Sample records for earth element fractionation

  1. Rare earth element fractionation in magmatic Ca-rich garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, Birgit; Wörner, Gerhard; Civetta, Lucia; Stosch, Heinz-Günter; Simon, Klaus; Kronz, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    Igneous garnets have the potential to strongly fractionate rare earth elements (REE). Yet informations on partition coefficients are very scant, and criteria for distinguishing between hydrothermal and magmatic garnets are ambiguous. To fill this gap, we present trace element and isotopic data for two types of Ca-rich garnets from phonolites (Mt. Somma-Vesuvius). Both Ca-garnet populations are different in their style and dynamics of fractionation: one population is progressively strongly depleted in HREE from core to rim, reflecting REE fractionation in the host phonolite via earlier-crystallized garnets. Such examples for extreme changes in HREE in garnets are only known for hydrothermal grandites by REE-bearing fluids. The second garnet population is homogeneous and formed in a closed system. Near-flat patterns between Sm and Lu confirm experimental data indicating lower D(Sm)/ D(Lu) for Ca-rich garnets than for e.g. pyrope-rich garnets. It follows: D Grt/PhMelt for La = 0.5, Sm = 48 and Yb = 110.

  2. A review of fractionations of rare earth elements in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao LIANG; Shiming DING; Wenchong SONG; Zhongyi CHONG; Chaosheng ZHANG; Haitao LI

    2008-01-01

    Studies were carried out on several aspects of rare earth elements (REEs), such as the theory and practice of their applications in agriculture, their geochemical behaviors in natural and agricultural ecosystems, the mechanisms for the increase of crop yield using REE fertilizer, and their toxicology. However, limited knowledge was available for the transfer processes and the features and mechanisms of

  3. Fractionations of rare earth elements in plants and their conceptive model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ShiMing Ding; Tao Liang; JunCai Yan; ZiLi Zhang; ZeChun Huang; YaNing Xie

    2007-01-01

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) and their mechanisms in soybean were studied through application of exogenous\\u000a mixed REEs under hydroponic conditions. Significant enrichment of middle REEs (MREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs) was observed\\u000a in plant roots and leaves respectively, with slight fractionation between light REEs (LREEs) and HREEs in stems. Moreover,\\u000a the tetrad effect was observed in these organs.

  4. Role of ligands in accumulation and fractionation of rare earth elements in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiming Ding; Tao Liang; Chaosheng Zhang; Juncai Yan; Zili Zhang; Qin Sun

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have been carried out on the effects of ligands on rare earth element (REE) bioaccumulation processes. In this\\u000a study, the effects of phosphate (Pi, an inorganic ligand) and citrate (an organic ligand) on accumulation and fractionation\\u000a of REEs in wheat were investigated using aqueous culture with extranous mixed REEs (MRE). The results show that initial Pi\\u000a solution culture

  5. Fractionations of rare earth elements in plants and their conceptive model.

    PubMed

    Ding, ShiMing; Liang, Tao; Yan, JunCai; Zhang, ZiLi; Huang, ZeChun; Xie, YaNing

    2007-02-01

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) and their mechanisms in soybean were studied through application of exogenous mixed REEs under hydroponic conditions. Significant enrichment of middle REEs (MREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs) was observed in plant roots and leaves respectively, with slight fractionation between light REEs (LREEs) and HREEs in stems. Moreover, the tetrad effect was observed in these organs. Investigations into REE speciation in roots and in the xylem sap using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and nanometer-sized TiO2 adsorption techniques, associated with other controlled experiments, demonstrated that REE fractionations should be dominated by fixation mechanism in roots caused by cell wall absorption and phosphate precipitation, and by the combined effects of fixation mechanism and transport mechanism in aboveground parts caused by solution complexation by intrinsic organic ligands. A conceptive model was established for REE fractionations in plants based on the above studies. PMID:17393082

  6. Bishop tuff revisited: new rare Earth element data consistent with crystal fractionation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, K L

