dominated the REE-binding also during the summer, which could be a result of persistent permafrost confining water flows to the upper organic-rich soil horizons.

Stolpe, Björn; Guo, Laodong; Shiller, Alan M.

2013-04-01

17

Major Element Fractionation During Differentiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem set introduces some of the more advanced uses of Excel to not only calculate how the chemistry of a magma changes with crystallization but also to see how the liquidus assemblage can drastically change the evolution of the remaining magma. Once they have their calculations complete, students plot the results and answer questions on the geochemical trends observed through the crystallization sequence. This problem set reinforces quantitative problem solving skills using a spreadsheet and has the students think about mineralogical controls on magma evolution. This exercise is modified from one that Clark Johnson assigned at University of Wisconsin. I find this exercise to be more instructive for some of the tricks and tools in Excel, but there are some interesting questions that can derive from it. This assignment is often the first time the light goes on that you can end up with different composition magmas depending on what minerals are crystallizing, and that depends on the pressure of crystallization. There are many more questions that could be asked, such as where does this model fall short? What could be added or considered to make this a more realistic simulation of fractionation (more trace elements or REE).

18

Alkali element constraints on Earth-Moon relations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given their range of volatilities, alkali elements are potential tracers of temperature-dependent processes during planetary accretion and formation of the Earth-Moon system. Under the giant impact hypothesis, no direct connection between the composition of the Moon and the Earth is required, and proto-lunar material does not necessarily experience high temperatures. Models calling for multiple collisions with smaller planetesimals derive proto-lunar materials mainly from the Earth's mantle and explicitly invoke vaporization, shock melting and volatility-related fractionation. Na/K, K/Rb, and Rb/Cs should all increase in response to thermal volatization, so theories which derive the Moon substantially from Earth's mantle predict these ratios will be higher in the Moon than in the primitive mantle of the Earth. Despite the overall depletion of volatile elements in the Moon, its Na/K and K/Rb are equal to or less than those of Earth. A new model presented here for the composition of Earth's continental crust, a major repository of the alkali elements, suggests the Rb/Cs of the Moon is also less than that of Earth. Fractionation of the alkali elements between Earth and Moon are in the opposite sense to predictions based on the relative volatilities of these elements, if the Moon formed by high-T processing of Earth's mantle. Earth, rather than the Moon, appears to carry a signature of volatility-related fractionation in the alkali elements. This may reflect an early episode of intense heating on Earth with the Moon's alkali budget accreting from cooler material.

Norman, M. D.; Drake, M. J.; Jones, J. H.

1994-01-01

19

[Study on the contents and fractionation of rare earth elements in filtering water and suspensions in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of Yellow River by HR-ICP-MS].  

PubMed

In the present paper, high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) was applied to analyse the contents of rare earth elements (REE) in the filtering water and suspensions from 12 sampling sites in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of Yellow River, and the fractionation of REE in suspensions was also studied. The results demonstrated that the contents of REE in filtering water were very low, and the element with highest content of elements was La(32.0 ng x L(-1)). The average concentration of total REE (sigmaREE) in filtering water was 47.5 ng x L(-1), and the Baotou-Dengkou (S1) and Sanhuhekou (S2) sampling sites had a higher sigmaREE of 130.0 and 100.0 ng x L(-1), which implied that there might be external REE sources in the filtering water. And in suspensions, the average content of sigmaREE was 167.8 mg x kg(-1), which was similar to the Chinese soil background value. While the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) content in Shenchuanqiao (S11) of Gansu province were significantly higher than other stations, which indicated that it might have external HREE sources. The chondrite-normalized patterns of REE in suspensions from the study area were similar to that of Chinese soil, with light rare earth elements enrichment, and moderate Eu depletion and a bit of Ce depletion. It was showed that the contents of REE in suspensions were mainly from soil weathering. PMID:23841440

Liu, Jing-Jun; Han, Dan; Liu, Ying

2013-04-01

20

Rare earth element scavenging in seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examinations of rare earth element (REE) adsorption in seawater, using a variety of surface-types, indicated that, for most surfaces, light rare earth elements (LREEs) are preferentially adsorbed compared to the heavy rare earths (HREEs). Exceptions to this behavior were observed only for silica phases (glass surfaces, acid-cleaned diatomaceous earth, and synthetic SiO 2 ). The affinity of the rare earths

Robert H. Byrne; Ki-Hyun Kim

1990-01-01

21

Geochemistry of rare earth elements in oceanic phillipsites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of rare earth elements (REE) was examined in oceanic phillipsites collected from four horizons of eupelagic clay\\u000a in the Southern Basin of the Pacific. The REE concentrations were determined in the >50-µm-fraction phillipsite samples by\\u000a the ICP-MS method. The composition of separate phillipsite accretions was studied using the electron microprobe and secondary\\u000a ion mass-spectrometry. Rare earth elements in

A. V. Dubinin

2000-01-01

22

Rare-Earth Elements in Ocean Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and relative abundance distributions of rare-earth elements were determined in eight samples of ocean sediments. For any particular rare earth, the variation in absolute concentration among the samples did not exceed a factor of 3. The average rare- earth relative abundance distribution for the ocean sediments was the same as that reported previously for limestones, sandstones, and shales.

Thomas R. Wildeman; Larry Haskin

1965-01-01

23

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences  

E-print Network

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences by Greta J. Orris1 and Richard I. Grauch2 Open Table 1. Rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names.......................................................................................6 Table 2. Non-rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names

Torgersen, Christian

24

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

Orris, Greta J.; Grauch, Richard I.

2002-01-01

25

Mineral resource of the month: rare earth elements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The article provides information on rare earth elements, which are group of 17 natural metallic elements. The rare earth elements are scandium, yttrium and lanthanides and classified into light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rate earth elements (HREE). The principal ores of the rare earth elements are identified. An overview of China's production of 97 percent of the rare earths in the world is provided. Commercial applications of rare earths are described.

2011-01-01

26

Moving KML geometry elements within Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the process of modeling and visualizing geospatial information on the Google Earth virtual globe, there is an increasing demand to carry out such operations as moving geospatial objects defined by KML geometry elements horizontally or vertically. Due to the absence of the functionality and user interface for performing the moving transformation, it is either hard or impossible to interactively move multiple geospatial objects only using the existing Google Earth desktop application, especially when the data sets are in large volume. In this paper, we present a general framework and associated implementation methods for moving multiple KML geometry elements within Google Earth. In our proposed framework, we first load KML objects into the Google Earth plug-in, and then extract KML geometry elements from the imported KML objects. Subsequently, we interactively control the movement distance along a specified orientation by employing a custom user interface, calculate the transformed geographic location for each KML geometry element, and adjust geographic coordinates of the points in each KML objects. And finally, transformed KML geometry elements can be displayed in Google Earth for 3D visualization and spatial analysis. A key advantage of the proposed framework is that it provides a simple, uniform and efficient user interface for moving multiple KML geometry elements within Google Earth. More importantly, the proposed framework and associated implementations can be conveniently integrated into other customizable Google Earth applications to support interactively visualizing and analyzing geospatial objects defined by KML geometry elements.

Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Pan, Xin

2014-11-01

27

Siderophile element fractionation in enstatite chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the concentration of 10 to 15 siderophile elements was made in the magnetic regions of Abee (E4) and Hvittis (E6). All elements, except Cu, W, and Fe were concentrated in the metal phase; unlike ordinary chondrites, the metal phase Abee and Hvittis consists of homogeneous, uniform grain size kamacite. The Ir/Ni ratio was 25% lower in Abee than in Hvittis, showing that more Ir was lost from Abee during the refractory element fractionation; Abee and other E4-5 members were not depleted in moderately volatile elements. It was concluded that E4-5 and E6 chondrites evolved from two different reservoirs, and that exchange of material among them has not occurred.

Rambaldi, E. R.; Cendales, M.

1980-01-01

28

The rare earth elements in seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depth distributions of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb in the oceanic water column are used to evaluate the marine geochemical cycle of the rare earth elements and their application as water-mass tracers.

Henry Elderfield; Mervyn J. Greaves

1982-01-01

29

Light element controlled iron isotope fractionation in planetary cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using iron isotope fractionations measured in planetary and meteorite samples to trace planetary differentiation or formation has yielded contradictory results. Iron from high-Ti lunar basalts is more enriched in 57Fe/54Fe than mantle-derived terrestrial samples, in contrast to the isotopic similarity for almost every other element between the Earth and Moon. SNC (Shergottite, Nakhlite, Chassigny) and HED (Howardite, Eucrite, Diogenite) meteorites, which are thought to be derived from the mantles of Mars and Vesta, respectively, show no isotopic fractionation relative to chondrites. While the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) value is debated, recent work has shown effectively that basalts (mid-ocean ridge basalts, terrestrial basalts, and ocean island basalts) are enriched in 57Fe/54Fe relative to chondrites, but the causes of that fractionation are unclear (Craddock et al. 2013). Angrites, basaltic achondrite meteorites, also show enrichment in ?57Fe (Wang et al. 2012). Possible mechanisms include high-pressure core formation, oxidation during perovskite disproportionation, evaporation during the giant impact, and mantle melting. It is important to reconcile why the Earth's basalts are enriched in 57Fe/54Fe but the meteorites from Mars and Vesta are not. One possible explanation is that Mars and Vesta are smaller and the lower pressure attenuated the potential Fe fractionation during core formation. A second possibility is that the intrinsic oxidation states of the planets are causing the differences. However, another option is that the light elements (e.g. S, C, O, H, Si) in the cores of differentiated bodies control the iron isotope fractionation during differentiation. We have conducted experiments at 1 GPa and 1650-1800°C in a piston cylinder apparatus to address how sulfur, carbon and silicon alloyed with iron affect the iron isotopic fractionation between metallic alloy and silicate melt. We find that sulfur has the greatest effect on the iron isotopic fractionation at these conditions.This has wide implications for tracing differentiation processes as the nature of the light element in the core is directly related to the mode of formation and the conditions present. Therefore, by comparing the experimental data with meteoritic data, the composition of planetary cores can be estimated.

Shahar, A.; Hillgren, V. J.; Horan, M. F.; Duke, L.; Mock, T. D.

2013-12-01

30

Variations in trace element (including rare earth element) concentrations with grain sizes in loess and their implications for tracing the provenance of eolian deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) and other 28 trace elements were determined in seven grain-size fractions from four loess samples collected from the Tibetan Plateau, the Sichuan Basin and the Chinese Loess Plateau. The results indicate that concentrations of REEs, except for heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), are almost grain-size independent. However, REEs show clear fractionation with grain

Jin-Liang Feng; Zhao-Guo Hu; Jian-Ting Ju; Li-Ping Zhu

2011-01-01

31

Kinetic Element Fractionation in Orthopyroxene Reaction Rims  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contact of Mg-rich rocks to Si-rich rocks or melts is a major geochemical contrast that leads to the formation and advancement of reaction fronts due to reactions like olivine + quartz = orthopyroxene. Detailed experimental investigation focused on this reaction showed that microtextures in Opx reaction rims give evidence of either dilative or compressive local growth regimes on the two sides of the rims caused by the total volume change of the reaction and the ratio of diffusive mass flow of the SiO2 and MgO components. If the reaction starts from olivine solid solutions in addition distinct microchemical patterns evolve. Thanks to advancements in microanalytical techniques like field emission electron microprobe, focused ion beam preparation, or dual beam techniques (ion beam/electron beam) we are now able to study the combination of microtextural and microchemical patterns in great detail. In rim growth experiments using natural Fo-rich Ol and Qtz as reactants the two most important minor and trace elements are Fe and Ni. According to equilibrium fractionation both should be enriched in Ol vs. Opx. Nevertheless, experimental evidence shows that these two elements do not behave in identical way. Ni is retained in Ol at the reaction front. Fe, in contrast, is expelled, and after transport along grain boundaries of the Opx rim is enriched at the Opx-Qtz interface, where the Fe-concentration in Opx is not buffered. Thus, there are two ways to maintain local equilibrium at the Ol/Opx interface - retain or expel. Which of the two is more efficient in energy minimization depends on the transport properties of the grain boundaries in the reaction rim. Thus, we can speak of kinetic fractionation in reaction rims. This kind of kinetic fractionation is followed as a general principle in diffusion-controlled reaction rim growth. For additional investigation, forsterite doped with various elements (like Cr, Ca, Zn) was synthesized and used in Opx rim growth experiments, where each dopand develops a distinct zonation pattern. Investigation of microtextures and microchemical patterns may have implications on global geological processes. Recently the hypothesis of large scale SiO2 metasomatism (Ol + SiO2 component = Opx) in the upper mantle due to eclogite-derived SiO2-rich melts became prominent and is supported by a growing amount of evidence. Little, however, is known about the actual mechanisms at work in diffusion-reaction metasomatism that are at the base of kinetic major and minor element fractionation.

Milke, R.; Abart, R.; Keller, L.; Rhede, D.; Keilonat, C.

2008-12-01

32

Rare earth element scavenging in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examinations of rare earth element (REE) adsorption in seawater, using a variety of surface-types, indicated that, for most surfaces, light rare earth elements (LREEs) are preferentially adsorbed compared to the heavy rare earths (HREEs). Exceptions to this behavior were observed only for silica phases (glass surfaces, acid-cleaned diatomaceous earth, and synthetic SiO 2). The affinity of the rare earths for surfaces can be strongly affected by thin organic coatings. Glass surfaces which acquired an organic coating through immersion in Tampa Bay exhibited adsorptive behavior typical of organic-rich, rather than glass, surfaces. Models of rare earth distributions between seawater and carboxylate-rich surfaces indicate that scavenging processes which involve such surfaces should exhibit a strong dependence on pH and carbonate complexation. Scavenging models involving carboxylate surfaces produce relative REE abundance patterns in good general agreement with observed shale-normalized REE abundances in seawater. Scavenging by carboxylate-rich surfaces should produce HREE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs and may produce enrichments of lanthanum relative to its immediate trivalent neighbors. Due to the origin of distribution coefficients as a difference between REE solution complexation (which increases strongly with atomic number) and surface complexation (which apparently also increases with atomic number) the relative solution abundance patterns of the REEs produced by scavenging reactions can be quite complex.

Byrne, Robert H.; Kim, Ki-Hyun

1990-10-01

33

Isotope fractionation in surface ionization ion source of alkaline-earth iodides  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between the isotope fractionation of alkaline-earth elements in the surface ionization ion source and the evaporation filament current, i.e., filament temperature, was studied. It was confirmed that the isotope fractionation depends on the evaporation filament temperature; the isotope fractionation in the case of higher temperature of filament becomes larger. The ionization and evaporation process in the surface ionization ion source was discussed, and it was concluded that the isotope fractionation is suppressed by setting at the lower temperature of evaporation filament because the dissociations are inhibited on the evaporation filament.

Suzuki, T.; Kanzaki, C.; Nomura, M.; Fujii, Y. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2012-02-15

34

Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (>230°C) percolating

Annie Michard

1989-01-01

35

Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids  

SciTech Connect

Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (> 230{degree}C) percolating through different rock types may show similar REE patterns.

Michard, A. (Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France))

1989-03-01

36

Preparation of microcapsules containing rare-earth metal elements.  

PubMed

Microcapsules for internal radiation therapies containing the rare-earth metal elements Dy, Ho and Cu with a diameter of 5-10 microm were successfully obtained by an interfacial polymerization method and a successive sedimentation technique was employed to fractionate the microcapsules. A triisocyanate monomer and tricresylphosphate were used for a wall forming material and a core solvent for the metals, respectively. The amount of the metal elements loaded was measured using a high frequency plasma photoemission apparatus. The beta-ray radioactivity of 1 mg of microcapsules irradiated with a common neutron source is estimated as 370 microCi, which is satisfactorily strong for usual radiotherapy, when microcapsules containing Dy are used. Differential interference microscopy indicated narrow size distribution of the fractionated microcapulses. PMID:11201336

Shimofure, S; Koizumi, S; Ichikawa, K; Ichikawa, H; Dobashi, T

2001-01-01

37

Leapfrog/finite element method for fractional diffusion equation.  

PubMed

We analyze a fully discrete leapfrog/Galerkin finite element method for the numerical solution of the space fractional order (fractional for simplicity) diffusion equation. The generalized fractional derivative spaces are defined in a bounded interval. And some related properties are further discussed for the following finite element analysis. Then the fractional diffusion equation is discretized in space by the finite element method and in time by the explicit leapfrog scheme. For the resulting fully discrete, conditionally stable scheme, we prove an L (2)-error bound of finite element accuracy and of second order in time. Numerical examples are included to confirm our theoretical analysis. PMID:24955431

Zhao, Zhengang; Zheng, Yunying

2014-01-01

38

Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

Dent, Peter C.

2012-04-01

39

Rare earth element distributions in recent and fossil apatite: implications for paleoceanography and stratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth element (REE) distributions in biogenic apatite were determined in over 200 samples from Cambrian to the Recent. Nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques were adapted for analysis of low-mass microfossil samples. Tests for chemical contamination, interspecies, interlaboratory and interexperiment variations show that there is no fractionation of REE, so that ratios of rare earths are consistent throughout the

1985-01-01

40

Rare-earth element geochemistry of the Samail ophiolite near Ibra, Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare-earth element (REE) analyses of 68 rocks and mineral separate samples from the Samail ophiolite clearly differentiate the various units of the ophiolite suite and indicate that the crustal suite is cogeneitc, produced by crystal fractionation of basaltic magma in a spreading ridge magma chamber. Mantle peridotities are residual in rare-earth character, but cannot be clearly related to the overlying

John S. Pallister; Roy J. Knight

1981-01-01

41

Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from mining to use to recycling quantifying the cycles for Japan, China and the U.S. as three representative types of consumers and paying attention to aspects of resource sustainability. Being well aware of the stages in the metal life cycle helps the sustainable development and policy making in long term. The goal is to consider REE resource availability, sustainability, and development strategies in the future that can sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted REE supply on the global market.

Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

2009-12-01

42

Rare earth elements-End use and recyclability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2011-01-01

43

Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system  

SciTech Connect

The term 'tipping point' commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here the authors introduce the term 'tipping element' to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. They critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and they assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then the authors explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

Lenton, T.M. [Univ. of East Anglia and Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich (GB). School of Environmental Sciences; Held, H.; Lucht, W.; Rahmstorf, S. [Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research (Germany); Kriegler, E. [Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research (Germany)]|[Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Engineering and Public Policy; Hall, J.W. [Newcastle Univ. and Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (GB). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences; Schellnhuber, H.J. [Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research (Germany)]|[Oxford Univ. and Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (GB). Environmental Change Inst.

2008-02-12

44

Siderophile elements and the earth's formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two comments on a work by Murthy (1991) concerning the abundances of siderophile elements in the earth's mantle are presented. In the first comment it is asserted that the basis of Murthy's extrapolation is the assumption that the Gibbs free energy change for the partitioning reaction is independent of temperature, and as this is generally not a valid assumption thermodynamically, and as this is contradicted by most experimental data, the issue of mantle siderophile elements remains unresolved. In the second comment it is asserted that the extrapolation method used by Murthy does not appear to be valid thermodynamically, and that an extrapolation based on generally accepted thermodynamic assumptions yields different results. In a reply, Murthy takes issue with the comments.

Jones, J. H.; Capobianco, C. J.; Drake, M. J.; O'Neill, Hugh

1992-01-01

45

Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system  

PubMed Central

The term “tipping point” commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here we introduce the term “tipping element” to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. We critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and we assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then we explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points. PMID:18258748

Lenton, Timothy M.; Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Hall, Jim W.; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2008-01-01

46

Chemical fractionations in meteorites--III. Major element fractionations in chondrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some 20 elements, including the major constituents of chondritic matter, are fractionated among the several chondrite classes. We have tried to explain these fractionations on the assumption that they occurred in the solar nebula, starting from material of carbonaceous chondrite composition. 1. (1) Lithophile elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Hf, Mg, Sc, Si, Th, Ti, U, Y, Zr, and lanthanides) may

J. W. Larimer; Edward Anders

1970-01-01

47

Rare earth elements in weathering profiles and sediments of Minnesota: Implications for provenance studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relative abundance of rare earth elements in sediments has been suggested as a tool for determining their source rocks. This correlation requires that weathering, erosion, and sedimentation do not alter the REE abundances, or do so in a predictable manner. We find that the rare earth elements are mobilized and fractionated by weathering, and that sediments derived from the weathered materials can display modifications of the original pattern of rare earth elements of some due to grain-size sorting of the weathered material. However, the REE distribution pattern of the provenance terrane can be recognized in the sediments.

Morey, G.B.; Setterholm, D.R.

1997-01-01

48

MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING RARE EARTH ELEMENT  

E-print Network

MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING RARE EARTH ELEMENT RECYCLING POTENTIALS IN THE EU-27 D Rochelle (F) SUMMARY: Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential for high-techology industrial sectors of EU-27 raw rare earth imports and exports and a methodology for data reconciliation which constitutes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

The chemistry of rare earth elements in the solar nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high concentration of rare earth elements (REE) in primitive CaS suggests that the REE along with the other normally lithophile elements form stable sulfides under the unusual conditions which existed during the formation of enstatite chrondites. In order to acquire a more quantitative framework in which to interpret these data, the behavior of the REE in systems with solar, or slightly fractionated solar, composition is being studied. These new data introduce modest changes in the behavior of some of the REE when compared to previous studies. For example, the largest differences are in the stabilities of the gaseous monoxides of Ce, Eu, Tb, Ho, and Tm, all of which now appear to be less stable than previously thought, and YbO(g) which is somewhat more stable. Much more significant are the changes in REE distribution in the gas phase in fractionated systems, especially those made more reducing by changing the C/O ratio from the solar value of 0.6 to about 1.0. In almost all cases, the exceptions being Eu, Tm and Yb whose elemental gaseous species dominate, the monosulfides become more abundant. Moreover, the solid oxides of Eu, Tm and Yb become less stable under more reducing conditions which, in effect, should reduce the condensation temperature of all REE in more reduced systems.

Larimer, J. W.; Bartholomay, H. A.; Fegley, B.

1984-01-01

50

Metal-silicate silicon isotope fractionation in enstatite meteorites and constraints on Earth's core formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon has long been considered a possible light element in Earth 's core. If differences in 30Si/ 28Si ratios between metal (core) and silicate (mantle and crust) can be quantified, silicon isotopes may be used to constrain the amount of this element in the core, and in so doing elucidate the conditions that attended Earth 's differentiation. We investigate Si-isotope fractionation between metal and silicate in metal-rich enstatite meteorites as an analogue for Earth 's differentiation. We report here a 5 to 6‰ difference in the 30Si/ 28Si ratio between Si in metal and Si in silicate in the aubrites (enstatite achondrites) Mount Egerton and Norton County. The meteorites are believed to have derived from enstatite chondrites by melting and thermal metamorphism with final equilibration at 1200 and 1130 ± 80 K, respectively. Using the measured silicate-metal Si-isotope fractionation in these rocks we obtain a temperature dependence for fractionation of ?Si={7.64×10±0.471?T, in agreement with independent experimental and theoretical determinations. The measured silicate-metal fractionation suggests a ˜ 0.8‰ difference in the 30Si/ 28Si ratio between Earth 's core and mantle at P/ T conditions relevant to core formation. Our results, based on thermodynamic calculations for Si solubility in iron-rich metal and the measured Si-isotopic silicate-metal fractionation, imply at least ˜ 6 wt.% Si in the core (depending on the exact ?30Si BSE-chondrite value). The Si-isotope data also require that oxygen fugacity in the lower mantle increased during or after the process of core segregation by 1 to 2 log units.

Ziegler, Karen; Young, Edward D.; Schauble, Edwin A.; Wasson, John T.

2010-07-01

51

Volatile element depletion and K-39/K-41 fractionation in lunar soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence for selective loss and isotopic fractionation (in the case of K) of volatile elements during formation of agglutinates by micrometeoritic bombardment of lunar soils is presented. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of volatile elements (K, Rb, Pb) and nonvolatile elements (U, Th, Ba, Sr, rare earths) in separates taken from soils 14163, 14259, 15041, 68501, and 71500 are examined. Rayleigh fractionation calculations applied to K-39/K-41 isotopic data indicate ten-fold recycling of bulk soil, to account for observed isotopic anomalies. The lunar soil fines fraction seems to be a site of deposition for volatile or labile Pb produced during agglutination. Local fines (below 75 microns) are viewed as representative of the parent material for agglutinates formed in situ by micrometeoritic impact. Magnetic separation of agglutinates from soil 68501 revealed a bimodal population, with one class comprising welded blocky magnetic glasses.

Church, S. E.; Tilton, G. R.; Wright, J. E.; Lee-Hu, C.-N.

1976-01-01

52

Rare earths and other trace elements in Luna 16 soil.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis has been made of four small samples of material brought to earth by the Luna 16 mission, with the aim to determine rare earths and other trace elements in these samples. The analytical results are tabulated, and the rare earth abundances are compared with the average for chondrites. A comparison is also made with the results of similar analyses of Apollo samples.

Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.

1972-01-01

53

Biogeochemistry of the rare-earth elements with particular reference to hickory trees  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hickory trees concentrate the rare-earth elements in their leaves to a phenomenal degree and may contain as much as 2300 p.p.m. of total rare earths based on the dry weight of the leaves. The average proportions of the individual elements (atomic percent of the total rare-earth elements) in the leaves are: Y 36, La 16, Ce 14, Pr 2, Nd 20, Sm 1, Eu 0.7, Gd 3, Tb 0.6, Dy 3, Ho 0.7, Er 2, Tm 0.2, Yb 1, and Lu 0.2. The similarity in the proportions of the rare-earth elements in the leaves and in the exchange complex of the soil on which the hickory trees grow indicates that the trees do not fractionate the rare earths appreciably. The variation of the rare-earth elements in the leaves and soils can be explained generally in terms of the relative abundance of the cerium group and the yttrium group, except for the element cerium. The large fluctuations in the proportion of cerium [Ce/(La + Nd) atomic ratios of 0.16 to 0.86] correlate with oxidation-reduction conditions in the soil profile. The substitution of dilute H2SO3 for dilute HC1 in the determination of available rare-earth elements brings about a large increase in the proportion of cerium that is extracted from an oxygenated subsoil. These relationships strongly suggest that quadrivalent cerium is present in oxygenated subsoil and is less available to plants than the other rare-earth elements that do not undergo such a change in valence. A few parts per billion of rare-earth elements have been detected in two samples of ground water. ?? 1958.

Robinson, W. O.; Bastron, H.; Murata, K. J.

1958-01-01

54

Paleoredox variations in ancient oceans recorded by rare earth elements in fossil apatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth element concentrations in biogenic apatite of conodonts, fish debris and inarticulate brachiopods were determined in over 200 samples from Cambrian to modern sediments. Tests for experimental bias caused by the chemicals used to separate fossils from the rock matrix and for interlaboratory, interexperiment or interspecies related variations clearly show that no resolvable fractionation of REE occurs. Incorporation of

Judith Wright; Hans Schrader; William T. Holser

1987-01-01

55

Rare earth elements as indicators of different marine depositional environments in chert and shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in rare earth element (REE) relative fractionations and total abundances in marine cherts and shales reflect the depositional location of the sediments. Based on cerium anomaly (Ce\\/Ce*) and total REE abundance (ΣREE) variations preserved in interbedded chert and shale sequences of the Franciscan assemblage, the Claremont Formation, and the Monterey Formation of coastal California, we can resolve three depositional

Richard W. Murray; D. L. Jones; M. R. Bruchholtz ten Brink; David C. Gerlach; G. Price Russ III

1990-01-01

56

The aquatic chemistry of rare earth elements in rivers and estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine how pH, colloids and salinity control the fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in river and estuarine waters. By using natural waters as the reaction media (river water from the Connecticut, Hudson and Mississippi Rivers) geochemical reactions can be studied in isolation from the large temporal and spatial variability inherent in river and

Edward R. Sholkovitz

1995-01-01

57

Partitioning of rare earth, alkali and alkaline earth elements between phenocrysts and acidic igneous magma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of rare earth, alkali and alkaline earth elements in phenocryst and groundmass components of pyroclastic dacites have been measured. Mafic mineral rare-earth partition coefficients are much larger in these dacites than in more basic rocks. This may be due to differences in host ion concentrations in basic and acidic magmas. Because of these high partition coefficients, especially for hornblende,

Hiroshi Nagasawa; Charles C. Schnetzler

1971-01-01

58

Systematic variation of rare-earth elements in cerium-earth minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a continuation of a study reported previously, rare-earth elements and thorium have been determined in monazite, allanite, cerite, bastnaesite, and a number of miscellaneous cerium-earth minerals. A quantity called sigma ( ), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce, and Pr, is proposed as an index of composition of all cerium-earth minerals with respect to

K. J. Murata; H. J. Rose Jr.; M. K. Carron; J. J. Glass

1957-01-01

59

Trapping of transuranium elements by the earth's magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for a transuranium element component of cosmic radiation has been carried out in high altitude balloon experiments. The trapping of high Z elements on orbits in the Earth's magnetic field may lead to a sufficient enhancement of the intensity of particle flux to make it possible to detect these elements by satellite experiments. Calculations are presented that predict the behavior of trapped particles as a function of the predicted flux and energy distribution of high Z elements incident on the Earth's magnetic field. Techniques are suggested for the detection of such particles. In addition, the possibility of production of transuranium elements in the recently discovered pulsars are discussed.

Bloom, J. L.; Eastlund, B. J.

1972-01-01

60

Fractionated space infrastructure for long-term earth observation missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fractionated spacecraft is a space system that distributes its functionalities, such as computation, communication, data storage, payload and even power generation, over several independent satellite modules that share those functionalities through a wireless link. This paper exploits this innovational architecture to design a space infrastructure that is able to accept and support multiple Earth Observation (EO) payload modules. In this paper the functional, physical and organizational architectures of the infrastructure are presented. To start with, EO programs utilizing monolithic spacecraft especially SPOT and Landsat programs are reviewed and analyzed to derive the inherent EO functional requirements. Then these functional requirements are integrated into an EO scenario based on a reference orbit typically for EO missions. Next, novel architectures of fractionated spacecraft are reviewed and the inherent non traditional attributes are summarized and classified in such a way to show their close interrelation with the EO functional requirements. Then four resources components: high bandwidth downlink component, data relay satellite communication component, mission data processor component and large volume data storage component are identified and designated to establish the EO space infrastructure. Based on those four components different physical architectures are designed for the specific scenario and then are evaluated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with eight selection criteria. Afterwards, the best option has been identified, which comprises four heterogeneous modules assigned to host those four resources components separately. Finally, this physical architecture is organized by means of the Multi-Agent System (MAS) theory, which fulfills best the EO non traditional requirements. The proposed organization is tailored for the autonomous operations of the fractionated infrastructure and is based on the peer-to-peer architecture. From a physica- and organizational perspective, the developed space infrastructure is able to self-adapt, self-optimize and self-configure to dynamic changes in various local environmental conditions.

Chu, Jing; Guo, Jian; Gill, E. K. A.

61

Earth, Air, Fire and Water in Our Elements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that everything is made of the four "elements", earth, air, fire and water, goes back to the ancient Greeks. In this article, the author talks about the origins of ideas about the elements. The author provides an account that attempts to summarise thousands of years of theoretical development of the elements in a thousand words or so.

Lievesley, Tara

2007-01-01

62

The rare earth element compositions of the Changjiang (Yangtze) and Huanghe (Yellow) river sediments  

E-print Network

The rare earth element compositions of the Changjiang (Yangtze) and Huanghe (Yellow) river were analyzed to characterize their rare earth element (REE) compositions. Although REE concentrations rights reserved. Keywords: rare earths; sediments; Huang He; Yangtze River 1. Introduction Rare earth

Yang, Shouye

63

Rare earth elements in soil and plant systems - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rare earth elements (REEs) form a chemically uniform group and include yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La) and the lanthanides\\u000a cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb),\\u000a dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and lutetium (Lu). Their average abundance in the\\u000a Earth’s crust range from 66µg g?1 in

Germund Tyler

2004-01-01

64

Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in Earth and Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Depletions of volatile siderophile elements (VSE; Ga, Ge, In, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cu, Cd) in mantles of Earth and Moon, constrain the origin of volatile elements in these bodies, and the overall depletion of volatile elements in Moon relative to Earth. A satisfactory explanation has remained elusive [1,2]. We examine the depletions of VSE in Earth and Moon and quantify the amount of depletion due to core formation and volatility of potential building blocks. We calculate the composition of the Earth's PUM during continuous accretion scenarios with constant and variable fO2. Results suggest that the VSE can be explained by a rather simple scenario of continuous accretion leading to a high PT metal-silicate equilibrium scenario that establishes the siderophile element content of Earth's PUM near the end of accretion [3]. Core formation models for the Moon explain most VSE, but calculated contents of In, Sn, and Zn (all with Tc < 750 K) are all still too high after core formation, and must therefore require an additional process to explain the depletions in the lunar mantle. We discuss possible processes including magmatic degassing, evaporation, condensation, and vapor-liquid fractionation in the lunar disk.

Righter, Kevin; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.; Nickodem, K.

2014-01-01

65

SPECTRAL DETERMINATION OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN ORE DEPOSITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of spectral determination for rare earth elements in minerals ; and ores is described. The spectral analysis of the concentrate is made after ; chemical separation of the total rare earths and extraction of cerium. The ; precision is about 20%. The \\

A. N. Zaidel; Z. N. Fafurina; P. P. Yakimova; S. S. Yakovleva

1960-01-01

66

A mathematical simulation of earth satellite explosion debris orbital elements  

E-print Network

A MATHEMATICAL SIKJLATION OF EARTH SATELLITE EXPLOSION DEBRIS ORBITAI ELEMENTS A Thesis WAYNE EDWARD NABREY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE... Nay 1970 Major Subject Nathematics A MATHEMATICAL SlmZATION OZ EARTH SATELLITE EXPLOSION DEBRIS ORBITAL ELEMENTS A Thesis WAI? EDWARD MABREY Approved as to style and content by: haxrman o ommi tee Head o epartment mber Member May 1...

Mabrey, Wayne Edward

2012-06-07

67

Rare earth element association with foraminifera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neodymium isotopes are becoming widely used as a palaeoceanographic tool for reconstructing the source and flow direction of water masses. A new method using planktonic foraminifera which have not been chemically cleaned has proven to be a promising means of avoiding contamination of the deep ocean palaeoceanographic signal by detrital material. However, the exact mechanism by which the Nd isotope signal from bottom waters becomes associated with planktonic foraminifera, the spatial distribution of rare earth element (REE) concentrations within the shell, and the possible mobility of REE ions during changing redox conditions, have not been fully investigated. Here we present REE concentration and Nd isotope data from mixed species of planktonic foraminifera taken from plankton tows, sediment traps and a sediment core from the NW Atlantic. We used multiple geochemical techniques to evaluate how, where and when REEs become associated with planktonic foraminifera as they settle through the water column, reside at the surface and are buried in the sediment. Analyses of foraminifera shells from plankton tows and sediment traps between 200 and 2938 m water depth indicate that only ˜20% of their associated Nd is biogenically incorporated into the calcite structure. The remaining 80% is associated with authigenic metal oxides and organic matter, which form in the water column, and remain extraneous to the carbonate structure. Remineralisation of these organic and authigenic phases releases ions back into solution and creates new binding sites, allowing the Nd isotope ratio to undergo partial equilibration with the ambient seawater, as the foraminifera fall through the water column. Analyses of fossil foraminifera shells from sediment cores show that their REE concentrations increase by up to 10-fold at the sediment-water interface, and acquire an isotopic signature of bottom water. Adsorption and complexation of REE3+ ions between the inner layers of calcite contributes significantly to elevated REE concentrations in foraminifera. The most likely source of REE ions at this stage of enrichment is from bottom waters and from the remineralisation of oxide phases which are in chemical equilibrium with the bottom waters. As planktonic foraminifera are buried below the sediment-water interface redox-sensitive ion concentrations are adjusted within the shells depending on the pore-water oxygen concentration. The concentration of ions which are passively redox sensitive, such as REE3+ ions, is also controlled to some extent by this process. We infer that (a) the Nd isotope signature of bottom water is preserved in planktonic foraminifera and (b) that it relies on the limited mobility of particle reactive REE3+ ions, aided in some environments by micron-scale precipitation of MnCO3. This study indicates that there may be sedimentary environments under which the bottom water Nd isotope signature is not preserved by planktonic foraminifera. Tests to validate other core sites must be carried out before downcore records can be used to interpret palaeoceanographic changes.

Roberts, Natalie L.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Elderfield, Henry; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Lomas, Michael W.

2012-10-01

68

Equilibrium distribution of rare earth elements between molten KCl-LiCl eutectic salt and liquid cadmium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distribution experiments for several rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Y) between molten KCl-LiCl eutectic salt and liquid Cd were carried out at 450, 500 and 600°C. The material balance of rare earth elements after reaching the equilibrium and their distribution and chemical states in a Cd sample frozen after the experiment were examined. The results suggested the formation of solid intermetallic compounds at the lower concentrations of rare earth metals dissolved in liquid Cd than those solubilities measured in the binary alloy system. The distribution coefficients of rare earth elements between two phases (mole fraction in the Cd phase divided by mole fraction in the salt phase) were determined at each temperature. These distribution coefficients were explained satisfactorily by using the activity coefficients of chlorides and metals in salt and Cd. Both the activity coefficients of metal and chloride caused a much smaller distribution coefficient of Y relative to those of other elements.

Sakata, Masahiro; Kurata, Masaki; Hijikata, Takatoshi; Inoue, Tadashi

1991-11-01

69

Attenuation of rare earth elements in a boreal estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on attenuation of rare earth elements (REE) when a boreal creek, acidified and loaded with REE and other metals as a result of wetland drainage, empties into a brackish-water estuary (salinity < 6‰). Surface water was collected in a transect from the creek mouth to the outer estuary, and settling (particulate) material in sediment traps moored at selected locations in the estuary. Ultrafiltration, high-resolution ICP-MS and modeling were applied on the waters, and a variety of chemical reagents were used to extract metals from the settling material. Aluminium, Fe and REE transported by the acidic creek were extensively removed in the inner/central estuary where the acidic water was neutralised, whereas Mn was relatively persistent in solution and thus redistributed to particles and deposited further down the estuary. The REE removal was caused by several contemporary mechanisms: co-precipitation with oxyhydroxides (mainly Al but also Fe), complexation with flocculating humic substances and sorption to suspended particles. Down estuary the dissolved REE pool, remaining after removal, was fractionated: the <1 kDa pool became depleted in the middle REE and the colloidal (0.45 ?m-1 kDa) pool depleted in the middle and heavy REE. This fractionation was controlled by the removal process, such that those REE with highest affinity for the settling particles became most depleted in the remaining dissolved pool. Modeling, based on Visual MINTEQ version 3.0 and the Stockholm Humic Model after revision and updating, predicted that the dissolved (<0.45 ?m) REE pool in the estuary is bound almost entirely to humic substances. Acid sulphate soils, the source of the REE and other metals in the creek water, are widespread on coastal plains worldwide and therefore the REE attenuation patterns and mechanisms identified in the studied estuary are relevant for recognition of similar geochemical processes and conditions in a variety of coastal locations.

Åström, Mats E.; Österholm, Peter; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Nystrand, Miriam; Peltola, Pasi; Nordmyr, Linda; Boman, Anton

2012-11-01

70

Separation of Rare-Earth Elements from Apatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interest in apatite deposits as possible economic sources for rare-earth elements (1, 2) focuses attention on the problems concerning separation of these elements from solutions containing a large amount of calcium phosphate. In this connection Werner et al. (3, 4) have investigated the extraction of these elements from nitric acid solutions of Kola-apatite by tri-isobutylphosphate and have shown that

A. O. Brunfelt

1973-01-01

71

Distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in plants from a rare earth ore area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in various plant species taken from a rare earth ore area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For a given plant, the REE patterns in root, leaf and host soil are different from each other. The REE distribution characteristics in roots of various

Z. Y. Zhang; Y. Q. Wang; F. L. Li; H. Q. Xiao; Z. F. Chai

2002-01-01

72

Concentration levels of rare-earth elements and thorium in plants from the Morro do Ferro environment as an indicator for the biological availability of transuranium elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants and soils from a natural thorium and rare-earth element occurrence (Morro do Ferro, Brazil) were analyzed by alpha spectrometry (Th) and ICP-AES (REE), after pre-concentration of the elements by solvent extraction, co-precipitation and ion exchange procedures. Leaching experiments with humic acid solutions and different soils were performed to estimate the fraction of elements biologically available. High concentrations of the

N. Miekeley; E. A. Casartelli; R. M. Dotto

1994-01-01

73

Concentrations of rare-earth elements in soils of the Prioksko-Terrasnyi state biospheric reserve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of rare-earth elements were studied in the profiles of soddy podburs and mucky-humus gley soils. The soil horizons differed significantly in the contents of Corg (0-26%), the physical clay (<0.01 mm) fraction (3-31%), the acidity (pH 4 to 5.5), and the presence/absence of Al-Fe-humus accumulations. The most significant relationship was observed between the concentrations of rare-earth elements and the physical clay content, particularly for Nd: x(Nd, mg/kg) = 7 + 1.6 y (fraction <0.01 mm, %). Weak biogenic accumulations in the upper horizons were observed for Nd, Ce, and Dy; Nd, Pr, and La accumulated in the Al-Fe-humus illuvial horizon. The concentrations of rare-earth elements in the studied soils formed the following sequence (mg/kg): Nd (20-101)-Ce (10-44)-La, Sm, Gd, Dy, Yb (3-20)-Pr (1-4)-Ho (0.1-0.4)-Tm, Lu, and Tl (0.0). A clear trend was observed to higher contents of even-numbered elements as compared with odd-numbered elements, excluding La.

Perelomov, L. V.; Asainova, Zh. S.; Yoshida, S.; Ivanov, I. V.

2012-10-01

74

Rare earth elements as a fingerprint of soil components solubilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retention of rare earth element (REE) in the soil profile are mainly controlled by three factors, (i) the stability of the primary REE-carrying minerals, (ii) the presence of secondary phases as clays and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and (ii) the concentration of colloidal organic matter (OM). Considering that each soil phases (mineral or organic) displays (ii) various surface properties, such as specific area, surface sites density and nature and (ii) their own REE distribution inherited from the rock weathering, their mobilization through various chemical reactions (dissolution, colloidal release….) may involve the development of various shaped REE patterns in the soil solutions. REE fractionation from the different soil phases may therefore be used to identify the response of the soil system to a particular chemical process such as reductive and/or acidic dissolution. To test this purpose, an organic-rich wetland soil sample was incubated under anaerobic condition at both pH 5 and uncontrolled pH. The REE patterns developed in the soil solution were then compared to the REE patterns obtained through either aerobic at pH 3 and 7 incubations or a chemical reduction experiment (using hydroxylamine). REE patterns in anaerobic and aerobic at pH 7 experiments exhibited the same middle rare earth element (MREE) downward concavity significant of the complexation of REE with soil OM. By contrast, under acidic condition, the REE pattern exhibited a positive Eu anomaly due to the dissolution of soil feldspar. Finally, REE pattern obtained from the chemical reducing experiment showed an intermediary flat shape corresponding to a mixing between the soil organic and mineral phases dissolution. The comparison of the various REE pattern shapes allowed to conclude that (i) biological reduction of wetland soil involved amorphous Fe(III) colloids linked to OM and, (ii) that the REE mobility was controlled by the dynamic of OM in wetland soil. They also evidence the potential of REE to be use as a tracer of the soil phases involved in the various chemical processes running in soil solutions.

Davranche, M.; Grybos, M.; Gruau, G.; Pédrot, M.; Dia, A.

2009-04-01

75

Rare earth elements in scleractinian cold-water corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rare Earth Elements (REE) have a great potential to trace continental input, particle scavenging and the oxidation state of seawater. These REE are recorded in the skeleton of the cosmopolitan cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa. Here we use an online preconcentration ICP-MS method (Hathorne et al. 2012) to measure REE concentrations in seawater and associated cold-water coral carbonates in order to investigate their seawater origin. Scleractinian cold-water corals were collected in-situ and alive and with corresponding seawater samples covering from the European Continental Margin. The seawater REE patterns are characterized by the typical negative cerium anomaly of seawater, but are distinct for the northern Norwegian Margin and the Oslo Fjord, probably related to continental input. Initial results for the corresponding coral samples suggest that these distinct REE patterns of ambient seawater are recorded by the coral skeletons although some fractionation during incorporation into the aragonite occurs. This indicates that scleractinian cold-water corals can serve as a valuable archive for seawater derived REE signatures, as well radiogenic Nd isotope compositions. In a second step we analysed fossil coral samples from various locations, which were oxidatively and reductively cleaned prior to analysis. Initial results reveal that sediment-buried fossil (early Pleistocene to Holocene) coral samples from the Norwegian Margin and the Porcupine Seabight (Challenger Mound, IODP Site 1317) do not show the expected seawater REE patterns. In particular, the fossil coral-derived REE patterns lack a negative cerium anomaly suggesting that fossil coral-REE patterns do not represent ambient seawater. Thus, we suggest that the oxidative-reductive cleaning method widely used for cleaning of marine carbonates such as foraminifera prior to measurements of seawater-derived trace metal and isotope compositions are not sufficient for REE and Nd isotopes in sediment-buried coral-water corals and require alternative or additional approaches. Hathorne, E.C., B. Haley, T. Stichel, P. Grasse, M. Zieringer, and M. Frank (2012). Online preconcentration ICP-MS analysis of rare earth elements in seawater, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst.,13, Q01020, doi:10.1029/2011GC003907. .

Raddatz, J.; Liebetrau, V.; Hathorne, E. C.; Rüggeberg, A.; Dullo, W.; Frank, M.