    1984-06-22

    The Bishop Tuff of eastern California is the type example of a high-silica rhyolite that, according to Hildreth, supposedly evolved by liquid-state differentiation. New analyses establish that the Bishop Tuff "earlyllate" rare earth element trend reported by Hildreth mimics the relations between groundmass glasses and whole rocks for allanite-bearing pumice. Differences in elemental concentrations between whole rock and groundmass are the result of phenocryst precipitation; thus the data of Hildreth are precisely those expected to result from crystal fractionation. PMID:17837193

  7. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    As there is an increasing demand for germanium and the rare earth elements due to their diverse application in modern technologies (optical cables, permanent magnets in wind power stations), there is an interest to investigate a new approach to extract these ubiquitous but disperse existing elements - via Phytomining. But before this method can be established, a thorough understanding of processes regarding the intake of germanium (Ge) and the rare earth elements (REEs) is necessary. The aim of this work was to get insights or hints on correlations between the concentrations and the fractionation of Ge and REEs in the soil and the concentrations in plants - in other words we wanted to conduct research on bioavailable concentrations of Ge and REEs in soil fractions. On 18 sites situated around Freiberg, Saxony we took samples of soil and plants. To extract the elements from the plant material a decomposition with hydrofluoric acid was used. The soil samples was examined by a sequential extraction with seven steps (mobile, carbonatic, oxidisable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, phytoliths and secondary clay minerals, residual or siliceous). The amounts of the REEs showed a high correlation between each other, so neodymium can be regarded as a proxy for all REEs. The average total amount of Ge in the soil samples was around 1.45 mg/kg, the one of neodymium (Nd) was around 25 mg/kg. Both values equal the overall average in the earth crust. Concerning the Ge concentration in soil the residual siliceous fractions constituted for 70% of total, whereas the fractions V and VI - dedicated as crystalline oxides and phytoliths/secondary clay minerals - made out for 25%. Only 5% of the total amount of Ge in soil accounted for the fractions I to IV. There was found a statistical significant correlation between the absolute Ge concentrations in these latter soil fractions with the Ge concentration in plant material of the same site. Therefore it seems that the fractions I to IV could be regarded as a proxy for the bioavailable pool of Ge in soils. Concerning Nd the residual siliceous fractions made out for 60% of the total, whereas the fraction III (oxidisable) constitutes for 30%. The remaining 10% accounted for the other soil fractions. No correlation between the concentration in one soil fraction and the concentration in plant material from the same site could be found. There was also no correlation between the total amount in soil and the concentration in plant material from the same site neither for the REEs nor for Ge. These results can give only hints on the processes regarding the mobilisation of the bioavailable pool of Ge and REEs. Further investigations are necessary and will be taken in the PhytoGerm project.

  8. Effect of Exogenous Rare Earth Elements on Fraction of Heavy Metals in Soils and Bioaccumulation by Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongwen Wang; Xiao-quan Shan; Shuzhen Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Effects of exogenous rare earth elements (REEs) in fertilizer on fraction of heavy metals chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in 15 Chinese soils and their bioaccumulation by wheat root and shoot were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Using a three-stage fraction analysis method suggested by the Standard and Testing Program of the

  9. Efficient mobilization and fractionation of rare-earth elements by aqueous fluids upon slab dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsay, A.; Zajacz, Z.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2014-07-01

    The characteristic REE fractionation pattern in arc magmas compared to MOR-basalts results from the selective mobilization of light rare-earth elements (LREE) by slab-derived mobile components. However, the nature and composition of the slab flux, and the actual mechanisms responsible for the transfer of rare-earth elements (REE) from the slab to the mantle wedge remain unclear. We present experimental data on the solubility of selected REE in ligand-bearing aqueous fluids and a hydrous haplogranitic melt at 2.6 GPa and 600-800 °C, spanning the conditions relevant to slab dehydration and melting. The solubilities of REE in aqueous fluids increase more than an order of magnitude with temperature increasing from 600 to 800 °C. Addition of ligands such as Cl-, F-, CO32-, SO42- in relatively small concentrations (0.3-1.5 m [mol/kg H2O]) has a pronounced effect further enhancing REE solubilities. Each ligand yields a characteristic REE pattern by preferential dissolution of either the light or the heavy REE. For example, the addition of NaCl to the aqueous fluids yields highly elevated LREE/HREE ratios (La/Yb=17.4±4.3), whereas the addition of fluoride and sulfate ligands significantly increases the solubility of all REE with moderate LREE/HREE fractionation (La/Yb?4). The addition of Na2CO3 results in preferential increase of HREE solubilities, and yields La/Yb ratio of 1.6±0.5 by flattening the moderately fractionated REE pattern seen in pure aqueous fluids. The solubilities in hydrous haplogranite melt are moderate in comparison to those observed in aqueous fluids and do not lead to pronounced REE fractionation. Therefore, REE can be effectively mobilized and fractionated by aqueous fluids, compared to felsic hydrous melts. Furthermore, the aqueous fluid chemistry has a major role in determining REE mobilities and fractionation upon slab dehydration in addition to the significant control exerted by temperature. Our results show that chloride-bearing slab-derived aqueous fluids have a significant contribution to the formation of REE-signatures in arc-magmas, especially at lower slab surface temperatures.

  10. Labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction for prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-quan Shan; Zhongwen Wang; Weisheng Wang; Shuzhen Zhang; Bei Wen

    2003-01-01

    A labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction has been recommended to predict the bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants. This method used moist rhizosphere soil in combination with a mixture of 0.01 mol L-1 of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) as extractant. The extracted soil solutions were fractionated into two colloidal fractions of wm (F3) and wm (F2),

  11. Thulium anomalies and rare earth element patterns in meteorites and Earth: Nebular fractionation and the nugget effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Pourmand, Ali

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the bulk rare earth element (REEs, La-Lu) compositions of 41 chondrites, including 32 falls and 9 finds from carbonaceous (CI, CM, CO and CV), enstatite (EH and EL) and ordinary (H, L and LL) groups, as well as 2 enstatite achondrites (aubrite). The measurements were done in dynamic mode using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (MC-ICPMS), allowing precise quantification of mono-isotopic REEs (Pr, Tb, Ho and Tm). The CI-chondrite-normalized REE patterns (LaN/LuN; a proxy for fractionation of light vs. heavy REEs) and Eu anomalies in ordinary and enstatite chondrites show more scatter in more metamorphosed (petrologic types 4-6) than in unequilibrated (types 1-3) chondrites. This is due to parent-body redistribution of the REEs in various carrier phases during metamorphism. A model is presented that predicts the dispersion of elemental and isotopic ratios due to the nugget effect when the analyzed sample mass is limited and elements are concentrated in minor grains. The dispersion in REE patterns of equilibrated ordinary chondrites is reproduced well by this model, considering that REEs are concentrated in 200 ?m-size phosphates, which have high LaN/LuN ratios and negative Eu anomalies. Terrestrial rocks and samples from ordinary and enstatite chondrites display negative Tm anomalies of ?-4.5% relative to CI chondrites. In contrast, CM, CO and CV (except Allende) show no significant Tm anomalies. Allende CV chondrite shows large excess Tm (?+10%). These anomalies are similar to those found in group II refractory inclusions in meteorites but of much smaller magnitude. The presence of Tm anomalies in meteorites and terrestrial rocks suggests that either (i) the material in the inner part of the solar system was formed from a gas reservoir that had been depleted in refractory dust and carried positive Tm anomalies or (ii) CI chondrites are enriched in refractory dust and are not representative of solar composition for refractory elements. A new reference composition relevant to inner solar system bodies (CI?) is calculated by subtracting 0.15% of group II refractory inclusions to CI. The observed Tm anomalies in ordinary and enstatite chondrites and terrestrial rocks, relative to carbonaceous chondrites, indicate that material akin to carbonaceous chondrites must have represented a small fraction of the constituents of the Earth. Tm anomalies may be correlated with Ca isotopic fractionation in bulk planetary materials as they are both controlled by addition or removal of refractory material akin to fine-grained group II refractory inclusions.