2012-12-01

76

Evaluation of the application of rare-earth elements to paleoceanography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous departures of rare-earth elements (REE) from similarity of chemical behaviour are most evident in a comparison of Ce with its neighbors. Under reducing conditions Ce3+ acts like other REE, but oxidized Ce4+ is adsorbed on Mn-, Fe-oxyhydroxides, or organic particulates, and consequently the remaining solution will tend to exhibit a negative Ce anomaly. In addition, more subtle fractionations may

William T. Holser

1997-01-01

77

Biologically mediated isotope fractionations - Biochemistry, geochemical significance and preservation in the earth's oldest sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preferential metabolization of isotopically light carbon and sulfur has resulted in a fractionation of the stable isotopes of these elements on a global scale, with the light species (C-12, S-32) markedly concentrated in biogenic materials. Since the biological effects are basically retained when carbon and sulfur are incorporated in sediments, the respective fractionations are propagated into the rock section of the geochemical cycle, this having consequently caused a characteristic bipartition of both elements between 'light' and 'heavy' crustal reservoirs. Preservation of the biological isotope effects in sedimentary rocks makes it possible to trace the underlying biochemical processes back over most of the geological record. According to the available evidence, biological (autotrophic) carbon fixation arose prior to 3.5(if not 3.8) billion years ago, while the emergence of dissimilatory sulfate reduction antedates the appearance of the oldest presumably bacteriogenic sulfur isotope patterns in rocks between 2.7 and 2.8 billion years old. Hence, biological control of the terrestrial carbon and sulfur cycles has been established very early in the earth's history.

Schidlowski, M.

1983-01-01

78

The incorporation of rare earth elements in modern coral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements of rare earth elements (REEs) which show that these trace elements are being incorporated in modern coral in proportion to their seawater concentrations. Four Bermuda North Rock coral species, Diploria strigosa, Diploria labyrinthiformis, Montastrea annularis, and Porites astreoides and two Tarawa atoll samples of the species Hydnophora microconos were analyzed by TI-IDMS following cleaning techniques to isolate the lattice-bound REEs. Based on the replicate analyses of the same piece of Diploria strigosa, excellent reproducibility was achieved. The REE/Ca ratios (0.1-3 nmol/mol) of the Bermuda and Tarawa corals are similar to those of Cd/Ca, the trace metal with the lowest seawater concentration used in coral studies. With the exception of Ce, the distribution coefficients (e.g., DNd = [Nd coral/Nd seawater] × [Ca seawater/Ca coral]) between Bermuda coral lattice and Sargasso seawater have fairly flat patterns across the REE series. The values of D range from 1 to 3, like those reported for other trace elements in corals. This suggests, but does not prove, that REEs are incorporated in the aragonite lattice of these corals. The shale-normalized REE patterns of the Tarawa corals also have seawater-like distributions; however, no local seawater data are available to calculate values of D. Two Bermuda species (D. labyrinthiformis and P. astreoides) have values of D for Ce that are high with respect to the D values of La and Nd, implying that there is preferential uptake of Ce into the lattice. This may be related to the fact that Ce is the only REE with an active redox chemistry in seawater. There is considerable interest in using the chemical and isotopic composition of coral as indicators of climatic variations. The combination of REE/Ca ratios and neodymium isotopic composition of coral has the potential to help understand important natural processes. A primary application could be directed toward a tracer for river water discharge in tropical regions and, by inference, a proxy for rainfall, climate variation, and weathering history. This application would exploit the fractionated composition of REEs in river water as a terrigenous signature in coastal corals.

Sholkovitz, Edward; Shen, Glen T.

1995-07-01

79

Anthropogenic disturbance of element cycles at the Earth's surface.  

PubMed

The extent to which humans are modifying Earth's surface chemistry can be quantified by comparing total anthropogenic element fluxes with their natural counterparts (Klee and Graedel, 2004). We quantify anthropogenic mass transfer of 77 elements from mining, fossil fuel burning, biomass burning, construction activities, and human apportionment of terrestrial net primary productivity, and compare it to natural mass transfer from terrestrial and marine net primary productivity, riverine dissolved and suspended matter fluxes to the ocean, soil erosion, eolian dust, sea-salt spray, cosmic dust, volcanic emissions, and for helium, hydrodynamic escape from the Earth's atmosphere. We introduce an approach to correct for losses during industrial processing of elements belonging to geochemically coherent groups, and explicitly incorporate uncertainties of element mass fluxes through Monte Carlo simulations. We find that at the Earth's surface anthropogenic fluxes of iridium, osmium, helium, gold, ruthenium, antimony, platinum, palladium, rhenium, rhodium and chromium currently exceed natural fluxes. For these elements mining is the major factor of anthropogenic influence, whereas petroleum burning strongly influences the surficial cycle of rhenium. Our assessment indicates that if anthropogenic contributions to soil erosion and eolian dust are considered, anthropogenic fluxes of up to 62 elements surpass their corresponding natural fluxes. PMID:22803636

Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

2012-08-21

80

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND ELEMENT FRACTIONATION IN EV Lac  

SciTech Connect

We present a 100 ks Suzaku observation of the dMe flare star EV Lac, in which the star was captured undergoing a moderate 1500 s flare. During the flare, the count rate increased by about a factor of 50 and the spectrum showed overall enhanced element abundances relative to quiescence. While the quiescent element abundances confirm the inverse first ionization potential (FIP) effect previously documented for EV Lac, with relatively higher depletions for low FIP elements, abundances during the flare spectra show a composition closer to that of the stellar photosphere. We discuss these results in the context of models that explain abundance fractionation in the stellar chromosphere as a result of the ponderomotive force due to Alfven waves. Stars with FIP or inverse FIP effects arising from differently directed ponderomotive forces may have quite different abundance signatures in their evaporated chromospheric plasma during flares, if the same ponderomotive force also affects thermal conduction downward from the corona. The regulation of the thermal conductivity by the ponderomotive force requires a level of turbulence that is somewhat higher than is normally assumed, but plausible in filamentary conduction models.

Laming, J. Martin [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7674L, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hwang, Una, E-mail: Una.Hwang-1@nasa.go [NASA/GSFC Code 662, Greenbelt MD 20771, and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2009-12-10

81

A rare earth element signature of bacteria in natural waters?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns between bacteria and water for five different bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) exhibit a steep increase in the heavy REE (HREE) part of the distribution pattern and a weak peak around the middle REE (MREE) part. Though the REE patterns for B.

Yoshio Takahashi; Taeko Hirata; Hiroshi Shimizu; Takuo Ozaki; Danielle Fortin

2007-01-01

82

Miocene Coral Skeleton Rare Earth Element Patterns Reflect River Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns of modern coral skeletons usually reflect the REE composition of ambient seawater which is characterized by heavy REE enriched relative to light REE with NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized La/Lu ratios of typically <0.4. The REE concentration in coral aragonite is enriched by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude compared to ambient seawater. Here we report trace element data including REE of coral skeletons of Late Miocene age (~9 Ma, Tortonian) from Crete (Eastern Mediterranean). Analyses were done using a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser coupled to an Element2 ICP-MS along the growth axis of the coral skeletons. The profiles show that Ba/Ca ratios have a seasonally induced pattern with high values around the winter months which are identified by ?18O analyses. REE/Ca ratios co-vary with Ba/Ca ratios. Since the Ba/Ca ratio is a proxy used to monitor river discharge, the co-variation suggests the REE/Ca ratio to be a proxy of comparable quality. NASC-normalized REE patterns of the Tortonian corals have negative Ce anomalies like modern corals. However, the Tortonian corals have REE patterns highly enriched in LREE with (La/Lu)N ratios of 4 to 30 which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to modern corals. Al concentrations are low (<10 ppm) and do not correlate with REE concentrations indicating an insignificant fraction of terrigenous material included in the skeleton. Applying distribution coefficients typical for modern corals, the REE composition of the Tortonian ambient water yields (La/Lu)N of about 2 to 16. This range can be explained by binary mixing of modern Eastern Mediterranean sea surface water ((La/Lu)N=0.35, sea surface salinity (SSS) ~38 ‰) with highly LREE-enriched river water ((La/Lu)N >3, salinity ~0.5 ‰) transporting suspended and colloid phases, also highly enriched, especially in LREE, at a ratio of ~9 (seawater):1 (river water). The river water component is considered because paleoenvironmental reconstructions suggest the reef to have grown close to a river mouth. The calculated mixing ratio corresponds to a SSS of the ambient water >34 ‰ compatible with environmental conditions favorable for coral growth. As possible sources of the REE transported by river water, weathering products of Cretan hinterland rocks must be considered. During the Miocene, drained hinterland was formed by a diversity of magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary lithologies, essentially represented by granitoids, ophiolitic rocks, siliciclastic sediments and carbonates. A detailed identification of sources as well as quantification of corresponding fractions of REE contributing to the bulk river water component is principally possible in cases where the drained system shows a more limited variation in rock lithologies, however, is difficult to apply to the complex Cretan situation. This study demonstrates that the REE patterns of coral skeletons can be suitable to reconstruct the bulk REE composition of the drainage system in the reef’s hinterland. Also, we suggest to use REE/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios likewise in order to identify fluctuations in river discharge to marine environments.

Mertz-Kraus, R.; Brachert, T. C.; Jochum, K. P.

2010-12-01

83

Biological availability and environmental behaviour of Rare Earth Elements in soils of Hesse, Central Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise a group of 17 transition metals with very similar chemical and physical properties. They include the elements scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) and the 14 elements (cerium to lutetium) that follow La in the periodic table. Their average abundance in the earth's crust varies from 0,01 to 0,02% so they are as common as Cu and Pb. Beside their widespread use in industry, REEs are applied in Chinese agriculture. Their beneficial effects both on crop yield and on animal production are reported in various investigations. As a result - by using microelement fertilisers and manure - REEs enter the pedosphere while their fate and behaviour in the environment up to now remains unexamined. The first aim of our investigation was to evaluate the concentration of REEs in agricultural used soils in central Germany (Hesse) by ICP-MS. In addition to their total concentration (aqua regia digestion) their bioavailable contents - determined by EDTA (potentially available fraction) and ammonium nitrate extraction (mobile fraction) - were analysed. The occurrence of the three REE fractions in different soils will be discussed and influencing soil properties (e.g. pH-value, content of clay and organic carbon) will be revealed. Additionally the uptake of REEs by grassland plants was determined and resulting transfer factors will be presented.

Loell, M.; Duering, R.-A.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

2009-04-01

84

Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements.  

PubMed

The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies. PMID:23602698

Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

2013-09-01

85

Rare earth element budgets in subduction-zone fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction zone fluids play a fundamental role in the geochemical cycle of the Earth. The nature and composition of these fluids are determined by complex processes and still poorly understood. As a result of a variety of metasomatic and partial melting events, arc-related magmas display a typical trace element abundance spectrum, in which the rare earth elements' (REE) signature is an important record of petrogenetic processes. Therefore, investigating the behavior of REE in fluids at high pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions is crucial for constraining fluid composition, as well as understanding subduction-zone processes in general. However, up to date, the experimental studies on REE solubility and speciation are limited to quite low P-T conditions (300 °C, saturated water vapor pressure) [1]. The theoretical predictions of the stability of REE complexes have been performed up to 350 °C [2] and 1000 °C, 0.5 GPa [3] by the extrapolation of thermodynamic data obtained at ambient conditions. In this study we present new experimental data on REE silicate (REE2Si2O7) solubility in aqueous quartz saturated fluids, containing various ligands, at conditions relevant for subducting slabs (600, 700, 800 °C, 2.6 GPa). The aim of the experiments was to investigate the relative effect of temperature and ligands on the solubility of REE. The experiments were conducted in an end-loaded piston-cylinder apparatus and the fluids were in situ sampled at P-T in the form of primary fluid inclusions in quartz [4]. The gold capsule was typically loaded with a chip of synthetic REE silicate (La,Nd,Gd,Dy,Er,Yb)2Si2O7, an aqueous fluid (~20 wt.%) and a piece of natural quartz. During the experiment (24-48 h) a thermal gradient along the capsule promoted intensive dissolution of quartz at the hottest part and precipitation of new quartz at the cooler part of the capsule, allowing the primary fluid inclusions to be trapped (~30-50 ?m). Rubidium and cesium were added to the fluid as the internal standards for LA-ICPMS analyses. The solubility of REE in quartz saturated water, free of additional ligands, increases more than an order of magnitude as temperature is increased from 600 °C to 800 °C. The effect of halogen ligands (Cl-, F-) on the solubility of REE was tested on experiments conducted at 800 °C. Addition of 1.5 m NaCl enhances the solubilities of all REE by a factor of 2 to 4 and induces moderate LREE/HREE fractionation; the La/Yb ratio increases by factor of 2. Unlike chlorine, the presence of fluorine ligands in the fluid (0.3 m NaF) promotes increase in HREE solubilities with almost no change in LREE solubilities compared to water, hence decreasing the La/Yb ratio by a factor of 2. The results of our experiments suggest that temperature plays an important role in mobilization of all REE by fluids. The presence of Cl- and F- ligands in the fluid shows opposing effects on the REE pattern: Cl- seems to be a more efficient ligand for LREE, while F- tends to form more stable complexes with HREE. [1] Migdisov A. A. et al., 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 73, 7087-7109 [2] Wood S. A. 1990b, Chem Geo., 82, 159-186 [3] Haas J. R. 1995, Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 59, 4329-4350 [4] Bali E. et al., 2011, Contrib Mineral Petrol, 161, 597-613

Tsay, A.; Zajacz, Z.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

2012-12-01

86

The estuarine chemistry of rare earth elements: comparison of the Amazon, Fly, Sepik and the Gulf of Papua systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the Amazon, Fly\\/Gulf of Papua and Sepik River systems has shown that there are two distinct processes operating on dissolved rare earth elements (REE) in estuaries, large scale salt-induced coagulation in the low salinity region and small to extensive release in the mid to high salinity region. Fractionation of the REE occurs during both removal and release.

Edward Sholkovitz; Ronald Szymczak

2000-01-01

87

Removal of Phosphorus in Metallurgical Silicon by Rare Earth Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of phosphorus in metallurgical silicon is one of the crucial steps for the production of solar grade Si feedstock. The possibility of doping rare earth elements for phosphorus removal has in this work been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Thermochemical properties of Ce, Nd, and Pr monophosphides have first been estimated by ab initio thermodynamic simulations based on density functional theory and the direct phonon method. The reliability of the first principles calculations was assessed by coupling with the phase diagram data of the Pr-P system. Equilibrium calculations confirmed the existence of stable rare earth monophosphides in solid silicon. Experimental investigations were then carried out, employing a high temperature resistance furnace. The Ce-doped silicon samples were examined by electron probe micro analyzer and inductively coupled plasma analysis. The efficiency of phosphorus removal by means of rare earth doping was discussed in detail in the paper.

Tang, Kai; Løvvik, Ole Martin; Safarian, Jafar; Ma, Xiang; Tangstad, Merete

2014-09-01

88

The composition of size-fractionated pulverised coal and the trace element associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major and trace element analyses have been performed on size fractions of a pulverised coal from Eggborough Power Station (UK). Minerals are concentrated in the fractions less than 10?m in size and there is relative enrichment of pyrite in the fractions greater than 50?m. Because of the compositional variation with size it is possible to proportion statistically the elements between,

D. A. Spears; C. A. Booth

2002-01-01

89

Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the compositional and phase relationships among minerals in which rare earth elements (REE) occur as essential constituents (e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite). Particular consideration is given to the vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals and to the REE partitioning between minerals as related to the acid-base tendencies and mineral stabilities. It is shown that the treatment of coupled substitutions as vector quantities facilitates graphical representation of mineral composition spaces.

Burt, D. M.

1990-01-01

90

NREL Highlights SCIENCE These polycrystalline cells use Earth-abundant elements.  

E-print Network

NREL Highlights SCIENCE These polycrystalline cells use Earth-abundant elements. NREL scientists (CZTSe) solar cells, which are based on non-toxic, Earth-abundant elements. Recently, NREL demonstrated

91

Lanthanide contraction and magnetism in the heavy rare earth elements.  

PubMed

The heavy rare earth elements crystallize into hexagonally close packed (h.c.p.) structures and share a common outer electronic configuration, differing only in the number of 4f electrons they have. These chemically inert 4f electrons set up localized magnetic moments, which are coupled via an indirect exchange interaction involving the conduction electrons. This leads to the formation of a wide variety of magnetic structures, the periodicities of which are often incommensurate with the underlying crystal lattice. Such incommensurate ordering is associated with a 'webbed' topology of the momentum space surface separating the occupied and unoccupied electron states (the Fermi surface). The shape of this surface-and hence the magnetic structure-for the heavy rare earth elements is known to depend on the ratio of the interplanar spacing c and the interatomic, intraplanar spacing a of the h.c.p. lattice. A theoretical understanding of this problem is, however, far from complete. Here, using gadolinium as a prototype for all the heavy rare earth elements, we generate a unified magnetic phase diagram, which unequivocally links the magnetic structures of the heavy rare earths to their lattice parameters. In addition to verifying the importance of the c/a ratio, we find that the atomic unit cell volume plays a separate, distinct role in determining the magnetic properties: we show that the trend from ferromagnetism to incommensurate ordering as atomic number increases is connected to the concomitant decrease in unit cell volume. This volume decrease occurs because of the so-called lanthanide contraction, where the addition of electrons to the poorly shielding 4f orbitals leads to an increase in effective nuclear charge and, correspondingly, a decrease in ionic radii. PMID:17410171

Hughes, I D; Däne, M; Ernst, A; Hergert, W; Lüders, M; Poulter, J; Staunton, J B; Svane, A; Szotek, Z; Temmerman, W M

2007-04-01

92

Lanthanide contraction and magnetism in the heavy rare earth elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heavy rare earth elements crystallize into hexagonally close packed (h.c.p.) structures and share a common outer electronic configuration, differing only in the number of 4f electrons they have. These chemically inert 4f electrons set up localized magnetic moments, which are coupled via an indirect exchange interaction involving the conduction electrons. This leads to the formation of a wide variety of magnetic structures, the periodicities of which are often incommensurate with the underlying crystal lattice. Such incommensurate ordering is associated with a `webbed' topology of the momentum space surface separating the occupied and unoccupied electron states (the Fermi surface). The shape of this surface-and hence the magnetic structure-for the heavy rare earth elements is known to depend on the ratio of the interplanar spacing c and the interatomic, intraplanar spacing a of the h.c.p. lattice. A theoretical understanding of this problem is, however, far from complete. Here, using gadolinium as a prototype for all the heavy rare earth elements, we generate a unified magnetic phase diagram, which unequivocally links the magnetic structures of the heavy rare earths to their lattice parameters. In addition to verifying the importance of the c/a ratio, we find that the atomic unit cell volume plays a separate, distinct role in determining the magnetic properties: we show that the trend from ferromagnetism to incommensurate ordering as atomic number increases is connected to the concomitant decrease in unit cell volume. This volume decrease occurs because of the so-called lanthanide contraction, where the addition of electrons to the poorly shielding 4f orbitals leads to an increase in effective nuclear charge and, correspondingly, a decrease in ionic radii.

Hughes, I. D.; Däne, M.; Ernst, A.; Hergert, W.; Lüders, M.; Poulter, J.; Staunton, J. B.; Svane, A.; Szotek, Z.; Temmerman, W. M.

2007-04-01

93

Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements  

PubMed Central

The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements. PMID:22355662

Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

2011-01-01

94

Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

2011-11-01

95

Hydrogeochemistry and rare earth element behavior in a volcanically acidified watershed in Patagonia, Argentina  

E-print Network

Hydrogeochemistry and rare earth element behavior in a volcanically acidified watershed and analyzed for major ions, trace metals, and rare earth elements (REE). The concentrations of REE in the Rio to oxidation of sulfide minerals. D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Rare earth elements

Royer, Dana

96

Rare Earth Elements--Critical Resources for High Technology U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-print Network

Rare Earth Elements--Critical Resources for High Technology U.S. Department of the Interior U H The rare earth elements (REE) form the largest chemically coherent group in the periodic table of hydrogen for a post-hydro- carbon economy). Some Applications of the Rare Earth Elements Many applications

97

Speciation of adsorbed yttrium and rare earth elements on oxide surfaces  

E-print Network

Speciation of adsorbed yttrium and rare earth elements on oxide surfaces Wojciech Piasecki, Dimitri 10 June 2008 Abstract The distribution of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREE) between natural investigate the applicability of the X-ray results to rare earth elements and to several oxides in addition

Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

98

The Effect of Rare Earth Elements, Temperature and Rolling Speed on the Microstructure Evolution of Magnesium  

E-print Network

The Effect of Rare Earth Elements, Temperature and Rolling Speed on the Microstructure Evolution ·Rare earth elements are the current focus of study due to: Ability to weaken the rolling texture of Aluminum Abundance: 8th most abundant element in Earth's crust (2% by mass) ·These properties can serve

Barthelat, Francois

99

Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells Lihong Wanga,b,1  

E-print Network

Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells Lihong Wanga,b,1 , Jigang Lic,d,1 , Qing (sent for review May 15, 2014) It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate, such as rare earth elements (REEs), have been observed for a long time to be beneficial to plant growth (1, 2

Deng, Xing-Wang

100

Rare Earth Elements--End Use and Recyclability Scientific Investigations Report 20115094  

E-print Network

Rare Earth Elements--End Use and Recyclability Scientific Investigations Report 2011­5094 U outside of China. Photograph by Dan Cordier, U.S. Geological Survey. #12;Rare Earth Elements--End Use materials contained within this report. Suggested citation: Goonan, T.G., 2011, Rare earth elements--End use

101

The Earth Based Ground Stations Element of the Lunar Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) is responsible for developing a concept for building and supporting a lunar outpost with several exploration capabilities such as rovers, colonization, and observatories. The lunar outpost is planned to be located at the Moon's South Pole. The LAT Communications and Navigation Team (C&N) is responsible for defining the network infrastructure to support the lunar outpost. The following elements are needed to support lunar outpost activities: A Lunar surface network based on industry standard wireless 802.xx protocols, relay satellites positioned 180 degrees apart to provide South Pole coverage for the half of the lunar 28-day orbit that is obscured from Earth view, earth-based ground stations deployed at geographical locations 120 degrees apart. This paper will focus on the Earth ground stations of the lunar architecture. Two types of ground station networks are discussed. One provides Direct to Earth (DTE) support to lunar users using Kaband 23/26Giga-Hertz (GHz) communication frequencies. The second supports the Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) that will be using Ka-band 40/37GHz (Q-band). This paper will discuss strategies to provide a robust operational network in support of various lunar missions and trades of building new antennas at non-NASA facilities, to improve coverage and provide site diversification for handling rain attenuation.

Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Fatig, Curtis; Schier, James; Lee, Charles

2007-01-01

102

Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare-earth elements are essential constituents, e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals (zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet) are also derived. Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented. As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together.

Burt, D. M.

1989-01-01

103

COLORS OF A SECOND EARTH: ESTIMATING THE FRACTIONAL AREAS OF OCEAN, LAND, AND VEGETATION OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS  

SciTech Connect

Characterizing the surfaces of rocky exoplanets via their scattered light will be an essential challenge in investigating their habitability and the possible existence of life on their surfaces. We present a reconstruction method for fractional areas of different surface types from the colors of an Earth-like exoplanet. We create mock light curves for Earth without clouds using empirical data. These light curves are fitted to an isotropic scattering model consisting of four surface types: ocean, soil, snow, and vegetation. In an idealized situation where the photometric errors are only photon shot noise, we are able to reproduce the fractional areas of those components fairly well. The results offer some hope for detection of vegetation via the distinct spectral feature of photosynthesis on Earth, known as the red edge. In our reconstruction method, Rayleigh scattering due to the atmosphere plays an important role, and for terrestrial exoplanets with an atmosphere similar to our Earth, it is possible to estimate the presence of oceans and an atmosphere simultaneously.

Fujii, Yuka; Kawahara, Hajime; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Fukuda, Satoru; Nakajima, Teruyuki [Center of Climate System Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: yuka.fujii@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2010-06-01

104

Enrichment of rare earth and alkaline-earth elements by countercurrent electromigration in room temperature molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the recovery of the electrochemically negative elements such as the rare earth and the alkaline-earth elements, it is important to develop the recycle process which has less potential hazards. For this purpose, we have proposed the novel environmental harmonization process using the room temperature molten salts substituted for the high-temperature pyrometallurgical processes. The countercurrent electromigration methods using ammonium imide

Masahiko Matsumiya; Kiyotaka Tokuraku; Haruaki Matsuura; Ken-ichi Hinoue

2005-01-01

105

Standard reference water samples for rare earth element determinations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Standard reference water samples (SRWS) were collected from two mine sites, one near Ophir, CO, USA and the other near Redding, CA, USA. The samples were filtered, preserved, and analyzed for rare earth element (REE) concentrations (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These two samples were acid mine waters with elevated concentrations of REEs (0.45-161 ??g/1). Seventeen international laboratories participated in a 'round-robin' chemical analysis program, which made it possible to evaluate the data by robust statistical procedures that are insensitive to outliers. The resulting most probable values are reported. Ten to 15 of the participants also reported values for Ba, Y, and Sc. Field parameters, major ion, and other trace element concentrations, not subject to statistical evaluation, are provided.

Verplanck, P.L.; Antweiler, R.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Taylor, H.E.

2001-01-01

106

Magnetic property improvement of niobium doped with rare earth elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new idea is proposed by the PKU group to improve the magnetic properties of the Type-II superconductor niobium. Rare earth elements like scandium and yttrium are doped into ingot niobium during the smelting processes. A series of experiments have been done since 2010. The preliminary testing results show that the magnetic properties of niobium materials have changed with different doping elements and proportions while the superconductive transition temperature does not change very much. This method may increase the superheating magnetic field of niobium so as to improve the performance of the niobium cavity, which is a key component of SRF accelerators. A Tesla-type single-cell cavity made of scandium-doped niobium is being fabricated.

Jiang, Tao; He, Fei-Si; Jiao, Fei; He, Fa; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Zhao, Kui; Zhao, Hong-Yun; You, Yu-Song; Chen, Lin

2014-05-01

107

Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.  

PubMed

The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies. PMID:24489809

Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B; Cohen, Serge X; Thiaudière, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clément, Gaël; Bertrand, Loïc

2014-01-01

108

Trace Elemental Imaging of Rare Earth Elements Discriminates Tissues at Microscale in Flat Fossils  

PubMed Central

The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies. PMID:24489809

Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B.; Cohen, Serge X.; Thiaudiere, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clement, Gael; Bertrand, Loic

2014-01-01

109

Distribution of rare earth elements and uranium in various components of ordinary chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth elements (REE) and uranium were studied for their distributions in various component phases of four ordinary chondrites. Kesen (H4), Richardton (H5), Bruderheim (L6), and Saint Severin (LL6). A selective dissolution method was applied for the phase fractionation. The REE were analysed by neutron activation analysis, and U was determined by neutron-induced fission tracks. The present study revealed that both REE and U are highly enriched in the Ca-phosphate minerals with different enrichment factors, implying chemical fractionation between them. The phosphates seem to be responsible for more than 80 percent of the light REE in all chondrites. On the other hand, only 20-40 percent of the total U resides in the Ca-phosphates. This difference in enrichments might have been caused through the levels of metamorphic activity on the meteoritic parent bodies.

Ebihara, M.; Honda, M.

1984-06-01

110

Trace element evolution in the Phlegrean Fields (Central Italy): fractional crystallization and selective enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace element analysis of Phlegrean Fields volcanic products shows that they belong to a homogeneous series whose evolution is due mainly to fractional crystallization. However quantitative modelling of crystal fractionation using measured mineral\\/groundmass and computed bulk distribution coefficients singles out K, Sb, Cl and F as elements which are selectively enriched in the differentiation process with respect to proven hygromagmaphile

Benoit Villemant; CNRS UA

1988-01-01

111

Interoceanic variation in the rare earth, major, and trace element depositional chemistry of chert: Perspectives gained from the DSDP and ODP record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth element (REE), major, and trace element abundances and relative fractionations in forty nodular cherts sampled by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) indicate that the REE composition of chert records the interplay between terrigenous sources and scavenging from the local seawater. Chert from the large Pacific Ocean, where deposition occurs relatively removed from

R. W. Murray; D. L. Jones; M. R. Buchholtz Ten Brink; D. C. Gerlach; G. P. Russ

1992-01-01

112

Composition, characteristic and activity of rare earth element-bound polysaccharide from tea.  

PubMed

The compositions and structural characteristics of rare earth elements-bound polysaccharides from tea (REE-TPS) were studied with the methods of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The results show that polysaccharide from tea (TPS) was a sort of glycoprotein and coordinated with Rare Earth Elements (REE) closely. The sugar fraction was composed of Rha, Ara, Xyl, Fuc, Glc, and Gal. There existed almost all natural amino acids with Glx, Asx, and Hyp as the major parts in the protein fraction. The REEs in REE-TPS were mainly composed of La, Ce, and Nd, especially, more than 75% of them was La. The coordination atom of the first coordination shell of La in REE-TPS was oxygen, the coordination number of which was 6, and the average distance between the atoms was 2.52 A. The second shell was formed from sulfur atoms, the coordination number and the average distance were 3 and 2.91 A, respectively. The bio-experiments show that REE-TPS could decrease the content of blood glucose in mice significantly. PMID:11676010

Wang, D; Wang, C; Zhao, G; Wei, Z; Tao, Y; Liang, X

2001-09-01

113

Rare earth elements in the phosphatic-enriched sediment of the Peru shelf  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Apatite-enriched materials from the Peru shelf have been analyzed for their major oxide and rare earth element (REE) concentrations. The samples consist of (1) the fine fraction of sediment, mostly clay material, (2) phosphatic pellets and fish debris, which are dispersed throughout the fine-grained sediment, (3) tabular-shaped phosphatic crusts, which occur within the uppermost few centimeters of sediment, and (4) phosphatic nodules, which occur on the seafloor. The bulk REE concentrations of the concretions suggest that these elements are partitioned between the enclosed detrital material and the apatite fraction. Analysis of the fine-grained sediment with which the samples are associated suggested that this detrital fraction in the concretions should have shale REE values; the analysis of the fish debris suggested that the apatite fraction might have seawater values. The seawater contribution of REE's is negligible in the nodules and crust, in which the apatite occurs as a fine-grained interstitial cement. That is, the concentration of REE's and the REE patterns are predominantly a function of the amount of enclosed fine-grained sediment. By contrast, the REE pattern of the pelletal apatite suggests a seawater source and the absolute REE concentrations are relatively high. The REE P2O5 ratios of the apatite fraction of these samples thus vary from approximately zero (in the case of the crust and nodules) to as much as approximately 1.2 ?? 10-3 (in the case of the pellets). The range of this ratio suggests that rather subtle variations in the depositional environment might cause a significant variation in the REE content of this authigenic fraction of the sediment. Pelletal glauconite was also recovered from one sediment core. Its REE concentrations closely resemble those of the fish debris. ?? 1988.

Piper, D.Z.; Baedecker, P.A.; Crock, J.G.; Burnett, W.C.; Loebner, B.J.

1988-01-01

114

The elements of the Earth's magnetism and their secular changes between 1550 and 1915  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an investigation about the magnetic agents outside the Earth's surface as well as the Earth's magnetic elements for the epochs 1550, 1900, 1915 are presented. The secular changes of the Earth's magnetic elements during the time interval 1550 - 1900 are also included.

Fritsche, H.

1983-01-01

115

Insights into early Earth from Barberton komatiites: Evidence from lithophile isotope and trace element systematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major, minor, and lithophile trace element abundances and Nd and Hf isotope systematics are reported for two sets of remarkably fresh, by Archean standards, samples of komatiitic lavas from the 3.48 Ga Komati and the 3.27 Ga Weltevreden Formations of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa. These data are used to place new constraints on the thermal history of the early Archean mantle, on the timing of its differentiation, and on the origin and chemical nature of early mantle reservoirs and their evolution through time. Projected moderate to strong depletions of highly incompatible lithophile trace elements and water in the mantle sources of both komatiite systems, combined with the partitioning behavior of V during lava differentiation, are consistent with anhydrous conditions during generation of the komatiite magmas. Komati and Weltevreden lavas are inferred to have erupted with temperatures of ?1600 °C, and, thus, represent the hottest known lavas on Earth. The calculated mantle potential temperatures of ?1800 °C for both komatiite systems are 150-200 °C higher than those of contemporary ambient mantle. Combined, these observations are consistent with the origin of these BGB komatiite magmas in mantle plumes in the lower mantle. New Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic data allow precise determination of initial ?143Nd = +0.46 ± 0.10 and +0.50 ± 0.11 and initial ?176Hf = +1.9 ± 0.3 and +4.7 ± 0.8 for the Komati and the Weltevreden system komatiites, respectively. These positive initial values reflect prior fractionation of Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf in the mantle early in Earth history. Conversely, ?142Nd values are 0.0 ± 2.4 and +2.2 ± 4.1 for the Komati and the Weltevreden systems, respectively. These values overlap, within uncertainties, those of modern terrestrial rocks, thus, limiting the magnitudes of possible Sm/Nd fractionations generated by early Earth processes in the sources of these rocks. Combined 142,143Nd and Hf isotope and lithophile trace element systematics are consistent with formation and long-term isolation of deep-seated mantle domains with fractionated Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf at ca. 4400 Ma. These domains were likely generated as a result of crystallization of a primordial magma ocean, with Mg-perovskite and minor Ca-perovskite acting as fractionating phases. The inferred mantle domains were evidently mixed away by 2.7 Ga on the scale of mantle reservoirs sampled by late Archean komatiite lavas emplaced worldwide.

Puchtel, I. S.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Touboul, M.; Walker, R. J.; Byerly, G. R.; Nisbet, E. G.; Anhaeusser, C. R.

2013-05-01

116

Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in Earth and Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Depletions of siderophile elements in mantles have placed constraints on the conditions on core segregation and differentiation in bodies such as Earth, Earth's Moon, Mars, and asteroid 4 Vesta. Among the siderophile elements there are a sub-set that are also volatile (volatile siderophile elements or VSE; Ga, Ge, In, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cu, Cd), and thus can help to constrain the origin of volatile elements in these bodies, and in particular the Earth and Moon. One of the fundamental observations of the geochemistry of the Moon is the overall depletion of volatile elements relative to the Earth, but a satisfactory explanation has remained elusive. Hypotheses for Earth include addition during accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core, multiple stage origin, or addition after the core formed. Any explanation for volatile elements in the Earth's mantle must also be linked to an explanation of these elements in the lunar mantle. New metal-silicate partitioning data will be applied to the origin of volatile elements in both the Earth and Moon, and will evaluate theories for exogenous versus endogenous origin of volatile elements.

Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.; Nickodem, K.

2014-01-01

117

Inter-element fractionation and correction in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

Inter-element fractionation and correction in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3P6 Received 26th April 1999, Accepted 6th September 1999 Inter-element of the major challenges for using the technique for in situ trace element determination and isotopic ratio

Chen, Zhongxing

118

Rare earth element partitioning between titanite and silicate melts: Henry's law revisited  

E-print Network

Rare earth element partitioning between titanite and silicate melts: Henry's law revisited Stefan earth elements (REE) between titanite and a range of different silicate melts. Our results show that Henry's law of trace element partitioning depends on bulk composition, the available partners

119

BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF THE RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO HICKORY TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hickory trees concentrate the rare-earth elements in their leaves to a ; phenomenal degree and may contain as much as 2300 ppm of total rare earths based ; on the dry weight of the leaves. The average proportions of the individual ; elements (atomic percent of the total rareearth elements) in the leaves are: Y ; 36, La 16, Ce

W. O. Robinson; H. Bastron; K. J. Murata

1958-01-01

120

Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells.  

PubMed

It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate multiple facets of plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, using electron microscopic autoradiography, we show the life cycle of a light REE (lanthanum) and a heavy REE (terbium) in horseradish leaf cells. Our data indicate that REEs were first anchored on the plasma membrane in the form of nanoscale particles, and then entered the cells by endocytosis. Consistently, REEs activated endocytosis in plant cells, which may be the cellular basis of REE actions in plants. Moreover, we discovered that a portion of REEs was successively released into the cytoplasm, self-assembled to form nanoscale clusters, and finally deposited in horseradish leaf cells. Taken together, our data reveal the life cycle of REEs and their cellular behaviors in plant cells, which shed light on the cellular mechanisms of REE actions in living organisms. PMID:25114214

Wang, Lihong; Li, Jigang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Guangmei; Ding, Xiao Lan; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Chen Xin; Zhang, Zhao; Wei, Hai Yan; Lu, Tian Hong; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Xiao Hua

2014-09-01

121

Rare Earth elements in individual minerals in Shergottites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shergottites (i.e., Shergotty, Zagami, EETA79001, ALHA77005, and LEW88516) are an important set of achondrites because they comprise the majority of the SNC group of meteorites (nine, in total, known to us), which are likely to be samples of the planet Mars. Study of these meteorites may therefore provide valuable information about petrogenetic processes on a large planetary body other than Earth. Rare earth element (REE) distributions between various mineral phases were found to be useful in geochemically modeling the petrogenesis of various rock types (terrestrial and meteoritic). However, with the exception of a few ion microprobe studies and analyses of mineral separates, there has previously not been any comprehensive effort to characterize and directly compare REE in individual minerals in each of the five known shergottites. Ion microprobe analyses were made on thin sections of each of the shergottites. Minerals analyzed were pyroxenes (pigeonite and augite), maskelynite, and whitlockite. The REE concentrations in each mineral type in each shergottite is given.

Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Crozaz, Ghislaine

1993-01-01

122

Rare earth elements in sinters from the geothermal waters (hot springs) on the Tibetan Plateau, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogical and geochemical composition of sinters from the geothermal areas on the Tibetan Plateau was determined. They occur as siliceous, salty and calcareous sinters but biogenic siliceous sinters were also found. The analyses indicate that there are no distinct inter -element relationships between individual rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements. Formed from the same geothermal water, the mineralogical and chemical composition of the sinters is influenced by their genesis and formation conditions. The REE distributions depend on the origin of the sinters. Fe-Mn phases in sinters tend to scavenge more REEs from geothermal water. Neither the REE fractionation nor the Ce anomaly seems to be associated with Fe-Mn phases in the sinters. The fourth tetrads of some sinters display weak W-type (concave) effects. In contrast, the third tetrads present large effects in some sinters due to positive Gd anomalies. The origin of the positive Eu anomalies in some sinters seems to be caused by preferential dissolution of feldspars during water-rock interaction. The complexing ligands in geothermal water may contribute significantly to the fractionation of REEs in sinters. The dominant CO32- and HCO3- complexing in geothermal water favors enrichment of heavy REEs in calcareous sinters.

Feng, Jin-Liang; Zhao, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Feng; Hu, Hai-Ping

2014-10-01

123

Elemental processes of transport and energy conversion in Earth's magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 5 years observations from several missions and ground based observatories have honed in on the most elemental aspects of flux transport and energy conversion. Dipolarization fronts and their counterpart in the distant magnetotail "anti-dipolarization" fronts, which together are refered to herein as "reconnection fronts", usher the recently reconnected flux tubes from the near-Earth X-points and in the process convert magnetic energy to particle energy and wave radiation. On the tailward side they are responsible for plasmoid formation and acceleration. On the earthward side they result in elemental substorm current wedges or wedglets, which were initially postulated from ground observations alone. Recent observations have revealed how the interaction of wedgelets and the inner magnetosphere takes place. Questions remain with regards to the physics of the energy transfer process from global magnetic energy to local heating and waves, and with regards to the initiation of the X-point activations in space. Observations indicate that the latter may be induced by polar cap or dayside activity, suggesting a direct link between dayside reconnection and nightside phenomena. The likely causal sequence of events and open questions in light of these recent observations, and the field's outlook in anticipation of upcoming coordinated observations from the international Heliophysics System Observatory will be discussed.

Angelopoulos, Vassilis

124

Refractory element fractionation in the Allende meteorite: Implications for solar nebula condensation and the chondritic composition of planetary bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondritic meteorites represent primitive undifferentiated solar system material that is compositionally similar to the non-volatile fraction of the Sun. The mineralogy and texture of chondritic meteorites is complex, however, because they are mixtures of several components that formed under different conditions in the solar nebula and were further processed on their parent bodies: chondrules, a volatile rich, fine-grained matrix, including a variety of mineral and lithic clasts, metal, sulfides, and Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAI). The bulk chemistry of a single aliquot of a chondritic meteorite consequently depends on the size and distribution of its constituents. Here, we investigate the effect of sample heterogeneity on the major and trace element composition of the CV chondrite Allende using a single 30 g slice, which is 22.5 cm2 in dimension and 4 mm thick. Thirty-nine equally sized pieces with an average sample weight of ca. 0.6 g (corresponding to a cube with an edge length of 5 to 6 mm) were powdered and aliquots of 0.12 g and 0.02-0.03 g were analyzed by XRF for major and ICP-MS for trace elements. One sample contained a large CAI, another sample was dominated by a dark inclusion (DI). Excluding these two samples, the concentrations of the major elements Mg, Si and Fe are constant within analytical uncertainty at the millimeter-centimeter scale (S.D. 0.9, 1.3 and 2.6%, respectively). Non-refractory minor and trace elements are similarly constant, including geochemically very different elements such as Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, P, Zn and Pb. This reflects a uniform mixture of the various host phases of these elements during accretion, and excludes elemental redistribution above a millimeter-scale by aqueous alteration and/or thermal metamorphism on the parent body. The refractory elements Al, Ca, Ti etc. are more variable (S.D. 17, 10 and 9%, respectively), which is mainly the result of different proportions of millimeter-size CAI, many of them with strongly fractionated group II rare earth element patterns, i.e., variable enrichment of the more volatile refractory elements (Ta, U, Nb, Sr, Tm, Nd) over the strongly refractory elements (Lu, Zr, Hf). Admixture of group II CAI can also account for the sub-chondritic Nb/Ta and Zr/Nb ratios in CV chondrites. The total average of all 37 samples has a clear group II-type rare earth element pattern. If this fractionated refractory element pattern is representative of the Allende parent body, this observation suggests that bulk planetary bodies, possibly including the Earth-forming planetary embryos, may have refractory element patterns that are fractionated relative to those of CI chondrites.

Stracke, Andreas; Palme, Herbert; Gellissen, Marko; Münker, Carsten; Kleine, Thorsten; Birbaum, Karin; Günther, Detlef; Bourdon, Bernard; Zipfel, Jutta

2012-05-01

125

Neutron activation analysis of the rare earth elements in Nasu hot springs.  

PubMed

Eleven rare earth elements (lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, holmium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium) in hot spring waters and sinter deposits in the Nasu area were determined by the neutron activation method. The rare earth elements in hot spring water were pre-concentrated in ferric hydroxide precipitate and neutron-irradiated. The rare earth elements were chemically separated into lighter and heavier groups and the activity of each group was measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Distribution of the rare earth elements between the hot spring water and the sinter deposit was also discussed. PMID:684229

Ikeda, N; Takahashi, N

1978-06-01

126

Consecutive recovery of rare earth and alkaline earth elements by countercurrent electromigration in room temperature molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have suggested the novel environmental harmonization process applying the countercurrent electromigration technique utilizing the room temperature molten salts substituted for the pyrometallurgical processes aiming at the recovery of the electrochemically base metals such as the rare earth and the alkaline-earth elements in spent catalysts. According to the batch experiments using ammonium imide type room temperature molten salts, the trivalent

Masahiko Matsumiya; Kiyotaka Tokuraku; Haruaki Matsuura; Ken-ichi Hinoue

2006-01-01

127

Mutual influence of elements during coprecipitation. Cocrystallization of rare-earth elements under conditions for the formation of double sulfates of alkali and alkaline-earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the coprecipitation of rare-earth metals under conditions for the crystallization of double salts in other sulfate systems, as well as the possibility of the employment of these double salts for the selective preconcentration of rare-earth metals from solutions of complex composition. The influence of electrolytes containing and not containing an element which may act as a charge

G. I. Tsizin; N. B. Kalinchenko; G. I. Malofeeva; I. N. Marov; K. I. Tobelko; V. S. Urusov

1985-01-01

128

Comparison between fractionation and bioavailability of trace elements in rhizosphere and bulk soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizosphere is a microbiosphere and has quite different chemical, physical and biological properties from bulk soils. A greenhouse experiment was performed to compare the difference of fractionation and bioavailability of trace elements Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd between rhizosphere soil and bulk soil. In the meantime, the influence of air-drying on the fractionation and bioavailability was also investigated

Zhongwen Wang; Xiao-quan Shan; Shuzhen Zhang

2002-01-01

129

Skeleton versus fine earth: what information is stored in the mobile extracellular soil DNA fraction?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil genome consists of an intracellular and an extracellular fraction. Recently, soil extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been shown to be quantitatively relevant, with a high survival capacity and mobility, playing a crucial role in the gene transfer by transformation, in the formation of bacterial biofilm and as a source of nutrients for soil microorganisms. The eDNA fraction can be discriminated and classified by its interaction with clay minerals, humic acids and Al/Fe oxihydroxides, resulting in differently mobile components. The eDNA extractable in water, classified as DNA free in the extracellular soil environment or adsorbed on soil colloids (eDNAfree/adsorbed), is hypothesized to be the most mobile DNA in soil. Challenging to assess the information stored in this DNA fraction, eDNAfree/adsorbed was recovered from fine earth (< 4 mm) and highly altered rock fragments or skeleton (4-10 mm) of six consecutive horizons (A1-BCb2) of a forest soil profile by washing the two soil fractions with H2O. Quantitative analysis have been conducted in terms of DNA yields (fluorimeter and spectrophotometer), molecular weight and fragment length distribution (gel electrophoresis), and qualitative analysis in terms of the composition and distribution of fungal and bacterial communities (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis- fingerprinting). The mobile soil eDNA, extracted from each horizon, was characterised by low molecular weight (< 2 kb) and amounts ranging from 3.96 (±0.179) to 0.17 (±0.023) µg g-1 for the fine earth and from 1.42 (±0.111) to 0.11 (±0.007) µg g-1 for the skeleton. Genetic fingerprinting of eDNA recovered from fine earth and skeleton revealed characteristic fungal and bacterial communities of each horizon, but also similarities among the microbial communities of both soil fractions and horizons. This could be interpreted also as a result of the movement of eDNA along the soil profile and from fine earth to skeleton. The molecular characterization provided information about the autochthonous microflora inhabiting skeleton and fine earth as well as information about the fate of soil DNA in terms of presence, persistence and movement of eDNA and the stored genetic information.

Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Agnelli, Alberto; Corti, Guiseppe; Pietramellara, Giacomo

2010-05-01

130

Targeting heavy rare earth elements in carbonatite complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world's main sources of the rare earth elements (REE) are concentrated in carbonatite complexes. These have the advantages of high grade and tonnage, combined with low thorium contents, yet they are generally enriched in light rare earths (LREE). The heavy rare earths (HREE, which include Eu-Lu and Y) are more highly sought after because of their role in new and green technologies. HREE are predominantly extracted from ion-adsorption clays in China. These are small, low grade deposits, which are often illegally mined by artisans. Increased government control, environmental legislation and local demand for REE in China have led to high prices and global concerns about the security of supply of the HREE. Alternative sources of the HREE are poorly documented. We present a review of such targets, including: (1) 'abnormal' carbonatites; (2) areas around LREE-rich complexes such as breccia, fenite and latter stage veins; and (3) weathered carbonatites. At Lofdal, Namibia, carbonatite dykes contain xenotime-(Y) together with LREE minerals. The original chemistry of the carbonatite magma, coupled with late-stage magma and fluid evolution, seem to be controlling factors [1, 2]. The Khibina carbonatite, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is an example of where early LREE carbonatites become increasing HREE-enriched as magmas evolve to carbo-hydrothermal fluids [3]. Around carbonatite complexes in Malawi HREE enrichment can be found in breccia and in fenite. Breccia around Songwe shows areas with high Y/La ratios within the matrix caused by narrow zones of xenotime enrichment. Fenite around Kangankunde and Chilwa Island has higher HREE:LREE ratios than the carbonatite [4]. At weathered complexes, such as at Mount Weld in Western Australia, changes in both HREE concentration and LREE:HREE ratios are observed. In currently unworked sections of the deposit, the HREE mineral churchite (YPO4.H2O) has formed concentrations due to groundwater flow [5]. These areas of enrichment are reviewed in terms of their grade, tonnage, rock type and the potential environmental impacts associated with their exploitation. [1] Wall et al. (2008), Can Mineral, 46, 861. [2] Do Cabo et al. (2011), Minmag, 75 (3), 770. [3] Zaitsev et al. (1998), Minmag, 62 (2), 225. [4] Dowman et al. (2011), abstract, Fermor conference, London. [5] Lottermoser (1990), Lithos, 24, 151

Broom-Fendley, S.; Wall, F.; Gunn, A. G.; Dowman, E.

2012-04-01

131

Rare earth element components in atmospheric particulates in the Bayan Obo mine region.  

PubMed

The Bayan Obo mine, located in Inner Mongolia, China, is the largest light rare earth body ever found in the world. The research for rare earth elements (REEs) enrichment in atmospheric particulates caused by mining and ore processing is fairly limited so far. In this paper, atmospheric particulates including total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10) were collected around the Bayan Obo mine region, in August 2012 and March 2013, to analyze the levels and distributions of REEs in particles. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP were 149.8 and 239.6 ng/m(3), and those for PM10 were 42.8 and 68.9 ng/m(3), in August 2012 and March 2013, respectively. Enrichment factor was calculated for all 14 REEs in the TSP and PM10 and the results indicated that REEs enrichment in atmosphere particulates was caused by anthropogenic sources and influenced by the strong wind in springtime. The spatial distribution of REEs in TSP showed a strong gradient concentration in the prevailing wind direction. REE chondrite normalized patterns of TSP and PM10 were similar and the normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light REEs and heavy REE, which supported by the chondrite normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La(N)/Yb(N), La(N)/Sm(N), Gd(N)/Yb(N)). PMID:24657942

Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Li, Kexin

2014-05-01

132

Determination of element affinities by density fractionation of bulk coal samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review has been made of the various methods of determining major and trace element affinities for different phases, both mineral and organic in coals, citing their various strengths and weaknesses. These include mathematical deconvolution of chemical analyses, direct microanalysis, sequential extraction procedures and density fractionation. A new methodology combining density fractionation with mathematical deconvolution of chemical analyses of whole coals and their density fractions has been evaluated. These coals formed part of the IEA-Coal Research project on the Modes of Occurrence of Trace Elements in Coal. Results were compared to a previously reported sequential extraction methodology and showed good agreement for most elements. For particular elements (Be, Mo, Cu, Se and REEs) in specific coals where disagreement was found, it was concluded that the occurrence of rare trace element bearing phases may account for the discrepancy, and modifications to the general procedure must be made to account for these.

Querol, X.; Klika, Z.; Weiss, Z.; Finkelman, R.B.; Alastuey, A.; Juan, R.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.; Kolker, A.; Chenery, S.R.N.

2001-01-01

133

Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements and other trace elements in the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers transport large amounts of dissolved and suspended particulate material from the catchment area to the oceans and are a major source of trace metals to seawater. The Amazon River is the world's largest river and supplies approximately 20% of the oceans' freshwater (Molinier et al., 1997). However, the behavior of trace elements, especially particle-reactive elements such as the rare earth elements (REE), within the river as well as in the estuary is not well constrained and rather little is known about their transport mechanisms. This study aims at understanding the transport properties of particle-reactive elements in the Amazon River and some of its major tributaries, including the Rio Solimões, Rio Negro, Tapajos, Xingu and Jari Rivers. Samples were taken at 12 stations, seven of which were located in the Amazon mainstream, while the other five stations sampled its tributaries. To account for the effects of variable discharge, the samples were collected during periods of high and low discharge. We present data for major and trace elements, including REE, of the dissolved and suspended load of these samples. First results indicate that the shale-normalized REE pattern of the dissolved load (filtered through 0.2 µm membranes) of the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões confirm earlier studies (Elderfield et al., 1990; Gerard et al., 2003) and show an enrichment of the middle REE relative to the light and heavy REE (LaSN/GdSN: 0.25 - 0.32; GdSN/YbSN: 1.54 - 1.78). In contrast to the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões, which are considered to be whitewater rivers, blackwater rivers, such as the Rio Negro, have a flat REE pattern with higher REE concentrations than whitewater rivers. The third water-type found in the Amazon Basin is clearwater, e.g. Rio Tapajos, with REE patterns in between those of the other two types, i.e. LaSN/GdSN: 0.55 - 0.70; GdSN/YbSN: 1.26 - 1.55. A similar behavior can be identified for other major and trace elements. While elements such as Ca, Mg, Sr or U are relatively high in whitewater rivers, their concentrations are generally lower in clearwater rivers and lowest in blackwater rivers. In contrast, elements including Si, Rb and Cs have their highest concentrations in blackwater rivers, intermediate concentrations in clearwater rivers and their lowest concentrations in whitewater river. [1] Elderfield H., Upstill-Goddard R. and Sholkovitz E.R. (1990): The rare earth elements in rivers, estuaries and coastal seas and their significance to the composition of ocean waters. Geochim.Cosmochim.Acta, 54, 971-991 [2] Gerard M., Seyler P., Benedetti M.F., Alves V.P., Boaventura G.R. and Sondag, F. (2003): Rare earth elements in the Amazon basin. Hydrological Processes, 17, 1379-1392 [3] Molinier M., Guyot J.L., Callede J., Guimaraes V., Oliveira E. and Filizola N. (1997): Hydrologie du bassinamazonien. Evironment et développement en Amazonie brésiliènne, Thery H. (ed.), Berlin Publ., Paris; 24-41

Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz

2014-05-01

134

The geochemistry of rare earth elements in the Amazon River estuary  

SciTech Connect

The estuarine geochemistry of rare earth elements (REEs) was studied using samples collected in the Amazon River estuary from the AmasSeds (Amazon Shelf SEDiment Study) cruise of August 1989. Extensive removal of dissolved (0.22 [mu]m filtered) trivalent REEs from river water occurs in the low (0--6) salinity region. Removal by the salt-induced coagulation of river colloids leads to fractionation among the REE(III) series; the order of removal is light REEs > middle REEs > heavy REEs. There also is the enhanced removal of Ce (relative to trivalent La and Nd) in the low salinity (0--6) zone and in the zone of high biological activity. This is the first field observation of strong Ce removal associated with coagulation of river colloids and biological productivity. The argument is made that the decrease in the Ce anomaly across a biological front is caused by biologically mediated oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV). Coagulation of river colloids and biologically mediated oxidation of Ce(III) lead to fractionation of REE(III) and redox modification of Ce. These processes result in the REE composition becoming fractionated relative to the Amazon River water and crust and more evolved toward the REE composition of the oceans. This study implies that reactions in estuaries play significant, yet poorly understood roles in controlling the REE composition and Ce anomaly of the oceans. 46 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Shokovitz, E.R. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States))

1993-05-01

135

Large Siderophile-Element Fractionations in Murchison Sulfides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five sulfide-coated, rounded lumps (240-440 micrometers in largest dimension) were recovered from the dense fraction after freeze-thaw disaggregation of the Murchison CM2 chondrite. Each was split into a fraction studied by SEM and EPMA and a fraction analyzed by INAA. Petrographic study shows that S1 and S5 are composed predominantly of FeS enclosing ~10% olivine. In S1, olivine is Fa38 and occurs isolated or in clusters of 20-50-micrometer, rounded grains, some with glass inclusions. S6 consists mostly of 50-100-micrometer forsterite crystals, lesser enstatite, interstitial anorthite, and minor, 10-micrometer blebs of low-Ni metal. The entire object is surrounded by a 5-20-micrometer- thick rind of FeS and permeated by a series of subparallel veins of FeS. Both S3 and S4 contain silicates enclosed in massive troilite, with lesser pentlandite in the case of S4. In S4, the silicates include euhedral, zoned olivine (Fa18-40) crystals up to 30 micrometers in size; polycrystalline, masses of finer-grained (2-5 micrometers) olivine (Fa45) and Ca-pyroxene. S3 has subhedral forsterite crystals up to 20 micrometers across and irregular, fine-grained clasts up to 100 micrometers in size that resemble the Murchison matrix. Sulfide proportions in the samples studied by INAA were estimated by comparing their Mg contents with EPMA data for silicates in their splits: 86%, 63%, 51%, 83%, and 28% in S1, S3, S4, S5, and S6 respectively. Refractory siderophiles (W, Re, Os, Ir, Mo, and Ru) are unfractionated in S6, each having a concentration within 20% of C1 chondrites. In S1, S4, and S5, Ru and Ir abundances are 1.8-3.1 x C1 and 0.024-0.25 x C1, respectively, leading to C1- normalized Ru/Ir ratios of 115 +- 7, 7.0 +- 2.6, and 117 +- 13, respectively, as also seen in Allende pentlandite [1]. S3, which is depleted in both Ru and Ir, also has a superchondritic Ru/Ir ratio, 1.8 +- 0.4. Ru and Mo are strongly positively correlated in all samples. Au, As, Ga, Zn, Ni, and Co are close to or below C1 levels in S1, S3, S5, and S6, except that the C1-normalized enrichment factor for Ga in S3 is 3.8 +- 0.2 and that for Co in S1 is 2.1. S4 is quite distinct, however, with As at 5.4 +- 0.2 x C1, Ni at 5.5 +- 0.2 x C1, and Co at 4.7 +- 0.1 x C1. Except for S6, Se is above C1 levels in all samples, with enrichment factors of 4.3-5.3. As suggested by groups IIAB and IIIAB irons, fractional crystallization of metal from a low-S liquid containing chondritic proportions of siderophiles leads to residual liquids with Ru/Ir and Mo/Ir ratios that are greater than chondritic [2]. Formation of sulfides with these characteristics in S1, S3, and S5 from metal made by this process seems unlikely, however, as it would also lead to C1 chondrite-normalized Au/Ir ratios that are greater than those of Ru/Ir, while the Au/Ir ratios in S1, S3, and S5, 0.5-1.2 x C1, are far less than Ru/Ir ratios. Mo and Ru are the most chalcophile of the refractory siderophiles studied here, as seen from experimentally determined partition coefficients between solid metal and solid FeS for Mo (1.4 [3]), Ru (0.1-13 [4]) and Ir (12-240 [4]), and from the fact that Ru/Ir and Mo/Ir ratios in troilite nodules in Odessa and Canyon Diablo are factors of 2.4-4.0 and 42-55, respectively, higher than in coexisting metal [5]. Thus, if an alloy enriched in refractory siderophiles were equilibrated with FeS and then segregated from the FeS, the resulting sulfide would have many of the chemical features of S1, S3, and S5. Fremdlinge in CAIs are interpreted as high-temperature condensate alloys (e.g., [6,7]). In many of these objects, Ru and Mo are depleted relative to other siderophiles compared to C1 chondrites, though not in concert, due to volatility and phase separation effects accompanying condensation. Furthermore, some entire CAIs in Leoville and Efremovka are strongly depleted in both Mo and Ru relative to Ir compared to C1 chondrites [8], implying that the processes that made Fremdlinge resulted in significant amounts of Ru and Mo being left in the gas phase after formation of CAIs in some n

Yoneda, S.; Simon, S. B.; Sylvester, P. J.; Hsu, A.; Grossman, L.

1993-07-01

136

Spectroscopy of Luminescent Crystals Containing Rare Earth Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the spectroscopy of luminescent crystals containing rare earth elements such as KEuGe_2O_6, Cs_3EuSi_6O_{15}, K_4[(UO_2)Eu_2(Ge_2O_7)_2], and R_2(C_8H_{10}O_4)_3 (R= Y, Tb, or Eu). The emission and excitation spectra of these compounds were recorded at ambient temperature. These spectra are consistent with the structures which were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystals containing hybrid luminescent centers were also synthesized and interesting energy transfer mechanisms were observed. For example, dramatic luminescence quenching was found in KEu_xNd_{1-x}Ge_2O_6 (x= 0.98, 0.96, 0.94, and 0.84) as well as in Cs_3Eu_{0.98}Nd_{0.02}Si_6O_{15}, while different compositions of Y_xEu_yTb_{2-x-y}(C_8H_{10}O_4)_3 exhibit different emission colors. Emission lifetimes were also measured for these compounds, and the results shed light on the energy transfer mechanisms. Detailed results of our research will be presented. P.-L. Chen, P.-Y. Chiang, H.-C. Yeh, B.-C. Chang, and K.-H. Lii, Dalton Trans., 1721 (2008). M.-Y. Hung, Y.-H. Chen, B.-C. Chang, and K.-H. Lii, Chem. Mater. 17, 5743 (2005).

Chen, Meng-Ling; Lii, Kwang-Hwa; Chang, Bor-Chen

2013-06-01

137

ABUNDANCE OF TRACE AND MINOR ELEMENTS IN ORGANIC AND MINERAL FRACTIONS OF COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of subjecting 27 U.S. coals to float/sink, acid, and ion-exchange treatments. From these treatments, coal fractions were obtained and analyzed to determine the organic and mineral associations of 45 elements. Of the elements studied, B, Be, Br, Ge, and Sb...

138

Rare earth element evolution of Phanerozoic seawater recorded in biogenic apatites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth element (REE) contents of marine biogenic apatites have been shown to record seawater compositions. A data base of available and newly acquired rare earth element (REE) contents of marine biogenic apatites has been created to assess the past seawater REE compositions. To ensure that this data base contains only the pristine REE signals, altered samples, characterized by very

Christophe Lécuyer; Bruno Reynard; Patricia Grandjean

2004-01-01

139

Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements in hydrothermally altered rocks of the Kuroko mining area, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we analyzed the chemical composition of hydrothermally altered dacite and basalt from the Kuroko mining area, northeastern Honshu, Japan, by REE (rare earth element). Features of rare earth element analyses include: (1) altered footwall dacite exhibits a negative Eu anomaly compared with fresh dacite, suggesting preferential removal of Eu2+ from the altered dacite via hydrothermal solutions, (2)

N. Shikazono; Y. Ogawa; M. Utada; D. Ishiyama; T. Mizuta; N. Ishikawa; Y. Kubota

2008-01-01

140

A study of solute transport mechanisms using rare earth element tracers and artificial rainstorms on snow  

E-print Network

A study of solute transport mechanisms using rare earth element tracers and artificial rainstorms and Susan Taylor1,5 Abstract. Rare earth element (REE) tracers and three artificial rain-on-snow storms atmospherically deposited chemical con- taminants throughout the winter, and thus snowmelt often accounts

Kirchner, James W.

141

From the subtropics to the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: Neodymium isotopic composition and rare earth element  

E-print Network

compositions (eNd) and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured for filtered surface to deep and rare earth element concentration variations M�lanie Grenier,1 Catherine Jeandel,1 Fran�ois Lacan,1 distributions allowed us to refine the areas where oceanic eNd variations occur. eNd values increase for most

Boyer, Edmond

142

Fractionation of trace elements in total atmospheric deposition by filtrating-bulk passive sampling.  

PubMed

We have developed and validated a new simple and effective methodology for fractionation of soluble and insoluble forms of trace elements in total atmospheric deposition. The proposed methodology is based on the modification of a standard total deposition passive sampler by integrating a quartz fiber filter that retains the insoluble material, allowing the soluble fraction to pass through and flow to a receiving bottle. The quartz filter containing the insoluble fraction and the liquid containing the soluble fraction are then separately assayed by standardized ICP-MS protocols. The proposed atmospheric elemental fractionation sampler (AEFS) was validated by analyzing a Coal Fly Ash reference material with proper recoveries, and tested for field fractionation of a set of 10 key trace elements in total atmospheric deposition at the industrial area of Puchuncaví-Ventanas, Chile. The AEFS was proven useful for pollution assessment and also to identify variability of the soluble and insoluble fractions of the selected elements within the study area, improving the analytical information attainable by standard passive samplers for total deposition without the need of using sophisticated and high cost wet-only/dry only collectors. PMID:24840424

Rueda-Holgado, F; Palomo-Marín, M R; Calvo-Blázquez, L; Cereceda-Balic, F; Pinilla-Gil, E

2014-07-01

143

Highly siderophile elements: Constraints on Earth accretion and early differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, Au, and the PGEs) prefer FeNi metal and sulfide phases over silicate melts and minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, etc.). In addition, three HSE—Re, Pt, and Os—are involved in radioactive decay schemes: 187Re ? 187Os (beta decay) and 192Pt ? 188Os (alpha decay). As a result, they have provided constraints on the conditions during establishment of the primitive upper mantle, and the conditions and timing of later mantle differentiation and evolution. Hypotheses proposed to explain HSE elemental and isotopic compositions in the primitive upper mantle include mantle-core equilibrium, outer core metal addition, inefficient core formation, and late accretion (the late veneer). All of these scenarios have problems or unresolved issues. Here a hybrid model is proposed to explain the HSE concentrations in the primitive mantle, whereby Au, Pd, and Pt concentrations are set by high-pressure and temperature metal-silicate equilibrium, and Re, Ru, Rh, Ir, and Os concentrations are set by late accretion of chondritic material that is added via oxidized vapor following a giant impact (post-core formation). Processes affecting the later HSE evolution of the mantle include (1) layering caused by fractionation and/or flotation of mantle phases such as olivine, chromite, and garnet, (2) addition of metal from the outer core, and (3) recycling of oceanic crust. Uncertainties about differences in composition between the upper and lower mantle make evaluation of processes in the first category uncertain, but both the second and third processes can explain some aspects of mantle Os isotope geochemistry. This is a review of the field over the past decade and reports not only progress in the field but also highlights areas where much work remains.

Righter, Kevin

144

Galerkin finite element method for two-dimensional Riesz space fractional diffusion equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a class of two-dimensional Riesz space fractional diffusion equations is considered. Some fractional spaces are established and some equivalences between fractional derivative spaces and fractional Sobolev space are presented. By the Galerkin finite element method and backward difference method, a fully discrete scheme is obtained. According to Lax-Milgram theorem, the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the fully discrete scheme are investigated. The stability and convergence of the scheme are also derived. Finally, some numerical examples are given for verification of our theoretical analysis.

Bu, Weiping; Tang, Yifa; Yang, Jiye

2014-11-01

145

Siderophile element fractionation in meteor crater impact glasses and metallic spherules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteor Crater, Arizona provides an opportunity to study, in detail, elemental fractionation processes occurring during impacts through the study of target rocks, meteorite projectile and several types of impact products. We have performed EMPA and INAA on target rocks, two types of impact glass and metallic spherules from Meteor Crater. Using literature data for the well studied Canyon Diablo iron we can show that different siderophite element fractionations affected the impact glasses than affected the metallic spherules. The impact glasses primarily lost Au, while the metallic spherules lost Fe relative to other siderophile elements.

Mittlefehldt, David W.; See, T. H.; Scott, E. R. D.

1993-01-01

146

Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

2011-01-01

147

Quantifying Surface Kinetic Fractionations for Isotopes and Trace Elements in Calcite Precipitated from Aqueous Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic ratios and trace element concentrations in calcite and other carbonate minerals form the basis for several paleoenvironmental indicators that are relied upon to reconstruct past Earth climates and ocean processes. Most of these carbonate minerals form at low temperatures (0 to 30C) and consequently are unlikely to have precipitated from aqueous solutions at equilibrium. The non-equilibrium nature of the precipitation process is well illustrated by the experimentally demonstrated precipitation rate-dependence of parameters such as the Ca and O isotopic composition, and the Sr, Mg, and Mn concentrations of calcite. We have been focused on understanding how to predict the magnitude and controls on these kinetic effects using a general transition-state theory approach, as well as models of ion-by-ion growth, molecular dynamics simulations of the desolvation step required for addition of cations to a mineral surface, and further experiments that involve carefully controlled solution compositions and crystal growth rates. Although models have been proposed that invoke diffusion as the primary control on the non-equilibrium aspects of calcite precipitation, it is relatively easy to show that diffusion is not likely to be the primary controlling process. We have focused on understanding the kinetic effects operating at and near the mineral surface, which are undeniably present and important, and appear to be of the correct magnitude and direction to account for observations in both laboratory and natural calcites. The approach we are using is also applicable to higher temperature aqueous precipitation. There are indications from Ca isotopes that similar surface kinetic effects occur at temperatures of 300 to 400C. Kinetic isotope and trace element effects are critically dependent on molecular exchange rates between the mineral surface and the aqueous solution, and the ratio of these rates to the net crystal growth rate. The challenge is to predict and/or measure these rates, which are dependent in a complex fashion on solution saturation state, cation/anion ratios, ionic strength, and other aspects of solution composition. In effect, trace elements and isotopes can provide a measure of these rates, and the derived rates from available experimental data are broadly compatible with measured calcite dissolution and precipitation rates and their dependence on solution composition. Overall, it appears possible to develop a comprehensive framework for understanding kinetic trace element and isotopic fractionation effects during precipitation of minerals from aqueous solution, and to constrain the important controlling parameters using a combination of experiments and simulations.

DePaolo, D. J.; Nielsen, L. C.; Hofmann, A. E.; DeYoreo, J.; Gagnon, A. C.; Watkins, J. M.; Ryerson, F. J.; Brown, S. T.

2011-12-01

148

Minor and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks dredged from the Galapagos spreading center: role of crystal fractionation and mantle heterogeneity.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A wide range of rock types (abyssal tholeiite, Fe-Ti-rich basalt, andesite, and rhyodacite) were dredged from near 95oW and 85oW on the Galapagos spreading center. Computer modeling of major element compositions has shown that these rocks could be derived from common parental magmas by successive degrees of fractional crystallization. However, the P2O5/K2O ratio implies distinct mantle source compositions for the two areas. These source regions also have different rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns. The sequence of fractionated lavas differs for the two areas and indicates earlier fractionation of apatite and titanomagnetite in the lavas from 95oW. The mantle source regions for these two areas are interpreted to be depleted in incompatible (and volatile?) elements, although the source region beneath 95oW is less severely depleted in La and K. -Authors

Clague, D. A.; Frey, F. A.; Thompson, G.; Rindge, S.

1981-01-01

149

Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Siderophile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are currently several hypotheses on the origin of volatile siderophile elements in the Earth. One hypothesis is that they were added during Earth s accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core [1], others claim multiple stage origin [2], while some hypothesize that volatiles were added after the core already formed [3]. Several volatile siderophile elements are depleted in Earth s mantle relative to the chondrites, something which continues to puzzle many scientists. This depletion is likely due to a combination of volatility and core formation. The Earth s core is composed of Fe and some lighter constituents, although the abundances of these lighter elements are unknown [4]. Si is one of these potential light elements [5] although few studies have analyzed the effect of Si on metal-silicate partitioning, in particular the volatile elements. As, In, Ge, and Sb are trace volatile siderophile elements which are depleted in the mantle but have yet to be extensively studied. The metal-silicate partition coefficients of these elements will be measured to determine the effect of Si. Partition coefficients depend on temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and metal and silicate composition and can constrain the concentrations of volatile, siderophile elements found in the mantle. Reported here are the results from 13 experiments examining the partitioning of As, In, Ge, and Sb between metallic and silicate liquid. These experiments will examine the effect of temperature, and metal-composition (i.e., Si content) on these elements in or-der to gain a greater understanding of the core-mantle separation which occurred during the Earth s early stages. The data can then be applied to the origin of volatile elements in the Earth.

Nickodem, K.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Lee, C.

2012-01-01

150

Potentially toxic element fractionation in technosoils using two sequential extraction schemes.  

PubMed

This study reports the chemical fractionation of several potentially toxic elements (Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb) in contaminated technosoils of two former smelting and mining areas using two sequential extraction schemes. The extraction schemes used in this study were the Tessier's scheme and a modified BCR scheme. The fractions were rearranged into four equivalent fractions defined as acid soluble, reducible, oxidizable, and residual to compare the results obtained from two sequential extraction schemes. Surface soils were samples from a waste landfill contaminated with Zn, Pb, and Cd located at Mortagne-du-Nord (MDN; North France) and from a settling basin contaminated with PTE such as As, Pb, and Sb located at La Petite Faye (LPF; Limoges, France). The study of the Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb partitioning in the acid soluble, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions of the technosoils revealed that Zn, Cd, and Pb were mainly associated with the acid soluble and reducible fractions for MDN site, while As, Sb, and Pb were associated with residual fraction for LPF site. Fractionation results indicate that the percentages of Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb extracted in Fe-Mn oxide bound fraction of Tessier's scheme were always higher than those extracted by modified BCR scheme. This may be attributed to the stronger Tessier's scheme conditions used to extract this fraction. In contrast the percentages of Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb extracted in the organic fraction of the modified BCR scheme were always higher than those of the Tessier's scheme. The order of mobility of PTE was as follows: Cd > Zn > Pb in MDN site and As > Sb > Pb in LPF site. PTE were distributed in all soil fractions, with the most relevant enrichments in extractable and residual fractions. A significant amount of Cd, Pb, and Zn were rather mobile, which suggests that these elements can be readily available to plants and soil organisms. PMID:24371008

Qasim, Bashar; Motelica-Heino, Mikael

2014-04-01

151

Review of rare earth element concentrations in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of the lanthanide series or rare earth elements and yttrium were determined for lacustrine oil shale samples from the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of Colorado and the Uinta Basin of Utah. Unprocessed oil shale, post-pyrolysis (spent) shale, and leached shale samples were examined to determine if oil-shale processing to generate oil or the remediation of retorted shale affects rare earth element concentrations. Results for unprocessed Green River oil shale samples were compared to data published in the literature on reference materials, such as chondritic meteorites, the North American shale composite, marine oil shale samples from two sites in northern Tibet, and mined rare earth element ores from the United States and China. The Green River oil shales had lower rare earth element concentrations (66.3 to 141.3 micrograms per gram, ?g g-1) than are typical of material in the upper crust (approximately 170 ?g g-1) and were also lower in rare earth elements relative to the North American shale composite (approximately 165 ?g g-1). Adjusting for dilution of rare earth elements by organic matter does not account for the total difference between the oil shales and other crustal rocks. Europium anomalies for Green River oil shales from the Piceance Basin were slightly lower than those reported for the North American shale composite and upper crust. When compared to ores currently mined for rare earth elements, the concentrations in Green River oil shales are several orders of magnitude lower. Retorting Green River oil shales led to a slight enrichment of rare earth elements due to removal of organic matter. When concentrations in spent and leached samples were normalized to an original rock basis, concentrations were comparable to those of the raw shale, indicating that rare earth elements are conserved in processed oil shales.

Birdwell, Justin E.

2012-01-01

152

State of rare earth elements in different environmental components in mining areas of China.  

PubMed

China has relatively abundant rare earth elements (REEs) reserves and will continue to be one of the major producers of REEs for the world market in the foreseeable future. However, due to the large scale of mining and refining activities, large amounts of REEs have been released to the surrounding environment and caused harmful effects on local residents. This paper summarizes the data about the contents and translocation of REEs in soils, waters, atmosphere, and plants in REE mining areas of China and discusses the characteristics of their forms, distribution, fractionation, and influencing factors. Obviously high concentrations of REEs with active and bioavailable forms are observed in all environmental media. The mobility and bioavailability of REEs are enhanced. The distribution patterns of REEs in soils and water bodies are all in line with their parent rocks. Significant fractionation phenomenon among individual members of REEs was found in soil-plant systems. However, limited knowledge was available for REEs in atmosphere. More studies focusing on the behavior of REEs in ambient air of REE mining areas in China are highly suggested. In addition, systematic study on the translocation and circulation of REEs in various media in REEs mining areas and their health risk assessment should be carried out. Standard analytical methods of REEs in environments need to be established, and more specific guideline values of REEs in foods should also be developed. PMID:24135922

Liang, Tao; Li, Kexin; Wang, Lingqing

2014-03-01

153

RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

154

Rare Earth elements as sediment tracers in Mangrove ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth elements have been widely used as geochemical source fingerprints of rocks and sediments to study processes involving cosmo-chemistry, igneous petrology, tectonic setting and for investigations of water-rock interactions and weathering processes including transport of weathering products to the oceans.Many studies have addressed the use of REEs in investigating the environmental impact of human activity and demonstrated that the REE natural distribution in sediment from densely industrialised and populated regions can be altered by anthropogenic influences.The coastal wetlands like Mangroves are ultimate sinks for all the material derived from the terrestrial and marine environment.The high productivity and low ratio of sediment respiration to net primary production gives mangrove sediments the potential for long-term sequestration of these pollutants/metals before reaching the coastal ocean. Geochemical study of REE in these sedimentary systems is useful for determining the nature of the biogeochemical processes. In particular, REE show a great sensitivity to pH changes, redox conditions and adsorption/ desorption reactions. So, they may be used as markers of discharge provenance, weathering processes, changes in environmental conditions in the water and sediments of Mangrove/wetland systems. Our study aims to establish the abundance, distribution and enrichment of REEs to track the sediment sources and biogeochemical processes occurring in the mangrove environment.Core sediments were collected from the different environmental settings within the Pichavaram mangrove area.Higher REE concentration in Pichavaram sediments indicated greater input from sources like terrestrial weathering and anthropogenic activities which in turn are affected by saline mixing and dynamic physico-chemical processes occurring in the mangrove environment. REE enrichment order was attributed to the alkaline pH (7-8.5) and reducing conditions prevailing in the mangrove environments leading to preferential removal of MREE and LREE by adsorption and precipitation as Fe-Mn oxy-hydroxides in sediments. PAAS normalised plots also depicted slightly convex sub-parallel shale like patterns with alike enrichment.The same characteristics have been observed for sediments for Kaveri River validating that the sediments brought down during fluvial transport, is the source of REE in Pichavaram. Strong positive Eu anomalies suggested prevalence of reducing conditions as well as it indicated source from the natural weathering of the post Archean charnockitic and gneissic terrain in the course of river Kaveri. Role of different mangroves species in controlling the REE distribution in sediments was also observed . Tidally influenced cores showed complexity of environment these sites were exposed to. Factor analysis delineated three main processes controlling REE distribution in Pichavaram, namely natural weathering, inherent physico-chemical processes and in-situ biogeochemical processes occurring in this hypersaline mangrove environment.

Ramanathan, A. L.; Swathi, S.

2013-05-01

155

Modelling of Rare Earth Elements Complexation With Humic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The binding of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) was studied by combining Ultrafiltration and ICP- MS techniques. REE-HA complexation experiments were performed at various pH conditions (ranging from 2 to 10.5) using a standard batch equilibration method. Results show that the amount of REE bound to HA strongly increase with increasing pH. Moreover, a Middle REE (MREE) downward concavity is evidenced by REE distribution patterns at acidic pH. Modelling of the experimental data using Humic Ion Binding Model VI provided a set of log KMA values (i.e. the REE-HA complexation constants specific to Model VI) for the entire REE series. The log KMA pattern obtained displays a MREE downward concavity. Log KMA values range from 2.42 to 2.79. These binding constants are in good agreement with the few existing datasets quantifying the binding of REE with humic substances except a recently published study which evidence a lanthanide contraction effect (i.e. continuous increase of the constant from La to Lu). The MREE downward concavity displayed by REE-HA complexation pattern determined in this study compares well with results from REE-fulvic acid (FA) and REE-acetic acid complexation studies. This similarity in the REE complexation pattern shapes suggests that carboxylic groups are the main binding sites of REE in HA. This conclusion is further supported by a detailed review of published studies for natural, organic-rich, river- and ground-waters which show no evidence of a lanthanide contraction effect in REE pattern shape. Finally, application of Model VI using the new, experimentally determined log KMA values to World Average River Water confirms earlier suggestions that REE occur predominantly as organic complexes (> 60 %) in the pH range between 5-5.5 and 7-8.5 (i.e. in circumneutral pH waters). The only significant difference as compared to earlier model predictions made using estimated log KMA values is that the experimentally determined log KMA values predict a significantly higher amount of Light REE bound to organic matter under alkaline pH conditions. Taken as a whole, the new experimental results shed additional light on the processes that govern REE pattern shapes in natural, organic-rich waters.

Pourret, O.; Davranche, M.; Gruau, G.; Dia, A.

2006-12-01

156

Ligand extraction of rare earth elements from aquifer sediments: Implications for rare earth element complexation with organic matter in natural waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of organic matter as well as carbonate ions to extract rare earth elements (REEs) from sandy sediments of a Coastal Plain aquifer was investigated for unpurified organic matter from different sources (i.e., Mississippi River natural organic matter, Aldrich humic acid, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Suwannee River natural organic matter) and for extraction solutions containing weak (i.e., CH 3COO -) or strong (i.e., CO32-) ligands. The experimental results indicate that, in the absence of strong REE complexing ligands in solution, the amount of REEs released from the sand is small and the fractionation pattern of the released REEs appears to be controlled by the surface stability constants for REE sorption with Fe(III) oxides/oxyhydroxides. In the presence of strong solution complexing ligands, however, the amount and the fractionation pattern of the released REEs reflect the strength and variation of the stability constants of the dominant aqueous REE species across the REE series. The varying amount of REEs extracted by the different organic matter employed in the experiments indicates that organic matter from different sources has different complexing capacity for REEs. However, the fractionation pattern of REEs extracted by the various organic matter used in our experiments is remarkable consistent, being independent of the source and the concentration of organic matter used, as well as solution pH. Because natural aquifer sand and unpurified organic matter were used in our experiments, our experimental conditions are more broadly similar to natural systems than many previous laboratory experiments of REE-humic complexation that employed purified humic substances. Our results suggest that the REE loading effect on REE-humic complexation is negligible in natural waters as more abundant metal cations (e.g., Fe, Al) out-compete REEs for strong binding sites on organic matter. More specifically, our results indicate that REE complexation with organic matter in natural waters is dominated by REE binding to weak sites on dissolved organic matter, which subsequently leads to a middle REE (MREE: Sm-Ho)-enriched fractionation pattern. The experiments also indicate that carbonate ions may effectively compete with fulvic acid in binding with dissolved REEs, but cannot out compete humic acids for REEs. Therefore, in natural waters where low molecular weight (LMW) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the predominant form of DOC (e.g., lower Mississippi River water), REEs occur as "truly" dissolved species by complexing with carbonate ions as well as FA, resulting in heavy REE (HREE: Er-Lu)-enriched shale-normalized fractionation patterns. Whereas, in natural terrestrial waters where REE speciation is dominated by organic complexes with high molecular weight DOC (e.g., "colloidal" HA), only MREE-enriched fractionation patterns will be observed because the more abundant, weak sites preferentially complex MREEs relative to HREEs and light REEs (LREEs: La-Nd).

Tang, Jianwu; Johannesson, Karen H.

2010-12-01

157

Rare earth element concentrations in dissolved and acid available particulate forms for eastern UK rivers Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(1), 313327, 2007  

E-print Network

Rare earth element concentrations in dissolved and acid available particulate forms for eastern UK/313/2007 © Author(s) 2007. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Rare earth element concentrations, Humber, lanthanum, LOIS, neodymium, rare earth, river, samarium, Thames, Tweed, Wear, yttrium

Boyer, Edmond

158

Rare-earth elements, yttrium, and thorium. A materials survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey type information is presented on rare earths, yttrium, and thorium. Chapters with references are included on properties and uses, historical notes, resources, technology, supply and distribution, industrial structure, research and development, and strategic factors. (JRD)

J. G. Parker; C. T. Baroch

1971-01-01

159

Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of 13 interactive Flash applets learners can check their understanding of various fraction concepts, including comparison to 1/2, location on the number line, equivalent fractions, and simplest form. Activities for the learners include sorting, labeling, constructing diagrams, and converting improper fractions. Displays are suitable for classroom demonstrations.

Blundred, A.

2012-01-01

160

Characterization of size, morphology and elemental composition of nano-, submicron, and micron particles of street dust separated using field-flow fractionation in a rotating coiled column.  

PubMed

For the first time, nano- and submicron particles of street dust have been separated, weighted, and analyzed. A novel technique, sedimentation field-flow fractionation in a rotating coiled column, was applied to the fractionation of dust samples with water being used as a carrier fluid. The size and morphology of particles in the separated fractions were characterized by electronic microscopy before digestion and the determination of the concentration of elements by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The elements that may be of anthropogenic origin (Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Sn, Pb) were found to concentrate mainly in <0.3 and 0.3-1 ?m fractions. It has been shown that the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn in the finest fraction (<0.3 ?m) of street dust can be one order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of elements in bulk sample and coarse fractions. For example, the concentrations of Ni in <0.3, 0.3-1, 1-10, and 10-100 ?m fractions were 297 ± 46, 130 ± 21, 36 ± 10, and 21 ± 4 mg/kg, correspondingly. Though the finest particles present only about 0.1 mass% of the sample they are of special concern due to their increased mobility and ability to penetrate into the deepest alveolar area of the lungs. For rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) that are evidently of natural source and may be found in soil minerals, in contrary, higher concentrations were observed in large particles (10-100 ?m). Sc was an exception that needs further studies. The proposed approach to the fractionation and analysis of nano-, submicron, and micron particles can be a powerful tool for risk assessment related to toxic elements in dust, ash, and other particulate environmental samples. PMID:25159372

Fedotov, Petr S; Ermolin, Mikhail S; Karandashev, Vasily K; Ladonin, Dmitry V

2014-12-01

161

A deposit model for carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits: Chapter J in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. A wide variety of other commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks including niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other elements enriched in these deposits include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium. Carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are presented together in this report because of the spatial, and potentially genetic, association between carbonatite and alkaline rocks. Although these rock types occur together at many locations, carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are not generally found together. Carbonatite hosted rare earth element deposits are found throughout the world, but currently only five are being mined for rare earth elements: Bayan Obo, Daluxiang, Maoniuping, and Weishan deposits in China and the Mountain Pass deposit in California, United States. These deposits are enriched in light rare earth elements, including lanthanum, cerium, praseodynium, and neodynium. The principal rare earth element-minerals associated with carbonatites are fluocarbonates (bastnäsite, parisite, and synchysite), hydrated carbonates (ancylite), and phosphates (monazite) with bastnäsite being the primary ore mineral. Calcite and dolomite are the primary gangue minerals. At present, the only rare earth element production from a peralkaline intrusion-related deposit is as a byproduct commodity at the Lovozero deposit in Russia. Important rare earth element minerals found in various deposits include apatite, eudialyte, loparite, gittinsite, xenotime, gadolinite, monazite, bastnäsite, kainosite, mosandrite, britholite, allanite, fergusonite, and zircon, and these minerals tend to be enriched in heavy rare earth elements. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes are derived from partial melts of mantle material, and neodymium isotopic data are consistent with the rare earth elements being derived from the parental magma. Deposits and these associated rock types tend to occur within stable continental tectonic units, in areas defined as shields, cratons, and crystalline blocks; they are generally associated with intracontinental rift and fault systems. Protracted fractional crystallization of the magma leads to enrichment in rare earth elements and other incompatible elements. Rare earth element mineralization associated with carbonatites can occur as either primary mineral phases or as mineralization associated with late stage orthomagmatic fluids. Rare earth element mineralization associated with alkaline intrusive complexes may occur as primary phases in magmatic layered complexes or as late-stage dikes and veins. The greatest environmental challenges associated with carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits center on the associated uranium and thorium. Considerable uncertainty exists around the toxicity of rare earth elements and warrants further investigation. The acid-generating potential of carbonatites and peralkaline intrusion-related deposits is low due to the dominance of carbonate minerals in carbonatite deposits, the presence of feldspars and minor calcite within the alkaline intrusion deposits, and only minor quantities of potentially acid-generating sulfides. Therefore, acid-drainage issues are not likely to be a major concern associated with these deposits. Uranium has the potential to be recovered as a byproduct, which would mitigate some of its environmental effects. However, thorium will likely remain a waste-stream product that will require management since progress is not being made towards the development of thorium-based nuclear reactors in the United States or other large scale commercial uses. Because some deposits are rich in fluorine and beryllium, these elements may be of environmental concern in certain locations.

Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Seal, Robert R.; McCafferty, Anne E.

2014-01-01

162

The effect of laser pulse duration on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation, and detection limits  

E-print Network

The effect of laser pulse duration on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation results of LA-ICP-MS were examined: signal intensity or sensitivity, elemental fractionation or that the ablated aerosol is representative of the bulk, and detection limits of various elements in the samples

Harilal, S. S.

163

Elemental fractionation during LA-ICP-MS analysis of silicate glasses: implications for matrix-independent standardization  

E-print Network

Elemental fractionation during LA-ICP-MS analysis of silicate glasses: implications for matrix to which matrix affects elemental abundance measurements in LA-ICP-MS analysis, and describe these effects in term of elemental properties, we measured elemental sensitivity ratios (ESRs) from a multi-element

Weston, Ken

164

Geochemistry of rare earth elements in minesoils from São Domingos mining district (Iberian Pyrite Belt)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The São Domingos mine is one of the most emblematic mining districts in the lower part of the Guadiana River Basin (SW of Iberian Peninsula). It is located in Portugal (about 5 km from the Spanish border), in the northern sector of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), one of the largest metallogenetic provinces of massive sulphides in the world. Although mining activity has ceased at present, the large-scale exploitation of this deposit between the second half of the XIX century and the first half of the XX century, has favoured the production of enormous waste dumps, where oxidation of pyrite and associated sulphides is resulting in the production of acid mine drainage (AMD). Mining wastes, minesoils, and acid mine drainage have been analyzed for their major ions and rare earth elements (REE) with the aim of understanding the REE mobility during sulphide weathering so that lanthanoid series can be used both as a proxy for the extent of water-rock interaction and as a tool for identifying impacts of AMD on natural ecosystems. Chemical speciation of REE in extracts from minesoils indicates that REE sulphate complexes (mainly LnSO4+) are the primary aqueous form (60-90%), and free ionic species (Ln3+, 10-40%) are the next most abundant form of soil water-soluble fraction and controls the REE speciation model. The REE from this fraction have NASC-normalized patterns with middle-REE (MREE) enriched signature compared to the light-REE (LREE) and heavy-REE (HREE), showing convex MREE-signatures and convexity index values of +1.29 +/- 1.13. These results are consistent with the typical REE fractionation patterns reported for AMD. Poorly crystalline iron oxyhydroxysulphates act as a source of labile MREE by dissolution and/or desorption processes and could explain the MREE-enriched signatures in solution.

Delgado, Joaquin; Perez-Lopez, Rafael; Nieto, Jose Miguel; Ayora, Carles

2010-05-01

165

Rare Earth Element Partition Coefficients from Enstatite/Melt Synthesis Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enstatite (En(80)Fs(19)Wo(01)) was synthesized from a hypersthene normative basaltic melt doped at the same time with La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb and Lu. The rare earth element concentrations were measured in both the basaltic glass and the enstatite. Rare earth element concentrations in the glass were determined by electron microprobe analysis with uncertainties less than two percent relative. Rare earth element concentrations in enstatite were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry with uncertainties less than five percent relative. The resulting rare earth element partition signature for enstatite is similar to previous calculated and composite low-Ca pigeonite signatures, but is better defined and differs in several details. The partition coefficients are consistent with crystal structural constraints.

Schwandt, Craig S.; McKay, Gordon A.