  12. Rare earth element distributions and fractionation in plankton from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Strady, Emilie; Kim, Intae; Radakovitch, Olivier; Kim, Guebuem

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured for the first time in plankton from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The REE concentrations in phytoplankton (60-200 ?m) were 5-15 times higher than those in four size fractions of zooplankton: 200-500 ?m, 500-1000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m and >2000 ?m. The concentrations within these zooplankton fractions exhibited the same ranges with some variation attributed to differences in zooplankton taxonomy. The REE concentrations in plankton were poorly related to the reported REE concentrations of seawater, but they correlated well with the calculated REE(3+), concentrations especially with regard to middle REE (MREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs). Plankton and seawater revealed different PAAS-normalised REE distributions, with the greatest differences observed in the light REEs. Interestingly, a comparison of PAAS-normalized sediment particles from the study of Fowler et al. (1992) showed concentrations of the same order of magnitude and a similar REE distribution without MREE enrichment. Based on this comparison, we propose a conceptual model that emphasizes the importance of biological scavenging of REEs (especially LREEs) in surface waters. PMID:24972173

  13. Evaluation of plant availability of rare earth elements in soils by chemical fractionation and multiple regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuliang Li; Xiaoquan Shan; Tianhong Zhang; Shuzhen Zhang

    1998-01-01

    This case field study describes the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in different soil fractions obtained by a sequential extraction procedure and plant availability with single correlation and multiple regression analysis. Soil and plant samples were collected from a rural region of Beijing, China. Plant samples (corn, rice) were segmented into grain, stem, leaf and root. The results indicated

  14. Assessment of the bioavailability of rare earth elements in soils by chemical fractionation and multiple regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cao Xinde; Wang Xiaorong; Zhao Guiwen

    2000-01-01

    The bioavailability of rare earth elements (REEs) in soils was evaluated, based on the combination of chemical fractionation and multiple regression analysis. REEs in soils were partitioned by a sequential extraction procedure into water soluble (F(ws)), exchangeable (F(ec)), bound to carbonates (F(cb)), bound to organic matter (F(om)), bound to Fe–Mn oxides (F(fm)) and residual (F(rd)) fractions. Alfalfa (Medicago Staiva Linn.)

  15. Fractionation of rare-earth elements in plants during experimental growth in varied clay substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khadija Semhi; Sam Chaudhuri; Norbert Clauer

    2009-01-01

    The distribution and content of rare-earth elements (REEs) were determined in two radish species, the cultivated Raphanus sativus and the wild Raphanus raphanistrum, that were grown under laboratory-controlled conditions, in three substrates consisting of illite for one and two smectite substrates for the others, with the two smectite substrates being characterised by different porosities. The plants were split into leaves

  16. Effect of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the fractionation and bioavailability of rare earth elements in nine Chinese soils.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bei; Liu, Ying; Hu, Xiao-yu; Shan, Xiao-quan

    2006-05-01

    The effect of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) activity on soil pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fraction distribution pattern and bioavailability of rare earth elements (REEs) Y, La, Ce, Pr and Nd in nine Chinese soils were investigated using pot experiments. A three-step extraction procedure recommended by the European Community (Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme) was used to fractionate REEs in soils into water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound (B1), Fe- and Mn-oxides bound (B2) and organic matter and sulfide bound (B3). Inoculated with earthworms, the soil pH, DOC and water-soluble rare earth elements fraction increased. A significant correlation was obtained between the increased DOC and the increased water-soluble REEs. REEs in fraction B1 increased after earthworm inoculation, while those in fraction B3 decreased. No significant differences were observed for REEs in fraction B2. The biomass and the concentrations of REEs in wheat shoots and roots increased after the treatment with earthworms. The results demonstrated that earthworm activity increased the mobility and bioavailability of REEs in soils. PMID:16289225

  17. Mobility and fractionation of rare earth elements during supergene weathering and gossan formation and chemical modification of massive sulfide gossan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew I. Leybourne; Jan M. Peter; Daniel Layton-Matthews; John Volesky; Dan R. Boyle

    2006-01-01

    Primary massive sulfide gossans (MSG) in the Bathurst Mining Camp (BMC), New Brunswick, Canada, are characterized by relative enrichment of Au, Sb, and As, formation of jarosite group minerals (jarosite, plumbojarosite, and argentojarosite) and little or no fractionation in the rare earth elements (REE), including preservation of large positive Eu anomalies (average [Eu\\/Eu*]NASC=4.14 in MSG; 6.61 in massive sulfide mineralization;

  18. Fractionation of Rare Earth Elements during Soil Formation along Feather River Basin Hillslopes in the California Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinert, T.; Weinman, B.; Yoo, K.; Mudd, S. M.; Kouba, C. M.; Maher, K.

    2013-12-01

    The mobility of rare earth elements (REE) has been debated by scientists for years. This study presents soil and soil moisture data from an ongoing study that examines how REEs fractionate as rock weathers into soil. The Middle Fork Feather River in Northern California, the location of the study site, takes advantage of an erosional signal propagating through the basin and compares traditional methods of REE normalization then contrasts them with elemental losses based on mass balance calculations (tau). Analyzed by ICP-MS using the whole-rock Li-borate dissolution method, soil and water sample collection took place along two differentially eroding hill slopes (a shallow slope above the knick-point and a more inclined slope below the knick-point). Using Zr as an immobile element, the mass-balance method clearly portrays REE fractionation occurring within the soils, whereas traditional REE normalization patterns do not clearly display fractionation relative to the parent material. While REEs fractionate approximately to the same extent in the topmost soils of both hill slopes, the more actively eroding hill slope fractionates REEs faster because of a faster rate of soil chemical weathering. While the full meaning of this work is still underway, current progress indicates that significant REE fractionation occurs during chemical weathering, implying that using REEs as tracers for surfaces processes requires significant care.

  19. Ocean particle chemistry: The fractionation of rare earth elements between suspended particles and seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Sholkovitz; W. M. Landing; B. L. Lewis

    1994-01-01

    Sargasso Sea suspended particles were sequentially digested with three chemical treatments (acetic acid, mild HCl\\/HNO[sub 3], and HF\\/HNO[sub 3]\\/HCl in a bomb). The latter two treatments dissolve detrital minerals, while the acetic acid removes surface coatings (organic matter and Mn oxides). The rare earth element (REE) composition of the surface coatings, in marked contrast to the crust-like REE composition of

  20. Microprobe analyses of rare-earth-element fractionation in meteoritic minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, T.M.; Duffy, C.J.; Rogers, P.S.Z.; Maggiore, C.J.; Woolum, D.S.; Burnett, D.S.; Murrell, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    Two meteorites were analyzed by PIXE with the Los Alamos Nuclear Microprobe. The enstatite achondrite Pena Blanca Spring and the ordinary chondrite St. Severin were chosen as likely candidates for use in /sup 244/Pu (t/sub 1/2/ = 82 my) cosmochronology and geochronology. These applications require the meteoritic minerals to have unfractionated actinides and lanthanides relative to cosmic elemental abundance ratios. The PIXE analyses produced evidence of actinide-lanthanide fractionation in Pena Blanca Spring oldhamite (CaS) whereas the St Severin phosphates, whitlockite and chlorapatite, do not exhibit this fractionation.