1997-01-01

166

Rare-earth elements in the Permian Phosphoria Formation: Paleo proxies of ocean geochemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geochemistry of deposition of the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation (MPM) in southeast Idaho, USA, a world-class sedimentary phosphate deposit of Permian age that extends over 300,000 km2, is ascertained from its rare earth element (REE) composition. Ratios of REE:Al2O3 suggest two sources-seawater and terrigenous debris. The seawater-derived marine fraction identifies bottom water in the Phosphoria Sea as O2-depleted, denitrifying (suboxic) most of the time, and seldom sulfate-reducing (anoxic). This interpretation is supported by earlier research that showed progressively greater ratios in the marine sediment fraction of Cr:Ni>V:Ni???Mo:Ni, relative to their ratios in seawater; for which marine Cr, V, and Mo can have a dominantly O2-depleted bottom-water source and Ni a photic-zone, largely algal, source. The water chemistry was maintained by a balance between bacterial oxidation of organic matter settling through the water column, determined largely by primary productivity in the photic zone, and the flux of oxidants into the bottom water via advection of seawater from the open ocean. Samples strongly enriched in carbonate fluorapatite, the dominant REE host mineral, have variable Er/Sm, Tm/Sm, and Yb/Sm ratios. Their distribution may represent greater advection of seawater between the Phosphoria Sea and open ocean during deposition of two ore zones than a center waste and greater upwelling of nutrient-enriched water into the photic zone. However, the mean rate of deposition of marine Ni, a trace nutrient of algae, and PO43-, a limiting nutrient, indicate that primary productivity was probably high throughout the depositional history. An alternative interpretation of the variable enrichments of Er, Tm, and Yb, relative to Sm, is that they may reflect temporally variable carbonate alkalinity of open-ocean seawater in Permian time. A more strongly negative Ce anomaly for all phosphatic units than the Ce anomaly of modern pelletal phosphate is further indicative of an elevated O2 concentration in the Permo-Carboniferous open ocean, as proposed by others, in contrast to the depletion of O2 in the bottom water of the Phosphoria Sea itself. The oceanographic conditions under which the deposit accumulated were likely similar to conditions under which many sedimentary phosphate deposits have accumulated and to conditions under which many black shales that are commonly phosphate poor have accumulated. A shortcoming of several earlier studies of these deposits has resulted from a failure to examine the marine fraction of elements separate from the terrigenous fraction. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Piper, D.Z.; Perkins, R.B.; Rowe, H.D.

2007-01-01

167

Rare-earth elements in the Permian Phosphoria Formation: Paleo proxies of ocean geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geochemistry of deposition of the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation (MPM) in southeast Idaho, USA, a world-class sedimentary phosphate deposit of Permian age that extends over 300,000 km 2, is ascertained from its rare earth element (REE) composition. Ratios of REE:Al 2O 3 suggest two sources—seawater and terrigenous debris. The seawater-derived marine fraction identifies bottom water in the Phosphoria Sea as O 2-depleted, denitrifying (suboxic) most of the time, and seldom sulfate-reducing (anoxic). This interpretation is supported by earlier research that showed progressively greater ratios in the marine sediment fraction of Cr:Ni>V:Ni?Mo:Ni, relative to their ratios in seawater; for which marine Cr, V, and Mo can have a dominantly O 2-depleted bottom-water source and Ni a photic-zone, largely algal, source. The water chemistry was maintained by a balance between bacterial oxidation of organic matter settling through the water column, determined largely by primary productivity in the photic zone, and the flux of oxidants into the bottom water via advection of seawater from the open ocean. Samples strongly enriched in carbonate fluorapatite, the dominant REE host mineral, have variable Er/Sm, Tm/Sm, and Yb/Sm ratios. Their distribution may represent greater advection of seawater between the Phosphoria Sea and open ocean during deposition of two ore zones than a center waste and greater upwelling of nutrient-enriched water into the photic zone. However, the mean rate of deposition of marine Ni, a trace nutrient of algae, and PO 43-, a limiting nutrient, indicate that primary productivity was probably high throughout the depositional history. An alternative interpretation of the variable enrichments of Er, Tm, and Yb, relative to Sm, is that they may reflect temporally variable carbonate alkalinity of open-ocean seawater in Permian time. A more strongly negative Ce anomaly for all phosphatic units than the Ce anomaly of modern pelletal phosphate is further indicative of an elevated O 2 concentration in the Permo-Carboniferous open ocean, as proposed by others, in contrast to the depletion of O 2 in the bottom water of the Phosphoria Sea itself. The oceanographic conditions under which the deposit accumulated were likely similar to conditions under which many sedimentary phosphate deposits have accumulated and to conditions under which many black shales that are commonly phosphate poor have accumulated. A shortcoming of several earlier studies of these deposits has resulted from a failure to examine the marine fraction of elements separate from the terrigenous fraction.

Piper, D. Z.; Perkins, R. B.; Rowe, H. D.

2007-06-01

168

Siderophile element fractionation in meteor crater impact glasses and metallic spherules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteor Crater, Arizona provides an opportunity to study, in detail, elemental fractionation processes occurring during impacts through the study of target rocks, meteorite projectile and several types of impact products. We have performed EMPA and INAA on target rocks, two types of impact glass and metallic spherules from Meteor Crater. Using literature data for the well studied Canyon Diablo iron

David W. Mittlefehldt; T. H. See; E. R. D. Scott

1993-01-01

169

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT The behaviour of Rare-Earth Elements, Zr and Hf during biologically-mediated  

E-print Network

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 1 The behaviour of Rare-Earth Elements, Zr and Hf during biologically-mediated deposition of silica-stromatolites and carbonate-rich microbial mats Censi P.a,b* , Cangemi M.a , Brusca L.c , Madonia P.c , Saiano F.d , Zuddas P.e a) Department of Earth and Marine

170

Diagenetic behavior of the rare earth elements in Santa Barbara Basin sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has been conducted on the rare earth elements (REE) in various solid phases with the attempt to try and link measured REE distributions to the environmental conditions of deposition. A complicating factor of such studies is the role of diagenesis on the rare earths, a process that is still not well described. Although there have been several investigations

C. L. Mahn; J. M. Gieskes

2002-01-01

171

Dehydrogenation of cyclohexane on oxides of rare earth elements, deposited on high-ash charcoals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.A study was made of the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane on catalysts, obtained by the deposition of the oxides of the rare earth elements (La, Nd, Y) on high-ash charcoals, as a function of the oxide concentration (Nd2O3, 0.2–10%) and the temperature (425–500°).2.The catalysts, containing 2–10% of the oxides of the rare earth elements, exhibit a high activity in the

Kh. M. Minachev; M. A. Markov

1965-01-01

172

Distribution of rare earth elements in sediment cores of Sabine-Neches Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical profiles of several rare earth elements (REEs) were precisely measured in four dated sediment cores from the Sabine-Neches Estuary. From the extensive use of light rare earth elements (LREEs)—enriched zeolites during catalytic cracking process in nearby oil refineries, a significant enrichment of LREEs such as Lanthanum (La) was expected in sediment layers deposited in the estuary in the 1960s

Mahalingam Ravichandran

1996-01-01

173

Synthesis of aluminum garnets of rare-earth elements and yttrium with combined deposition of hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is concerned with the study of the mechanism of the formation of aluminum garnets of rare-earth elements as well as the conditions for their synthesis by the method of combined deposition of hydroxides. The deposition was conducted by continuously dripping a mixture of a 0.5 M solution of nitric acid salts of aluminum and rare-earth elements or yttrium

V. B. Glushkova; S. Yu. Zinovev; V. A. Krzhizhanovskaya; A. K. Kuznetsov

1986-01-01

174

An improved description of the interactions between rare earth elements and humic acids by modeling: PHREEQC-Model VI coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Humic Ion Binding Model VI (Model VI) - previously used to model the equilibrium binding of rare earth elements (REE) by humic acid (HA) - was modified to account for differences in the REE constant patterns of the HA carboxylic and phenolic groups, and introduced into PHREEQC to calculate the REE speciation on the HA binding sites. The modifications were shown to greatly improve the modeling. They allow for the first time to both satisfactorily and simultaneously model a large set of multi-REE experimental data with the same set of equations and parameters. The use of PHREEQC shows that the light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) do not bind to HA by the same functional groups. The LREE are preferentially bound to carboxylic groups, whereas the HREE are preferentially bound to carboxy-phenolic and phenolic groups. This binding differentiation might lead to a fractionation of REE-HA patterns when competition between REE and other metals occur during complexation. A survey of the available data shows that competition with Al 3+ could lead to the development of HREE-depleted HA patterns. This new model should improve the hydrochemical modeling of the REE since PHREEQC takes into account chemical reactions such as mineral dissolution/precipitation equilibrium and redox reactions, but also models kinetically controlled reactions and one-dimensional transport.

Marsac, Rémi; Davranche, Mélanie; Gruau, Gérard; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Dia, Aline

2011-10-01

175

Rare earth elements in hydrothermal systems: Estimates of standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous complexes of the rare earth elements at high pressures and temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties including association constants for 246 inorganic aqueous rare earth element (REE) complexes with chloride, fluoride, hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and orthophosphate can be calculated at pressures from 1 to 5000 bars and temperatures from 0 to 1000°C, using experimental data from the literature and correlation algorithms. Predicted association constants for REE complexes are used

Johnson R. Haas; Everett L. Shock; David C. Sassani

1995-01-01

176

Ligand extraction of rare earth elements from aquifer sediments: Implications for rare earth element complexation with organic matter in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of organic matter as well as carbonate ions to extract rare earth elements (REEs) from sandy sediments of a Coastal Plain aquifer was investigated for unpurified organic matter from different sources (i.e., Mississippi River natural organic matter, Aldrich humic acid, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Suwannee River natural organic matter) and for extraction solutions

Jianwu Tang; Karen H. Johannesson

2010-01-01

177

Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet can be used to compare and explore equivalence among fractions, decimals and percentages. It allows a child or teacher to represent fractions on one or more fraction strips, and to color individual parts. Each displayed strip can be labelled as a fraction, a decimal (to three decimal places) or a percentage; the ratio of yellow to green parts of each strip can also be displayed. It lends itself well to use with an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

2006-01-01

178

INAA application in the assessment of chemical element mass fractions in adult and geriatric prostate glands.  

PubMed

The variation with age of the mass fraction of 37 chemical elements in intact nonhyperplastic prostate of 65 healthy 21-87 year old males was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short- and long-lived radionuclides. Mean values (M±S??) for mass fractions (mg kg(-1), dry mass basis) of the chemical elements studied were: Ag-0.055±0.007, Br-33.2±3.3, Ca-2150±118, Cl-13014±703, Co-0.038±0.003, Cr-0.47±0.05, Fe-99.3±6.1, Hg-0.044±0.006, K-11896±356, Mg-1149±68, Mn-1.41±0.07, Na-10886±339, Rb-12.3±0.6, Sb-0.049±0.005, Sc-0.021±0.003, Se-0.65±0.03, and Zn-795±71. The mass fraction of other chemical elements measured in this study were lower than the corresponding detection limits (mg kg(-1), dry mass basis): As<0.1, Au<0.01, Ba<100, Cd<2, Ce<0.1, Cs<0.05, Eu<0.001, Gd<0.02, Hf<0.2, La<0.5, Lu<0.003, Nd<0.1, Sm<0.01, Sr<3, Ta<0.01, Tb<0.03, Th<0.05, U<0.07, Yb<0.03, and Zr<0.3. This work revealed that there is a significant trend for increase with age in mass fractions of Co (p<0.0085), Fe (p<0.037), Hg (p<0.035), Sc (p<0.015), and Zn (p<0.0014) and for a decrease in the mass fraction of Mn (p<0.018) in prostates, obtained from young adult up to about 60 years, with age. In the nonhyperplastic prostates of males in the sixth to ninth decades, the magnitude of mass fractions of all chemical element were maintained at near constant levels. Our finding of correlation between the prostatic chemical element mass fractions indicates that there is a great variation of chemical element relationships with age. PMID:24704913

Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

2014-08-01

179

Rare earth element abundances in rocks and minerals from the Fiskenaesset Complex, West Greenland. [comparison with lunar anorthosites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports activation-analysis determinations of rare-earth-element (REE) and other trace-element concentrations in selected rocks, plagioclase, and mafic separates from the Fiskenaesset Complex. The REE abundances are found to be very low and atypical in comparison with other terrestrial anorthosites. The plagioclases are shown to be characterized by a deficiency in heavy RE elements relative to light ones and a positive Eu anomaly, while the mafic separates are enriched in heavy rare earths and have no Eu anomaly, except in one sample. It is found that the bulk and trace-element abundances of the plagioclases are similar to those observed in some lunar anorthosites, but the degree of Eu anomaly is less in the plagioclases. The data are taken as confirmation of the idea that fractionation processes were involved in the origin of the Complex, and it is concluded that the Complex may have been produced from a magma generated by partial melting of a garnet-bearing source.

Henderson, P.; Fishlock, S. J.; Laul, J. C.; Cooper, T. D.; Conard, R. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Schmitt, R. A.

1976-01-01

180

Matrix Elements and Operator Equivalents Connected with the Magnetic Properties of Rare Earth Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the methods used to determine the matrix elements of crystal field potentials with particular reference to rare earth ions. Emphasis is laid on the importance of Wigner coefficients in such problems and the idea of using equivalent angular momentum operators is developed. For convenience in applying the results tables of matrix elements are included.

K W H Stevens; K. W. H

1952-01-01

181

Rare earths and other trace elements in cretaceous clays from central Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight rare-earth elements (REE), namely La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu, as well as other elements (Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Cs, Ba, Hf, Ta, and Th), have been determined in fifteen cretaceous clay samples of continental facies by instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was found that the REE contents are variable in absolute and

M. I. Prudêncio; J. M. P. Cabral

1988-01-01

182

Study on Orbital Decay of Near Earth Satellites with KS Orthogonal Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

STUDY ON ORBITAL DECAY OF NEAR EARTH SATELLITES WITH KS ORTHOGONAL ELEMENTS SANDEEP P S The knowledge of satellite orbit decay and its expected life prior to launch is necessary for mission planning purpose. Several sets of data for various parametric studies is sought quite often, it is necessary to minimize computational time involved for generating decay predictions, keeping the prediction accuracy normally good. A number of factors play dominant role in perturbation modelling for near earth satellites such as oblateness of the Earth, presence of the atmosphere, luni-solar attraction and solar radiation pressure. This paper concerns with the study of orbital decay of near earth satellites with KS orthogonal elements, which provide accurate orbit predictions at low computational time. Perturbations considered are due to oblateness of the Earth and the atmospheric drag. The Earth’s zonal harmonic terms J2 to J6 are included and the drag is modeled with an analytical diurnally oblate atmosphere. Effect of Earth’s geomagnetic and solar activity is included in density and density scale height computations. JACCHIA77 atmospheric model is utilized. The developed software is validated with the orbital data of decayed objects taken from www.space-track.org.

Ps, Sandeep

183

Empirical evidence for the fractionation of carbon isotopes between diamond and iron carbide from the Earth's mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

have studied two samples of mantle diamond containing iron carbide inclusions from Jagersfontein kimberlite, South Africa. Syngenetic crystal growth is inferred using morphological characteristics. These samples provide an opportunity to investigate the isotopic partitioning of 13C in a terrestrial natural high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) system. The difference for the ?13C values between the diamond and coexisting iron carbide averaged 7.2 ± 1.3‰. These data are consistent with available data from the literature showing iron carbide to be 13C-depleted relative to elemental carbon (i.e., diamond). We infer that the minerals formed by crystallization of diamond and iron carbide at HPHT in the mantle beneath the Kaapvaal Craton. It is unclear whether crystallization occurred in subcratonic or sublithospheric mantle; in addition, the source of the iron is also enigmatic. Nonetheless, textural coherence between diamond and iron carbide resulted in isotopic partitioning of 13C between these two phases. These data suggest that significant isotopic fractionation of 13C/12C (?13C up to >7‰) can occur at HPHT in the terrestrial diamond stability field. We note that under reducing conditions at or below the iron-iron wustite redox buffer in a cratonic or deep mantle environment in Earth, the cogenesis of carbide and diamond may produce reservoirs of 13C-depleted carbon that have conventionally been interpreted as crustal in origin. Finally, the large ?13C for diamond-iron carbide shown here demonstrates ?13C for silicate-metallic melts is a parameter that needs to be constrained to better determine the abundance of carbon within the Earth's metallic core.

Mikhail, S.; Guillermier, C.; Franchi, I. A.; Beard, A. D.; Crispin, K.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Jones, A. P.; Milledge, H. J.

2014-04-01

184

The formation of sulfate and elemental sulfur aerosols under varying laboratory conditions: implications for early earth.  

PubMed

The presence of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) in sediments more than 2.45?×?10(9) years old is thought to be evidence for an early anoxic atmosphere. Photolysis of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) by UV light with ??elemental sulfur (S(8)) and sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) aerosols. Here, we use real-time aerosol mass spectrometry to directly detect the sulfur-containing aerosols formed when SO(2) either photolyzes at wavelengths from 115 to 400?nm, to simulate the UV solar spectrum, or interacts with high-energy electrons, to simulate lightning. We found that sulfur-containing aerosols form under all laboratory conditions. Further, the addition of a reducing gas, in our experiments hydrogen (H(2)) or methane (CH(4)), increased the formation of S(8). With UV photolysis, formation of S(8) aerosols is highly dependent on the initial SO(2) pressure; and S(8) is only formed at a 2% SO(2) mixing ratio and greater in the absence of a reductant, and at a 0.2% SO(2) mixing ratio and greater in the presence of 1000?ppmv CH(4). We also found that organosulfur compounds are formed from the photolysis of CH(4) and moderate amounts of SO(2). The implications for sulfur aerosols on early Earth are discussed. Key Words: S-MIF-Archean atmosphere-Early Earth-Sulfur aerosols. PMID:21087157

DeWitt, H Langley; Hasenkopf, Christa A; Trainer, Melissa G; Farmer, Delphine K; Jimenez, Jose L; McKay, Christopher P; Toon, Owen B; Tolbert, Margaret A

2010-10-01

185

Experimental investigations of trace element fractionation in iron meteorites. III - Elemental partitioning in the system Fe-Ni-S-P  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of solid metal/liquid metal trace element partition coefficients, which are used to interpret the crystallization history of magmatic iron meteorite groups differ greatly between different research groups, using different experimental techniques. Specifically, partition coefficients measured utilizing 'static' experiments which approach equilibrium cannot be reconciled with the results of 'dynamic' experiments which mimic fractional crystallization. We report new tests of our 'static' experimental technique and demonstrate that our methodology yields reliable equilibrium values for Ni, P and Ge partition coefficients. Partition coefficients in the Fe-Ni-S-P system are well matched by interpolation between the Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-P subsystems. In contrast, the predictions of 'dynamic' experiments do not agree with our measurements and, consequently, the ability of 'dynamic' experiments to reproduce iron meteorite Ge vs. Ni fractionation trends successfully must be regarded as fortuitous.

Malvin, D. J.; Jones, J. H.; Drake, M. J.

1986-01-01

186

A semi-discrete finite element method for a class of time-fractional diffusion equations  

E-print Network

As fractional diffusion equations can describe the early breakthrough and the heavy-tail decay features observed in anomalous transport of contaminants in groundwater and porous soil, they have been commonly employed in the related mathematical descriptions. These models usually involve long-time range computation, which is a critical obstacle for its application, improvement of the computational efficiency is of great significance. In this paper, a semi-analytical method is presented for solving a class of time-fractional diffusion equations which overcomes the critical long-time range computation problem of time fractional differential equations. In the procedure, the spatial domain is discretized by the finite element method which reduces the fractional diffusion equations into approximate fractional relaxation equations. As analytical solutions exist for the latter equations, the burden arising from long-time range computation can effectively be minimized. To illustrate its efficiency and simplicity, four examples are presented. In addition, the method is employed to solve the time-fractional advection-diffusion equation characterizing the bromide transport process in a fractured granite aquifer. The prediction closely agrees with the experimental data and the heavy-tail decay of anomalous transport process is well-represented.

HongGuang Sun; Wen Chen; K. Y. Sze

2011-09-03

187

Experimental productivity rate optimization of rare earth element separation through preparative solid phase extraction chromatography.  

PubMed

Separating individual rare earth elements from a complex mixture with several elements is difficult and this is emphasized for the middle elements: Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium. In this study we have accomplished an overloaded one-step separation of these rare earth elements through preparative ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with an bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid impregnated column and nitric acid as eluent. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry unit was used for post column element detection. The main focus was to optimize the productivity rate, subject to a yield requirement of 80% and a purity requirement of 99% for each element, by varying the flow rate and batch load size. The optimal productivity rate in this study was 1.32kgSamarium/(hmcolumn(3)), 0.38kgEuropium/(hmcolumn(3)) and 0.81kgGadolinium/(hmcolumn(3)). PMID:24835593

Knutson, Hans-Kristian; Max-Hansen, Mark; Jönsson, Christian; Borg, Niklas; Nilsson, Bernt

2014-06-27

188

Aquifer-specific Rare Earth Element patterns in groundwater of the Thuringian basin, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thuringian basin is the major geological structural unit in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It consists of sandstones, limestones, clays, gypsum and salts, that were deposited from the Upper Permian until the Lower Jurassic (approximately 250 to 180 million years ago). The largest deposits are Buntsandstein, Muschelkalk and Keuper, all of Triassic age. Important aquifers are located in the Buntsandstein formations, which are cropping out widespread in the southeastern part and the northeastern part of the basin. These aquifers contain large resources of drinking water for the region. The hydrochemical properties of the groundwater with special emphasis on Rare Earth Elements (REE) are the main focus of this study. To investigate possible interactions between aquifers in the Buntsandstein with aquifers in adjoining formations, waters from Zechstein and Muschelkalk are considered, additionally. Since the REE in water in many case are originated from the minerals of the host rocks, REE fractionation pattern could provide information regarding the lithology of the solid aquifer material (Möller, 2002). Furthermore, interaction processes between solid and liquid phases or complexation in the water phase could be identified by REE fractionations (Ingri et al., 2000). Nevertheless, waters in circumneutral pH conditions could feature many different fractionation patterns (Johannesson & Zhou, 1997) making the interpretation difficult. Due to very low concentrations of REE in water at neutral pH condition, an enrichment procedure is necessary prior to REE determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The used method is based on the procedure of Shabani et al. (1990) and yields enrichment factors of about 500. REE fractionation patterns were determined for different water types such as Na-Cl type originating from Zechstein, Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 and Ca-SO4 from Buntsandstein or Ca-HCO3 from Muschelkalk aquifers. The patterns are specific for the different aquifers, representing local hydrochemical conditions. Furthermore, also regional prevailing features could be identified, representing processes which occur on a larger scale. On base of these results, continuative investigations on particular processes in the rock-water interaction will be carried out.

Lonschinski, M.; Merten, D.; Büchel, G.

2012-04-01

189

Rare earth elements as indicators of different marine depositional environments in chert and shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differences in rare earth element (REE) relative fractionations and total abundances in marine cherts and shales reflect the depositional location of the sediments. Based on cerium anomaly (Ce/Ce*) and total REE abundance (?REE) variations preserved in interbedded chert and shale sequences of the Franciscan assemblage, the Claremont Formation, and the Monterey Formation of coastal California, we can resolve three depositional regimes: spreading ridge proximal, ocean-basin floor, and continental margin. This resolution of depositional environment, previously unattainable in otherwise physically indistinct marine sedimentary rocks, provides a potentially powerful new tool for tectonic and stratigraphic reconstructions. Chert and shale deposited near the spreading ridge (within ˜400 km) under the influence of metalliferous activity are characterized by extremely low Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* ˜0.29), those from an ocean-basin floor setting by well-developed yet less extreme Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* ˜0.55), and those from continental margin regimes by no or slight anomalies (Ce/Ce* ˜0.90 to 1.30). ?REE in chert and shale are extremely low in regimes greatly influenced by continental input, owing to the high sedimentation rate, which minimizes exposure time to seawater and, thus, the adsorption of REE. Preliminary results indicate that the effect of diagenesis does not mask the primary REE depositional signature.

Murray, Richard W.; Buchholtz Ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Jones, David L.; Gerlach, David C.; Russ, G. Price, III

1990-03-01

190

Competition between humic acid and carbonates for rare earth elements complexation.  

PubMed

The competitive binding of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and carbonates was studied experimentally at various pH and alkalinity values by combining ultrafiltration and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. The results show that the REE species occur as binary humate or carbonate complexes but not as ternary REE-carbonate-humate as previously proposed. The results also reveal the strong pH and alkalinity dependence of the competition as well as the existence of a systematic fractionation across the REE series. Specifically, carbonate complexation is at a maximum at pH 10 and increase with increasing alkalinity and with the atomic number of the REE (LuCO(3)>LaCO(3)). Modeling of the data using Model VI and recently published stability constants for complexation of REE by humic acid well reproduced the experimental data, confirming the ability of Model VI to accurately determine REE speciation in natural waters. This modeling also confirms the reliability of recently published stability constants. This work shed more light not only on the competition between carbonates and HA for REE complexation but also on the reliability of WHAM 6 and Model VI for calculating the speciation of REE with organic matter in alkaline organic-rich water. PMID:17052726

Pourret, Olivier; Davranche, Mélanie; Gruau, Gérard; Dia, Aline

2007-01-01

191

Do Archean chemical sediments record ancient seawater rare earth element patterns?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth elements (REE) concentrations of Archean and Proterozoic chemical sediments are commonly used as proxies to study secular trends in the geochemistry of Precambrian seawater. In addition, similarities in the REE signatures of Archean chemical sediments and modern seawater have led researchers to argue that some Archean rocks originated as biochemical precipitates (i.e., microbial carbonates) in shallow marine (e.g., peritidal) environments. However, terrestrial waters, including river water and groundwater, also commonly exhibit REE fractionation patterns that resemble modern seawater. Here, we present the seawater-like REE data for groundwaters from central México as additional evidence that these patterns are not unique to the marine environment. The shale-normalized REE patterns of the groundwaters are compared to those of modern seawater (open ocean and nearshore), Holocene reefal microbial carbonates and corals, and Archean chemical sediments using statistical means (i.e., ANOVA and Wilcoxon analyses) in order to quantify the similarities and/or differences in the REE patterns. Shale-normalized (SN) Ce anomalies and measures of REE fractionation [i.e., (La/Yb) SN, (Pr/Yb) SN, (Nd/Yb) SN, and (Gd/Yb) SN] of the central México groundwater samples are statistically indistinguishable from those of modern seawater. Moreover, except for differences in the Ce anomalies, which are lacking in Archean chemical sediments, the REE patterns of the central México groundwaters are also statistically similar to REE patterns of Archean chemical sediments, especially those of the 3.45 Ga Strelley Pool Chert. Consequently, we suggest that without additional information, it may be premature to unequivocally conclude that Archean chemical sediments record REE signatures of an Archean ocean.

Johannesson, Karen H.; Hawkins, Doyle L.; Cortés, Alejandra

2006-02-01

192

Rare earth element concentrations and speciation in organic-rich blackwaters of the Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia, USA  

E-print Network

Rare earth element concentrations and speciation in organic-rich blackwaters of the Great Dismal Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), major inorganic solutes, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were crustal (UCC) values. Rare earths are positively correlated to DOC concentrations in Great Dismal Swamp

Burdige, David

193

A predictive model for rare earth element partitioning between clinopyroxene and anhydrous silicate melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a quantitative model to describe the partitioning of rare earth elements (REE) and Y between clinopyroxene and\\u000a anhydrous silicate melt as a function of pressure (P), temperature (T) and bulk composition (X). The model is based on the Brice (1975) equation, which relates the partition coefficient of element i (D\\u000a \\u000a i\\u000a ) to that of element o (D

Bernard J. Wood; Jonathan D. Blundy

1997-01-01

194

Concentrations of Elements in Sediments and Selective Fractions of Sediments, and in Natural Waters in Contact with Sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Washington, September 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-eight composite and replicate sediment samples from 8 Lake Roosevelt sites were collected and analyzed for 10 alkali and alkaline earth elements, 2 non-metals, 20 metals, and 4 lanthanide and actinide elements. All elements were detected in all sediment samples except for silver (95 percent of the elements detected for 1,008 analyses), which was detected only in 4 samples. Sequential selective extraction procedures were performed on single composite samples from the eight sites. The percentage of detections for the 31 elements analyzed ranged from 76 percent for the first extraction fraction using a weak extractant to 93 percent for the four-acid dissolution of the sediments remaining after the third sequential selective extraction. Water samples in various degrees of contact with the sediment were analyzed for 10 alkali and alkaline earth elements, 5 non-metals, 25 metals, and 16 lanthanide and actinide elements. The filtered water samples included 10 samples from the reservoir water column at 8 sites, 32 samples of porewater, 55 samples from reservoir water overlying sediments in 8 cores from the site incubated in a field laboratory, and 24 water samples that were filtered after being tumbled with sediments from 8 sites. Overall, the concentrations of only 37 percent of the 6,776 analyses of the 121 water samples were greater than the reporting limit. Selenium, bismuth, chromium, niobium, silver, and zirconium were not detected in any water samples. The percentage of concentrations for the water samples that were above the reporting limit ranged from 14 percent for the lanthanide and actinide elements to 77 percent for the alkali and alkaline earth elements. Concentrations were greater than reporting limits in only 23 percent of the analyses of reservoir water and 29 percent of the analyses of reservoir water overlying incubation cores. In contrast, 47 and 48 percent of the concentrations of porewater and water samples tumbled with sediments, respectively, were greater than the reporting limit.

Paulson, Anthony J.; Wagner, Richard J.; Sanzolone, Richard F.; Cox, Steven E.

2006-01-01

195

Rare earth element oxides for tracing sediment movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of soil conservation plans and evaluation of spatially distributed erosion models require knowledge of rates of soil loss and sedimentation on different landscape elements and slope positions. Characterization of soil erosion rates and patterns within watersheds is important for the understanding of erosion processes and landscape evolution. Experimental data that show spatial translocation of soil on slopes are

V. O. Polyakov; M. A. Nearing

2004-01-01

196

Rare earth element mobility in the Roffna Gneiss, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roffna Gneiss, a deformed Hercynian granite porphyry within the Penninic nappes of eastern Switzerland, underwent extreme cataclasis with the progressive development of phengite towards the margins of the nappe under conditions of the glaucophane schist to greenschist facies. This resulted in the selective mobilization of major and trace elements over distances of 10's to 100's of meters and the

Robert D. Vocke; Gilbert N. Hanson; Marc Griinenfelder

1987-01-01

197

[Study on speciation and fractionation of rare earth eleinents in surface sediments in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of Yellow River].  

PubMed

In the present paper, BCR sequential extraction and high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) were performed to analyze the speciation contents of 14 kinds of rare earth elements (REE) in the surface sediments from 12 sampling sites (S1-S12) in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of Yellow River, and REE fractionation were also studied. The results indicated that the contents of REE in 12 sediment samples werethe same order. The average contents of 14 rare earth elements were in this order: Ce(66.4)>La(35.8)>Nd(28.6)>Pr(7.88)>Sm(5.87) >Gd(5.01)>Dy (4.53)>Yb(2.86)>Er(2.51)>Eu(1.31)>Ho(0.856)>Tb(0.760)>Tm(0.428)>Lu(0.404), which were similar to the Chinese soil background. The residual fractions of all elements were present at the highest percentages(71.9%-93.9%), which indicated that the bioavailability or environmental impact was low. The percentage of reducible fraction was the lowest, ranged from 0. 20% to 3. 87% with the mean value of 0.83%, while the oxidizable fraction percentage(7.61%) was close to acid-soluble fraction(7.69%). But in Maqu (S12), oxidizable percentage (16.1%) was significantly higher than the acid-soluble fraction (1.73%). Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) content and oxidizable percentage, and the correlation coefficients were between 0.763 and 0.914. REE fractionation results showed that: the contents of REE in surface sediments of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of Yellow River were mainly from soil weathering, with light-REE enrichment and Eu depletion. The chondrite-normalized curve implied that La and Ce in Jinshawan (S8) and Baotou-Dengkou (S1) and heavy REE at all the sampling points might have external REE sources. PMID:23705457

Liu, Jing-Jun; Lai, Zi-Juan; Liu, Ying

2013-03-01

198

Comparative study of yttrium and rare-earth element behaviours in fluorine-rich hydrothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral ‘fluorite’ is utilized as a probe to investigate the behaviour of the pseudolanthanide yttrium with respect to the lanthanides (rare-earth elements, REE) in fluorine-rich hydrothermal solutions. Hydrothermal vein fluorites are characterized by the close association of Y and REE, but in contrast to igneous and clastic rocks they show variable and non-chondritic Y/Ho ratios of up to 200. This suggests that Y and Ho, although similar in charge and size, may be fractionated in fluorine-rich medium-temperature aqueous fluids. In such solutions Y acts as a pseudolanthanide heavier than Lu. Y/Ho ratios of hydrothermal siderites are slightly below those of chondrites, suggesting that in (bi)carbonate-rich siderite-precipitating solutions Y may act as a Sm-like light pseudolanthanide. This indicates that Y-Ho fractionation is not a source-related phenomenon but depends on fluid composition. Based on these results it is strongly recommended that discussions of normalized REE patterns in general should be extended to normalized Rare-Earth-and-Yttrium (REY) patterns (Y inserted between Dy and Ho), because the slightly variable behaviour of the pseudolanthanide yttrium with respect to the REE may provide additional geochemical information. Available thermodynamic data suggest a negative correlation between Y/Ho and La/Ho during migration of a fluorite-precipitating hydrothermal solution. Cogenetic fluorites, therefore, should display either similar Y/Ho and similar La/Ho ratios, or a negative correlation between these ratios. This criterion may help to choose samples suitable for Sm-Nd isotopic studies prior to isotope analysis. However, in cogenetic hydrothermal vein fluorites the range of Y/Ho ratios is often almost negligible compared to the range of La/Ho ratios. This may be explained by modification of REE distributions by post-precipitation processes involving (partial) loss of a separate LREE-enriched phase. The presence of variable amounts of such an accessory phase in most fluorite samples is revealed by experiments employing stepwise incomplete fluorite decomposition. Fluorites derived from and deposited near to igneous rocks apparently display chondritic Y/Ho ratios close to those of their igneous source-rocks. However, a positive YSN anomaly is likely to develop as the distance between sites of REY mobilization and deposition increases.

Bau, Michael; Dulski, Peter

1995-03-01

199

SIDEROPHILE TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE EARTH'S OCEANIC CRUST AND UPPER MANTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundances of Re, Ir, and Au have been determined in a suite of oceanic basalts using radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Mean abundances of highly siderophile elements in the oceanic crust have been estimated. Siderophile elements are fractionated during basalt genesis. Iridium, Os, Pd, Pt, Ru, and Rh are depleted in basalts relative to peridotites. Gold is only slightly enriched in

Chen-Lin Chou; D. M. Shaw; J. H. Crocket

1983-01-01

200

Chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in aquatic plants of the Yenisei River.  

PubMed

The Yenisei River is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian nuclear plants. The aquatic plants growing in the radioactively contaminated parts of the river contain artificial radionuclides. The aim of the study was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides and stable elements by submerged plants of the Yenisei River and estimate the strength of their binding to plant biomass by using a new sequential extraction scheme. The aquatic plants sampled were: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Batrachium kauffmanii. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of the samples of aquatic plants has revealed more than 20 radionuclides. We also investigated the chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in the biomass and rated radionuclides and stable elements based on their distribution in biomass. The greatest number of radionuclides strongly bound to biomass cell structures was found for Potamogeton lucens and the smallest for Batrachium kauffmanii. For Fontinalis antipyretica, the number of distribution patterns that were similar for both radioactive isotopes and their stable counterparts was greater than for the other studied species. The transuranic elements (239)Np and (241)Am were found in the intracellular fraction of the biomass, and this suggested their active accumulation by the plants. PMID:21815683

Bolsunovsky, Alexander

2011-09-01

201

Trace-element fractionation in Hadean mantle generated by melt segregation from a magma ocean.  

PubMed

Calculations of the energetics of terrestrial accretion indicate that the Earth was extensively molten in its early history. Examination of early Archaean rocks from West Greenland (3.6-3.8 Gyr old) using short-lived 146Sm-142Nd chronometry indicates that an episode of mantle differentiation took place close to the end of accretion (4.46 +/- 0.11 Gyr ago). This has produced a chemically depleted mantle with an Sm/Nd ratio higher than the chondritic value. In contrast, application of 176Lu-176Hf systematics to 3.6-3.8-Gyr-old zircons from West Greenland indicates derivation from a mantle source with a chondritic Lu/Hf ratio. Although an early Sm/Nd fractionation could be explained by basaltic crust formation, magma ocean crystallization or formation of continental crust, the absence of coeval Lu/Hf fractionation is in sharp contrast with the well-known covariant behaviour of Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ratios in crustal formation processes. Here we show using mineral-melt partitioning data for high-pressure mantle minerals that the observed Nd and Hf signatures could have been produced by segregation of melt from a crystallizing magma ocean at upper-mantle pressures early in Earth's history. This residual melt would have risen buoyantly and ultimately formed the earliest terrestrial protocrust. PMID:16015327

Caro, Guillaume; Bourdon, Bernard; Wood, Bernard J; Corgne, Alexandre

2005-07-14

202

Alkali element depletion by core formation and vaporization on the early Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The depletion of Na, K, Rb, and Cs in the Earth's upper mantle and crust relative to their abundances in chondrites is a long standing problem in geochemistry. Here we consider two commonly invoked mechanisms, namely core formation, and vaporization, for producing the observed depletions. Our models predict that a significant percentage of the Earth's bulk alkali element inventory is in the core (30 percent for Na, 52 percent for K, 74 percent for Rb, and 92 percent for Cs). These predictions agree with independent estimates from nebular volatility trends and (for K) from terrestrial heat flow data. Our models also predict that vaporization and thermal escape during planetary accretion are unlikely to produce the observed alkali element depletion pattern. However, loss during the putative giant impact which formed the Moon cannot be ruled out. Experimental, observational, and theoretical tests of our predictions are also described. Alkali element partitioning into the Earth's core was modeled by assuming that alkali element partitioning during core formation on the aubrite parent body (APB) is analogous to that on the early Earth. The analogy is reasonable for three reasons. First, the enstatite meteorites are the only known meteorites with the same oxygen isotope systematics as the Earth-Moon system. Second, the large core size of the Earth and the V depletion in the mantle requires accretion from planetesimals as reduced as the enstatite chondrites. Third, experimental studies of K partitioning between silicate and metal plus sulfide show that more K goes into the metal plus sulfide at higher pressures than at one atmosphere pressure. Thus partitioning in the relatively low pressure natural laboratory of the APB is a good guide to alkali elemental partitioning during the growth of the Earth.

Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

1994-01-01

203

Geochemistry of ultrahigh-pressure anatexis: fractionation of elements in the Kokchetav gneisses during melting at diamond-facies conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kokchetav complex in Kazakhstan contains garnet-bearing gneisses that formed by partial melting of metasedimentary rocks at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) conditions. Partial melting and melt extraction from these rocks is documented by a decrease in K2O and an increase in FeO + MgO in the restites. The most characteristic trace element feature of the Kokchetav UHP restites is a strong depletion in light rare earth elements (LREE), Th and U. This is attributed to complete dissolution of monazite/allanite in the melt and variable degree of melt extraction. In contrast, Zr concentrations remain approximately constant in all gneisses. Using experimentally determined solubilities of LREE and Zr in high-pressure melts, these data constrain the temperature of melting to ~1,000 °C. Large ion lithophile elements (LILE) are only moderately depleted in the samples that have the lowest U, Th and LREE contents, indicating that phengite retains some LILE in the residue. Some restites display an increase in Nb/Ta with respect to the protolith. This further suggests the presence of phengite, which, in contrast to rutile, preferentially incorporates Nb over Ta. The trace element fractionation observed during UHP anatexis in the Kokchetav gneisses is significantly different from depletions reported in low-pressure restites, where generally no LREE and Th depletion occurs. Melting at UHP conditions resulted in an increase in the Sm/Nd ratio and a decoupling of the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf systems in the restite. Further subduction of such restites and mixing with mantle rocks might thus lead to a distinct isotopic reservoir different from the bulk continental crust.

Stepanov, Aleksandr S.; Hermann, Joerg; Korsakov, Andrey V.; Rubatto, Daniela

2014-05-01

204

Addressing Rare-Earth Element Criticality: An Example from the Aviation Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth (RE) elements are enablers for a wide range of technologies, including high-strength permanent magnets, energy-efficient lighting, high-temperature thermal barrier coatings, and catalysts. While direct material substitution is difficult in many of these applications because of the specific electronic, optical, or electrochemical properties imparted by the individual rare-earth elements, we describe an example from the aviation industry where supply chain optimization may be an option. Ceramic matrix composite engine components require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) to protect them from extreme temperatures and adverse reactions with water vapor in the hot gas path. EBC systems based on rare-earth silicates offer a unique combination of environmental resistance, thermal expansion matching, thermal conductivity, and thermal stability across the service temperature window. Several pure rare-earth silicates and solid solutions have been demonstrated in EBC applications. However, all rely on heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) for phase stability. This article considers the possibility of using separation tailings containing a mixture of HREEs as a source material in lieu of using the high-purity HREE oxides. This option arises because the desired properties of RE-silicate EBCs derive from the average cation size rather than the electronic properties of the individual rare-earth cations. Because separation tailings have not incurred the costs associated with the final stages of separation, they offer an economical alternative to high-purity oxides for this emerging application.

Ku, Anthony Y.; Dosch, Christopher; Grossman, Theodore R.; Herzog, Joseph L.; Maricocchi, Antonio F.; Polli, Drew; Lipkin, Don M.

2014-09-01

205

Addressing Rare-Earth Element Criticality: An Example from the Aviation Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth (RE) elements are enablers for a wide range of technologies, including high-strength permanent magnets, energy-efficient lighting, high-temperature thermal barrier coatings, and catalysts. While direct material substitution is difficult in many of these applications because of the specific electronic, optical, or electrochemical properties imparted by the individual rare-earth elements, we describe an example from the aviation industry where supply chain optimization may be an option. Ceramic matrix composite engine components require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) to protect them from extreme temperatures and adverse reactions with water vapor in the hot gas path. EBC systems based on rare-earth silicates offer a unique combination of environmental resistance, thermal expansion matching, thermal conductivity, and thermal stability across the service temperature window. Several pure rare-earth silicates and solid solutions have been demonstrated in EBC applications. However, all rely on heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) for phase stability. This article considers the possibility of using separation tailings containing a mixture of HREEs as a source material in lieu of using the high-purity HREE oxides. This option arises because the desired properties of RE-silicate EBCs derive from the average cation size rather than the electronic properties of the individual rare-earth cations. Because separation tailings have not incurred the costs associated with the final stages of separation, they offer an economical alternative to high-purity oxides for this emerging application.

Ku, Anthony Y.; Dosch, Christopher; Grossman, Theodore R.; Herzog, Joseph L.; Maricocchi, Antonio F.; Polli, Drew; Lipkin, Don M.

2014-11-01

206

Rare earths and other trace elements in Apollo 14 samples.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

REE and other trace elements have been determined in igneous rocks 14053, 14072, and 14310, in breccias 14063 and 14313, and in fines 14163. All materials analyzed have typical depletions of Eu except for feldspar fragments from the breccias and igneous fragments from 14063. Igneous rocks 14072 and 14053 have REE concentrations very similar to Apollo 12 basalts; 14310 has the highest REE concentrations yet observed for a large fragment of lunar basalt. The effects of crystallization of a basaltic liquid as a closed system on the concentrations of Sm and Eu in feldspar are considered. Small anorthositic fragments may have originated by simple crystallization from very highly differentiated basalt (KREEP) or by closed-system crystallization in a less differentiated starting material. Application of independent models of igneous differentiation to Sm and Eu in massive anorthosite 15415 and to Sm and Eu in lunar basalts suggests a common starting material with a ratio of concentrations of Sm and Eu about the same as that in chondrites and with concentrations of those elements about 15 times enriched over chondrites.

Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziege, K. E.

1972-01-01

207

Sulfur isotope fractionation during the reduction of elemental sulfur and thiosulfate by Dethiosulfovibrio spp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur are typical by-products of the oxidation of dissolved sulfide and important sulfur intermediates in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle of natural sediments where they can be further transformed by microbial or chemical oxidation, reduction, or disproportionation. Due to the often superimposing reaction pathways of the sulfur intermediates in natural environments specific tracers are needed to better resolve the complex microbial and biogeochemical reactions. An important fingerprint for sulfur cycling is provided by the microbial fractionation of the stable sulfur isotopes S-34 and S-32. Proper interpretation of isotope signals in nature, however, is only possible by the calibration with results obtained with pure cultures under defined experimental conditions. In addition, sulfur isotope discrimination may provide informations about specific encymatic biochemical pathways within the bacterial cells. In this study, we report the results for the discrimination of stable sulfur isotopes S-32 and S-34 during reduction of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur by non-sulfate, but sulfur- and thiosulfate-reducing bacteria which are phylogenetically not related to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Experiments with were conducted at known cell-specific thiosulfate reduction rates. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation was investigated during reduction of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur at 28°C by growing batch cultures of Dethiosulfovibrio marinus WS100 (type strain DSM 12537) and Dethiosulfovibrio russensis (type strain DSM 12538) using citrate as carbon and energy source. The cell-specific reduction rates were 0.3 to 2.4 fmol cell-1 d-1 (thiosulfate) and 31 to 38 fmol cell-1 d-1 (elemental sulphur), respectively. The sulfide produced was depleted in S-34 by 12 per mil compared to total thiosulfate sulfur, close to previous results observed for sulfate-reducing bacteria, indicating that the thiosulfate-reducing mechanism of sulfate reducers is similar to that of the investigated thiosulfate-reducing strains. Elemental sulfur reduction yields sulfide depleted in S-34 and isotope fractionation effects between 1.3 and 5.2 per mil for Dethiosulfovibrio russensis and 1.7 and 5.1 per mil Dethiosulfovibrio marinus, with the smaller fractionation effects observed in the exponential growth phase and enhanced discrimination under conditions of citrate depletion and cell lysis.

Surkov, A. V.; Böttcher, M. E.; Kuever, J.

2009-04-01

208

Authigenic phase formation and microbial activity control Zr, Hf, and rare earth element distributions in deep-sea brine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments collected from hypersaline and anoxic deep-sea basins in the eastern Mediterranean (Thetis, Kryos, Medee, and Tyro) were characterised in terms of their mineralogical composition, the distributions of rare earth elements (REE), Zr, and Hf and their content of microbial DNA. We identified two major mineralogical fractions: one fraction of detritic origin was composed of quartz, gypsum, and low-Mg calcite bioclasts (with 0 < Mg < 0.07%) and another fraction of authigenic origin constituted of halite, dolomite, high-Mg calcite (with a Mg content of up to 22%) and rare bischofite and showed a textural evidence of microbial assemblages. We found that in the Medee and Tyro sediments, the shale-normalised REE pattern of these sediments is strongly enriched in middle REE (MREE), whereas in the Thetis and Tyro basins, a positive Gd anomaly in the residue was obtained after the removal of the water-soluble fraction. In all investigated basins, Y / Ho ratio clustered around chondritic values, whereas Zr / Hf ratio ranged from slightly subchondritic to superchondritic values. Subchondritic Y / Ho and Zr / Hf values were mainly found in the high-Mg carbonate having a microbial origin. The observed preferential removal of Zr with respect to Hf without significant partitioning of Y with respect to Ho indicates that the Zr / Hf ratio and Y-Ho fractionations are influenced by the microbial activity in the sediments. We propose that the concurrent Y-Ho and Zr-Hf fractionations are a suitable tracer of microbial activity in marine sediments.