  1. Labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction for prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Zhongwen; Wang, Weisheng; Zhang, Shuzhen; Wen, Bei

    2003-02-01

    A labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction has been recommended to predict the bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants. This method used moist rhizosphere soil in combination with a mixture of 0.01 mol L(-1) of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) as extractant. The extracted soil solutions were fractionated into two colloidal fractions of <0.45 microm (F(3)) and <0.2 microm (F(2)), and one truly dissolved fraction including free metal ions and inorganic and organic complexes (fractionfraction of the truly dissolved fraction refers to labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction, F(lrss). For the soil solutions extracted with a mixture of LMWOAs the concentrations of heavy metals and rare earth elements in F(2) and F(3) were quite similar. However, the mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd in F(lrss) accounted for 79.9%, 91.3%, 90.8%, 60.1%, 77.5%, 75.3%, 81.2%, 77.2%, 80.3%, and 79.5%, respectively, of their concentrations in F(2). In contrast, there were no differences in the extractable metal concentrations between the three fractions while the first step of the method recommended by the European Community of Reference (BCR), where 0.1 mol L(-1) acetic acid was used as an extractant. The single correlation analysis was made between metal concentrations in the different fractions of soil solutions and their concentrations in wheat. If the first step of BCR method was used there was no good correlation between heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat shoots and roots. When LMWAOs were used a good correlation was obtained between the concentrations of heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat roots, which followed a general order of r(1 kD, LMWOAs) >r(0.2 microm, LMWOAs) approximately r(0.45 microm, LMWOAs). In the case of rare earth elements the good correlation was obtained for both the wheat roots and shoots. Generally, the correlation coefficients obtained by LMWAOs were better than that obtained by the first step of BCR method. Therefore, LMWAOs and F(lrss) were strongly recommended to predict the bioavailability of metals in soil pools to plants. PMID:12589505

  2. Accumulation and fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in wheat: controlled by phosphate precipitation, cell wall absorption and solution complexation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Chaosheng; Yan, Juncai; Zhang, Zili

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies on rare earth element (REE) bioaccumulation have focused on their accumulation rate and fractionation, but the processes involved remain unclear. In this study, the accumulation and fractionation of REEs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated using solution culture with exogenous mixed REEs. A decrease in REE contents was observed from the roots to the tops of wheat. Significant fractionations of REEs were found in wheat organs as compared to the exogenous mixed REEs. Middle REE (MREE, the elements from Sm to Gd) enrichment and an M-type tetrad effect (an effect that can cause a split of REE patterns into four consecutive convex segments) were observed in the roots, which were probably caused by phosphate precipitation of REEs in/on the roots and absorption of REEs to root cell walls. Light REE (LREE, the elements from La to Eu) and heavy REE (HREE, the elements from Gd to Lu) enrichments were observed in the stems and leaves, respectively, accompanied by conspicuous W-type tetrad effects (an opposite effect to the M-type tetrad effect) in the REE patterns. HREE enrichment decreased from the older to the younger leaves and increased upwards within a single leaf. It is suggested that the solution complexation that occurred in the xylem vessels plays an important role in REE fractionations in the above-ground parts of wheat. PMID:16131504

  3. Fractionation mechanisms of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic wheat: an application for metal accumulation by plants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Chaosheng; Huang, Zechun; Xie, Yaning; Chen, Tongbin

    2006-04-15

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were observed through application of exogenous mixed REEs under hydroponic conditions. Middle REE (MREE), light REE (LREE), and heavy REE (HREE) enrichments were found in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, accompanied by the tetrad effect (an effect that can cause a split of REE patterns into four consecutive segments) in these organs. Investigations into REE speciation in roots and in the xylem sap with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and nanometer-sized TiO2 adsorption techniques, associated with other controlled experiments, demonstrated that REE fractionations in wheat were caused by the combined effects of chemical precipitation, cell wall absorption, and solution complexation by organic ligands in the xylem vessels. REE fractionations in wheat, which were derived from the small differences of chemical properties across REE series, may reflect a sensitive internal chemical environment that influences plant accumulation for REEs and their analogues actinide radionuclides. PMID:16683609

  4. Rare earth elements in intertidal sediments of Bohai Bay, China: concentration, fractionation and the influence of sediment texture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xuelu; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2014-07-01

    Surface sediments from intertidal Bohai Bay were assessed using a four-step sequential extraction procedure to determine their concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) and the chemical forms in which those elements were present. The normalized ratios La/Gd and La/Yb showed that LREE contents were not significantly higher than the middle REEs or HREE contents. A negative Ce anomaly and positive Eu were observed in sand and silty sand sediments, whereas no significant Ce or Eu anomaly was found in clayey silt sediments. Residual fraction of REEs accounted for the majority of their total concentrations. Middle REEs were more easily leached than other REEs, especially in clayey silt sediment. REEs contents in the surface sediment from the intertidal Bohai Sea were consistent with data from the upper continental crust and China shallow sea sediments, indicating that they were generally unaffected by heavily anthropogenic effects from adjacent areas. PMID:24793516

  5. Assessment of the bioavailability of rare earth elements in soils by chemical fractionation and multiple regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Wang, X; Zhao, G

    2000-01-01

    The bioavailability of rare earth elements (REEs) in soils was evaluated, based on the combination of chemical fractionation and multiple regression analysis. REEs in soils were partitioned by a sequential extraction procedure into water soluble (F(ws)), exchangeable (F(ec)), bound to carbonates (F(cb)), bound to organic matter (F(om)), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (F(fm)) and residual (F(rd)) fractions. Alfalfa (Medicago Staiva Linn.) had been grown on the soils in a pot-culture experiment under greenhouse conditions for 35 days. The concentrations of REEs in fractions and plant were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Chemical fractionation showed that (F(ws)) fraction of REEs was less than 0.1% and residual (F(rd)) was the dominant form, more than 60% in soils. Bioaccumulation of REEs was observed in Alfalfa. REE availability to the plant was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. F(ws), F(ec), F(cb) and F(om) fractions were significantly correlated with REE uptake by alfalfa. But the exchangeable Pr(F(ec)) was significantly correlated with Pr concentration in alfalfa. F(ec), F(cb) and F(om) greatly contributed to La and Nd bioavailability; F(ec) and F(om) to Ce, Gd and Dy; F(ec) and F(cb) to Yb; and F(ws), F(ec) and F(om) to total REEs. This meant that the bioavailability of different species of REEs varied with individual REE. The results of this study indicated that the sequential extraction procedure, in conjunction with multiple regression analysis, may be useful for the prediction of plant uptake of REEs from soils. PMID:10665441

  6. SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS BY FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION. IV. PURIFICATIONS OF CERIUM GROUP ELEMENTS BY FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATIONS OF DOUBLE SALTS OF NITRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiokawa

    1963-01-01

    By fractional crystallizations of double salts of nitrates, binary ; mixtures of cerium-group elemen were purified. The samples of binary mixtures ; used in these experiments were ohtained by the fractional crystallization of ; double magnesium nitrate. In the purification of La and Pr from La- Pr mixture, ; the fractional crystallization of double ammonium nitrate was carried out using

  7. Fractionation of rare-earth elements in allanite and monazite as related to geology of the Mt. Wheeler mine area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, D.E.; Bastron, H.

    1967-01-01

    Rare-earth contents of 20 allanites and 13 monazites, accessory minerals from a restricted outcrop area of intrusive granitic rocks, are reported. A quantity called sigma (??), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce and Pr, is used as an index of composition with respect to the rare-earth elements. Values of sigma vary from 61.3 to 80.9 at.% for these allanites and monazites, representing an appreciable range of composition in terms of the rare-earth elements. Degree of fractionation of rare earths varies directly with CaO content of the granitic rocks, which in turn depends largely on proximity of limestone. Four xenoliths included in the study suggest that spotty mosaic equilibria are superimposed on the regional gradients and that locally the degree of fractionation of rare earths responds to whole rock composition over distances of a few yards or less. The chemistry of the granitic rocks under study appears to be similar in some respects to that of alkalio rocks and carbonatites. Allanites from the most calcium-rich rocks show a pronounced concentration of the most basic rare earths, and whole-rock concentrations of such rare constituents as total cerium earths, Zr, F, Ti, Ba and Sr increase sympathetically with whole-rock calcium. The explanation for the concentration gradients observed in this chemical system must involve assimilation more than magmatic differentiation. ?? 1967.