Censi, P.; Saiano, F.; Zuddas, P.; Nicosia, A.; Mazzola, S.; Raso, M.

2014-02-01

209

Trace element fractionation during dehydration of eclogites from high-pressure terranes and the implications for element fluxes in subduction zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trace element compositions of eclogites, blueschists and mafic granulites from high-pressure terranes have been analysed to investigate element losses and fractionation that occur during dehydration of oceanic basalt in subduction zones. Abundances of elements that are suggested to be near-immobile (e.g., Nb, Zr, Ti), Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, and major element compositions indicate that most samples had altered MORB protoliths.

Harry Becker; Klaus Peter Jochum; Richard W. Carlson

2000-01-01

210

Chemical Weathering of Black Shales and Rare Earth Element Composition of Surface Waters and Groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering processes dominate the dissolved and suspended loads of most of the world's major rivers. Among sedimentary rocks, black shales are particularly sensitive to chemical weathering. Therefore, shale systems are useful for investigating the partitioning of chemical elements during chemical weathering. Recent studies, such as those by Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Ravizza and others, link chemical weathering of black shales to changes in marine isotopic composition. Rare earth elements (REE) have a unique chemistry and are ideal for such tracer studies. We explored the effect of modern chemical weathering of black shales on the hydrochemistry of surface and groundwaters in the Mohawk Valley of New York State. This region provides an ideal site for the investigation of trace element remobilization during the chemical weathering of black shales. In this region, surface and groundwaters, in intimate contact with black shales and have high dissolved metal concentrations presumably due to water-rock interactions. The extent to which the dissolved REE composition of the surface and ground waters retains the rock signature is, in someway related to the length of time that the water remains in contact with the rock. We compared the REE compositions of surface and groundwaters in areas draining black shale to those of waters draining regions of dolostone-limestone to explore the extent of metal release due to chemical weathering. Shale normalized REE patterns for stream waters exhibit slight heavy REE enrichments and, at some locations, LREE depletion. REE patterns of the waters normalized to their respective sediments show some LREE depletion. However, waters associated with the Little Falls dolomite show fractionation predominantly enriched in the heavy REEs. Differences between the black shale sites, recorded as light REE depletion and/or middle REE enrichment, may be related to the discharge of the streams and the total dissolved solids. The dissolved REE chemistry of rivers draining the limestone-dolostone facies to the north and west of the black shale facies is dominated by the Ln-carbonate species. REE speciation in the black shale sites when compared to the dolomitic sites show interesting features. For example, the "dolomite" lake exhibits a significant amount of free metal species as well as lanthanide-fluoride complexation. Our preliminary results indicate that the surface and groundwaters discretely record metal release from black shales. These data lend further credence to the hypothesis that black shale weathering may significantly contribute to the ocean metal budget.

Hannigan, R. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

2001-05-01

211

Determination of rare-earth elements in Luna 16 regolith sample by chemical spectral method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was made of regolith from layer A of the Luna 16 sample for rare earth elements, by a chemical spectral method. Chemical and ion exchange concentrations were used to determine the content of 12 elements and Y at the level 0.001 to 0.0001 percent with 10 to 15 percent reproducibility of the emission determination. Results within the limits of reproducibility agree with data obtained by mass spectra, activation, and X-ray fluorescent methods.

Stroganova, N. S.; Ryabukhin, V. A.; Laktinova, N. V.; Ageyeva, L. V.; Galkina, I. P.; Gatinskaya, N. G.; Yermakov, A. N.; Karyakin, A. V.

1974-01-01

212

Petrogenesis of Archaean ultrabasic and basic volcanics: Evidence from rare earth elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth element (REE) and major element data are presented on 44 Archaean samples which include spinifex textured ultramagnesian lavas (STPK) spinifex textured basalts (STB) and low MgO tholeiites. The samples come from the Yilgarn and Pilbara Blocks (W. Australia), Barberton (South Africa), Belingwe and Que Que (Rhodesia), Abitibi (Canada) and the 3.7 b.y. Isua Belt of Western Greenland. In

Shen-Su Sun; Robert W. Nesbitt

1978-01-01

213

Rare Earth Element Tracing for Bamsar, Revesht and Nezam-Abad Tungsten Deposits in Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamsar, Revesht and Nezam-Abad tungsten deposits are located southwest of Shazand in central Iran. Rare Earth Element (REE) and other trace elements in samples of scheelite (CaWO4) from these deposits have been determined by Neutron Activation Analysis in order to constrain the composition and sources of the mineralizing fluids. Paleozoic and Triassic volcano-sedimentary rocks and upper Triassic-Jurassic detrital-chemical and volcanic

M. Ghaderi

2001-01-01

214

Modeling of rare-earth element partitioning between particles and solution in aquatic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have modeled the partitioning of rare earth elements (REEs) between O-donor surface groups and aqueous solutions with a simple thermodynamic treatment. Our model predicts that the Lanormalized ratios of adsorbed to dissolved REEs depend primarily on the first hydroxide binding constants of the REEs, their first and second carbonate complexing constants, and the ionic strength and carbonate concentration of

Yigal Erel; Edward M. Stolper

1993-01-01

215

Aeolian sources of rare earth elements to the Western Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth element (REE) determinations have been made on 25 surface seawater samples on a longitudinal transect from Asia to North America within a latitudinal band of 24–32°N. REE concentrations are significantly higher close to Asia and decrease to the lowest recorded for surface waters in the world's oceans at the 180° International Dateline. REE patterns also vary systematically and

M. J Greaves; H Elderfield; E. R Sholkovitz

1999-01-01

216

Separation and Enrichment of Rare Earth Elements in Phosphorite in Xinhua, Zhijin, Guizhou  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphorite ores-deposits rich in rare earth elements (REE) in Zhijin, Xinhua, Guizhuo occurs in the early Cambrian Meishucun and at the bottom part of Qiongzhusi stage (the upper layer of phosphorites), belonging to Yangzi stratum section. The living creature scraps was proved existent in dolomitic-phosphorites by experiments, The REE could be extracted to provide the worthy data for the

Zhang Jie; Shun Chuanmin; Yang Guofeng; Xie Fei

2006-01-01

217

Mobility of rare-earth elements and copper during shear-zone-related retrograde metamorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mid Proterozoic crystalline rocks of the Mount Isa Inlier, around Cloncurry, Australia, 2000 km2 of alteration and brecciation are the product of high-temperature (> 450 °C) concentrated saline solution activity. During retrogression, this fluid was locally responsible for mobility of V, Y, Nb and light rare-earth elements (15 × enrichment). Copper and S were leached during alteration and this

Geoffrey de Jong; Jackie Rotherham; G. Neil Phillips; Patrick J. Williams

1997-01-01

218

ANTIREFLECTION AND PASSIVATING COATINGS ON THE BASIS OF RARE EARTH ELEMENT OXIDES FOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research the optical properties of Rare Earth Elements' (REE) Oxide films, the antireflection effect on silicon surfaces and photoelectric transducers covered by these films, and the recombination properties of silicon, passivated by REE oxide films are studied. The investigations show that the deposition of a REE oxide film onto silicon surface de- creases the spectral light reflection index

V. A. Rozhkov; M. A. Rodionov; M. B. Shalimova; A. V. Pashin; A. M. Guryanov

2004-01-01

219

Rare-earth elements modified hydrotalcites and corresponding mesoporous mixed oxides as basic solid catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inspection of a series of hydrotalcites (HTs) samples prepared under different supersaturation conditions, has allowed the selection of the low supersaturation method conducting to a more disordered HT structure as appropriate to accommodate rare-earth elements (REE) species in HTs structures. The goal is to prepare mesoporous mixed oxides to be used as catalysts for basic catalyzed organic reactions. A

R. Bîrjega; O. D. Pavel; G. Costentin; M. Che; E. Angelescu

2005-01-01

220

A LOW-COST RARE EARTH ELEMENTS RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Physical Sciences, Inc., and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research propose to develop a unique enabling technology to significantly reduce U.S. dependency for Rare Earth Elements (REE) on foreign suppliers and our global competitors. Our innovation...

221

Stable isotope and Rare Earth Element evidence for recent ironstone pods within the Archean Barberton  

E-print Network

Stable isotope and Rare Earth Element evidence for recent ironstone pods within the Archean from sea-floor vents in the Archean ocean or from recent surface and shallow subsurface spring systems 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Chemical sediments preserved in Archean rocks

Hren, Michael

222

Studying the volatility of pyrazolone complexes of rare-earth elements by means of Knudsen effusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependences of the pressure of saturated vapor of pyrazolone complexes of rare-earth elements Ln(PMIP)3 (where Ln = Y, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu; PMIP = 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-isobutyryl-5-pyrazolone) are studied via Knudsen effusion, and the enthalpy of their sublimation is determined. Mass spectra and differential scanning calorimetry data are obtained.

Lazarev, N. M.; Petrov, B. I.; Bochkarev, L. N.; Safronova, A. V.; Abakumov, G. A.; Arapova, A. V.; Bessonova, Yu. A.

2014-08-01

223

Rare earth elements in the sediments of Lake Baikal Lawrence M. Och a  

E-print Network

Rare earth elements in the sediments of Lake Baikal Lawrence M. Och a , Beat M�ller a, , Adrian Baikal sediments Iron and manganese cycling Early diagenesis Lake Baikal is the deepest and probably of the REE chemistry in Lake Baikal and its catchment area and more specifically REE distribution in five 11

Wehrli, Bernhard

224

Determination of the rare-earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of analysis of geological materials for the determination of the rare-earth elements using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique (ICP-MS) has been developed. Instrumental parameters and factors affecting analytical results have been first studied and then optimized. Samples are analyzed directly following an acid digestion, without the need for separation or preconcentration with limits of detection of

Frederick E. Lichte; Allen L. Meier; James G. Crock

1987-01-01

225

Geochemistry of rare earth elements in benthic layer particulate matter and sediments of Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of suspended particulate matter from the nepheloid layer and the benthic sediment layer (fluff zone), as well as core samples of the underlying sediment column, were collected from two locations in Lake Superior during manner submersible dives. All samples were analyzed for eight rare earth elements (REE's), biogenic silica, and organic carbon. The REE patterns indicate lithogenous material is

Annette M. Olivarez; Robert M. Owen; David T. Long

1989-01-01

226

Mutual influence of elements during coprecipitation. Cocrystallization of rare-earth elements under conditions for the formation of double sulfates of alkali and alkaline-earth metals  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the coprecipitation of rare-earth metals under conditions for the crystallization of double salts in other sulfate systems, as well as the possibility of the employment of these double salts for the selective preconcentration of rare-earth metals from solutions of complex composition. The influence of electrolytes containing and not containing an element which may act as a charge compensator during isomorphous substitution was studied. Data are presented on the coprecipitation of cerium (III) and lutetium under the conditions for the crystallization of the double salt K/sub 2/SR(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ in the presence of LiC1 and LiNO/sub 3/, as well as HC1 and HNO/sub 3/.

Tsizin, G.I.; Kalinchenko, N.B.; Malofeeva, G.I.; Marov, I.N.; Tobelko, K.I.; Urusov, V.S.

1985-04-20

227

A Unified Theory of Soret Diffusion and Isotopic Fractionation of Elements in Silicate Melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic mechanisms that underlie the chemical and isotopic fractionation that results from diffusion in natural systems is poorly understood at a theoretical level. For example chemical diffusion, which is the flux of matter associated with the presence of concentration gradients (Fick’s Law), is generally treated as a distinct process from the flux of matter associated with the presence of thermal gradients (Soret Effect). The recent discovery that thermal gradients induce isotopic gradients of trace elements such as Mg, Ca, and Fe is a challenge to our understanding of chemical and isotopic diffusion in natural systems(1-3). Here we describe how transition state theory (TST) and a generalized diffusion model can be used to simultaneously understand the chemical and isotopic fractionation that has been observed in silicate melts subjected to high-temperature gradients(4). We find that this model self-consistently explains the chemical and isotopic fractionations of Mg, Ca, and Fe as reported by Richter et al. (2008, 2009). An appealing aspect of this model is that it allows us to predict isotopic fractionations for other cations such as Li and U (See Table 1). *electronic energy barrier was scaled by factor of Z/2, where Z is the valence charge of the diffusing species. Ionic radii was assumed to be constant for all species. # measured values sensitive to both valence states. ? are reported as per mil fractionation per a.m.u. difference in the isotopic masses per 100 °C following the notation of Richter et al. (2009).Table 1 1. F. M. Richter, E. B. Watson, R. A. Mendybaev, F.-Z. Teng, P. E. Janney, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72, 206 (January 1, 2008).2. F. M. Richter et al., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 4250 (July 1, 2009).3. F. Huang et al., Nature 464, 396 (2010).4. G. Dominguez, G. Wilkins, M. Thiemens, under Review. (2010).

Wilkins, G. A.; Dominguez, G.; Thiemens, M. H.

2010-12-01

228

Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Göteborg, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Göteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were conducted during December 2006 and January 2007. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter in 9 size fractions ranging from 16 to 0.06 µm aerodynamic diameter. Polished quartz carriers were chosen as collection substrates for the subsequent direct analysis by TXRF. To investigate the sources of the analyzed air masses, backward trajectories were calculated. Our results showed that diurnal sampling was sufficient to investigate the mass distribution for Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Sr and Zn, whereas a 5-day sampling period resulted in additional information on mass distribution for Cr and S. Unimodal mass distributions were found in the study area for the elements Ca, Cl, Fe and Zn, whereas the distributions for Br, Cu, Cr, K, Ni and S were bimodal, indicating high temperature processes as source of the submicron particle components. The measurement period including the New Year firework activities showed both an extensive increase in concentrations as well as a shift to the submicron range for K and Sr, elements that are typically found in fireworks. Further research is required to validate the quantification of trace elements directly collected on sample carriers.

Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan; Gatari, Michael J.

2008-12-01

229

Pyrometallurgical Partitioning of Uranium and Transuranic Elements from Rare Earth Elements by Electrorefining and Reductive Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level liquid waste generated from PUREX reprocessing contains a small amount of transuranic elements, such as Np, Pu, Am, and Cm, with long-lived radioactivities. A pyrometallurgical partitioning process is being developed to recover transuranic elements from such waste. Small amounts of U contained in the high-level liquid waste are also recovered in the process. A key issue for developing the

Koichi UOZUMI; Kensuke KINOSHITA; Tadashi INOUE; S. P. FUSSELMAN; D. L. GRIMMETT; J. J. ROY; T. S. STORVICK; C. L. KRUEGER; C. R. NABELEK

2001-01-01

230

Rare earth element evidence for the petrogenesis of the banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, and its anorthosites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A rare earth element (REE) study was made by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry of plagioclase separates from a variety of cumulates stratigraphically spanning the Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Evaluation of parent liquid REE patterns, calculated on the basis of published plagioclase-liquid partition coefficients, shows that the range of REE ratios is too large to be attributable to fractionation of a single magma type. At least two different parental melts were present throughout the Banded series. This finding supports hypotheses of previous workers that the Stillwater Complex formed from two different parent magma types, designated the anorthosite- or A-type liquid and the ultramafic- or U-type liquid. -from Authors

Loferski, P.J.; Arculus, R.J.; Czamanske, G.K.

1994-01-01

231

Rare-earth elements in hot brines (165 to 190 degree C) from the Salton Sea geothermal field  

SciTech Connect

Rare-earth element (REE) concentrations are important indicators for revealing various chemical fractionation processes (water/rock interactions) and source region geochemistry. Since the REE patterns are characteristic of geologic materials (basalt, granite, shale, sediments, etc.) and minerals (K-feldspar, calcite, illite, epidote, etc.), their study in geothermal fluids may serve as a geothermometer. The REE study may also enable us to address the issue of groundwater mixing. In addition, the behavior of the REE can serve as analogs of the actinides in radioactive waste (e.g., neodymium is an analog of americium and curium). In this paper, the authors port the REE data for a Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brine (two aliquots: port 4 at 165{degree}C and port 5 at 190{degree}C) and six associated core samples.

Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

1988-01-01

232

Study of speciation and size fractionation of trace element between soil solution, bog, river and lake within a boreal watershed (North Karelia, NW Russia) using fractional filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is aimed at studying the evolution of migration forms of true dissolved compounds and colloidal entities using an integrated approach of molecular mass distribution and differences in the association of trace elements (TE) with organic matter (OM) or Fe colloids in the system soil water-bog-river-lake. Characterization of TE speciation with colloids during TE migration from the site of colloids origin (bog and soil solutions) towards the transit zone (river) and finally to the deposition, accumulation or transformation zone (lake) is a main fundamental task of this problem. The objects of study include a small stream watershed Vostochniy and the river Palayoki (North Karelia, Russia). The water samplings were performed in July and August 2008 and 2009 and included soil solution, nourishing bog, the middle part of the brook originated from the swamp, the mouth of the brook and the lake Zipringa. We sampled large volumes (50 - 100 liters), and we applied, directly in the in-field-installed "clean laboratory" the sequential frontal filtration and ultrafiltration of samples through the filters of progressively decreasing poresize 100, 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 microns; 100 kDa (0.0065 micron), 10 kDa (0.003 micron) and 1 kDa (0.0014 micron). This allowed separation of organic matter, coarse and fine particulate matter and colloids. All filtrates and selected retentates were analyzed for a wide range of macro-and micronutrients using ICP-MS. In filtrates of the river water, a significant decrease of iron concentration occurred in the range of 5 micron to 0.22 micron and from 100 kDa to 1 kDa. For alkali and alkaline earth elements (Mg, K, Ca), as well as for Cu, Ni, Cr the concentrations changed after passing through the 10 kDa membrane. Na concentration remains constant in all filtrates. The filtrates of the soil solution are characterized by a significant decreases in Na, K, after 0.1 micron, Ca, Cu in the range of 0.22 micron - 100 kDa and Mg, Ni in the range of 0.1 micron - 100 kDa. The changing of REEs concentrations occurred in the fraction smaller than 100 kDa for river water and in the fraction larger than 100 kDa in the soil solution. Concerning the evolution of element concentration in the system "soil solution - nourishing bog - river - lake", the concentration of Ca and Mg increases (with a little decrease in the stage "the nourishing bog - the middle current - the mouth"), and the concentration of Cu, Ni, Cr, Ti, Al decreases (with a slight increase in the interval "the nourishing swamp - the middle current - the mouth). The lanthanides have a maximum of their concentration in the river mouth and the minimum in the lake. Concentration of Fe, Zn in the soil solution is an order of magnitude higher than in the river and lake water. The ratio Fe / Me (where Me = Al, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn) naturally decreases in the course of filtration, whereas the ratio of Fe to Ti increases in a series of consecutive filtrates of soil solution. These observations can be interpreted as a result of interplay between the processes of TE leaching from soil and peat, complexation with colloids in the lake water and microbiological transformation of colloids in the course of the river flow and in the lake water. Results of the present study allow straightforward evaluation of the transformation of TE colloidal status between the site of their origin, migration and consumption (deposition) The work is executed at a Russian Federal Property Fund and CNRS support (?? 08-05-00312_a, 07-05-92212-CNRS_a).

Ilina, Svetlana M.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jerome

2010-05-01

233

Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende Cai by Nanosims  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in CAIs by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in CAIs are important to understand processes of CAI formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A CAI with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the CAI in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its formation process and subsequent metamorphic history.

Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott

2009-01-01

234

A hybrid boundary element-finite element approach to modeling plane wave 3D electromagnetic induction responses in the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel hybrid boundary element-finite element scheme which is accelerated by an adaptive multi-level fast multipole algorithm is presented to simulate 3D plane wave electromagnetic induction responses in the Earth. The remarkable advantages of this novel scheme are the complete removal of the volume discretization of the air space and the capability of simulating large-scale complicated geo-electromagnetic induction problems. To achieve this goal, first the Galerkin edge-based finite-element method (FEM) using unstructured meshes is adopted to solve the electric field differential equation in the heterogeneous Earth, where arbitrary distributions of conductivity, magnetic permeability and dielectric permittivity are allowed for. Second, the point collocation boundary-element method (BEM) is used to solve a surface integral formula in terms of the reduced electrical vector potential on the arbitrarily shaped air-Earth interface. Third, to avoid explicit storage of the system matrix arising from large-scale problems and to reduce the horrendous time complexity of the product of the system matrix with an initial vector of unknowns, the adaptive multilevel fast multipole method is applied. This leads to a matrix-free form suitable for the application of iterative solvers. Furthermore, a highly sparse problem-dependent preconditioner is developed to significantly reduce the number of iterations used by the iterative solvers. The efficacy of the presented hybrid scheme is verified on two synthetic examples against different numerical techniques such as goal-oriented adaptive finite-element methods. Numerical experiments show that at low frequencies, where the quasi-static approximation is applicable, standard FEM methods prove to be superior to our hybrid BEM-FEM solutions in terms of computational time, because the FEM method requires only a coarse discretization of the air domain and offers an advantageous sparsity of the system matrix. At radio-magnetotelluric frequencies of a few hundred kHz, the hybrid BEM-FEM scheme outperforms the FEM method, because it avoids explicit storage of the system matrices as well as dense volume discretization of the air domain required by FEM methods at high frequencies. In summary, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first attempt at completely removing the air space for large scale complicated electromagnetic induction modeling in the Earth.

Ren, Zhengyong; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Maurer, Hansruedi

2014-02-01

235

Rare-Earth-Element and Isotopic Evidence for the Genesis of the Bajiazi Stratabound Sulfide Ore Bodies of Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the rare-earth-elemenl and isotopic geochemistry of sulfide ores and associated rocks in the Bajiazi sulfide deposits of northeastern China. The distribution and concentration of rare earth elements (REE) in sulfide ores and associated rocks from the Bajiazi deposits have been determined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) methods. Birdwing-shaped rare-earth-element profiles are only observed in granitic rocks

Baohong Hou; Dong Pu Zhao

1999-01-01

236

The group separation of the rare-earth elements and yttrium from geologic materials by cation-exchange chromatography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Demand is increasing for the determination of the rare-earth elements (REE) and yttrium in geologic materials. Due to their low natural abundance in many materials and the interferences that occur in many methods of determination, a separation procedure utilizing gradient strong-acid cation-exchange chromatography is often used to preconcentrate and isolate these elements from the host-rock matrix. Two separate gradient strong-acid cation-exchange procedures were characterized and the major elements as well as those elements thought to provide the greatest interference for the determination of the REE in geologic materials were tested for separation from the REE. Simultaneous inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICAP-AES) measurements were used to construct the chromatograms for the elution studies, allowing the elution patterns of all the elements of interest to be determined in a single fraction of eluent. As a rock matrix, U.S. Geological Survey standard reference BCR-1 basalt was digested using both an acid decomposition procedure and a lithium metaborate fusion. Hydrochloric and nitric acids were tested as eluents and chromatograms were plotted using the ICAP-AES data; and we observed substantial differences in the elution patterns of the REE and as well as in the solution patterns of Ba, Ca, Fe and Sr. The nitric acid elution required substantially less eluent to elute the REE and Y as a group when compared to the hydrochloric acid elution, and provided a clearer separation of the REE from interfering and matrix elements. ?? 1984.

Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.; Wildeman, T.R.

1984-01-01

237

Partitioning of platinum-group elements and Au between sulfide liquid and basalt and the origins of mantle-crust fractionation of the chalcophile elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au between sulfide melt and silicate melt (i.e., DPGEsul) exerts a critical control on the PGE composition of the Earth’s crust and mantle, but previous estimates have been plagued by experimental uncertainties and vary through several orders of magnitude. Here we present direct experimental measurements of DPGEsul, based on in situ microanalysis of the sulfide and silicate melt, with values ranging from ?4 × 105 (Ru) to ?2-3 × 106 (Ir, Pt). Our measurements of DPGEsul are >100 times larger than previous results but smaller than anticipated based on comparison of alloy solubilities in sulfide melts and S-free silicate melts. The presence of S in the silicate melt greatly increases alloy solubility. We use our new set of partition coefficients to develop a fully constrained model of PGE behavior during melting which accurately predicts the abundances of PGE in mantle-derived magmas and their restites, including mid-ocean ridge basalts, continental picrites, and the parental magmas of the Bushveld Complex of South Africa. Our model constrains mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) to be the products of pooled low and high degree fractional melts. Within-plate picrites are pooled products of larger degrees of fractional melting in columnar melting regimes. A significant control on PGE fractionation in mantle-derived magmas is exerted by residual alloy or platinum group minerals in their source. At low pressures (e.g., MORB genesis) the mantle residual to partial melting retains primitive mantle inter-element ratios and abundances of PGE until sulfide has been completely dissolved but then evolves to extremely high Pt/Pd and low Pd/Ir because Pt and Ir alloys form in the restite. During melting at high pressure to form picrites or komatiites Ir alloy appears as a restite phase but Pt alloy is not stable due to the large effect of pressure on fS2, and of temperature on fO2 along an internal oxygen buffer, which causes large increases in alloy solubility. The magmas parental to the Bushveld Complex of South Africa appear, at least in part, to be partial melts of mantle that has previously been melted to the point of total sulfide exhaustion at low pressure, closely resembling mantle xenoliths of the Kaapvaal craton. Using the new extremely large DPGEsul the world-class Merensky Reef and UG2 Pt deposits of the Bushveld Complex can readily be modeled as the result of sulfide saturation due to mixing of magmas with unremarkable PGE contents, obviating the need to postulate anomalously PGE-rich parent magmas or hydrothermal inputs to the deposits.

Mungall, James E.; Brenan, James M.

2014-01-01

238

Inter-element fractionation of highly siderophile elements in the Tonga Arc due to flux melting of a depleted source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly siderophile element concentrations (HSEs: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re) have been determined for a suite of fresh, submarine mafic lavas from the northern Tonga Arc front and the nascent backarc Fonualei Spreading Centre (FSC). Prior melt depletion of the Tongan mantle wedge combined with a high degree of fluid fluxed melting is thought to have produced boninitic magmas at several arc and FSC locations. As such, this arc system provides an opportunity to assess the fluid mobility of HSEs and to investigate the effects of fluid-induced melting and prior melt depletion on HSE behaviour during both mantle melting and magma evolution. Tongan lavas display extreme enrichment of Pt (2.5-32 ng/g) and Pd over Os (0.002-0.6 ng/g), Ir, and Ru, significantly greater than basalts from mid-ocean ridges. Magma evolution increases the degree of fractionation, resulting in the highest recorded Pt/Ru ratios (>300) in arc front samples with MgO <8 wt.%. This increasing fractionation is due to the mild incompatibility of Pt and Pd, and concurrent compatibility of Ru, during sulphide undersaturated magma evolution. However, the fractionation of Pt and Pd from Os, Ir, and Ru is observed in the highest MgO samples, indicating source inheritance. Prior melt depletion of the mantle and elevated oxygen fugacity both increase the likelihood of complete consumption of sulphide in the source during melting, which typically leads to melts with high concentrations of all the HSE. Indeed, modelling indicates that 25% aggregate partial melting of a depleted MORB-mantle source, proposed for the Tonga Arc, will lead to complete base-metal sulphide consumption unless there is considerable addition of S by the slab flux (at least 200 ?g/g). Although source enrichment of Pt, Pd, and Re by slab fluids may take place, the fractionation of Pt and Pd from Os, Ir, and Ru can largely be explained by relatively low-temperature, yet high-degree, melting of fluid-fluxed melt-depleted mantle. The high Pt and Pd contents can be produced by the exhaustion of sulphide in the source, while the presence of Ru-Os-(Ir) alloys or sulphides (e.g. laurite) associated with Cr-spinel can explain Os, Ir, and Ru retention in the source residue. Such phases have been documented in fluid-fluxed sub-arc mantle from ophiolites. Osmium isotopes co-vary negatively with Os abundance and thus appear to be dominated by shallow level contamination. The most Os-rich samples, however, have 187Os/188Os ratios (0.126-0.132) which are typical of DMM and MORB, suggesting an indistinguishable flux of radiogenic Os from the slab. The significant fractionation of Pt and Re from Os in arc settings will lead, over time, to elevated 186Os and 187Os which may be relevant to the observed enrichments of these isotopes in some mantle regions. In addition, the differing behaviour of Ru and Ir, and the implication of a mantle source containing Ru-rich microphases, may have consequences for the estimation of the HSE composition of primitive upper mantle.

Dale, Christopher W.; Macpherson, Colin G.; Pearson, D. Graham; Hammond, Samantha J.; Arculus, Richard J.

2012-07-01

239

Experimental investigations of trace element fractionation in iron meteorites. II - The influence of sulfur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The partitioning of Ir, Ge, Ga, W, Cr, Au, P, and Ni between solid metal and metallic liquid is investigated as a function of temperature and the S-concentration of the metallic liquid. The partition coefficients for siderophile elements, such as Ir, W, Ga, and Ge, are found to increase by factors of 10-100 as the S-concentration of the metallic liquid increases from 0-30 wt percent. Partition coefficients for other siderophile elements, such as Ni, Au, and P, increase by factors of only 2-3. In contrast, a decrease is seen in the partition coefficients for the more chalcophile element Cr. These experimentally determined coefficients are used in conjunction with a fractional crystallization model to reproduce the geochemical behavior of Ni, P, Au, and Ir during the magmatic evolution of groups IIAB, IIIAB, IVA and IVB iron meteorites. The mean S-concentration for each group increases in the order IVB, IVA, IIIAB, IIAB, which is in accordance with cosmochemical prediction. However, the geochemical behavior of Ge, Ga, W, and Cr cannot be reproduced in an internally consistent way. It is concluded that the magmatic histories of these iron meteorite groups are more complex than has been generally assumed.

Jones, J. H.; Drake, M. J.

1983-01-01

240

Coronal sources, elemental fractionation, and release mechanisms of heavy ion dropouts in the solar wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elemental abundances of heavy ions (m > He) in the solar wind provide information concerning physical processes occurring in the corona. Additionally, the charge state distributions of these heavy ions are sensitive to the temperature profiles of their respective source regions in the corona. Both the abundances and charge states become set within a few solar radii and propagate unchanged throughout the heliosphere, regardless of turbulence, propagation effects, and local heating. Therefore, heavy ions yield in-situ evidence of an environment inaccessible to spacecraft and traditionally only observed via spectroscopy. Heavy ion dropouts are a relatively new class of solar wind events. Their origins lie in large, closed coronal loops where processes such as gravitational settling dominate and can cause a mass-dependent fractionation pattern. In this study we consider and attempt to answer three fundamental questions concerning heavy ion dropouts: (1) Where are the source loops located in the large scale corona?, (2) How does the interplay between coronal processes influence the end elemental abundances?, and (3) What are the most probable release mechanisms?. We begin by analyzing the temporal and spatial variability of heavy ion dropouts and their correlation with heliospheric plasma and magnetic structures. Next we investigate the ordering of the elements inside dropouts with respect to mass, charge state, and First Ionization Potential. Finally, we consider the prevailing solar wind theories and the processes they posit that may be responsible for the release of coronal plasma into interplanetary space.

Weberg, M. J.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T.

2013-12-01

241

Behavior of the rare earth elements and other trace elements during interactions between acidic hydrothermal solutions and silicic volcanic rocks, southwestern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth elements and other trace elements in some Roseki deposits (mostly pyrophyllite and sericite), silicastones, alunites, and related rocks were determined in order to examine behavior of the trace elements in the acidic hydrothermal alteration of silicic volcanic rocks. The analyzed concentrations were normalized to the probable unaltered original rock values inferred from the averaged data of some silicic

Y. Terakado; T. Fujitani

1998-01-01

242

The effect of rare earth elements on the texture and formability of asymmetrically rolled magnesium sheet  

SciTech Connect

The lack of formability is a serious issue when considering magnesium alloys for various applications. Standard symmetric rolling introduces a strong basal texture that decreases the formability; however, asymmetric rolling has been put forward as a possible route to produce sheet with weaker texture and greater ductility. It has also been shown in recent work that weaker textures can be produced through the addition of rare earth elements to magnesium alloys. Therefore, this study has been carried out to investigate the effect of rare earth additions on the texture changes during asymmetric rolling. Two alloys have been used, AZ31B and ZEK100. The effect that the rare earth additions have on the texture of asymmetrically rolled sheet and the subsequent changes in formability will be discussed.

Alderman, Dr. Martyn [Magnesium Elektron North America; Cavin, Odis Burl [ORNL; Davis, Dr. Bruce [Magnesium Elektron North America; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Randman, David [Magnesium Elektron North America; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL

2011-01-01

243

Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements  

SciTech Connect

Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements (Sc, Y, and Gd) in the impact energy range of 30 to 1000 eV were measured for the first time. The experiments were performed with a crossed-beam apparatus that featured primary ion production by photoionization with a tunable dye laser. Comparing the cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements ({sigma}{sub Sc}, {sigma}{sub Y}, and {sigma}{sub Gd}) with those of alkali metals or helium {sigma}{sub 0}, we found that {sigma}{sub 0{approx_equal}{sigma}Sc}<{sigma}{sub Y}<{sigma}{sub Gd{approx_equal}}2{sigma}{sub 0}at an impact energy of 1000 eV.

Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Izawa, Yasukazu [ARCBS, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) and Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-03-15

244

Environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud studied by fractionation and speciation procedures.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) is mostly produced from bauxite ore, which contains up to 70% of Al(2)O(3) (alumina). Before alumina is refined to aluminum metal, it is purified by hot alkaline extraction. As a waste by-product red mud is formed. Due to its high alkalinity and large quantities, it represents a severe disposal problem. In Kidri?evo (Slovenia), red mud was washed with water before disposal, and after drying, covered with soil. In Ajka (Hungary), the red mud slurry was collected directly in a containment structure, which burst caused a major accident in October 2010. In the present work the environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud from Kidri?evo and Ajka were evaluated by applying a sequential extraction procedure and speciation analysis. The predominant red mud fraction was the insoluble residue; nevertheless, environmental concern was focused on the highly mobile water-soluble fraction of Al and Cr. Al in the water-soluble Ajka mud fraction was present exclusively in form of toxic [Al(OH)(4)](-), while Cr existed in its toxic hexavalent form. Comparative assessment to red mud from Kidri?evo (Slovenia) with a lower alkalinity (pH 9) with that from Ajka demonstrated significantly lower Al solubility and the presence of only trace amounts of Cr(VI), confirming that disposal of neutralized mud is environmentally much more acceptable and carries a smaller risk of ecological accidents. Since during the Ajka accident huge amounts of biologically available Al and moderate Cr(VI) concentrations were released into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, monitoring of Al and Cr(VI) set free during remedial actions at the contaminated site is essential. Particular care should be taken to minimize the risk of release of soluble Al species and Cr(VI) into water supplies and surface waters. PMID:22542238

Mila?i?, Radmila; Zuliani, Tea; Š?an?ar, Janez

2012-06-01

245

Numerical analysis of an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for time fractional telegraph equation.  

PubMed

We discuss and analyze an H(1)-Galerkin mixed finite element (H(1)-GMFE) method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H(1)-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H(1)-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L(2)-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H(1)-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H(1)-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure. PMID:25184148

Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Min; Liu, Yang; Li, Hong

2014-01-01

246

Impulsive penetration of filamentary plasma elements into the magnetospheres of the earth and Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assuming that the solar wind plasma is usually nonuniform over distances of 10,000 km or less, it is shown that filamentary plasma elements stretched out from the sun can penetrate impulsively and become engulfed into the magnetosphere. The diamagnetic effects associated with these plasma inhomogeneities are observed in outer magnetospheres and magnetosheaths as dips or directional discontinuities in the magnetic field measurements. From the mean penetration distances of these diamagnetic plasma elements one can deduce a mean deceleration time, as well as an approximate value of the integrated Pedersen conductivity in the polar cusp of the earth and Jupiter.

Lemaire, J.

1977-01-01

247

A new highT(c) oxide superconductor without a rare earth element  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-T(c) oxide superconductor of the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system without any rare earth element was discovered. The oxide BiSrCaCu2O(x) has T(c) of about 105 K, higher than that of YBa2Cu3O7 by more than 10 K. In this oxide, the coexistence of Sr and Ca is necessary to obtain high T(c).

Hiroshi Maeda; Yoshiaki Tanaka; Masao Fukutomi; Toshihisa Asano

1988-01-01

248

Rare earth element deposition in pelagic sediment at the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary, Exmouth Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

ODP Site 762 (eastern Indian Ocean) includes a section of sediment that spans the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (CTB) and was deposited along a continental margin during a period of widespread oceanic Oâ deficiency. The rare earth element (REE) content of pre- and post-boundary sediment is similar to that of present-day continental slope material deposited in well-oxygenated seawater, whereas the CTB section

Gerald R. Dickens; Robert M. Owen

1995-01-01

249

Rare earth element deposition in pelagic sediment at the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary, Exmouth Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 762 (eastern Indian Ocean) includes a section of sediment that spans the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (CTB) and was deposited along a continental margin during a period of widespread oceanic O2 deficiency. The rare earth element (REE) content of pre- and post-boundary sediment is similar to that of present-day continental slope material deposited in well-oxygenated seawater, whereas

Gerald R. Dickens; Robert M. Owen

1995-01-01

250

Diffusion of rare-earth elements in fish teeth from deep-sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE distribution of rare-earth elements (REEs) in biogenic phosphate phases in sediments (such as the remains of fish teeth) has been proposed as an indicator of the depositional environment in the water column, recording for example palaeo-redox conditions1 and isotope geochemical2-5 and hydrothermal6,7 processes. Enrichment of these phases in REEs takes place only during early diagenesis8,9 for which reason the

Kazuhiro Toyoda; Masayasu Tokonami

1990-01-01

251

Rare earth element deposition in pelagic sediment at the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary, Exmouth Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

ODP Site 762 (eastern Indian Ocean) includes a section of sediment that spans the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (CTB) and was deposited along a continental margin during a period of widespread oceanic O2 deficiency. The rare earth element (REE) content of pre- and post-boundary sediment is similar to that of present-day continental slope material deposited in well-oxygenated seawater, whereas the CTB section

Gerald R. Dickens; Robert M. Owen

1995-01-01

252

Measurement of rare earths elements in Kakul phosphorite deposits of Pakistan using instrumental neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rare earth elements (REEs) content of Kakul phosphate rock (PR) from different localities of the main Hazara deposits\\u000a of Pakistan were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 25 phosphorite samples were collected from\\u000a different phosphorite sites and 6 samples representing different batches from the crushing plant near Kakul Mine. Concentrations\\u000a of seven REEs (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Sm,

Sabiha-Javied; S. Waheed; N. Siddique; R. Shakoor; M. Tufail

2010-01-01

253

Rare Earth Element Speciation in Geothermal Fluids from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated concentrations (20–1133 nmol\\/kg) of rare earth elements (REE) are present in acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride hydrothermal waters of the Yellowstone National Park (YNP). We used recently estimated thermodynamic data (Haas et al 1995) to speciate seventeen YNP hydrothermal fluids with the EQ3NR code. The fluids show a range in pH (2.0–4.0) and temperature (70°–93°C) and are of varied chemistry, with

A. J. LEWIS; A. KOMNINOU; B. W. D. YARDLEY; M. R. PALMER

1998-01-01

254

Dissolved rare earth elements in river waters draining karst terrains in Guizhou Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter seasonal concentrations of dissolved rare earth elements (REE) of two major river systems (the Wujiang River system\\u000a and the Yuanjiang River system) in karst-dominated regions in winter were measured by using a method involving solvent extraction\\u000a and back-extraction and subsequent ICP-MS measurements. The dissolved REE concentrations in the rivers and their tributaries\\u000a are lower than those in most of

Guilin Han; Cong-Qiang Liu

2007-01-01

255

Complexation of trivalent rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb) by carbonate ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonate stability constants for five rare earth elements (Ce[sup 3+], Eu[sup 3+], Gd[sup 3+], Tb[sup 3+], and Yb[sup 3+]) have been determined at t = 25[degrees]C and 0.70 [plus minus] 0.02 M ionic strength through solvent exchange techniques. Estimated stability constants for Ce, Eu, and Yb are in close agreement with previous work. Analyses using Gd and Tb provide the

Jong Hyeon Lee; R. H. Byrne

1993-01-01

256

Evaluating rare earth element availability: a case with revolutionary demand from clean technologies.  

PubMed

The future availability of rare earth elements (REEs) is of concern due to monopolistic supply conditions, environmentally unsustainable mining practices, and rapid demand growth. We present an evaluation of potential future demand scenarios for REEs with a focus on the issue of comining. Many assumptions were made to simplify the analysis, but the scenarios identify some key variables that could affect future rare earth markets and market behavior. Increased use of wind energy and electric vehicles are key elements of a more sustainable future. However, since present technologies for electric vehicles and wind turbines rely heavily on dysprosium (Dy) and neodymium (Nd), in rare-earth magnets, future adoption of these technologies may result in large and disproportionate increases in the demand for these two elements. For this study, upper and lower bound usage projections for REE in these applications were developed to evaluate the state of future REE supply availability. In the absence of efficient reuse and recycling or the development of technologies which use lower amounts of Dy and Nd, following a path consistent with stabilization of atmospheric CO(2) at 450 ppm may lead to an increase of more than 700% and 2600% for Nd and Dy, respectively, over the next 25 years if the present REE needs in automotive and wind applications are representative of future needs. PMID:22304002

Alonso, Elisa; Sherman, Andrew M; Wallington, Timothy J; Everson, Mark P; Field, Frank R; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph E

2012-03-20

257

The influence of rare earth element on shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si alloys  

SciTech Connect

Recently Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys have been studied intensely. Unlike Ni-Ti and Cu-based alloys, the shape memory effect(SME) in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys is often associated with the stress induced martensite by the movement of preferred partial dislocation and its reverse motion during heating. In general, there are two effective ways to improve SME in Fe-Mn-Si alloys: (1) increasing the strength of matrix to inhibit the permanent slip of perfect dislocations to austenite during a shape change and (2) reducing the stacking fault energy to enhance the movement of partial dislocations. For Fe-Mn-Si-Re (rare earth element), Hsu suggested that Re may diminish the stacking fault energy, increase the amount of thermal or stress-induced martensite, lower the T{sub N} temperature of austenite and strengthen austenite. Consequently, the addition of rare earth element in Fe-Mn-Si may significantly improve the SME. In the present study rare earth elements were added to the Fe-Mn-Si alloy in order to investigate their effect on the shape memory effect.

Zhou, W.; Jiang, B.; Qi, X.; Hsu, T.Y.

1998-10-13

258

Atomic data for lighting and astrophysical applications: Excited-state lifetimes and transition probabilities for rare-earth elements  

SciTech Connect

Because of the extremely rich spectra of rare-earth metals, a large volume of data for these elements is sought by the lighting industry for modeling of a new generation of High-Intensity Discharge lamps. In addition, the observation of rare-earths in the atmospheres of chemically peculiar stars means that this data is also of substantial interest to the astrophysics community. The authors are currently meeting this need with a combination of two experiments: excited-state lifetimes are obtained from laser-induced fluorescence measurements on a slow atomic/ionic beam, and branching fractions are obtained with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. These two sets of data are then combined to produce absolute transition probabilities. Obtaining high-quality data of this nature has involved the development of an appropriate atomic beam source, as well as a careful understanding and elimination of a variety of systematic effects. Current work has yielded preliminary lifetime measurements on more than 400 levels of neutral and singly-ionized Dysprosium, and will eventually continue with Holmium.

Curry, J.J.; Anderson, H.M.; Den Hartog, E.A.; Wickliffe, M.E.; Lawler, J.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Physics Dept.

1996-12-31

259

Highly siderophile elements in Earth's mantle as a clock for the Moon-forming impact.  

PubMed

According to the generally accepted scenario, the last giant impact on Earth formed the Moon and initiated the final phase of core formation by melting Earth's mantle. A key goal of geochemistry is to date this event, but different ages have been proposed. Some argue for an early Moon-forming event, approximately 30 million years (Myr) after the condensation of the first solids in the Solar System, whereas others claim a date later than 50?Myr (and possibly as late as around 100?Myr) after condensation. Here we show that a Moon-forming event at 40?Myr after condensation, or earlier, is ruled out at a 99.9 per cent confidence level. We use a large number of N-body simulations to demonstrate a relationship between the time of the last giant impact on an Earth-like planet and the amount of mass subsequently added during the era known as Late Accretion. As the last giant impact is delayed, the late-accreted mass decreases in a predictable fashion. This relationship exists within both the classical scenario and the Grand Tack scenario of terrestrial planet formation, and holds across a wide range of disk conditions. The concentration of highly siderophile elements (HSEs) in Earth's mantle constrains the mass of chondritic material added to Earth during Late Accretion. Using HSE abundance measurements, we determine a Moon-formation age of 95?±?32?Myr after condensation. The possibility exists that some late projectiles were differentiated and left an incomplete HSE record in Earth's mantle. Even in this case, various isotopic constraints strongly suggest that the late-accreted mass did not exceed 1 per cent of Earth's mass, and so the HSE clock still robustly limits the timing of the Moon-forming event to significantly later than 40?Myr after condensation. PMID:24695310

Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N; O'Brien, David P; Walsh, Kevin J; Rubie, David C

2014-04-01

260

Rare earth elements in coastal sediments of the northern Galician shelf: Influence of geological features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern coast of Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula, exhibits a variety of geological features: Ortegal allochthonous complex, Ollo-de-Sapo autochthonous domain and massifs of Bares, Barqueiro and San-Ciprian. In order to examine the influence of terrestrial lithologies on coastal sediments, 103 samples were collected in the Rias of Ortigueira, Barqueiro and Viveiro, their neighbouring shelf and the estuaries of Mera, Sor and Landro rivers. Aluminium, Fe, Sc, particulate inorganic and organic carbon and rare earth elements (REE) were determined in the <2 mm fraction. In addition, calcite, muscovite, quartz and riebeckite minerals were identified and quantified in 33 selected samples. The distributions of riebeckite and Fe reflect the influence of Ortegal complex on the coastal areas around the Cape Ortegal. The highest concentrations of ?REE were found in fine sediments from confined inner parts of the Rias (up to 233 mg kg-1), while most of the sands contained 11-70 mg kg-1. ?REE normalised to European Shale (ES) highlights the relative abundance of lanthanides (?REEN>6) near Cape Ortegal and the innermost ria zones. The ratio between light and heavy REE (L/H) showed lower values (4-11) around Cape Ortegal and the shelf while higher ratios (15-23) were detected in west of the Cape Estaca-de-Bares and in the inner Viveiro Ria due to elevated contributions of La and Ce. The L/H values normalised to ES reflects the importance of HREE in the adjacent area to Ortegal Complex (LN/HN<0.8) and the LREE (LN/HN>1.4) in the inner estuaries and west Cape Estaca-de-Bares. The highest REE individual ES normalised were measured in fine-grained sediments of the Mera and Sor estuaries. Sediments from the eastern shelf of Cape Ortegal presented enhanced ratios only for HREE. These results indicate that distribution of REE in the northern Galician region is highly depending on the neighbouring lithological pattern, contrasting with the situation found in the western Galician shelf and the Bay of Biscay. Lanthanides can, thus, provide a useful tool to follow the sediment pathway in the land-sea boundary zones, denoting continental geochemical imprint or fluvial outputs accordingly to the existing hydrological and geological conditions.

Prego, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Bernárdez, Patricia; Brito, Pedro; Ospina-Alvarez, Natalia; Vale, Carlos

2012-03-01

261

Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur Inferred from a Field Study of Stable-Isotope Fractionations between Elemental Sulfur and Pyrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (ES) is a common product of pyrite oxidation during acid mine drainage (AMD), but bacterial disproportionation of ES has not previously been inferred in acidic environments. Pore water profiles were collected seasonally within a coal-mine waste deposit, Minnehaha, in Southwest Indiana that has been abandoned for over 30 years. Geochemical characterization and modeling were used to assess how the interactions between the sulfur and iron cycle are affected by seasonally dynamic hydrologic conditions. Pore waters were collected seasonally and concentrations of Fe-species and sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate were determined. Additionally, a sediment core was collected and used for sequential extraction and isotopic characterization of solid-phase sulfur species including elemental sulfur (?34Ses), pyrite (?34Spy), acid-volatile sulfides, water-soluble sulfates, and acid-soluble sulfates. The dominant disulfide phase was found to be pyrite through x-ray diffraction of an additional sediment core. Sulfur isotope fractionations between ?34Spy and ?34Ses (?34Ses-py) of up to -33% are inferred to indicate bacterial disproportionation of ES in the presence of a non-limiting sulfide 'scrub' Fe(III). The initial isotopic composition, following formation from pyrite oxidation, is inferred from ?34Spy, found to be ? 8.75% at the study site. Although ES has previously been found to accumulate in acidic Fe(III)-rich pore waters, ES is typically assumed to account for less than 1% of the oxidized sulfur pool and measurements of the ES isotopic composition are often neglected during field studies of acid AMD. The pore waters at Minnehaha were seasonally suboxic with sharp transitions from Fe(III)- to Fe(II)- dominated conditions near the phreatic surface. It is hypothesized that the sulfide product of ES disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6%, is immediately re-oxidized to ES near the redox gradient via reaction with Fe(III). Sulfide re-oxidation allows for the accumulation of isotopically light ES that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for ES, incorporating seasonally varying rates for pyrite oxidation, ES disproportionation, and ES oxidation, was developed in order to determine the potential and conditions necessary for extensive recycling of ES by disproportionating bacteria to produce ES enriched in 32S compared to the pyrite source. Simulations run for 32 seasonal cycles resulted in a ?34Ses-py of -16.4.% and an ES concentration of 170 ppm, which is consistent with average values obtained from the sediment core. The findings suggest that ES disproportionation is likely an important microbial process in AMD that should be considered at similar mining waste deposits experiencing seasonally varying hydrologic conditions and that ?34Ses-py can be used to estimate multiple cycles of ES disproportionation in oxic settings where the original source of ES is pyrite oxidation.

Hardisty, D.; Pratt, L. M.; Olyphant, G. A.; Bell, J.; Johnson, A.

2011-12-01

262

Complementary rare earth element patterns in unique achondrites, such as ALHA 77005 and shergottites, and in the earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abundances of major, minor, and trace elements are determined in the Antarctic achondrite Allan Hills (ALHA) 77005 via sequential instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The rare earth element (REE) abundances of ALHA 77005 reveal a unique chondritic normalized pattern; that is, the REEs are nearly unfractionated from La to Pr at approximately 1.0X chondrites, monotonically increased from Pr to Gd at approximately 3.4X with no Eu anomaly, nearly unfractionated from Gd and Ho and monotonically decreased from Ho to Lu at approximately 2.2X. It is noted that this unique REE pattern of ALHA 77005 can be modeled by a melting process involving a continuous melting and progressive partial removal of melt from a light REE enriched source material. In a model of this type, ALHA 77005 could represent either a crystallized cumulate from such a melt or the residual source material. Calculations show that the parent liquids for the shergottites could also be derived from a light REE enriched source material similar to that for ALHA 77005.

Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Laul, J. C.

1982-01-01

263

Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

1974-01-01

264

Improved provenance tracing of Asian dust sources using rare earth elements and selected trace elements for palaeomonsoon studies on the eastern Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asian Monsoon forms an important part of the earth's climate system, yet our understanding of the past interactions between its different sub-systems, the East Asian and Indian monsoons, and between monsoonal winds and other prevailing wind currents such as the Westerly jet, is limited, particularly in central Asia. This in turn affects our ability to develop climate models capable of accurately predicting future changes in atmospheric circulation patterns and monsoon intensities in Asia. Provenance studies of mineral dust deposited in terrestrial settings such as peat bogs can address this problem directly, by offering the possibility to examine past deposition rates and wind direction, and hence reconstruct past atmospheric circulation patterns. However, such studies are challenged by several issues, most importantly the identification of proxies that unambiguously distinguish between the different potential dust sources and that are independent of particle size. In addition, a single analytical method that is suitable for sample preparation of both dust source (i.e. desert sand, soil) and receptor (i.e. dust archive such as peat or soil profiles) material is desirable in order to minimize error propagation derived from the experimental and analytical work. Here, an improved geochemical framework of provenance tracers to study atmospheric circulation patterns and palaeomonsoon variability in central Asia is provided, by combining for the first time mineralogical as well as major and trace elemental (Sc, Y, Th and the rare earth elements) information on Chinese (central Chinese loess plateau, northern Qaidam basin and Taklamakan, Badain Juran and Tengger deserts), Indian (Thar desert) and Tibetan (eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau) dust sources. Quartz, feldspars and clay minerals are the major constituents of all studied sources, with highly variable calcite contents reflected in the CaO concentrations. Chinese and Tibetan dust sources are enriched in middle REE relative to the upper continental crust and average shale but the Thar desert has a REE signature distinctly different from all other dust sources. There are significant differences in major, trace and REE compositions between the coarse and fine fractions of the surface sands, with the finest <4 ?m fraction enriched in Al 2O 3, Fe 2O 3, MnO, MgO and K 2O and the <32 ?m fractions in Sc, Y, Th and the REE relative to the coarse fractions. The <4 ?m fraction best represents the bulk REE geochemistry of the samples. The provenance tracers Y/?REE, La/Er, La/Gd, Gd/Er, La/Yb, Y/Tb, Y/La, Y/Nd and to a certain extent the europium anomaly Eu/Eu ? (all REE normalized to post-Archean Australian shale, PAAS) are particle size-independent tracers, of which combinations of Y/?REE, La/Yb, Y/Tb, Y/La and Eu/Eu ? can be used to distinguish the Thar desert, the Chinese deserts, the Chinese loess plateau and the Tibetan soils. Their independence upon grain size means that these tracers can be applied to the long-range provenance tracing of Asian dust even when only bulk samples are available in the source region. Combinations of La/Th, Y/Tb, Y/?REE, Sc/La and Y/Er distinguish the Tibetan soils from the Chinese loess plateau and the Chinese deserts. La/Th and notably Th/?REE isolate the signature of the Badain Juran desert and the combination of Sc/La and Y/Er that of the Taklamakan desert. The similarity in all trace and REE-based provenance tracers between the northern Qaidam basin and Tengger desert suggests that these two deposits may have a common aeolian source.

Ferrat, Marion; Weiss, Dominik J.; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Dong, Shuofei; Chen, Hongyun; Najorka, Jens; Sun, Youbin; Gupta, Sanjeev; Tada, Ryuji; Sinha, Rajiv

2011-11-01

265

Experimental partitioning of rare earth elements and scandium among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and mare basalt liquid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was carried out to measure partition coefficients for two rare-earth elements (Sm and Tm) and Sc among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and liquid coexisting in a system modeled on high-Ti mare basalt 74275. This 'primitive' sample was chosen for study because its major and trace element chemistry as well as its equilibrium phase relations at atmospheric pressure are known from previous studies. Beta-track analytical techniques were used so that partition coefficients could be measured in an environment whose bulk trace element composition is similar to that of the natural basalt. Partition coefficients for Cr and Mn were determined in the same experiments by microprobe analysis. The only equilibrium partial melting model appears to be one in which ilmenite is initially present in the source region but is consumed by melting before segregation of the high-Ti mare basalt liquid from the residue.

Irving, A. J.; Merrill, R. B.; Singleton, D. E.

1978-01-01

266

Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China. PMID:23548400

Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

2013-05-01

267

Combined thermodynamic and rare earth element modelling of garnet growth during subduction: Examples from ultrahigh-pressure eclogite of the Western Gneiss  

E-print Network

Combined thermodynamic and rare earth element modelling of garnet growth during subduction and preserve complex growth zonation patterns with respect to both major and rare earth elements (REE). Due at ultrahigh-pressure conditions. Mass-balance of the rare earth element distribution among the modelled stable

Zack, Thomas

268

Rare earth element redistribution and its effects on the neodymium isotope system in the austin Glen Member of the Normanskill Formation, New York, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups of REE patterns are observed for the sandstones and shales of the Middle Ordovician Austin Glen Member of the Normanskill Formation. One sandstone sample is enriched in middle and light rare earth elements. The majority of samples are light rare earth element (LREE) enriched with negative Eu-anomalies and flat heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), whereas a third group

B. Bock; S. M. McLennan; G. N. Hanson

1994-01-01

269

Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution.  

PubMed

This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications. PMID:24681591

Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A

2014-05-15

270

Trace Element Carrier Phases in Primitive Chondrite Matrix: Implications for Volatile Element Fractionation in the Inner Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are attempting to characterise the trace element carrier phases within Acfer 094 matrix using a combination of ToF-SIMS, NanoSIMS, Raman and EDS, in order to discriminate between models for volatile element depletion.

P. A. Bland; D. Rost; E. P. Vicenzi; F. J. Stadermann; C. Floss; M. Fries; A. Steele; G. K. Benedix; M. R. Lee; L. E. Watt; A. T. Kearsley

2005-01-01

271

Rare earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits and Calyptogena shell from the Iheya Ridge vent field, Okinawa Trough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of hydrothermal systems have intensively been investigated at mid-oceanic ridges, studies are relatively few at the converging plate zones like the Okinawa Trough. The \\

YAYOI HONGO; YOSHIYUKI NOZAKI

272

Self-Alignment of 1P1-Levels of Alkaline-Earth Elements in a Hollow Cathode Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-alignment of some P- level of alkaline-earth elements in a hollow cathode discharge is investigated. The radiative lifetimes and the signal broadening constants are determined from the Hanle signals.

D. Zhechev; R. Djulgerova

1985-01-01

273

Treatment of a waste salt delivered from an electrorefining process by an oxidative precipitation of the rare earth elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the reuse of a waste salt from an electrorefining process of a spent oxide fuel, a separation of rare earth elements by an oxidative precipitation in a LiCl-KCl molten salt was tested without using precipitate agents. From the results obtained from the thermochemical calculations by HSC Chemistry software, the most stable rare earth compounds in the oxygen-used rare earth

Yung-Zun Cho; Hee-Chul Yang; Gil-Ho Park; Han-Soo Lee; In-Tae Kim

2009-01-01

274

The Mobility of Rare Earth Elements and Redox Sensitive Elements in the Groundwater\\/Seawater Mixing Zone of a Shallow Coastal Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of Rare Earth Elements (REE) and Redox Sensitive Elements (RSE) were measured in groundwaters along a transect of the forest-marsh interface of a surficial aquifer system in North Inlet, SC. The well transect extended from a forest recharge area across the marsh and tidal creek to a tidal recharge area of beach ridge. The concentrations of the RSE

Thomas Duncan; Timothy J. Shaw

2003-01-01

275

Selective liquid chromatographic separation of yttrium from heavier rare earth elements using acetic acid as a novel eluent.  

PubMed

One of the major difficulties in the rare earth elements separation is purification of yttrium from heavy rare earth elements. Thus, an HPLC method using acetic acid as novel eluent was explored for selective separation of yttrium form the heavy rare earth elements. When acetic acid is used as a mobile phase yttrium eluted with the lighter lanthanides. This is contrary to its relative position amongst heavier lanthanides when eluents commonly used for separation of rare earth elements were employed. The shift in elution position of yttrium with acetic acid as eluent may reflect a relatively lower stability constant of the yttrium-AcOH complex (in the same order as for the lighter lanthanides) compared to the corresponding AcOH complexes with heavy lanthanides, enabling selective separation of yttrium from the latter. The method was successfully used for selective separation of yttrium in mixed rare earth sample containing about 80% of yttrium and about 20% of heavy rare earth oxides. Thus, the use of AcOH as eluent is an effective approach for separating and determining the trace amounts of heavy rare earth elements in large amounts of yttrium matrix. Separation was performed on C18 column by running appropriate elution programs. The effluent from the column was monitored with diode array detector at absorbance wavelength of 658nm after post column derivatization with Arsenazo III. PMID:23932372

Kifle, Dejene; Wibetoe, Grethe

2013-09-13

276

Multielement and rare earth element composition of lichens, mosses, and vascular plants from the Central Barrenlands, Nunavut, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichen (n=12) and moss (n=6) species from a remote region of northern Canada have remarkably similar multi-element patterns suggesting they are non-specific accumulators of metals under existing conditions. Within individual species the concentration of many metals analyzed range over an order of magnitude. Many elements have a positive correlation with multi-element (n=48) and REE (rare earth element) totals. Others, such

J. Chiarenzelli; L. Aspler; C. Dunn; B. Cousens; D. Ozarko; K. Powis

2001-01-01

277

Photosystem 2 activities of hyper-accumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma Bernh from a light rare earth elements mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in the fern Dicranopteris dichotoma Bernh plants from a light rare earth elements mine (LRM) and a non-mining (NM) area in Longnan county of Jiangxi province,\\u000a China were investigated by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive\\u000a X-ray microanalysis. The photosynthetic characteristics of D. dichotoma were studied by chlorophyll

L. F. Wang; H. B. Ji; K. Z. Bai; L. B. Li; T. Y. Kuang

2006-01-01

278

Comparison of speciation and bioavailability of rare earth elements between wet rhizosphere soil and air-dried bulk soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison was made between the speciation and bioavailability of rare earth elements in rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils and between wet and air-dried soils under greenhouse conditions by using a homemade rhizobox. The speciation of rare earth elements in soils is experimentally defined as water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound (B1), Fe–Mn oxide bound (B2) and organic matter and sulfide

Zhongwen Wang; Xiao-quan Shan; Shuzhen Zhang

2001-01-01

279

Rare earth element fractionation in metamorphogenic hydrothermal calcite, magnesite and siderite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Normalized REE patterns of aqueous solutions and their precipitates bear information on the physico-chemical environments a fluid experienced during REE mobilization, fluid migration and minerogenesis. Positive Eu and Yb anomalies indicate REE mobilization by a F--, OH-- and CO32--poor fluid in a high-temperature regime, but are only retained by a precipitating mineral if precipitation occurs in a low-temperature environment.

M. Bau; P. Möller

1992-01-01

280

Large variability of trace element mass fractions determined by ICP-SFMS in ice core samples from worldwide high altitude glaciers  

E-print Network

Large variability of trace element mass fractions determined by ICP-SFMS in ice core samples from and mass fractions of trace elements in melted acidified ice core samples measured by Inductively Coupled. Twenty trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Ti, Tl, U, V and Zn

Howat, Ian M.

281

The mobility of rare-earth elements during hydrothermal activity: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobility of the rare-earth elements (REE) during hydrothermal activities is increasingly documented. Geological and experimental\\u000a evidence suggests that REE may be mobile in solutions rich in F-, Cl-, HCO3\\u000a -, CO3\\u000a 2-, HPO4\\u000a 2-, PO4\\u000a 3-, or in combinations of the above ligands, even though little has been known about which ligand or which combination is most\\u000a effective in

Xiong Yongliang; Zhai Yusheng

1991-01-01

282

New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements  

E-print Network

Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110 earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r-nuclei with A > 140.

S. Goriely; J. -L. Sida; J. -F. Lemaitre; S. Panebianco; N. Dubray; S. Hilaire; A. Bauswein; H. -Thomas Janka

2013-11-22

283

Error Propagation of the Computed Orbital Elements of Selected Near-Earth Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computed orbital elements of asteroids contain errors depending on the errors of observations. In accordance with the procedure described by Sitarski (1998) we can find randomly selected sets of orbital elements which reasonably represent all observations with fixed mean rms residual. In this way we can obtain the error ellipse of the initial orbital elements, and that of the predicted ones. By integrating equations of motion of these computed clones we can obtain a time evolution of changes of the shape of the torus, inside which all the orbits of the clones exist. The time evolution of the configuration of the torus and its size are connected with the asteroid position inside this torus. The larger is the torus the more difficult it is to find the position of the asteroid. The shape of the torus and its time evolution depend mainly on the kind of the asteroid's orbit. If the orbit is more chaotic, then changes of the torus shape are more rapid and the size of the torus is larger. Close approaches of asteroids to planets are the main source of the chaotic motion. This is particularly important in computing their close approaches to Earth. The distances between the minor planet on the nominal orbit and the virtual minor planets around the nominal orbit can attain considerable values. In this work we computed the time necessary for the values of the mean distances of the clones to achieve the dimensions of the Earth radius. In this respect, we investigated the motion of the known earlier asteroids 433 Eros and 1943 Anteros, and the recently discovered minor planets 99942 Apophis (2004 MN4) and 2004 VD17 - the most dangerous to the Earth, according to the Impact Risk Page of NASA (http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/risk/). It appears that time-span after which dimensions of the torus attain well defined values are strongly correlated with the stability time and they are also connected with frequent and close approaches to the planets. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the computed orbital elements of the asteroids for the epoch of the beginning, middle or end of the observation, influence the behavior of the asteroids. Also the propagation of the region of uncertainty of asteroid position was computed. This can simplify the computing of close approaches of these asteroids to the Earth and the impact risk assessment.

Wlodarczyk, I.

2007-03-01

284

Spectrographic determination of rare earth elements using a wall-stabilized plasma arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wall-stabilized dc arc is used for the determination or rare earth elements (REEs). Solutions of REEs are mixed with potassium chloride and sprayed in an argon stream into the plasma of the arc. At the optimal excitation conditions, the spectrum of the arc has a very low background and contains no molecular bands in the visible region. Analytical curves and limits of detection for fourteen REEs are determined and the matrix effects are studied. The procedure is applied to the determination of REEs in a standard phosphate sample.

Eid, M. A.; El Behery, K. M.; Fakhry, A. A.; El Anany, F. A.

285

Rare earth element evidence concerning the origin of voluminous mid-Tertiary rhyolitic ignimbrites and related volcanic rocks, Sierra Madre Occidental, Chihuahua, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mid-Tertiary volcanic sequence of the central Sierra Madre Occidental in Chihuahua, Mexico, is about one kilometer thick and is composed predominantly of rhyolitic ignimbrites. Basaltic andesite to dacitic lavas are interbedded with the rhyolites, but they are of minor volumetric importance. Rare earth element (REE) data are used to constrain a crustal anatexis model for the origin of the voluminous ignimbrites and to test a fractional crystallization model. The REE patterns indicate that if the rhyolites were formed by direct crustal anatexis, the residue from partial melting could contain no more than a few percent garnet or about 20% hornblende. This eliminates residues with the mineralogy of amphibolite, eclogite, or garnet granulite, but melting of a garnet-free granulite source is permitted. The crustal anatexis model is difficult to evaluate critically because of a lack of knowledge concerning the mid-Tertiary geothermal gradient and the composition of the crust beneath the Sierra Madre Occidental. In contrast, the fractional crystallization model can be tested rigorously. Rayleigh fractionation calculations are used to closely model REE patterns in the basaltic andesite to rhyolite series. The minerals involved are those occurring as phenocryst phases, and the mineral proportions were generated by leastsquares major element calculations. The results of the calculations are consistent with the hypothesis that the voluminous rhyolites originated by plagioclase-dominated crystal fractionation.

Cameron, Kenneth L.; Hanson, Gilbert N.

1982-09-01

286

The Fractionation of Highly Siderophile Elements (HSE) in Impact Melts and the Determination of the Meteoritic Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar highland rocks contain an excess of siderophile elements, which has been attributed to meteoritic influx after the formation of the lunar crust [1-4]. Siderophile element enrichment has subsequently become a standard method for the identification of terrestrial impact craters. Janssens et al. [5], Grieve [6] and Palme et al. [7] have shown the dominant role of impact melt as the main carrier of meteoritic material at large terrestrial impact craters. This has been demonstrated at Clearwater East [8], Lappajarvi [9-11], Saaksjarvi [12], Brent [6] and Rochechouart [5]. The amount of projectile material incorporated in impact melt sheets is generally low (<1%). The highest recorded is 8% at East Clearwater, where the siderophiles are carried in a sulphide phase. In other cases, searches for siderophile anomalies at some impact structure have been largely unsuccessful. Melt bearing mixed breccias (suevitic melt) and fall-back sediments have been found to be free of meteoritic components in Brent, Lappajarvi and Ries samples [6,9,12-14]. However, from approximately 130 craters which are currently known on Earth only four clearly identified chondrites have been found as projectiles of large craters [15,16]. In this study we analyzed twenty-two impact melt samples (10 g) from Saaksjarvi (Finland), Mien and Dellen (Sweden) impact craters for Os, Re, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd and Au by a slightly modified version of the fire assay neutron activation method using nickel sulphide as the collector [13,14]. All samples were obtained from the collection of the University of Munster. Only fresh, nearly fragment-free, fine grained samples without any sign of alteration were selected for chemical studies. All samples have been described previously [17]. The INAA procedure involved two irradiations: a short irradiation for Rh and a long irradiation for the other elements. Impact melts from Saaksjarvi are highly enriched in PGEs. The flat siderophile pattern suggests that the meteoritic component (PGE/CI = 3x10^-3 to 9x10^-3 relative to CI) in the Saaksjarvi impact melt is relatively unfractionated. Stony-iron meteorites (pallasites) as proposed earlier [7] can therefore be excluded as possible contaminants because Pd and Ir are highly fractionated in pallasites [18]. Impact melts from Mien and Dellen are moderately enriched in PGE. The concentrations are similar (PGE/CI = 3x10^-4 to 1x10^-3 relative to CI). The flat siderophile pattern of the Mien and Dellen impact samples are compatible with carbonaceous chondrite type of material, but a clear geochemical association of any of the known meteorite types is not possible because of the low signal-to-background ratio for Rh, Ru, Pd, and Au. Samples from all impact craters have low Os/PGE ratios (Os/Ir(sub)melt =0.24) compared to chondritic ratios (Os/Ir(sub)CI=1.06). It seems that the oxygen fugacity at the time of impact melting, vaporization and crystallization of the melt body may play the dominant role in the fractionation of Os and PGEs. If Os have been partially lost by volatilization of OsO4 under oxidizing conditions, then Ir is the only element to confirm meteoritic enrichments down to a level of 2x10^-4 CI chondrite. None of the other elements determined are sufficiently sensitive indicators to confirm small meteoritic enrichments, equivalent to <10^-3 CI chondrite, because of low CI/Earth crust-ratios. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by DFG. References: [1] Wasson J. T. et al. (1975) Moon, 13, 121-141. [2] Gros J. et al. (1976) Proc. LSC 7th, 2403-2425. [3] Hertogen J. et al. (1977) Proc. LSC 8th, 17-45. [4] Palme H. (1980) Proc. LPSC 11th, 481-506. [5] Janssens M.-J. et al. (1977) JGR, 82, 750-758. [6] Grieve R. A. F. (1978) Proc. LPSC 9th, 2579-2608. [7] Palme H. et al. (1980) LPSC XI, 848-850. [8] Palme H. et al. (1978) GCA, 42, 313-323. [9] Reimold W. U. and Stoffler D. (1980) Meteoritics, 14, 526-528. [10] Reimold W. U. (1980) Ph. D. thesis, Univ. of Munster, 172 pp. [11] Gobel E. et al. (1980) Z. Naturforsch., 35a, 197-203. [12] Morgan J. W. et al. (1979) GCA, 4

Schmidt, G.; Palme, H.; Kratz, K. L.

1995-09-01

287

Just How Earth-like are Extrasolar Super-Earths? Constraints on H+He Envelope Fractions from Kepler's Planet Candidates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 3500 planetary candidates discovered in its first 3 years of data, the Kepler Mission promises to answer one of the most fundamental questions posed in exoplanetary research: what kinds of planets occur most often in our Galaxy? As Kepler primarily yields planetary radii and orbital periods, it has enabled numerous studies of the occurrence rate of planets as a function of these variables. Unfortunately, the full mass distribution, and thus a direct measure of these planets' possible compositions, remains elusive due to the unsuitability of these faint targets for radial velocity follow-up and the relative rareness of transit timing variations. We show, however, that relatively straightforward models of planetary evolution in an irradiated environment can make some progress without this full mass distribution towards understanding bulk compositions of the abundant Super-Earth/Sub-Neptunes that Kepler has discovered. In particular, we constrain the distribution of envelope fractions, i.e. the fraction of a planet's mass that is in a gaseous hydrogen and helium envelope around its rocky core, for this exoplanet population that has no analogs in our Solar System. This research builds on collaborations between astronomers and statisticians forged during a three week workshop on "Modern Statistical and Computational Methods for Analysis of Kepler Data" at SAMSI in June 2013.

Wolfgang, Angie; Lopez, E.; Kepler Team; SAMSI Bayesian Characterization of Exoplanet Populations Working Group

2014-01-01

288

Contrasting behaviour of anthropogenic gadolinium and natural rare earth elements in estuaries and the gadolinium input into the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All major rivers in northwestern Germany that flow into the North Sea, including the Weser River, display rare earth element (REE) patterns with large positive gadolinium (Gd) anomalies that indicate the presence of anthropogenic Gd derived from contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging. This microcontaminant cannot be removed by common sewage treatment technology and enters rivers and lakes with the discharge from waste water treatment plants. As elsewhere, a large fraction of the natural dissolved REE in the Weser River are associated with colloids. These colloids aggregate during mixing of freshwater and seawater in the low-salinity part of the Weser Estuary and the dissolved REE are partially removed from the river water together with the colloids. In marked contrast to the natural REE, the anthropogenic Gd behaves conservatively during this estuarine mixing and transits through the Weser Estuary almost unaffected. This indicates that the speciation of anthropogenic Gd is different from that of natural Gd and suggests a long environmental half-life of the anthropogenic Gd complexes used as contrast agents. The amount of anthropogenic Gd introduced into seawater via rivers is significant and produces anthropogenic positive Gd anomalies in coastal seawater. This is observed in the southwestern North Sea, off the coast of the East Frisian Islands, where anthropogenic Gd is mostly derived from the rivers Rhine and Thames. Its long environmental half-life and conservative estuarine behaviour suggest that anthropogenic Gd might be utilized as a pseudo-natural far-field tracer for truly dissolved riverine REE input into seawater and for discharge from waste water treatment plants and for sewage in river, ground and drinking water. The widespread distribution of anthropogenic Gd is an example of how the increasing use of "exotic" (ultra)trace elements in high-tech processes will in the future significantly hamper studies of the distribution and geochemical behaviour of such elements in natural systems.

Kulaks?z, Serkan; Bau, Michael

2007-08-01

289

13.21 Geochemistry of the Rare-Earth Element, Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr Deposits RL Linnen, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada  

E-print Network

13.21 Geochemistry of the Rare-Earth Element, Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr Deposits RL Linnen, University to Y, the rare- earth elements (REE, La to Lu), Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta. The rare elements, Canada ã 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 13.21.1 Introduction 543 13.21.1.1 Uses of Rare Elements

Chakhmouradian, Anton

290

Variation in trace element content of magnetite crystallized from a fractionating sulfide liquid, Sudbury, Canada: Implications for provenance discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ablation ICP-MS analysis has been applied to many accessory minerals in order to understand better the process by which the rock formed and for provenance discrimination. We have determined trace element concentrations of Fe-oxides in massive sulfides that form Ni-Cu-PGE deposits at the base of the Sudbury Igneous Complex in Canada. The samples represent the crystallization products of fractionating sulfide liquids and consist of early-forming Fe-rich monosulfide solution (MSS) cumulates and residual Cu-rich intermediate solid solution (ISS). This study shows that Fe-oxide geochemistry is a sensitive petrogenetic indicator for the degree of fractionation of the sulfide liquid and provides an insight into the partitioning of elements between sulfide and Fe-oxide phases. In addition, it is useful in determining the provenance of detrital Fe-oxide. In a sulfide melt, all lithophile elements (Cr, Ti, V, Al, Mn, Sc, Nb, Ga, Ge, Ta, Hf, W and Zr) are compatible into Fe-oxide. The concentrations of these elements are highest in the early-forming Fe-oxide (titanomagnetite) which crystallized with Fe-rich MSS. Upon the continual crystallization of Fe-oxide from the sulfide liquid, the lithophile elements gradually decrease so that late-forming Fe-oxide (magnetite), which crystallized from the residual Cu-rich liquid, is depleted in these elements. This behavior is in contrast with Fe-oxides that crystallized from a fractionating silicate melt, whereby the concentration of incompatible elements, such as Ti, increases rather than decreases. The behavior of the chalcophile elements in magnetite is largely controlled by the crystallization of the sulfide minerals with only Ni, Co, Zn, Mo, Sn and Pb present above detection limit in magnetite. Nickel, Mo and Co are compatible in Fe-rich MSS and thus the co-crystallizing Fe-oxide is depleted in these elements. In contrast, magnetite that crystallized later from the fractionated liquid with Cu-rich ISS is enriched in Ni, Mo and Co because Fe-rich MSS is absent. The concentrations of Sn and Pb, which are incompatible with Fe-rich MSS, are highest in magnetite that formed from the fractionated Cu-rich liquid. At subsolidus temperatures, ilmenite exsolved from titanomagnetite whereas Al-spinel exsolved from the cores of some magnetite, locally redistributing the trace elements. However, during laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of these Fe-oxides both the magnetite and its exsolution products are ablated so that the analysis represents the original magmatic composition of the Fe-oxide that crystallized from the sulfide melt.

Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges

2012-07-01

291

Mineralogy and geochemistry of trace and Rare Earth Element from the Manaila massive sulphide deposit (Eastern Carpathians, Romania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keywords: Eastern Carpathians, M?n?ila deposit, REE, trace elements, pyrite The present paper deal with the mineralogy and trace elements geochemistry of sulphide deposits from M?n?ila mine field located in NE area of Eastern Carpathians Mountains (Romania). The mineralization occurs within metamorphic rocks of Tulghe? terrane, part of Crystalline-Mezozoic zone of the Eastern Carpathians. The metamorphic rocks in M?n?ila area consist of felsic metavolcanics rocks with quartzites and quartz-feldspathic rocks as prevailing types. The P-T metamorphic conditions are typical of greenschis facies with biotite and garnet (Mn-Grt) in mineral assemblage. The mineralogical study was performed using reflected light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. Thus, the both methods show that the main sulphides minerals are represented by pyrite and chalcopyrite, being followed by sphalerite, galena and little amount of Cu sulphosalts (tetrahedrite and bournonite) and also by gangue minerals (quartz and carbonates). Pyrite occurs as large euhedral to subhedral grains in quartz and small rounded inclusion in chalcopyrite. The trace elements analysis was achieved on whole-rock samples and involved the determination of REE, LIL (Rb, Ba, Sr) and HFS (Y, Zr, Hf, U, Th, Nb, Ta) by ICP-MS method. The concentration of LIL and HFS trace elements in mineralized rocks decrease as follows: Ba > Bi > As > Sb > Co > Ga > Ni > Cd. Even if the barium contents in M?n?ila ore is high, baritina (BaSO4) was not identified throught the mineralogical analyses carried out so far. The total rare earth element content (REE) of the samples from M?n?ila range from 26.84 to 246.46 ppm. Chondrite - normalized REE patterns of the mineralized rocks show that the LREE are enriched in relation to the HREE. Also a positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies are present. Y/Ho and Zr/Hf ratios are close to the chondritic ratios indicating Charge-and-Radius-Controlled (CHARAC) behavior of these elements in pure silicate melts. The REE patterns of the ores are highly variable and do not appear to be related to the mineral compositions. This feature may reflect contributions from several factors involved in fluid formation, ore mineral deposition and post-depositional processes. The lack of a relation between major mineral composition and REE patterns suggests complex REE fractionation processes during the ore formation. This work was supported by the European Social Fund in Romania, under the responsibility of the Managing Authority for the Sectoral Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013 (grant POSDRU/88/1.5/S/47646).

Moldoveanu, S.; Iancu, O. G.; Kasper, H. U.

2012-04-01

292

Decrease of concentration and colloidal fraction of organic carbon and trace elements in response to the anomalously hot summer 2010 in a humic boreal lake.  

PubMed

The colloidal distribution and size fractionation of organic carbon (OC), major elements and trace elements (TE) were studied in a seasonally stratified, organic-rich boreal lake, Lake Svyatoe, located in the European subarctic zone (NW Russia, Arkhangelsk region). This study took place over the course of 4 years in both winter and summer periods using an in situ dialysis technique (1 kDa, 10 kDa and 50 kDa) and traditional frontal filtration and ultrafiltration (5, 0.22 and 0.025 ?m). We observed a systematic difference in dissolved elements and colloidal fractions between summer and winter periods with the highest proportion of organic and organo-ferric colloids (1 kDa-0.22 ?m) observed during winter periods. The anomalously hot summer of 2010 in European Russia produced surface water temperatures of approximately 30°C, which were 10° above the usual summer temperatures and brought about crucial changes in element speciation and size fractionation. In August 2010, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased by more than 30% compared to normal period, while the relative proportion of organic colloids decreased from 70-80% to only 20-30% over the full depth of the water column. Similarly, the proportion of colloidal Fe decreased from 90-98% in most summers and winters to approximately 60-70% in August 2010. During this hot summer, measurable and significant (>30% compared to other periods) decreases in the colloidal fractions of Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Al, Ti, Ni, As, V, Co, Y, all rare earth elements (REEs), Zr, Hf, Th and U were also observed. In addition, dissolved (<0.22 ?m) TE concentrations decreased by a factor of 2 to 6 compared to previously investigated periods. The three processes most likely responsible for such a crucial change in element biogeochemistry with elevated water temperature are 1) massive phytoplankton bloom, 2) enhanced mineralization (respiration) of allochthonous dissolved organic matter by heterotrophic aerobic bacterioplankton and 3) photo-degradation of DOM and photo-chemical liberation of organic-bound TE. While the first process may have caused significant decreases in the total dissolved concentration of micronutrients (a factor of 2 to 5 for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd and a factor of >100 for Co), the second and third factors could have brought about the decrease of allochthonous DOC concentration as well as the concentration and proportion of organic and organo-mineral colloidal forms of non-essential low-soluble trace elements present in the form of organic colloids (Al, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, Th, Pb, all REEs). It can be hypothesized that climate warming in high latitudes capable of significantly raising surface water temperatures will produce a decrease in the colloidal fraction of most trace elements and, as a result, an increase in the most labile low molecular weight LMW(<1 kDa) fraction. PMID:23792250

Shirokova, L S; Pokrovsky, O S; Moreva, O Yu; Chupakov, A V; Zabelina, S A; Klimov, S I; Shorina, N V; Vorobieva, T Ya

2013-10-01

293

Effects of rare earth elements and REE-binding proteins on physiological responses in plants.  

PubMed

Rare earth elements (REEs), which include 17 elements in the periodic table, share chemical properties related to a similar external electronic configuration. REEs enriched fertilizers have been used in China since the 1980s. REEs could enter the cell and cell organelles, influence plant growth, and mainly be bound with the biological macromolecules. REE-binding proteins have been found in some plants. In addition, the chlorophyll activities and photosynthetic rate can be regulated by REEs. REEs could promote the protective function of cell membrane and enhance the plant resistance capability to stress produced by environmental factors, and affect the plant physiological mechanism by regulating the Ca²? level in the plant cells. The focus of present review is to describe how REEs and REE-binding proteins participate in the physiological responses in plants. PMID:21838699

Liu, Dongwu; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhiwei

2012-02-01

294

Biosorption of Uranium and Rare Earth Elements Using Biomass of Algae  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) and uranium (U) in marine organism, the concentrations of REEs and U in some brown algae samples taken on the coast of Niigata Prefecture were determined. In addition, laboratory model experiment to uptake these elements using living and dried algae (Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum hemiphyllum) was also carried out to survey the uptake and bioaccumulation mechanism of REEs and U in algae. Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The order of the concentration of REEs for each organ in Sargassum hemiphyllum is “main branch” > “leaf” > “vesicle,” however for U, the order is “leaf” > “vesicle” > “main branch.” (2) The concentration of REEs in Sargassum hemiphyllum may be strongly affected by suspended solid in seawater. (3) The uptake and/or accumulate mechanism of REEs in brown algae may be different from that of U. PMID:19081786

Sakamoto, Nobuo; Kano, Naoki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

2008-01-01

295

Rare earth elements in chondritic phosphates - Implications for PU-244 chronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion-probe measurements were made of the rare-earth elements (REE) in chondritic phosphates. A 20-micron beam of O-16(-) ions was used to bombard thin phosphate sections. A computer-controlled mass spectrometer was employed to analyze the peaks generated by the beam scan. When interferences from matrixes in the samples were encountered, the intensities of major isotopes were compared with reference intensities, and the peaks of isotopes showing the lowest interference were selected. REE concentrations of apatite and merrillite in Barbotan and Salles chondrites are reported, showing that REE is five times higher in concentration than apatite. It is concluded that the REE elements can be successfully substituted as a Pu analog for dating the chondritic phosphate materials in regards to their formation time.

Reed, S. J. B.; Long, J. V. P.; Smith, D. G. W.

1983-11-01

296

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

297

Behavior of rare earth and trace elements in Lake Tanganyika and its three major tributaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water samples were collected, during the rainy and dry seasons 2003, from three major rivers and several locations of the Lake Tanganyika. They were directly filtered (0.45 im pore size) into pre-washed polyethylene bottles, and acidified at pH 2. Finnigan Element 2 high resolution (HR)-IC-MPS was used to measure trace and rare earth elements (REE) concentrations under clean laboratory conditions, and (115In) was used as an internal standard. Because of the close relationship between light rare earth element (LREE) and Fe, riverine REE of the three were used to study the process trace element scavenging by Fe oxyhydroxides in three different two sub-basins of the lake. This confirmed by the significant positive correlation between Nd and Fe. The vertical distribution of Fe and Mn oxides were also used to investigate removal and release of trace elements in the water column. The normalized lacustrine REE to their riverine counterpart showed a gradual removal of REE across the lake, which was in the order of LREE>MREE>HREE. Hence, the rivers are the sole source of the lacustrine REE abundance. Coincidence of Fe maxima with those of Ce anomalies and La indicates that trace element profiles are chiefly controlled by the coating of Fe oxyhydroxides through oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ under high dissolved oxygen contents and pH and vice versa. Due to differences in hydrodynamics between the extreme ends of the lake (upwelling in the southern end during the dry season), high mixing between bottom water and surface was observed at the surface in the Southern Basin while the mixing occurred mainly between 40 m and 80 m depth in the Northern Basin. There was also a clear similarity between Ba and NO3- and PO43- profiles in the southern end of the lake, supporting the idea that deep anoxic water, rich in nutrients and trace elements, are bought the surface during this period of intensive upwelling. In conclusion, the surface water chemical compositions of Lake Tanganyika are controlled by fluvial inputs and the seasonal changes in hydrodynamics across the lake.

Sako, A.; Johnson, R.

2004-12-01

298

Investigating the Partitioning of Inorganic Elements Consumed by Humans between the Various Fractions of Human Wastes: An Alternative Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elemental composition of food consumed by astronauts is well defined. The major elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur are taken up in large amounts and these are often associated with the organic fraction (carbohydrates, proteins, fats etc) of human tissue. On the other hand, a number of the elements are located in the extracellular fluids and can be accounted for in the liquid and solid waste fraction of humans. These elements fall into three major categories - cationic macroelements (e.g. Ca, K, Na, Mg and Si), anionic macroelements (e.g. P, S and Cl and 17 essential microelements, (e.g. Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Sr). When provided in the recommended concentrations to an adult healthy human, these elements should not normally accumulate in humans and will eventually be excreted in the different human wastes. Knowledge of the partitioning of these elements between the different human waste fractions is important in understanding (a) developing waste separation technologies, (b) decision-making on how these elements can be recovered for reuse in space habitats, and (c) to developing the processors for waste management. Though considerable literature exists on these elements, there is a lack of understanding and often conflicting data. Two major reasons for these problems include the lack of controlled experimental protocols and the inherently large variations between human subjects (Parker and Gallagher, 1988). We have used the existing knowledge of human nutrition and waste from the available literature and NASA documentation to build towards a consensus to typify and chemically characterize the various human wastes. It is our belief, that this could be a building block towards integrating a human life support and waste processing in a closed system.

Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John W.

2003-01-01

299

Fractionation of highly siderophile elements in refertilized mantle: Implications for the Os isotope composition of basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly fertile lherzolite and spinel websterite in the Ronda peridotite massif are enriched in Pt and Pd compared to Os, Ir, Ru and Re. The fractionation of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) in these rocks was produced by reaction of melt with their peridotite and pyroxenite precursors. Modeling indicates that upon reaction primary HSE hosts were dissolved and magmatic sulphides precipitated, largely erasing the original HSE signature of reacting protoliths. The budget of HSE in the melt was controlled by sulphide-silicate partitioning or entrainment of molten sulphide in silicate melt. Rhenium was likely removed from precursor peridotite and pyroxenite by previous melt extraction. Refertilization of peridotite by melts increased Al2O3, CaO, Pt, Pd contents and 187Os/188Os beyond typical values for mantle peridotite and the primitive upper mantle. The interaction of melts with residual peridotite and pyroxenite, as illustrated in the Ronda massif, can generate radiogenic-Os-enriched domains in the mantle with high melt productivity, higher Pt/Os and Pt/Re than common peridotite, and lower Re/Os than typical pyroxenite. As also previously proposed for pyroxenites, these “hybrid” domains can account for the difference in Os isotope compositions between many basalts (e.g., MORB and OIB) and common depleted mantle peridotites. Moreover, the presence of these enriched hybrid components in the mantle, evolved over sufficient timescales and in geologically reasonable proportions, may account for the 186Os-187Os enrichment of plume lavas without requiring a chemical contribution from the core.

Marchesi, Claudio; Dale, Christopher W.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Pearson, D. Graham; Bosch, Delphine; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Gervilla, Fernando; Hidas, Károly

2014-08-01

300

Rare earth element variations resulting from inversion of pigeonite and subsolidus reequilibration in lunar ferroan anorthosites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present results of a secondary ion mass spectrometry study of the rare earth elements (REEs) in the minerals of two samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite, and the results are applicable to studies of REEs in all igneous rocks, no matter what their planet of origin. Our pyroxene analyses are used to determine solid-solid REE distribution coefficients (D = CREE in low-Ca pyroxene/CREE in augite) in orthopyroxene-augite pairs derived by inversion of pigeonite. Our data and predictions from crystal-chemical considerations indicate that as primary pigeonite inverts to orthopyroxene plus augite and subsolidus reequilibration proceeds, the solid-solid Ds for orthopyroxene-augite pairs progressively decrease for all REEs; the decrease is greatest for the LREEs. The REE pattern of solid-solid Ds for inversion-derived pyroxene pairs is close to a straight line for Sm-Lu and turns upward for REEs lighter than Sm; the shape of this pattern is predicted by the shapes of the REE patterns for the individual minerals. Equilibrium liquids calculated for one sample from the compositions of primary phases, using measured or experimentally determined solid-liquid Ds, have chondrite-normalized REE patterns that are very slightly enriched in LREEs. The plagioclase equilibrium liquid is overall less rich in REEs than pyroxene equilibrium liquids, and the discrepancy probably arises because the calculated plagioclase equilibrium liquid represents a liquid earlier in the fractionation sequence than the pyroxene equilibrium liquids. "Equilibrium" liquids calculated from the compositions of inversion-derived pyroxenes or orthopyroxene derived by reaction of olivine are LREE depleted (in some cases substantially) in comparison with equilibrium liquids calculated from the compositions of primary phases. These discrepancies arise because the inversion-derived and reaction-derived pyroxenes did not crystallize directly from liquid, and the use of solid-liquid Ds is inappropriate. The LREE depletion of the calculated liquids is a relic of formation of these phases from primary LREE-depleted minerals. Thus, if one attempts to calculate the compositions of equilibrium liquids from pyroxene compositions, it is important to establish that the pyroxenes are primary. In addition, our data suggest that experimental studies have underestimated solid-liquid Ds for REEs in pigeonite and that REE contents of liquids calculated using these Ds are overestimates. Our results have implications for Sm-Nd age studies. Our work shows that if pigeonite inversion and/or subsolidus reequilibration between augite and orthopyroxene occured significantly after crystallization, and if pyroxene separates isolated for Sm-Nd studies do not have the bulk composition of the primary pyroxenes, then the Sm-Nd isochron age and ??Nd will be in error. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

James, O.B.; Floss, C.; McGee, J.J.

2002-01-01

301

Organic complexation of rare earth elements in natural waters: Evaluating model calculations from ultrafiltration data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) and Humic Ion-Binding Models V and VI were compared for their ability to predict the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the speciation of rare earth elements (REE) in natural waters. Unlike Models V and VI, SHM is part of a speciation code that also allows us to consider dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and oxidation/reduction reactions. In this context, it is particularly interesting to test the performance of SHM. The REE specific equilibrium constants required by the speciation models were estimated using linear free-energy relationships (LFER) between the first hydrolysis constants and the stability constants for REE complexation with lactic and acetic acid. Three datasets were used for the purpose of comparison: (i) World Average River Water (Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) = 5 mg L -1), previously investigated using Model V, was reinvestigated using SHM and Model VI; (ii) two natural organic-rich waters (DOC = 18-24 mg L -1), whose REE speciation has already been determined with both Model V and ultrafiltration studies, were also reinvestigated using SHM and Model VI; finally, (iii) new ultrafiltration experiments were carried out on samples of circumneutral-pH (pH 6.2-7.1), organic-rich (DOC = 7-20 mg L -1) groundwaters from the Kervidy-Naizin and Petit-Hermitage catchments, western France. The results were then compared with speciation predictions provided by Model VI and SHM, successively. When applied to World Average River Water, both Model VI and SHM yield comparable results, confirming the earlier finding that a large fraction of the dissolved REE in rivers occurs as organic complexes This implies that the two models are equally valid for calculating REE speciation in low-DOC waters at circumneutral-pH. The two models also successfully reproduced ultrafiltration results obtained for DOC-rich acidic groundwaters and river waters. By contrast, the two models yielded different results when compared to newly obtained ultrafiltration results for DOC-rich (DOC > 7 mg L -1) groundwaters at circumneutral-pH, with Model VI predictions being closer to the ultrafiltration data than SHM. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the "active DOM parameter" (i.e., the proportion of DOC that can effectively complex with REE) is a key parameter for both Model VI and SHM. However, a survey of ultrafiltration results allows the "active DOM parameter" to be precisely determined for the newly ultrafiltered waters studied here. Thus, the observed discrepancy between SHM predictions and ultrafiltration results cannot be explained by the use of inappropriate "active DOM parameter" values in this model. Save this unexplained discrepancy, the results presented in this study demonstrate that both Model VI and SHM can provide reliable estimates of REE speciation in organic-rich waters. However, it is essential to know the proportion of DOM that can actively complex REE before running these two speciation models.

Pourret, Olivier; Davranche, Mélanie; Gruau, Gérard; Dia, Aline

2007-06-01

302

Origin of anomalous rare-earth element and yttrium enrichments in subaerially exposed basalts: Evidence from French Polynesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basalts from French Polynesian islands occasionally display extremely high abundances and anomalous distributions of rare-earth elements (REE) and yttrium, whereas other incompatible element concentrations and O, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios do not differ from those of “normal” basalts from the same area. The REE- and Y-enriched basalts contribute up to 15% of the sample set, suggesting that this

J. Cotten; A. Le Dez; M. Bau; M. Caroff; R. C. Maury; P. Dulski; S. Fourcade; M. Bohn; R. Brousse

1995-01-01

303

The environment of deposition indicated by the distribution of rare earth elements in fossil bones from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil bones of Pleistocene age from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania incorporated relatively high concentrations (up to several thousands ppm) of rare earth elements during their fossilization. The data indicate that these elements were mobile during the diagenetic processes involved in the fossilization of the bones. It is suggested that the high concentrations arose through interaction of the bone with groundwaters enriched

Theya I. Molleson; P HENDERSON; C MARLOW

1997-01-01

304

Dynamic melting of proterozoic upper mantle: Evidence from rare earth elements in oceanic crust of Eastern Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare Earth Element (REE) data confirm earlier suggestions from major and trace elements that the Proterozoic Burin Group in the southwestern Avalon Zone is similar to modern oceanic tholeiites, and also exhibit a systematic evolution through the sequence. The Group forms a 60-km long belt consisting of four formations of pillowed basalt, two of subaqueous volcaniclastic and minor stromatolitic sediments

D. F. Strong; J. Dostal

1980-01-01

305

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 5: System design and specifications. Part 1: Observatory system element specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance, design, and quality assurance requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Observatory and Ground System program elements required to perform the Land Resources Management (LRM) A-type mission are presented. The requirements for the Observatory element with the exception of the instruments specifications are contained in the first part.

1974-01-01

306

Project EARTH-11-GMH2: Variations in Osmium isotopes and platinum group elements in the Atlantic Ocean  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-11-GMH2: Variations in Osmium isotopes and platinum group elements in the Atlantic by formation of carbonates. Osmium isotopes 187 Os/188 Os and platinum group element (PGE) concentrations (Os measurement of femtomoles of osmium and the 187 Os/188 Os ratio in seawater" Science 282: 272-274. Oxburgh, R

Henderson, Gideon

307

Three-dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Earth's Viscoelastic Deformation: Effects of Lateral Variations in Lithospheric Thickness  

E-print Network

Three-dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Earth's Viscoelastic Deformation: Effects of Lateral developed a 3-D spherical finite element model to study the dynamic response to surface loads of a self to the local lithospheric thickness. Coupled with efficient parallel computing, we believe that the finite

Zhong, Shijie

308

Zinc isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation and the isotopic composition of the bulk Earth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

he zinc stable isotope system has been successfully applied to many and varied fields in geochemistry, but to date it is still not completely clear how this isotope system is affected by igneous processes. In order to evaluate the potential application of Zn isotopes as a proxy for planetary differentiation and volatile history, it is important to constrain the magnitude of Zn isotopic fractionation induced by magmatic differentiation. In this study we present high-precision Zn isotope analyses of two sets of chemically diverse, cogenetic samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii, and Hekla volcano, Iceland, which both show clear evidence of having undergone variable and significant degrees of magmatic differentiation. The Kilauea Iki samples display small but resolvable variations in Zn isotope composition (0.26‰66Zn66Zn defined as the per mille deviation of a sample's 66Zn/64Zn compositional ratio from the JMC-Lyon standard), with the most differentiated lithologies exhibiting more positive ?66Zn values. This fractionation is likely a result of the crystallization of olivine and/or Fe–Ti oxides, which can both host Zn in their crystal structures. Samples from Hekla have a similar range of isotopic variation (0.22‰66Zn66Zn=0.28±0.05‰ (2s.d.).

Chen, Heng; Savage, Paul S.; Teng, Fang-Zehn; Helz, Rosalind T.; Moynier, Frédéric

2013-01-01

309

While China's dominance in rare earths dips, concerns remain about these and other elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China's dominance in the production of rare earth elements (REEs) peaked with that nation producing 97% of them in 2010; this number already has dipped to 90% in 2012 as mines in other nations are coming online, according to REE expert Karl Gschneidner Jr., a professor at Iowa State University's Ames Laboratory. Chinese production could drop to 60% by 2014, with production increasing at mines in the United States and other countries, he said. However, this reduction in China's share of REE production does not signal an end to the production crisis in REEs and other critical minerals, Gschneidner and others noted during a 1 May panel discussion on critical materials shortages at the AGU Science Policy Conference in Washington, D. C. REEs are a group of 17 chemically similar metallic elements used in a variety of electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic applications, and despite their name, they are relatively plentiful in the Earth's crust. China's control of known REE reserves has dropped from 75% in 1975 to 30.9% in 2012, with other regions also having large reserves, including the Commonwealth of Independent States (some former Soviet Republic states), the United States, and Australia, according to Gschneidner. Critical minerals are mineral commodities that are particularly important for a nation's economy or national defense that could potentially face supply disruptions.

Showstack, Randy

2012-05-01

310

Rare earth elements in sediments of the Vigo Ria, NW Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and their signatures in the Vigo Ria were studied from 50 samples of surface sediments and related to the geological formation in its watershed. The total amount of REE in the Ria is heterogeneous. It ranges from 220 mg kg -1 in the southern middle Ria margin in the vicinity of the Galiñeiro geological shore complex, which contains REE-enriched minerals, to 2 mg kg -1 near the Ria mouth due to dilution with high levels of carbonated biogenic particles (31% of Ca). Rare earth elements of the Ria sediments are considerably enriched in light-REE relative to heavy-REE (a LREE/HREE ratio of 9.7±1.6) and also show a slightly negative Eu-anomaly. Low European shale normalised REE patterns were distinguished in the innermost sediments of Vigo Ria, but were not correlated with Al. This suggests a minor contribution of REE from upstream freshwater inputs to the sediments in the middle Vigo Ria zone. Normalised REE ratios in the middle Ria imply that fine particles enriched in REE may be exported from the Ria to shelf mud patches and REE can be useful as sediment tracers of Ria input on the shelf.

Prego, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos; Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Judith

2009-04-01

311

Fractional Snowcover Estimates from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua missions has shown considerable capability for mapping snowcover. The current MODIS approach being used applies the Normalized Snow Difference Index (NDSI). The NDSI takes the difference between 500 meter observations at 1.64 micrometers (MODIS band 6) and 0.555 micrometers (MODIS band 4) divided by the sum of these observations to determine whether MODIS pixels are snowcovered or not in mapping the extent of snowcover. NSDI is an effective means of mapping snowcover because of the spectral contrast of snow in these two bands. For many hydrological and climate studies using remote sensing of snowcover, it is desirable to determine if the MODIS snowcover observations could not be enhanced by providing the fraction of snowcover in each MODIS observation (pixel). Pursuant to this objective, studies have been conducted to assess whether there is sufficient signal in the NDSI parameter to provide useful estimates of fractional snowcover in each MODIS 500 meter pixel. To do this high spatial resolution (30 meter) Landsat snowcover observations were used and co-registered with MODIS 500 meter pixels. The NDSI approach was used to assess whether a Landsat pixel was or was not snow-covered. Then the number of snow-covered versus the total Landsat pixels in a MODIS pixel was used to determine the fraction of snow-cover within each MODIS pixel. These results were then used to develop statistical relationships between the NDSI value for each 500 meter MODIS pixel and the fraction of snow-cover in the MODIS pixel. Such studies were conducted for three different areas and conditions covered by Landsat scenes in Alaska, Russia, and the Quebec Province in Canada. The statistical relationships indicate that a 10 percent accuracy can be attained. Independent tests of the relationships were accomplished by taking the relationship of fractional snow-cover to NDSI from two areas (e.g., Alaska and Quebec) and testing it on the remaining area (e.g., Russia). Again the results showed that fractional snow-cover could be estimated with an uncertainty of less than 10 percent. The variability in the statistical relationships for the three areas led to small changes in the accuracy of the results (1-2% for mean error, mean absolute error and standard deviation). The results have been shown to have advantages over other published fractional snow-cover algorithms applied to MODIS data. Most recently the fractional snow-cover algorithm has been applied using 500-meter observations over the state of Colorado for a period spanning 25 days. The results exhibit good behavior in mapping the spatial and temporal variability in snow-cover over that 25-day period. Overall, these studies indicate that robust estimates of fractional snow-cover can be attained using the NDSI parameter over areas extending in size from watersheds relatively large compared to MODIS pixels to global land cover. Other refinements to this approach as well as different approaches are being examined for mapping fractional snow-cover using MODIS observations.

Salomonson, V. V.; Appel, I.

2002-12-01

312

Speciation of rare earth elements in soil by sequential extraction then HPLC coupled with visible and ICP-MS detection.  

PubMed

The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in a pooled soil sample collected from Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, China, was screened by a five-step sequential extraction procedure coupled with ICP-MS determination after preconcentration of REE and removal of the matrix by extraction with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (HPMBP). The results showed that the distribution of REE in the different fractions of the pooled soil sample studied followed the order soluble species (46.76%) > species bound to organic matter (22.08%) > species in the residue (16.77%) > species bound to Fe-Mn oxides (2.02%). An effective method for speciation of REE, which utilized weak cation-exchange HPLC separation hyphenated with post-column derivatization and visible or on line ICP-MS detection, was, moreover, developed and successfully applied to the speciation of REE in the soluble extract of the pooled soil sample. The stability of known complexes of lanthanum during the HPLC separation was investigated with fluoride, citrate, and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) chosen as ligands modeling those in the soil. REE in the soluble extract of the pooled soil sample were subsequently classified into three types of species--< or = +1 charged complexes (negatively charged, neutral, and +1 charged), +2 charged complexes, and "free" REE species. This method is expected to be useful for identification of bioavailable (or toxic) species of REE in environmental samples. PMID:11583084

Wang, Q; Huang, B; Guan, Z; Yang, L; Li, B

2001-08-01

313

Thermodynamic properties of the rare earth element vapor complexes LnAl{sub 3}Cl{sub 12} from Ln = La to Ln = Lu  

SciTech Connect

The rare earth element complexes have never been analyzed in the gaseous state due to experimental concerns. The thermodynamic properties of rare earth element complexes are important for various applications, from high-intensity discharge lamps to recovery of rare earth metals. 46 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Zhi-Chang Wang; Lin-Shan Wang [Northeastern Univ., Liaoning (China)

1997-04-09

314

Identifying calcium sources at an acid deposition-impacted spruce forest: A strontium isotope, alkaline earth element multi-tracer approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Depletion of calcium from forest soils has important implications for forest productivity and health. Ca is available to fine feeder roots from a number of soil organic and mineral sources, but identifying the primary source or changes of sources in response to environmental change is problematic. We used strontium isotope and alkaline earth element concentration ratios of trees and soils to discern the record of Ca sources for red spruce at a base-poor, acid deposition-impacted watershed. We measured 87Sr/86Sr and chemical compositions of cross-sectional stemwood cores of red spruce, other spruce tissues and sequential extracts of co-located soil samples. 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ba ratios together provide a tracer of alkaline earth element sources that distinguishes the plant-available fraction of the shallow organic soils from those of deeper organic and mineral soils. Ca/Sr ratios proved less diagnostic, due to within-tree processes that fractionate these elements from each other. Over the growth period from 1870 to 1960, 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ba ratios of stemwood samples became progressively more variable and on average trended toward values that considered together are characteristic of the uppermost forest floor. In detail the stemwood chemistry revealed an episode of simultaneous enhanced uptake of all alkaline earth elements during the growth period from 1930 to 1960, coincident with reported local and regional increases in atmospheric inputs of inorganic acidity. We attribute the temporal trends in stemwood chemistry to progressive shallowing of the effective depth of alkaline earth element uptake by fine roots over this growth period, due to preferential concentration of fine roots in the upper forest floor coupled with reduced nutrient uptake by roots in the lower organic and upper mineral soils in response to acid-induced aluminum toxicity. Although both increased atmospheric deposition and selective weathering of Ca-rich minerals such as apatite provide possible alternative explanations of aspects of the observed trends, the chemical buffering capacity of the forest floor-biomass pool limits their effectiveness as causal mechanisms. ?? Springer 2005.

Bullen, T.D.; Bailey, S.W.

2005-01-01

315

Siderophile and chalcophile element abundances in oceanic basalts, Pb isotope evolution and growth of the earth's core  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis that the mantle Pb isotope ratios reflect continued extraction of Pb into the earth's core over geologic time is evaluated by studying the depeletion of chalcophile and siderophile elements in the mantle. Oceanic basalt samples are analyzed in order to determine the Pb, Sr, and Nd isotropic compositions and the abundances of siderophile and chalcophile elements and incompatible lithophile elements. The data reveal that there is no systematic variation of siderophile or chalcophile element abundances relative to abundances of lithophile elements and the Pb/Ce ratio of the mantle is constant. It is suggested that the crust formation involves nonmagmatic and magmatic processes.

Newsom, H. E.; White, W. M.; Jochum, K. P.; Hofmann, A. W.

1986-01-01

316

Rare earth elements in naturally grown fern Dicranopteris linearis in relation to their variation in soils in south-Jiangxi region (southern China).  

PubMed

Ferns (Dicranopteris linearis) and soils, sampled from four rare earth mining areas and one non-mining area locating in South-Jiangxi region, were chosen for analysis of 15 rare earth elements (REEs) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The fern samples were divided into 4 parts: root, stem, petiole, and lamina. The soils of the same sites were also sampled, and 4 soil layers were observed at the profile: A (0-20 cm depth), B (20-150 cm depth), C (150-400 cm depth), and D (rock). The distribution patterns and transportation characteristics of REEs of different soil layers and of different parts of D. linearis were studied. The results showed that in the soil layers, the sigma REE (the sum of the concentrations of 15 REEs) of A layer, as well as B layer were lower than that of C layer, but Ce was relatively concentrated in A layer. The sigma REE of different parts of D. linearis were lamina, root > stem > petiole. The REE distribution patterns of D. linearis root were similar to the total REE distribution patterns of the A layer of their host soils, especially to the soluble REE distribution patterns of the A layer of their host soils. The REEs were fractionated in their transportation in D. linearis. The abundances of heavy rare earth elements (HREEs, Gd to Lu and Y) in the stem, petiole, lamina are lower than those in the root. PMID:11584633

Wei, Z; Yin, M; Zhang, X; Hong, F; Li, B; Tao, Y; Zhao, G; Yan, C

2001-01-01

317

Strontium isotopes and rare-earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal carbonate deposits from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Cape Banza (North Tanganyika Lake), fluids and aragonite chimneys have been collected many times since the discovery of this sublacustrine field in 1987. This sampling has been investigated here for the Sr isotopic compositions and the rare-earth element features of the carbonates and a few fluid samples. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of the chimneys indicate that they have precipitated from a mixture of lake water (more than 95%) and hydrothermal fluids. No zoning in the chimneys was detected with our Sr data. For the rare-earth elements, the situation is more complex. The external walls of the chimneys are rare-earth-element-poor (La ? 500 ppb, Yb ? 200 ppb, La/Yb = 2 to 3.4). Their shale normalised rare-earth element patterns suggest that they are in equilibrium with the inferred carbonate-depositing fluids. The rare-earth element concentrations of the internal walls of the chimneys are significantly light rare earth elements (LREE)-enriched with La contents sometimes up to 5 ppm. We suggest that they contain more vent-fluid rare-earth elements than the external wall samples, possibly adsorbed on the surface of growing crystals or simply hosted by impurities. It was not possible to constrain the nature of these phases, but the variations of the compositions of the internal wall materials of the active chimneys with time, as well as data obtained on an inactive chimney indicate that this rare-earth element excess is mobile. Partition coefficients were calculated between the external wall aragonite and carbonate-depositing fluid. The results are strikingly similar to the values obtained by Sholkovitz and Shen (1995) on coral aragonite, and suggest that there is no significant biologic effect on the incorporation of rare-earth elements into coral aragonite and that the various carbonate complexes involved Me(CO 3+) complexes are the main LREE carriers in seawater (Cantrell and Byrne, 1987) instead of Me(CO 3) 2- in Banza fluids) have the same behaviour during aragonite precipitation.

Barrat, J. A.; Boulègue, J.; Tiercelin, J. J.; Lesourd, M.

2000-01-01

318

Strontium isotopes and rare-earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal carbonate deposits from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa  

SciTech Connect

At Cape Banza (North Tanganyika Lake), fluids and aragonite chimneys have been collected many times since the discovery of this sublacustrine field in 1987. This sampling has been investigated here for the Sr isotopic compositions and the rare-earth element features of the carbonates and a few fluid samples. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of the chimneys indicate that they have precipitated from a mixture of lake water (more than 95%) and hydrothermal fluids. No zoning in the chimneys was detected with the Sr data. For the rare-earth elements, the situation is more complex. The external walls of the chimneys are rare-earth-element-poor (La {approx} 500 ppb, Yb {approx} 200 ppb, La/Yb = 2 to 3.4). Their shale normalized rare-earth element patterns suggest that they are in equilibrium with the inferred carbonate-depositing fluids. The rare-earth element concentrations of the internal walls of the chimneys are significantly light rare earth elements (LREE)-enriched with La contents sometimes up to 5 ppm. The authors suggest that they contain more vent-fluid rare-earth elements than the external wall samples, possibly adsorbed on the surface of growing crystals or simply hosted by impurities. It was not possible to constrain the nature of these phases, but the variations of the compositions of the internal wall materials of the active chimneys with time, as well as data obtained on an inactive chimney indicate that this rare-earth element excess is mobile. Partition coefficients were calculated between the external wall aragonite and carbonate-depositing fluid. The results are strikingly similar to the values obtained by Sholkovitz and Shen (1995) on coral aragonite, and suggest that there is no significant biologic effect on the incorporation of rare-earth elements into coral aragonite and that the various carbonate complexes involved Me(CO{sub 3}{sup +}) complexes are the main LREE carriers in seawater instead of Me(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup {minus}} in Banza fluids have the same behavior during aragonite precipitation.

Barrat, J.A.; Boulegue, J.; Tiercelin, J.J.; Lesourd, M.

2000-01-01

319

Distribution and size fractionation of elemental sulfur in aqueous environments: The Chesapeake Bay and Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur is an important intermediate of sulfide oxidation and may be produced via abiotic and biotic pathways. In this study the concentration and size fractionation of elemental sulfur were measured in two different sulfidic marine environments: the Chesapeake Bay and buoyant hydrothermal vent plumes along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nanoparticulate sulfur (<0.2 ?m) was found to comprise up to 90% of the total elemental sulfur in anoxic deep waters of the Chesapeake Bay. These data were compared with previous studies of elemental sulfur, and represent one of the few reports of nanoparticulate elemental sulfur in the environment. Additionally, a strain of phototrophic sulfide oxidizing bacteria isolated from the Chesapeake Bay was shown to produce elemental sulfur as a product of sulfide oxidation. Elemental sulfur concentrations are also presented from buoyant hydrothermal vent plumes located along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In the Mid-Atlantic Ridge plume, S0 concentrations up to 33 ?M were measured in the first meter of rising plumes at three different vent sites, and nanoparticulate S0 was up to 44% of total elemental sulfur present.

Findlay, Alyssa J.; Gartman, Amy; MacDonald, Daniel J.; Hanson, Thomas E.; Shaw, Timothy J.; Luther, George W.

2014-10-01

320

Trace Elements and Rare Earth Elements Geochemistry and Its Metallogenic Significance for Cu-Zn Ore Deposits in Tongbai Area, Henan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are some Cu-Zn polymetallic ore deposits that are of volcanic hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits located in Tongbai region, Henan Province, China. The trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) geochemistry of ores of Liushanyan Cu-Zn ore deposit, Dalishu–Fanglaozhuang Cu-Zn ore deposit and Yangjuan Cu-mineralizing spot were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method to discuss

Lixing LI; Houmin LI; Denghong WANG; Changqing ZHANG

2009-01-01

321

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

322

ANALYSIS OF A FRACTIONAL SYSTEM COMPOSED OF AN I-ELEMENT AND A FRACTANCE  

E-print Network

, electrical or hydraulic self inductance, ...), the causal relation between the power variables is given by(t) is proportional to the fractional integral of the generalized flow f(t), namely: ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )0 1 11 0 edf

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Finite element analysis of the magnetic field in rare-earth permanent magnet systems, with consideration of temperature dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element method for the solution of the electromagnetic field taking account of the temperature properties of rare-earth magnets is presented. The nonuniform distribution of magnetization caused by the temperature-dependent properties of rare-earth permanent magnets is considered, and both reversible and irreversible changes in the magnetic strength of magnets with temperature are investigated. An analysis of the thermoelectromagnetic coupled

S. Chen; K. J. Binns; Z. Liu; D. W. Shimmin

1992-01-01

324

Rare earths, other trace elements and iron in Luna 20 samples.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the analysis by neutron activation of six samples from the Luna 20 mission and one sample of less than 1 mm fines from Apollo 16 are reported. The concentrations of the rare-earth elements (REE) in the samples of fines from Luna 20 and Apollo 16 are less than those found for corresponding materials from the mare areas but a negative Eu anomaly is still present. The concentrations of the REE in fines from Luna 20 are only about two-thirds as great as in the sample of Apollo 16 fines, but the concentration of Co, Sc and Cr are greater by factors ranging from 1.5 to 2.3.

Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Jacobs, J. W.; Haskin, L.; Haskin, A.

1973-01-01

325

Origin of middle rare earth element enrichment in acid mine drainage-impacted areas.  

PubMed

The commonly observed enrichment of middle rare earth elements (MREE) in water sampled in acid mine drainage (AMD)-impacted areas was found to be the result of preferential release from the widespread mineral pyrite (FeS2). Three different mining-impacted sites in Europe were sampled for water, and various pyrite samples were used in batch experiments with diluted sulphuric acid simulating AMD-impacted water with high sulphate concentration and high acidity. All water samples independent on their origin from groundwater, creek water or lake water as well as on the surrounding rock types showed MREE enrichment. Also the pyrite samples showed MREE enrichment in the respective acidic leachate but not always in their total contents indicating a process-controlled release. It is discussed that most probably complexation to sulphite (SO3 (2-)) or another intermediate S-species during pyrite oxidation is the reason for the MREE enrichment in the normalized REE patterns. PMID:24385183

Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg

2014-06-01

326

Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a ?-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

Sahoo, Sarata K.; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

2013-08-01

327

Rare earth and trace element geochemistry of a fragment of Jurassic seafloor, Point Sal, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocks from an ophiolite suite once on the seafloor were analyzed for rare earth elements (REE), Sc, Co, Na2O, Cr, Zn and FeO. Strontium isotope exchange noted in some of the lavas is attributed to basalt-seawater interaction; the Ce abundance in smectite- and zeolite-bearing lavas may also be due to prolonged exposure to seawater. The higher grades of metamorphic rock, however, show no variation from the usual flat or slightly light REE depleted profiles. Plutonic igneous rock, all light REE depleted, have total REE abundances varying by a factor of 100 between the dunites and diorites. In order of decreasing REE abundance are hornblende, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, orthopyroxene and olivine. Calculations of REE contents of liquids in equilibrium with early cumulative clinopyroxenes suggest that the parent to the stratiform sequence was more depleted in light REE than the parent to the lava pile.

Menzies, M.; Blanchard, D.; Brannon, J.; Korotev, R.

1977-01-01

328

Galileo Earth approach navigation using connected-element interferometer phase-delay tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of a Connected-Element Interferometer (CEI) to the navigation of the Galileo spacecraft during its encounter with Earth in December 1990 is investigated. A CEI tracking demonstration is planned for the week of November 11 through 18, 1990, from 27 days to 20 days prior to Earth encounter on December 8. During this period, the spacecraft will be tracked daily with Deep Space Network Stations 13 and 15 at Goldstone. The purpose of this work is twofold: first, to establish and define the navigation performance expected during the tracking demonstration and, second, to study, in a more general sense, the sensitivity of orbit demonstration results obtained with CEI to the data density within CEI tracking passes and to important system parameters, such as baseline orientation errors and the phase-delay measurement accuracy. Computer simulation results indicate that the use of CEI data, coupled with conventional range and Doppler data, may reduce the uncertainty in the declination of the spacecraft's incoming trajectory by 15 to 66 percent compared with the operational solution using range and Doppler data only. The level of improvement depends upon the quantity and quality of the CEI data.

Thurman, S. W.

1990-01-01

329

Rare earth elements in human hair from a mining area of China.  

PubMed

Rare earth minerals have been mined for more than 50 years in Inner Mongolia of China. In the mining area rare earth elements (REE) may be significantly accumulated in humans. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to characterize the REE concentrations in hair of local residents. REE concentrations in hair of 118 subjects were determined. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the determined REE in the hair of both females and males were usually higher from mining area than from control area. The mean concentrations of all the fifteen REE were much higher in hair of males than in hair of females from mining area. This suggested that males might be more sensitive to REE than females. In addition, the mean contents of the REE in hair of miners, particularly light REE (La, Ce, Pr and Nd), were usually much higher than the values in hair of non-miners from both mining area and control area, indicating that the miners were exposed to higher concentrations of REE in occupational environment. Among age groups, the relationships between REE concentrations and age groups showed that more and more concentrations of light REE accumulated in body of both females and males with age until 60 years, while heavy REE concentrations decreased with age in males who were exposed to low concentrations of heavy REE. PMID:23830573

Wei, Binggan; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Yu, Jiangping; Ye, Bixiong; Liang, Tao

2013-10-01

330

Geology and market-dependent significance of rare earth element resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China started to produce rare earth elements (REEs) in the 1980s, and since the mid-1990s, it has become the dominant producer. Rare earth element export quotas first introduced by the Chinese government in the early 2000s were severely reduced in 2010 and 2011. This led to strong government-created disparity between prices within China and the rest of the world. Industrialized countries identified several REEs as strategic metals. Because of rapid price increases of REE outside of China, we have witnessed a world-scale REE exploration rush. The REE resources are concentrated in carbonatite-related deposits, peralkaline igneous rocks, pegmatites, monazite ± apatite veins, ion adsorption clays, placers, and some deep ocean sediments. REE could also be derived as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production, U processing, mining of Ti-Zr-bearing placers, and exploitation of Olympic Dam subtype iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits. Currently, REEs are produced mostly from carbonatite-related deposits, but ion adsorption clay deposits are an important source of heavy REE (HREE). Small quantities of REE are derived from placer deposits and one peralkaline intrusion-related deposit. The ideal REE development targets would be located in a politically stable jurisdiction with a pro-mining disposition such as Canada and Australia. REE grade, HREE/light REE (LREE) ratio of the mineralization, tonnage, mineralogy, and permissive metallurgy are some of the key technical factors that could be used to screen potential development projects. As REEs are considered strategic metals from economic, national security, and environmental points of view, technical and economic parameters alone are unlikely to be used in REE project development decision-making. Recycling of REE is in its infancy and unless legislated, in the short term, it is not expected to contribute significantly to the supply of REE.

Simandl, G. J.

2014-09-01

331

A major light rare-earth element (LREE) resource in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, southern Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rapid rise in world demand for the rare-earth elements (REEs) has expanded the search for new REE resources. We document two types of light rare-earth element (LREE)-enriched rocks in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of southern Afghanistan: type 1 concordant seams of khanneshite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce) within banded barite-strontianite alvikite, and type 2 igneous dikes of coarse-grained carbonatite, enriched in fluorine or phosphorus, containing idiomorphic crystals of khanneshite-(Ce) or carbocernaite. Type 1 mineralized barite-strontianite alvikite averages 22.25 wt % BaO, 4.27 wt % SrO, and 3.25 wt % ? LREE2O3 (sum of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd oxides). Type 2 igneous dikes average 14.51 wt % BaO, 5.96 wt % SrO, and 3.77 wt % ? LREE2O3. A magmatic origin is clearly indicated for the type 2 LREE-enriched dikes, and type 1 LREE mineralization probably formed in the presence of LREE-rich hydrothermal fluid. Both types of LREE mineralization may be penecontemporaneous, having formed in a carbonate-rich magma in the marginal zone of the central vent, highly charged with volatile constituents (i.e., CO2, F, P2O5), and strongly enriched in Ba, Sr, and the LREE. Based on several assumptions, and employing simple geometry for the zone of LREE enrichment, we estimate that at least 1.29 Mt (million metric tonnes) of LREE2O3 is present in this part of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex.

Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Horton, Forrest; Buttleman, Kim; Scott, Emily R.

2012-01-01

332

Produced fluids and shallow groundwater in coalbed methane (CBM) producing regions of Alberta, Canada: Trace element and rare earth element geochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of coalbed methane (CBM) represents a vital new source of natural gas supply in Western Canada. There are, however, concerns over potential negative environmental impacts on groundwater resources caused by potential contamination with fluids and gases from coal-bearing strata. This paper provides a brief description of the geochemistry and a detailed discussion of trace element and rare earth

Katrina Cheung; Hamed Sanei; Patrick Klassen; Bernhard Mayer; Fariborz Goodarzi

2009-01-01

333

Fractionation of fluorine, chlorine and other trace elements during differentiation of a tholeiitic magma.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluorine, chlorine and other trace elements determined through differentiated tholeiitic dolerite sill from Tasmania using statistical techniques, showing hydroxyl lattice sites by chlorine and fluorine

Greenland, L.; Lovering, J. F.

1966-01-01

334

Dissolved Rare Earth Element Concentrations in the Upwelling area off Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth elements (REEs) are powerful tracers of continental input, particle exchange and scavenging processes, as well as for water mass transport in the ocean. We present a first data set of dissolved REE distributions in filtered seawater covering the major gradients of bio-productivity and oxygen concentrations in the upwelling area off Peru. A total of 22 stations were analyzed along a shelf, a nearshore and an offshore transect to investigate the influence of local inputs versus water mass mixing. The Peruvian coastal upwelling area is a highly dynamic system characterized by intense upwelling of nutrient-rich subsurface water and therefore high productivity that leads to one of the globally largest Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ). The upwelling area off Peru is of particular interest for understanding the biogeochemical cycling of REEs and other redox-sensitive metals because anoxic conditions are expected to release of REEs from the shelf, whereas high particle densities and fluxes efficiently remove the REEs from the water column. Despite their high potential as tracers few systematic investigations of seawater REEs have been carried out so far because the low concentrations of REEs (pM) are difficult to measure. In this study an online preconcentration (OP) system (seaFast, Elemental Scientific Inc.) was used with a technique slightly modified from Hathorne et al. (2012). The OP system efficiently separates seawater matrix elements from the REEs and elutes the preconcentrated sample directly into the spray chamber of the ICP-MS instrument. Repeated measurements of a seawater reference sample (n= 20) during this study gave a reproducibility of between 5% and 15% (2?), with the worst reproducibility for Sm, Eu, and Gd (12% to 15%). In general, the REEs, except Ce, show a nutrient-like behavior in seawater increasing in concentration with water depth. However, such distributions were not observed for some stations on the shelf where the highest concentrations, especially of the light REEs, were found in surface waters. Shelf locations show an enrichment in light REEs with higher (La/Yb)PAAS ratios (~0.7) in comparison to offshore stations (~0.3), likely reflecting continental input from the shelf sediments. Compared to North Pacific Deep Water (Alibo and Nozaki, 1999) the shelf samples are depleted in REEs, except for La and Ce, revealing that in addition to shelf inputs and dissolution of lithogenic particles, particle scavenging processes in the highly productive shelf area exert a major control on the REE concentrations. Interestingly there is no clear correlation between oxygen concentration and the Ce anomaly (Ce*) as in waters with oxygen concentrations below 5 ?mol/kg the Ce* ranged between 0.2 and 1.0. References: Hathorne, E. C., Haley, B., Stichel, T., Grasse, P., Zieringer, M., & Frank, M. (2012). Online preconcentration ICP-MS analysis of rare earth elements in seawater. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 13(1), 1-12. doi:10.1029/2011GC003907 Alibo, D. S., & Nozaki, Y. (1999). Rare earth elements in seawater: Particle association, shale-normalization, and Ce oxidation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 63(3/4), 363-372.

Grasse, P.; Plass, A.; Hathorne, E. C.; Frank, M.

2012-12-01

335

Key Factors Controlling Space- and Time-Linked Rare Earth Element Distribution in Shallow Groundwaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the effects of source-rock composition, redox changes and organic matter on the hydrochemistry of Rare Earth Elements (REE). Wetland groundwater samples as well as upland zone water samples were recovered weekly over a six month period (January to June 1999) from a small catchment (Petit Hermitage, France). The samples were filtered on the field using membrane filters of 0.22 ? m pore size, and then analyzed for their Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) as well as Fe, Mn, Al, Th, U and REE concentrations. The results are discussed in conjunction with previous published DOC and trace-element concentrations obtained on comparable samples from three other small catchments, namely : the Nsimi-Zoetele, Goyoum (both in Cameroon) and Kervidy/Coet-Dan (France) catchments (Viers et al., 1997; Braun et al., 1998; Dia et al., 2000). Despite marked differences (such as bioclimatic conditions, vegetation cover, basement rock composition or human activity), results are surprisingly similar with always the occurrence of two spatially distinct groundwater types including : (i) a shallow, organic-rich groundwater below wetlands recording high and variable REE contents and displaying slight or no negative Ce anomaly. In the wetland groundwaters, the REE and other trace-element concentrations seem to be controlled by seasonal dynamics, involving both temperature, whose onset at spring leads to higher organic carbon decomposition rates by microbial mass, and redox changes resulting in REE and other-trace element release in water when mineral phases occur to dissolve. (ii) The second groundwater type corresponds to a shallow, organic-poor groundwater type located below the hillslope domains. This second groundwater type displays lower REE (and other trace-element) concentrations, but distinguish from the former by the occurrence of very strong negative Ce anomalies, whose amplitude is variable, but appears to be linked to the sampling location along the catena. The comparison of the different catchments shows that the spatial variability of the REE signatures between the hillslope DOC-poor groundwaters and the wetland DOC-rich groundwaters has to be the same whatever may be the climatic and geologic context. These results assess the key roles played in the REE transfer to hydrosystems by (i) the occurrence of organic compounds, acting as a trace-element carrier phase and (ii) redox condition changes. Finally, we propose that topography could be the ultimate key factor, through its ability to control the water table depth and therefore the organic colloids enrichment when groundwaters are flowing into organic-rich soil horizons.

Dia, A.; Gruau, G.; Olivie-Lauquet, G.; Henin, O.; Petitjean, P.; Le Coz-Bouhnik, M.

2001-12-01

336

Extreme trace elements fractionation in Cenozoic nephelinites and phonolites from the Moroccan Anti-Atlas (Eastern Saghro)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nephelinites and phonolites from the Moroccan Anti-Atlas form a cogenetic series of volcanic rocks linked by a fractional crystallization process and showing continuous evolutionary trends for trace-elements. According to partial melting calculations, minor element data in olivine and review of published experimental studies, the most primitive nephelinites are low degree (~ 2%) partial melts from a carbonated LREE-rich spinel lherzolite. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions indicate the participation of both DM and HIMU end-members in the mantle source of nephelinites; the HIMU component is here interpreted as a relic of the shallow metasomatized Pan-African mantle. The phonolites show similar isotopic composition except for slightly more radiogenic Sr isotopic values. Fractional crystallization calculations were performed using trace-element mineral/bulk rock coefficients determined with new LA-ICP-MS data on minerals together with published equilibrium partition coefficients. The decrease of LREE, Sr and Ba with increasing differentiation is explained by fractionation of large amounts of apatite. Th, Nb and Zr display a behavior of very incompatible elements, reaching extreme concentration in most differentiated phonolites. Ta, Hf and MREE by contrast are characterized by a moderately incompatible to compatible behavior during differentiation. Fractionation of small amount of titanite, in which Ta, Hf and MREE are highly compatible compared to Nb, Zr and LREE (DNb/DTa: 2, DZr/DHf: 1.5 for titanite/phonolite ratios), explains the observed increase in Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios with increasing silica content, from 18 and 40 in nephelinites to 70 and 80 in phonolites, respectively. Clinopyroxene also contributed to the fractionation of Hf from Zr in the very first steps of crystallization. The low values of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios observed in the two most differentiated Si-rich phonolites are probably a consequence of late stage segregation of volatile-rich agpaitic assemblages in the underlying magma chamber. Two phonolites with extreme Sr contents plot outside fractionation trends, as a result of the remelting of previously crystallized nephelinitic rocks in depth.

Berger, Julien; Ennih, Nasser; Liégeois, Jean-Paul

2014-12-01

337

Effects of exogenous rare earth elements on phosphorus adsorption and desorption in different types of soils.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) is an important biogeochemical element and the environmental fate of P receives increasing attention. Through batch equilibration experiments, the adsorption and desorption of P in the absence and presence of exogeneous rare earth elements (REEs) were investigated in five types of agricultural soil samples collected from China. The results showed that the addition of different doses of REEs had influences on P adsorption processes in the soils, and there were differences in different soil types and different P concentrations of the P solutions. The amount of P adsorption tended to decline when the five types of soils were amended with low concentrations of REEs. The characteristics of P adsorption were more complicated when high concentrations of REEs were added to the different soils. Affected by the high concentrations of REEs, when the P concentration of the P solution added to soils was less than 20 mg L(-1), the rate of P adsorption tended to increase in all the five types of soils. However, when the P concentration of the P solution added to soil was greater than 30 mg L(-1), the rate of P adsorption tended to decrease. The Langmuir equation fitted P adsorption in all the five types of soils well. Compared with the control, when soil samples were amended with REEs, the P desorption rates of the five types of soils increased. PMID:24342358

Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

2014-05-01

338

Uranium, thorium and rare earth elements in macrofungi: what are the genuine concentrations?  

PubMed

Concentrations of uranium, thorium and rare earth elements (REE) in 36 species of ectomycorrhizal (26 samples) and saprobic (25 samples) macrofungi from unpolluted sites with differing bedrock geochemistry were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analytical results are supported by use of certified reference materials (BCR-670, BCR-667, NIST-1575a) and the reliability of the determination of uranium was verified by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA). It appears that data recently published on these elements are erroneous, in part because of use of an inappropriate analytical method; and in part because of apparent contamination by soil particles resulting in elevated levels of thorium and REE. Macrofungi from unpolluted areas, in general, did not accumulate high levels of the investigated metals. Concentrations of uranium and thorium were generally below 30 and 125 ?g kg(-1) (dry weight), respectively. Concentrations of REE in macrofungi did not exceed 360 ?g kg(-1) (dry weight) and their distribution more or less followed the trend observed in post-Archean shales and loess. PMID:21390524

Borovi?ka, Jan; Kubrová, Jaroslava; Rohovec, Jan; Randa, Zden?k; Dunn, Colin E

2011-10-01

339

Geochemistry of the rare earth elements in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A, northern equatorial Pacific  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A has been determined by instrumental neutron activation methods. The concentrations of the REE vary markedly. Low concentrations characterize samples from a depression (the valley), in which Quaternary sediments are thin or absent; high concentrations are found in samples from the surrounding abyssal hills (the highlands) where the Quaternary sediment section is relatively thick. Moreover, the valley nodules are strongly depleted in the light trivalent REE (LREE) and Ce compared with nodules from the highlands, some of the former showing negative Ce anomalies. The REE abundances in the nodules are strongly influenced by the REE abundances in coexisting bottom water. Some controls on the REE chemistry of bottom waters include: a) the more effective removal of the LREE relative to the HREE from seawater because of the greater degree of complexation of the latter elements with seawater ligands, b) the very efficient oxidative scavenging of Ce on particle surfaces in seawater, and c) the strong depletion of both Ce and the LREE in, or a larger benthic flux of the HREE into, the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) which flows through the valley. The distinctive REE chemistry of valley nodules is a function of their growth from geochemically evolved AABW. In contrast, the REE chemistry of highland nodules indicates growth from a local, less evolved seawater source. ?? 1987.

Calvert, S.E.; Piper, D.Z.; Baedecker, P.A.

1987-01-01

340

Post-Assembly Magnetization of Rare-Earth Fractional-Slot Surface Permanent-Magnet Machines Using a Two-Shot Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the post-assembly magnetization of a fractional-slot, concentrated winding brushless rare-earth surface permanent-magnet machine with six rotor poles and nine stator slots. In the paper, the simulation method is discussed, and it is illustrated that it is possible to fully magnetize the machine after assembly using two pulses of the winding (\\

Min-Fu Hsieh; Yao-Min Lien; David G. Dorrell

2011-01-01

341

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

342

Using rare earth elements for the identification of the geographic origin of food  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union defined regimes within the Protected Geographical Status (PGS) framework to protect names of regional food specialities. Thus only food produced in a specific geographical area with a specific way of production or quality can be protected by a protected geographical indication (PGI) label. As such Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil has been approved with this label, but as with many other high priced regional specialities, fraud cannot be excluded or nor identified. Thus the aim of this work is, to develop an analytical method for the control of the geographic origin of pumpkin seed oil and also to test the method for other protected products. The development of such a method is not only of interest for scientists, but also of importance for the consumer wanting to know the origin of the food products and the assurance of the purity and quality. The group of rare earth elements (REE) in plants also have a characteristic distribution pattern similar to upper crustal REE distributions. Since the REE concentrations are extremely low in pumpkin seed oil (ppt to low ppb), ICP-MS was the only sensitive tool able to produce validated results. The carrier of the REE are most likely small particles distributed within the pumpkin seed oil. Unlike, e.g., olive oil, pumpkin seed oil is bottled and sold unfiltered, which makes this Styrian speciality an interesting sampling target. As pumpkin seed oils from different geographic origin show variable trace element and rare earth distribution patterns, is should possible to trace the origin of these oils. In the current project pumpkin seeds from different regions in Austria and from abroad were sampled. The trace element patterns in the extracted oil of these seeds were determined and a preliminary classification with discriminate analysis was successfully done on a statistical basis. In addition to the study of the geographic origin it was demonstrated that REE distribution patterns can also be used for the identification of adulteration of high priced pumpkin seed oil with cheap neutral tasting refined oils. Interestingly enough, the variations of the REE patterns between oils from different regions are much more pronounced than their host soils. Thus we assume that microbiological processes in the rhizosphere are in control of the REE uptake into the plant. Regional variations of the microbiological composition of the soils and probably not only a priori the bulk soil composition of the minerals in the soil are the cause of the regional variations making it possible to identify the geographic origin of pumpkin seeds and as a consequence the pumpkin seed oil.

Meisel, T.; Bandoniene, D.; Joebstl, D.

2009-04-01

343

Rare earth element sources and modification in the Lower Kittanning coal bed, Pennsylvania: implications for the origin of coal mineral matter and rare earth element exposure in underground mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine the variations in rare earth elements (REE) from the Lower Kittanning coal bed of eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania, USA, in an attempt to understand the factors that control mineral matter deposition and modification in coal, and to evaluate possible REE mixed exposure hazards facing underground mine workers. The results of this study suggest that

Steven J. Schatzel; Brian W. Stewart

2003-01-01

344

Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.  

PubMed

The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. PMID:23978671

Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

2014-02-01

345

Complementary trace-element fractionation in volcanic and plutonic rocks: imperfect examples from ocean-floor basalts and gabbros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple trace-element model that is generalized from one devised by Albarede (1976) can be used to treat plutonic rocks as mixtures of cumulate phases and trapped liquid. The model is based on the Rayleigh fractionation law, mass balance, and modal data and, with certain assumptions, can give estimates of the mass fraction of the liquid component ( X l) in a cumulate rock and of some of the characteristics of that liquid, including trace-element concentrations and the mass fraction of the original liquid ( F) that remained in the magma chamber when some of it was trapped. Application of the model to Cr and Zr data for ten dredged gabbros from the Oceanographer Fracture Zone (OFZ) in the North Atlantic yields results in the range X l=0.014 0.17 and F=0.04 0.22. A more complex model extends the equations developed by Greenland (1970) and combines them with constraints from 1-atm experiments on ocean-floor basalts to effectively map phase-saturation boundaries onto trace-element variation diagrams. On a Zr-Sr plot, the model is capable of mimicking mixing chords and differences in liquid lines of descent (or parental compositions) inferred from major-element chemistry for several OFZ basalts. Qualitatively, the associated gabbros can also be rationalized as cumulate/melt mixtures on this diagram, although the allowable range of liquid compositions is large. In addition, there is some suggestion that the Zr-Sr liquid line of descent fitted to the OFZ basalts may have more general relevance to other ocean-floor rocks (e.g., Galapagos and FAMOUS glasses).

Delong, Stephen E.; Chatelain, Carole

1989-06-01

346

CHIMERA TYPE DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHODS APPLIED TO FRACTIONAL STEP FINITE ELEMENT SCHEMES FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, some ideas for solving Navier-Stokes equations using fractional step techniques in combination with domain decomposition methods are introduced. Apart from its traditional use in a rational distribution of the computational work, the domain decomposition (DD) method can be a powerful tool when dealing with complex geometries, which can have moving parts. The CBS (Characteristic Based Split) general

M. Vazquez; G. Houzeaux; R. Codina

347

Trace-element fractionation in Hadean mantle generated by melt segregation from a magma ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of the energetics of terrestrial accretion indicate that the Earth was extensively molten in its early history. Examination of early Archaean rocks from West Greenland (3.6-3.8Gyr old) using short-lived 146Sm-142Nd chronometry indicates that an episode of mantle differentiation took place close to the end of accretion (4.46 +\\/- 0.11Gyr ago). This has produced a chemically depleted mantle with an

Guillaume Caro; Bernard Bourdon; Bernard J. Wood; Alexandre Corgne

2005-01-01

348

Treatment of a waste salt delivered from an electrorefining process by an oxidative precipitation of the rare earth elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the reuse of a waste salt from an electrorefining process of a spent oxide fuel, a separation of rare earth elements by an oxidative precipitation in a LiCl-KCl molten salt was tested without using precipitate agents. From the results obtained from the thermochemical calculations by HSC Chemistry software, the most stable rare earth compounds in the oxygen-used rare earth chlorides system were oxychlorides (EuOCl, NdOCl, PrOCl) and oxides (CeO 2, PrO 2), which coincide well with results of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction. In this study, similar to the thermochemical results, regardless of the sparging time and molten salt temperature, oxychlorides and oxides were formed as a precipitant by a reaction with oxygen. The structure of the rare earth precipitates was divided into two shapes: small cubic (oxide) and large plate-like (tetragonal) structures. The conversion efficiencies of the rare earth elements to their molten salt-insoluble precipitates were increased with the sparging time and temperature, and Ce showed the best reactivity. In the conditions of 650 °C of the molten salt temperature and 420 min of the sparging time, the final conversion efficiencies were over 99.9% for all the investigated rare earth chlorides.

Cho, Yung-Zun; Yang, Hee-Chul; Park, Gil-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Kim, In-Tae

2009-02-01

349

[Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and rare earth elements uptake of soybean grown in rare earth mine tailings].  

PubMed

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus versiforme on the plant growth, nutrient uptake, C: N: P stoichiometric, uptake of heavy metals and rare earth elements by soybean (Glycine max) grown in rare earth mine tailings. The aim was to provide a basis for the revegetation of rare earth mine tailings. The results indicated that soybean had a high mycorrhizal colonization and symbiotic associations were successfully established with G. versiforme, with an average rate of approximately 67%. The colonization of G. versiforme significantly promoted the growth of soybean, increased P, K contents, and decreased C: N: P ratios, supporting the growth rate hypothesis. Inoculation with G. versiforme significantly decreased shoots and roots La, Ce, Pr and Nd concentrations of soybean compared to the control treatment. However, inoculation with G. versiforme had no significant effect on the heavy metal concentrations, except for significantly decreased shoot Fe and Cr concentrations and increased root Cd concentrations. The experiment demonstrates that AM fungi have a potential role for soybean to adapt the composite adversity of rare earth tailings and play a positive role in revegetation of rare earth mine tailings. Further studies on the role of AM fungi under natural conditions should be conducted. PMID:23914548

Guo, Wei; Zhao, Ren-xin; Zhao, Wen-jing; Fu, Rui-ying; Guo, Jiang-yuan; Zhang, Jun

2013-05-01

350

Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

351

Distribution behavior of uranium, neptunium, rare-earth elements ( Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and alkaline-earth metals (Sr,Ba) between molten LiCl?KCI eutectic salt and liquid cadmium or bismuth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distribution coefficients of uranium neptunium, eight rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) and two alkaline-earth metals (Sr and Ba) between molten LiCl-KCI eutectic salt and either liquid cadmium or bismuth were measured at 773 K. Separation factors of trivalent rare-earth elements to uranium or neptunium in the LiCl-KCl/Bi system were by one or two orders of magnitude larger than those in the LiCl-KCl/Cd system. On the contrary, the separation factors of alkaline-earth metals and divalent rare-earth elements to trivalent rare-earth elements were by one or two orders of magnitude smaller in the LiCl-KCl/Bi system.

Kurata, M.; Sakamura, Y.; Hijikata, T.; Kinoshita, K.

1995-12-01

352

A chemical-spectrochemical method for the determination of rare earth elements and thorium in cerium minerals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a combined chemical-spectrochemical procedure for quantitatively determining rare earth elements in cerium minerals, cerium is determined volumetrically, a total rare earths plus thoria precipitate is separated chemically, the ceria content of the precipitate is raised to 80??0 percent by adding pure ceria, and the resulting mixture is analyzed for lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, gadolinium, yttrium, and thorium spectrochemically by means of the d.c. carbon arc. Spectral lines of singly ionized cerium are used as internal standard lines in the spectrochemical determination which is patterned after Fassel's procedure [1]. Results of testing the method with synthetic mixtures of rare earths and with samples of chemically analyzed cerium minerals show that the coefficient of variation for a quadruplicate determination of any element does not exceed 5??0 (excepting yttrium at concentrations less than 1 percent) and that the method is free of serious systematic error. ?? 1954.

Rose, H.J., Jr.; Murata, K.J.; Carron, M.K.

1954-01-01

353

The behavior of rare earth elements in seawater: Precise determination of variations in the North Pacific water column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present new, highly precise and accurate data for ten rare earth elements (REEs) in two water column profiles and in bottom waters from three additional localities in the North Pacific. Results presented here, and in an earlier publication, indicate that the water column in the western North Pacific is stratified with respect to the isotopic composition of Nd

D. J. Piepgrass; S. B. Jacobsen

1992-01-01

354

An evaluation of the behavior of the rare earth elements during the weathering of sea-floor basalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present rare earth element (REE) data for fresh and altered tholeiitic basalts sampled during a dredging transect at 23°N in the Atlantic Ocean and covering a time span of 0 to 57 million years. These data have been used to evaluate the behavior of the REE during low-temperature weathering processes. Compositional trends from altered basalt interiors to palagonitized rinds

John N. Ludden; Geoffrey Thompson

1979-01-01

355

Rare earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits from the active TAG Mound, 26°N Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of various phases from the active TAG hydrothermal mound has been examined and related to their mineralogy and fluid chemistry. The mound deposits range from black and white smoker chimneys, massive anhydrite\\/sulphide mixtures, oxides, and ochres. All phases, except black smoker chimney anhydrite, demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly when normalised to chondrite REE values.

Rachel A. Mills; Henry Elderfield

1995-01-01

356

Rare-earth elements and yttrium distributions in mangrove coastal water systems: The western Gulf of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of rare-earth elements and yttrium (REY) was investigated in dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter, and seafloor sediments of the western coastal area of the Gulf of Thailand. The samples show Eu and Gd positive anomalies in the shale-normalized REY patterns, especially in the suspended particulate matter. On the other hand, a very high REE content was detected in

P. Censi; S. E. Spoto; G. Nardone; F. Saiano; R. Punturo; S. I. Di Geronimo; S. Mazzola; A. Bonanno; B. Patti; M. Sprovieri; D. Ottonello

2005-01-01

357

Geochemistry of rare earth elements in the formation of ferromanganese nodules in the Peruvian Trough of the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of Fe, Mn, Al, P, Co, Ni, Cu, and the rare-earth elements in myopelagic deposits and nodules, as well as in the upper and lower parts of nodules from the same bottom-dredged sample taken in the Peruvian Trough of the Pacific Ocean is considered. It is shown that iron and phosphorus enrich the lower parts of nodules, and

A. V. Dubinin; S. V. Strekopytov

1995-01-01

358

Trace and rare earth elements in cassiterite — sources of components for the tin deposits of the Mole Granite, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace and rare earth elements have been determined for cassiterite from deposits associated with the Mole Granite and hosted by granite, metasediments and metavolcanics. The SREE of cassiterite is controlled by the SREE of the the ore fluid and the rocks through which this fluid circulated. The REE distribution factor and SLREE\\/HREE value of cassiterite is strongly influenced by the

I. R. Plimer; J. Lu; J. D. Kleeman

1991-01-01

359

Trace and Rare Earth Elements in Microbial Deposits of Upper Jurassic Coral and Sponge reefs: Palaeoenvironmental Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonate microbial deposits (microbialites) are abundantly represented throughout the Precambrian and Phanerozic, and developed in a wide range of palaeogeographic settings. These biologically induced carbonates can be used as paleoceanographic proxies, because they are characterized by a rapid lithification and their development well-above the sea floor reduced the contamination by porewaters. Moreover, rare earth elements (REE) are incorporated with uniform

N. Olivier; M. Boyet

2004-01-01

360

Delineation of ground-water flow systems in the southern Great Basin using aqueous rare earth element distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rare earth element (REE) signature of ground waters from both felsic volcanic rocks on the Nevada Test site and from the regional Paleozoic carbonate aquifer of southern nevada resemble the REE signature of the rocks through which they flow. Moreover, the REE signatures of Ash Meadows ground waters are similar to those of springs in the Furnace Creek region

Kevin H. Johannesson; Klaus J. Stetzenbach; Vernon F. Hodge; David K. Kreamer; Xiaoping Zhou

1997-01-01

361

Contrasting behaviour of anthropogenic gadolinium and natural rare earth elements in estuaries and the gadolinium input into the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

All major rivers in northwestern Germany that flow into the North Sea, including the Weser River, display rare earth element (REE) patterns with large positive gadolinium (Gd) anomalies that indicate the presence of anthropogenic Gd derived from contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging. This microcontaminant cannot be removed by common sewage treatment technology and enters rivers and lakes with

Serkan Kulaksiz; Michael Bau

2007-01-01

362

Separation of Actinides from Rare Earth Elements by Electrorefining in LiC1KC1 Eutectic Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pyrometallurgical partitioning technology to recover actinides from high level radioactive wastes is being developed. In the process, actinides are separated from fission products by electrorefining in molten chloride systems. It is expected that REs (rare earth elements), main components of fission products are hardly separated from actinides. In order to estimate separation factors, electrorefining experiments to recover actinides from

Yoshiharu SAKAMURA; Takatoshi HIJIKATA; Kensuke KINOSHITA; Tadashi INOUE; T. S. STORVICK; C. L. KRUEGER; L. F. GRANTHAM; S. P. FUSSELMAN; D. L. GRIMMETT; J. J. ROY

1998-01-01

363

Adsorption of rare earth elements onto bacterial cell walls and its implication for REE sorption onto natural microbial mats  

E-print Network

Adsorption of rare earth elements onto bacterial cell walls and its implication for REE sorption concentrations. The distribution coefficients of REE between the bacterial cell surface and water showed. Instead, the data are consistent with two ligand types for the sorption of REE. The pattern of bacterial

364

Major and rare earth elements in rainwaters from Japan and East China Sea: Natural and anthropogenic sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainwater samples collected from Tokyo and nearby locations in Japan as well as from two locations over the East China Sea have been analyzed for their rare earth elements (REEs) and major ions. The major ion compositions of these samples show the contributions of oceanic, crustal, and anthropogenic sources, and suggest the relative importance of these sources. Rainwater samples collected

Jing Zhang; Cong-Qiang Liu

2004-01-01

365

Overview of Rare Earth Element Investigations in Acid Waters of U. S. Geological Survey Abandoned Mine Lands Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geochemistry of rare earth element (REE) variations in acid waters is being studied as part of the U. S. Geological Survey Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in two pilot watersheds, upper Animas, Colorado and Boulder, Montana. The following objectives are under investigation: (1) comparison of acid mine waters and naturally acidic springs, (2) determination of whether the dominant control on

Philip L. Verplanck; D. Kirk Nordstrom; Howard E. Taylor

366

Extension of lattice strain theory to mineral/mineral rare-earth element partitioning: An approach for assessing disequilibrium  

E-print Network

/clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene/clinopyroxene pairs correlate negatively with effective cationic radius, whereas those conditions yield negative correlations of olivine/clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene/clinopyroxene with respect/melt parti- tion coefficients for rare-earth elements (REEs) in olivine and orthopyroxene to better

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

367

Determination of trace rare earth elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry after preconcentration with multiwalled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method has been developed for the determination of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in water samples based on preconcentration with a microcolumn packed with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The optimum experimental parameters for preconcentration of REEs, such as pH of the sample, sample flow rate and

Pei Liang; Yan Liu; Li Guo

2005-01-01

368

Studies on Microbial Heavy Metal Retention from Uranium Mine Drainage Water with Special Emphasis on Rare Earth Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial heavy metal retention was studied using seepage water sampled from a former uranium mining site in Eastern Thuringia, Germany. The seepage water has a low pH and contains high concentrations of metals, including uranium, rare earth elements (REE), and other heavy metals. Microbial influence on sorption and\\/or active uptake of heavy metals was studied using REE patterns. Incubation of

D. Merten; E. Kothe; G. Büchel

2004-01-01

369

The rare earth elements in rivers, estuaries, and coastal seas and their significance to the composition of ocean waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REEs) in samples from 15 rivers, from 6 estuarine transects, and of 5 coastal seawaters are reported and have been used with literature data to examine the continuity in average REE pattern between average continental crust and the dissolved input of REE to the oceans via estuaries. Concentrations in river waters span a

H. Elderfield; R. Upstill-Goddard; E. R. Sholkovitz

1990-01-01

370

Geochemistry of alkaline earth elements (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) in the surface sediments of the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of alkaline earth elements were measured in the surface sediments of the Yellow Sea in an attempt to establish their sources from horizontal distributions. The maximum concentrations of Mg are found in the central Yellow Sea, and its horizontal distribution is mainly controlled by quartz dilution. The concentrations of Ca and Sr increase toward the southeastern Yellow Sea

Guebuem Kim; Han-Soeb Yang; Thomas M. Church

1999-01-01

371

An experimental study of the solubility and speciation of the Rare Earth Elements (III) in fluoride-and  

E-print Network

An experimental study of the solubility and speciation of the Rare Earth Elements (III) in fluoride; available online 26 August 2009 Abstract The solubility of REE(III) fluoride solids was determined in fluoride- and chloride-bearing solutions at 150, 200 and 250 °C and saturated water vapor pressure

Long, Bernard

372

Determination of rare earth elements in hot spring and crater lake waters by epithermal neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the rare earth elements (REE's) in acidic hot spring and crater lake waters by neutron activation analysis (NAA), in which activation was performed mostly by epithermal neutrons (epithermal NAA) was investigated. Nine REE's, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu, out of fourteen naturally existing REE's were determined at ppb levels with satisfactory precision. The

T. Honda; T. Oi; T. Ossaka; T. Nozaki; H. Kakihana

1989-01-01

373

Geochemical fixation of rare earth elements into secondary minerals in sandstones beneath a natural fission reactor at Bangombé, Gabon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study geochemical processes for migration and fixation of fissiogenic rare earth elements (REE) in association with uranium dissolution, in situ isotopic analyses using an ion microprobe were performed on U- and REE-bearing secondary minerals, such as coffinite, françoisite, uraniferous goethite, and uraninite found in a sandstone layer 30 to 110 cm beneath a natural fission reactor at Bangombé, Gabon. Phosphate minerals such as phosphatian coffinite and françoisite with depleted 235U ( 235U/ 238U = 0.00609 to 0.00638) contained large amount of fissiogenic light REE, while micro-sized uraninite grains in a solid bitumen aggregate have normal U isotopic values ( 235U/ 238U = 0.00725) and small amount of fissiogenic REE components. The proportions of fissiogenic and non-fissiogenic REE components in four samples from the core of BAX03 vary in depth ranging from 30 cm to 130 cm beneath the reactor, which suggests mixing between fissiogenic isotopes from the reactor and non-fissiogenic isotopes from original minerals in the sandstone. Significant chemical fractionation was observed between Ce and the other REE in the secondary minerals, which shows evidence of an oxidizing atmosphere during their formation. Pb-isotopic analyses of individual minerals do not directly provide chronological information because of the disturbance of U-Pb decay system due to recent geologic alteration. However, systematic Pb-isotopic results from all of the minerals reveal the mobilization of fissiogenic isotopes, Pb and U from the reactor in association with dolerite dyke intrusion ˜0.798 Ga ago and the formation of the secondary minerals by mixing event between 2.05 Ga-old original minerals and reactor materials due to recent alteration.

Hidaka, Hiroshi; Janeczek, Janusz; Skomurski, Frances N.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

2005-02-01

374

Geochemical fractionation of trace elements in sediments of Hugli River (Ganges) and Sundarban wetland (West Bengal, India).  

PubMed

A sequential extraction procedure was carried out to determinate the concentrations of 11 elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in different geochemical phases of sediments collected along the Hugli (Ganges) River Estuary and in the Sundarban mangrove wetland, eastern coastal part of India. The chemical speciation of elements was determined using the three-step sequential extraction procedure described by the European Community Bureau of Reference. Total metal concentration was determined using a microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure. Metal concentrations were near the background level except for As for which a moderate pollution can be hypothesized. The mobility order of the metals was: Cd?>?Mn?>?Cu?>?Zn?>?As?>?Co?>?Pb?>?Ni?>?Fe?>?Cr?>?Al. The highest percentage of Cd (>60%) was found in the most labile phase. Residual fraction was prevailing for Fe, Cr and Al, while Pb was mainly associated with the reducible fraction. Data were compared with Sediment Quality Guidelines to estimate the relationship between element concentrations and adverse biological effects on benthic community, finding the possibility of some toxic effects due to the presence of As in the entire studied area and Cd, only in Calcutta. PMID:22270595

Massolo, Serena; Bignasca, Antonello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Chatterjee, Mousumi; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar Deb; Alam, Aftab

2012-12-01

375

Some data on transuranium element distribution in particle size fractions of Chernobyl soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some Chernobyl soils were collected in the north-west direction. The samples have been separated into particle size fractions 1–2; 0.5–1; 0.25–0.5; 0.16–0.25; 0.05–0.16; 0.01–0.05; 0.005–0.01; 0.002–0.005; 0.00005–0.002; and less than 0.00005 mm. The fractions were analyzed on238,239,240Pu,241Am,242,244Cm content. In contrast to the global plutonium fallout, the peak of plutonium activity falls in the particle size range of 0.01–0.05 or 0.005–0.01

V. I. Berezhnoi; N. K. Valetova; G. E. Dunaev; N. A. Kazakov; V. G. Zubarev

1991-01-01

376

Controls on the fractionation of isovalent trace elements in magmatic and aqueous systems: evidence from Y/Ho, Zr/Hf, and lanthanide tetrad effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parameters which control the behaviour of isovalent trace elements in magmatic and aqueous systems have been investigated by studying the distribution of yttrium, rare-earth elements (REEs), zirconium, and hafnium. If a geochemical system is characterized by CHArge-and- RAdius- Controlled ( CHARAC) trace element behaviour, elements of similar charge and radius, such as the Y-Ho and Zr-Hf twin pairs, should display extremely coherent behaviour, and retain their respective chondritic ratio. Moreover, normalized patterns of REE(III) should be smooth functions of ionic radius and atomic number. Basic to intermediate igneous rocks show Y/Ho and Zr/Hf ratios which are close to the chondritic ratios, indicating CHARAC behaviour of these elements in pure silicate melts. In contrast, aqueous solutions and their precipitates show non-chondritic Y/Ho and Zr/Hf ratios. An important process that causes trace element fractionation in aqueous media is chemical complexation. The complexation behaviour of a trace element, however, does not exclusively depend on its ionic charge and radius, but is additionally controlled by its electron configuration and by the type of complexing ligand, since the latter two determine the character of the chemical bonding (covalent vs electrostatic) in the various complexes. Hence, in contrast to pure melt systems, aqueous systems are characterized by non-CHARAC trace element behaviour, and electron structure must be considered as an important additional parameter. Unlike other magmatic rocks, highly evolved magmas rich in components such as H2O, Li, B, F, P, and/or Cl often show non-chondritic Y/Ho and Zr/Hf ratios, and “irregular” REE patterns which are sub-divided into four concave-upward segments referred to as “tetrads”. The combination of non-chondritic Y/Ho and Zr/Hf ratios and lanthanide tetrad effect, which cannot be adequately modelled with current mineral/melt partition coefficients which are smooth functions of ionic radius, reveals that non-CHARAC trace element behaviour prevails in highly evolved magmatic systems. The behaviour of high field strength elements in this environment is distinctly different from that in basic to intermediate magmas (i.e. pure silicate melts), but closely resembles trace element behaviour in aqueous media. “Anomalous” behaviour of Y and REEs, and of Zr and Hf, which are hosted by different minerals, and the fact that these minerals show “anomalous” trace element distributions only if they crystallized from highly evolved magmas, indicate that non-CHARAC behaviour is a reflection of specific physicochemical properties of the magma. This supports models which suggest that high-silica magmatic systems which are rich in H2O, Li, B, F, P, and/or Cl, are transitional between pure silicate melts and hydrothermal fluids. In such a transitional system non-CHARAC behaviour of high field strength elements may be due to chemical complexation with a wide variety of ligands such as non-bridging oxygen, F, B, P, etc., leading to absolute and relative mineral/melt or mineral/aqueous-fluid partition coefficients that are extremely sensitive to the composition and structure of this magma. Hence, any petrogenetic modelling of such magmatic rocks, which utilizes partition coefficients that have not been determined for the specific igneous suite under investigation, may be questionable. But Y/Ho and Zr/Hf ratios provide information on whether or not the evolution of felsic igneous rocks can be quantitatively modelled: samples showing non-chondritic Y/Ho and Zr/Hf ratios or even the lanthanide tetrad effect should not be considered for modelling. However, the most important result of this study is that Y/Ho and Zr/Hf ratios may be used to verify whether Y, REEs, Zr, and Hf in rocks or minerals have been deposited from or modified by silicate melts or aqueous fluids.

Bau, Michael

1996-04-01

377

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

378

Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific seafloor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth elements (REEs) are key metals for «green» technologies such as energy saving lamps or permanent magnets used in, e.g., wind turbines, hard disk drives, portable phone or electric or hybrid vehicles. Since several years, world demand for these metals is therefore drastically increasing. The quasi-monopolistic position of China, which produces around 95 % of global REEs production, generates risks for the industries that depend on a secure supply of REEs. In response, countries are developing and diversifying their supply sources, with new mining projects located outside China and efforts in the area of REEs recycling. Most of these projects focus on deposits related to carbonatites and alkaline-peralkaline magmatism, which are generally enriched in light REEs (LREEs) compared to the heavy REEs (HREEs)-enriched deposits of the ion-adsorption types, located in southern China. However, a recent study revealed new valuable resources corresponding to seafloor sediments located in the south-eastern and north-central Pacific. The deep-sea mud described by these authors show a higher HREE/LREE ratio than ion-adsorption deposits, a feature which significantly increases their economic interest. The authors suggest mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal activity as an explanation to this anomalous enrichment. However, several contributions have documented considerable REEs enrichment in basalts and peridotitic xenoliths from French Polynesia. Several arguments have been exposed in favour of a supergene origin, with a short migration, suggesting that REEs were collected from weathered basalts. The Tahaa volcanic island (Sous-le-Vent Island, Society Archipelago, French Polynesia) is the first location where such enrichment has been described. New petrographic and mineralogical investigations confirm a supergene mobilization of this abnormal occurrence. REE-bearing minerals (mainly phosphates of the rhabdophane group) are primarily located within basalt vesicles but also in crack that cross-cut the calcite filling the vesicles or the volcanic glass. They are also closely associated with Ni-Mg bearing phyllosilicates, which appear to nucleate from alteration of olivine and clinopyroxenes. Further investigations are done to evidence and confirm an anterior magmatic enrichment. On the basis of these observations, we believe that the anomalous enrichment observed in seafloor sediments could derive from abnormally-rich provinces corresponding to aerial basaltic formations from oceanic islands primarily enriched during weathering processes (Melleton et al., 2014). Melleton et al. (2014). Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific sea-floor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia. In preparation.

Melleton, Jérémie; Tuduri, Johann; Pourret, Olivier; Bailly, Laurent; Gisbert, Thierry

2014-05-01

379

Distribution behavior of uranium, neptunium, rare-earth elements ( Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and alkaline-earth metals (Sr,Ba) between molten LiCl?KCI eutectic salt and liquid cadmium or bismuth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution coefficients of uranium neptunium, eight rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) and two alkaline-earth metals (Sr and Ba) between molten LiCl-KCI eutectic salt and either liquid cadmium or bismuth were measured at 773 K. Separation factors of trivalent rare-earth elements to uranium or neptunium in the LiCl-KCl\\/Bi system were by one or two orders

M. Kurata; Y. Sakamura; T. Hijikata; K. Kinoshita

1995-01-01

380

Distribution of rare earth elements in marine sediments from the Strait of Sicily (western Mediterranean Sea): evidence of phosphogypsum waste contamination.  

PubMed

Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Y, Th and Sc were recently determined in marine sediments collected using a box corer along two onshore-offshore transects located in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). The REE+Y were enriched in offshore fine-grained sediments where clay minerals are abundant, whereas the REE+Y contents were lower in onshore coarse-grained sediments with high carbonate fractions. Considering this distribution trend, the onshore sediments in front of the southwestern Sicilian coast represent an anomaly with high REE+Y concentrations (mean value 163.4 ?g g(-1)) associated to high Th concentrations (mean value 7.9 ?g g(-1)). Plot of shale-normalized REE+Y data of these coastal sediments showed Middle REE enrichments relative to Light REE and Heavy REE, manifested by a convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements. These anomalies in the fractionation patterns of the coastal sediments were attributed to phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents from an industrial plant, located in the southern Sicilian coast. PMID:21130477

Tranchida, G; Oliveri, E; Angelone, M; Bellanca, A; Censi, P; D'Elia, M; Neri, R; Placenti, F; Sprovieri, M; Mazzola, S

2011-01-01

381

Forms of rare earth elements' sorption by quartz and goethite in the presence of bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of a mixture of 16 isotopes of 14 rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) present in the initial solution in equal concentrations by quartz and goethite in the presence of bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris was studied under different acidity conditions. The solution pH was apparently the leading factor in the interaction of rare earth ions with the surface of mineral and biological sorbents. These interactions were controlled by electrostatic forces in acid (pH 4) and neutral (pH 7) solutions; the precipitation of elements from the solution was the predominant mechanism under alkaline conditions (pH 9). Microorganisms affected the adsorption of lanthanides by quartz in the entire pH range under study, especially at pH 7. In the presence of bacteria, the adsorption of the elements studied by goethite increased in an acid solution, remained unchanged under neutral conditions, and slightly decreased under alkaline conditions. Microorganisms increased the concentration of nonexchangeable forms of the elements adsorbed on the surface of quartz and goethite, which could be due to the formation of low-soluble complexes of rare earth elements with organic substances produced by bacteria.

Perelomov, L. V.; Perelomova, I. V.; Yoshida, S.

2009-12-01

382

Laboratory simulation of meteoritic noble gases. III - Sorption of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon on carbon - Elemental fractionation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sorption of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe was studied in carbon black, acridine carbon, and diamond in an attempt to understand the origin of trapped noble gases in meteorites. The results support a model in which gases are physically adsorbed on interior surfaces formed by a pore labyrinth within amorphous carbons. The data show that: (1) the adsorption/desorption times are controlled by choke points that restrict the movement of noble gas atoms within the pore labyrinth, and (2) the physical adsorption controls the temperature behavior and elemental fractionation patterns.

Wacker, John F.

1989-01-01

383

Provenance of KREEP and the exotic component - Elemental and isotopic studies of grain size fractions in lunar soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sieve fraction analyses of lunar soils reveal the presence of a fine-grained exotic component enriched in K, Rb, Sr, Ba, and in radiogenic Sr in all soils. The probable source of this exotic component is the areas of high-surficial radioactivity observed by orbital gamma ray spectrometry, such as those at Fra Mauro and Archimedes. If the exotic component is fine-grained KREEP, the origin and distribution of KREEP fragments in the soils are identified. It is suggested that the exotic component represents trace element enriched material located at some depth in the Imbrium area which was surficially deposited during Imbrium excavation.

Evensen, N. M.; Murthy, V. R.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.

1974-01-01

384

Electron affinities of alkaline-earth and actinide elements calculated with the local-spin-density-functional theory  

SciTech Connect

The generalized exchange local-spin-density-functional theory withself-interaction correction and correction of the statistical exchangepotential was used to calculate the electron affinities of alkaline-earth andactinide elements. The effect of relativistic correction by the mass velocityand Darwin terms and correlation correction on the electron affinities isdiscussed. The calculation of the negative ions shows that, although thecorrelation correction to the potential is very small, it is essential forobtaining converged values for most of the negative ions. The calculatedresults predict stable negative ions for the alkaline-earth elements Ca, Sr,Ba, and Ra, supporting the calculations of Vosko /ital et/ /ital al/. (Phys. Rev. A39, 446 (1989)) and Fischer (Phys. Rev. Lett. 59,2263 (1987); Phys. Rev. A 39, 963 (1989)). Estimated electronaffinities for the actinide elements are given.

Guo, Y.; Whitehead, M. A.

1989-07-01

385

Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Isothermal Transformation Kinetics in Si-Mn-Mo Bainite Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isothermal heat treatments to Si-Mn-Mo steel specimens were performed, and time-temperature-transformation curves (C-curves) were plotted by DIL805A/D differential dilatometer. The effect of rare earth (RE) elements on bainite transformation kinetics was systematically studied by adopting the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules, Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation calculation, dilatometry, and metallography. Experimental results show that the addition of RE in Si-Mn-Mo bainite steels leads to the C-curves moving to bottom right and prolongs incubation period of bainite transformation. Moreover, RE addition increases the values of phase structure factors (n A, F {C/D}) and activation energy of bainite transformation, inhibits the formation of granular bainite, and refines microstructures of bainitic ferrite and substructures. During the bainite transformation process, bainite transformation is delayed due to the drag effect, which is induced by the segregation of RE at the ferrite interphase and the retardation of Fe-C-RE (segregation units) on carbon diffusion.

Liang, Yilong; Yi, Yanliang; Long, Shaolei; Tan, Qibing

2014-09-01

386

Rare earth element distribution in some hydrothermal minerals: evidence for crystallographic control  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rare earth element (REE) abundances were measured by neutron activation analysis in anhydrite (CaSO4), barite (BaSO4), siderite (FeCO3) and galena (PbS). A simple crystal-chemical model qualitatively describes the relative affinities for REE substitution in anhydrite, barite, and siderite. When normalized to 'crustal' abundances (as an approximation to the hydrothermal fluid REE pattern), log REE abundance is a surprisingly linear function of (ionic radius of major cation-ionic radius of REE)2 for the three hydrothermal minerals, individually and collectively. An important exception, however, is Eu, which is anomalously enriched in barite and depleted in siderite relative to REE of neighboring atomic number and trivalent ionic radius. In principle, REE analyses of suitable pairs of co-existing hydrothermal minerals, combined with appropriate experimental data, could yield both the REE content and the temperature of the parental hydrothermal fluid. The REE have only very weak chalcophilic tendencies, and this is reflected by the very low abundances in galena-La, 0.6 ppb; Sm, 0.06 ppb; the remainder are below detection limits. ?? 1980.

Morgan, J.W.; Wandless, G.A.

1980-01-01

387

Composition and evolution of the eucrite parent body - Evidence from rare earth elements. [extraterrestrial basaltic melts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative modeling of the evolution of rare earth element (REE) abundances in the eucrites, which are plagioclase-pigeonite basalt achondrites, indicates that the main group of eucrites (e.g., Juvinas) might have been produced by approximately 10% equilibrium partial melting of a single type of source region with initial REE abundances which were chondritic relative and absolute. Since the age of the eucrites is about equal to that of the solar system, extensive chemical differentiation of the eucrite parent body prior to the formation of eucrites seems unlikely. If homogeneous accretion is assumed, the bulk composition of the eucrite parent body can be estimated; two estimates are provided, representing different hypotheses as to the ratio of metal to olivine in the parent body. Since a large number of differentiated olivine meteorites, which would represent material from the interior of the parent body, have not been detected, the eucrite parent body is thought to be intact. It is suggested that the asteroid 4 Vesta is the eucrite parent body.

Consolmagno, G. J.; Drake, M. J.

1977-01-01

388

Recycling rare earth elements from industrial wastewater with flowerlike nano-Mg(OH)(2).  

PubMed

Treatment of wastewater containing low-concentration yet highly-expensive rare earth elements (REEs) is one of the vital issues in the REEs separation and refining industry. In this work, the interaction and related mechanism between self-supported flowerlike nano-Mg(OH)2 and low-concentration REEs wastewater were investigated. More than 99% REEs were successfully taken up by nano-Mg(OH)2. Further analysis revealed that the REEs could be collected on the surface of Mg(OH)2 as metal hydroxide nanoparticles (<5 nm). An ion-exchange model was proposed as a critical factor for both guaranteeing the reaction speed and maintaining the self-supported structure of the materials. In addition, a method was developed to further separate the immobilized REEs and the residual magnesium hydroxide by varying the solution pH. In a pilot-scale experiment, the REEs from practical wastewater were immobilized effectively at a high flow rate. We anticipate this work can provide a good example for the recycling of valuable REEs in practical industrial applications. PMID:24032646

Li, Chaoran; Zhuang, Zanyong; Huang, Feng; Wu, Zhicheng; Hong, Yangping; Lin, Zhang

2013-10-01

389

Rare earth element distributions and trends in natural waters with a focus on groundwater.  

PubMed

Systematically varying properties and reactivities have led to focused research of the environmental forensic capabilities of rare earth elements (REE). Increasing anthropogenic inputs to natural systems may permanently alter the natural signatures of REE, motivating characterization of natural REE variability. We compiled and analyzed reported dissolved REE concentration data over a wide range of natural water types (ground-, ocean, river, and lake water) and groundwater chemistries (e.g., fresh, brine, and acidic) with the goal of quantifying the extent of natural REE variability, especially for groundwater systems. Quantitative challenges presented by censored data were addressed with nonparametric distributions and regressions. Reported measurements of REE in natural waters range over nearly 10 orders of magnitude, though the majority of measurements are within 2-4 orders of magnitude, and are highly correlated with one another. Few global correlations exist among dissolved abundance and bulk solution properties in groundwater, indicating the complex nature of source-sink terms and the need for care when comparing results between studies. This collection, homogenization, and analysis of a disparate literature facilitates interstudy comparison and provides insight into the wide range of variables that influence REE geochemistry. PMID:24628583

Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

2014-04-15

390

On the non-uniform distribution of the angular elements of near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the angular distributions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) which are often regarded as uniform. The apparent distribution of the longitude of ascending node, ?, is strongly affected by well-known seasonal effects in the discovery rate of NEOs. The deviation from the expected ?-periodicity in the apparent distribution of ? indicates that its intrinsic distribution is slightly enhanced along a mean direction, ??=111°; approximately 53% of NEOs have ? values within ±90° of ??. We also find that each subgroup of NEOs (Amors, Apollos and Atens) has different observational selection effects which cause different non-uniformities in the apparent distributions of their arguments of perihelion ?, and longitudes of perihelion ?. For their intrinsic distributions, our analysis reveals that the Apollo asteroids have non-uniform ? due to secular dynamics associated with inclination-eccentricity-? coupling, and the Amors’ ? distribution is peaked towards the secularly forced eccentricity vector. The Apollos’ ? distribution is axial, favoring values near 0° and 180°; the two quadrants centered at 0° and 180° account for 55% of the Apollos’ ? values. The Amors’ ? distribution peaks near ??=4°; 61% of Amors have ? within ±90° of this peak. We show that these modest but statistically significant deviations from uniform random distributions of angular elements are owed to planetary perturbations, primarily Jupiter’s. It is remarkable that this strongly chaotic population of minor planets reveals the presence of Jupiter in its angular distributions.

JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, Renu

2014-02-01

391

Theoretical Study on Interactions between Oxygen Vacancy and Doped Rare-Earth Elements in Barium Titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed first-principles theoretical calculations to examine the interactions between oxygen vacancy (VO) and rare-earth (RE) elements in barium titanate (BaTiO3), in order to clarify the mechanism of VO trapping by RE dopants, which affects the insulating reliability of BaTiO3-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC). It was found that VO is stabilized at the first and second nearest O sites of RE at Ba site (REBa), and at the second nearest O site of RE at Ti site (RETi). The structural relaxations on bond lengths of REBa-O and RETi-O in BaTiO3, which are brought about by the existence of VO at the above sites, decrease the total energy, and thus VO is stabilized. Furthermore, we revealed that the stability of VO increases with decreasing solution stability of RE dopants in BaTiO3. Accordingly, we concluded that RE dopants with higher solution energy in BaTiO3 efficiently trap VO, and thus the insulation reliability of MLCC is improved.

Honda, Atsushi; Higai, Shin'ichi; Motoyoshi, Yasuhiro; Wada, Nobuyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi

2011-09-01

392

Influence of different bentonites on the rare earth element concentrations of clarified Romanian wines.  

PubMed

The rare earth element (REE) concentrations of 19 Romanian young wine samples originating from the Dealurile Moldovei viticulture area were determined by double focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted digestion with nitric acid. The determination of Eu was hampered by the BaO molecular interference. Generally, the red wine samples were more concentrated for REEs than the white wine samples studied. The REE concentrations of the four bentonites (Gelbenton, Evergel, BW200, Tükrös) determined after their fusion were higher by three orders of magnitude than those of the wine samples. After a simulated wine purification process performed with these bentonite samples and a red and white pool samples, the REE concentrations of the clarified wine samples increased by 1.2-1.5 times for red, and 1.3-3 times for white wines in case of the fibrous bentonite sample (Gelbenton), by about 2-5 times in case of the bentonite containing ovalbumin, caseine and gelatine (Evergel), meanwhile this factor was about 20-25 for Na bentonite powder samples (BW200, Tükrös). On basis of the chemometric evaluation using the REE concentrations as input data, the majority of the Feteasca wines belonged to the same cluster as well as the two Cabernet Sauvignon to another subcluster. The adequate choice of the bentonite may allow the use of REEs as fingerprints for determining the wine provenance. PMID:18970871

Mihucz, Victor G; Done, Carla J; Tatár, Eniko; Virág, István; Záray, Gyula; Baiulescu, Emil G

2006-12-15

393

Separation of rare earth elements by anion-exchange chromatography using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as mobile phase.  

PubMed

Rare earth elements (REEs) form anionic complexes which can be separated isocratically by anion-exchange chromatography using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the mobile phase. For easy detection and identification, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) MS was used as detection method. From pH 3.5 to 7.5, retention increases from La to Sm and then decreases again up to Lu. Above pH 8.5, the retention of the light lanthanides increased drastically. It seems that the stoichiometry and the charge of the REE-EDTA complexes change with the elution pH. This strange elution behaviour can be easily tuned for particular applications by selecting the elution pH. For example, at pH values between 5.5 and 7.5 most isobaric and polyatomic interferences which occur in ICP-MS detection of the lanthanides are eliminated. A mechanism for the stepwise formation of the REE-EDTA complexes as a function of pH is proposed. PMID:18160074

Fernández, Ruben García; García Alonso, J Ignacio

2008-02-01

394

Distribution of rare earth elements among chloroplast components of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma.  

PubMed

A rare earth element (REE) hyperaccumulator, Dicranopteris dichotoma, that accumulates more than 0.1% REEs dry leaf mass has been discovered in southern China. The different components of chloroplast were isolated and the concentration of REEs in each component was determined by ICP-MS. The experimental data indicated that about 8% of total leaf REEs was present in the chloroplast of Dicranopteris dichotoma. In order to thoroughly study the distribution of REEs among different components of chloroplast, the membrane of chloroplast, the intact thylakoid and the photosystem II (PS II system) of D. dichotoma were isolated from the chloroplast. It was found that half of total chloroplast REEs was stored at the membrane of the chloroplast and another half was in the thylakoid. And 25% of total chloroplast REEs was bound with PS II system of D.dichotoma. The concentration of REEs in chlorophyll a was only at the level of microg/g on the bases of chlorophylls. These data are useful for understanding of both the storage of REEs in chloroplast and the effect of REEs on the photosynthesis of plants. PMID:12827335

Wang, Xiao-Ping; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Shu-Zhen; Wen, Bei

2003-07-01

395

Determination of the rare-earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method of analysis of geological materials for the determination of the rare-earth elements using the Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique (ICP-MS) has been developed. Instrumental parameters and factors affecting analytical results have been first studied and then optimized. Samples are analyzed directly following an acid digestion, without the need for separation or preconcentration with limits of detection of 2-11 ng/g, precision of ?? 2.5% relative standard deviation, and accuracy comparable to inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. A commercially available ICP-MS instrument is used with modifications to the sample introduction system, torch, and sampler orifice to reduce the effects of high salt content of sample solutions prepared from geologic materials. Corrections for isobaric interferences from oxide ions and other diatomic and triatomic ions are made mathematically. Special internal standard procedures are used to compensate for drift in metahmetal oxide ratios and sensitivity. Reference standard values are used to verify the accuracy and utility of the method.

Lichte, F. E.; Meier, A. L.; Crock, J. G.

1987-01-01

396

Rare-earth elements distribution in granulite-facies marbles: a witness of fluid rock interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rare earth element (REE) distribution of marbles from Tranomaro (SE Madagascar) shows that the marbles have interacted with syn-metamorphic fluids during the Panafrican granulite-facies metamorphism. The Tranomaro area is characterized by an extensive development of pyroxenites (skarns) variably mineralized in uranothorianite and enriched in REE, Zr. Across a meter-scale marble-pyroxenite contact, the REE content increases from the most remote marble sample to the contact with the pyroxenite (La from 19.8 to 129 ppm). REE patterns in enriched marbles display a strong negative Eu anomaly similar to those of pyroxenites. This peculiar type of REE distribution results from fluid infiltration. On a regional scale, some marbles have similar REE characteristics (progressive development of Eu anomaly together with REE enrichment) showing that some of them have interacted with fluids. Infiltration was hardly recognizable using C and O isotopic signatures because large isotopic variations were introduced during the pre-granulitic history. Then, REE distribution in high-grade marble may be helpful in monitoring syn-metamorphic fluid flow. In the present case, it is a more reliable tracer of fluid infiltration than stable isotopic compositions.

Boulvais, Philippe; Fourcade, Serge; Moine, Bernard; Gruau, Gérard; Cuney, Michel

2000-08-01

397

Rare earth element mobility in vesicular lava during low-grade metamorphism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geochemical comparison of basaltic relicts and spilitic domains from two burial metamorphosed flows in central Chile, of similar original composition and rich and poor in amygdules, respectively, demonstrates a relationship between initial vesicularity and rare earth element (REE) mobility. During spilitization the REE were partly leached from permeable parts of the flows and precipitated in voids, now amygdules and veinlets. The REE (excluding Eu) moved coherently in the highly amygdaloidal flow: spilitic domains and amygdules inherited the basaltic REE pattern. Besides being characterized by a positive Eu anomaly, epidotes separated from amygdules have a REE distribution which mimics that of the basalt; the absolute contents range widely, suggesting local and/or temporal REE variations in the metamorphic fluids. Pumpellyite differs by being strongly enriched in heavy REE. Similar ratios of Th, Hf and Ta in samples as contrasting as relict basalt and a geode are consistent with coherent leaching. Coherent mobility, when established for a rock system, can be used to elucidate, for example, whether minerals in cross-cutting veins were formed by local redistribution or from introduced material.

Nyström, Jan Olov

1984-12-01

398

Oxidation Resistance of Fe80Cr20 Alloys Treated by Rare Earth Element Ion Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidation behaviour of newly developed process of Fe80Cr20 alloy was studied as a function of temperature in the range 1173-1273 K for up to 100 h in flowing air, which corresponds to the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) environment operating conditions. The effects of rare earth element implantation and depth profile on the oxidation behaviour of specimens were analyzed based on oxide morphology and microstructure. Characterisation of the oxide phase products after oxidation was made by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of oxide scales was examined using the scanning electronic microsco