  8. Distribution of rare earth elements in anionic, cationic and particulate fractions in boreal humus-rich streams affected by acid sulphate soils.

    PubMed

    Aström, Mats; Corin, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The abundance, fractionation and physicochemical forms of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in five boreal humus-rich streams (dissolved organic carbon, DOC = 14-40 mg/l) affected by acid sulphate soils. The sampling was carried out during high-water flow in autumn when the acid sulphate soils are extensively flushed. The analytical procedures included ion-exchange experiments in field and ICP-MS determination. There was a general decrease in pH (range 4.5-6.2) and increase in the REE concentrations (La range 0.82-23 microg/l) as the proportion of the catchment cover of acid sulphate soils increased, explained by high amounts of REEs in the acidic runoff from such soils. In each stream, four different REE fractions were identified: (1) A cationic fraction, which is dominant in the REE-rich runoff from the acid sulphate soils and which is depleted in HREEs due to hydrochemical and/or geochemical processes, (2) an anionic fraction identified as humus-REE complexes, which in general is more abundant the higher the DOC concentrations and which also becomes increasingly abundant across the lanthanide series, (3) a fraction having a well-developed MREE enrichment, presumably consisting of colloidal REEs, and (4) a minor uncharacterised particle-associated fraction. The REE pool in the streams thus consists of several coexisting and contrasting REE species. The identification and quantification of such species is a prerequisite for the precise and accurate characterisation of the REE hydrochemistry of the streams. PMID:12502056

  9. Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals is the

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Info Sheet Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals isolated. Actually, most rare earth elements exist in the Earth's crust in higher concentrations than though most people have never heard of rare earth elements, sev- eral of them govern mankind's modern

  10. Impact of plant species, substrate types and porosity on the fractionation of rare-earth elements in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semhi, K.; Clauer, N.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution and content of rare-earth elements (REEs) were determined in two radish species (Raphanus sativus and Raphanus raphanistrum) that were grown under laboratory-controlled conditions, in three substrates consisting in illite for one and in smectite for the two others, the two latter being of the same type but with different porosities. The plants were split into two segments: the leaves and the stems+roots. The results indicate that both species pick up systematically higher amounts of REEs when grown in the illite substrate, considering that the smectite contains about 3 times more REEs. In R. sativus, the REE concentration of the leaves and of the stems+roots, whatever the substrate, ranges from 1.4 to 1.9 ?g/g. After normalization to the substrate in which they grew, the distribution patterns for the leaves of those from illite substrate are nearly flat, but irregular with a positive Eu anomaly. Those for the stems+roots are similar, but enriched in heavy REEs, also with a positive Eu anomaly. The REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots of R. sativus grown in smectite are analytically similar at 1.6 and 1.4 ?g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two organs, normalized again to those of the substrate, are very similar, flat with a distinct Eu anomaly. The heavy REE of the stems+roots of R. sativus grown on illite are enriched relative to those of the leaves, and a distinct positive Eu anomaly is observed in both the leaves and stems+roots from species grown on both illite and smectite. In the case of R. raphanistrum, the REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots for those grown in the illite substrate were found to be significantly different at 11.0 and 6.6 ?g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two different plant organs normalized to those of the substrates were found to be quite similar, all being quite flat, with a more or less pronounced Ce negative anomaly, and a prominent positive Gd anomaly. When grown on smectite, the REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots were about 7.2 and 6.3 ?g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the leaves and the stems+roots normalized to the corresponding smectite substrate are very closely similar, each having a nearly flat pattern with a slight but not significant negative Ce anomaly and a similar positive Gd anomaly. When grown on the smectite substrate with a different porosity, the leaves and the stems+roots had significantly higher REE concentrations of 9.3 and 19.7 ?g/g, respectively. Relative to the substrate REE pattern, the two organs had nearly identical flat REE distribution patterns, with a slight negative Ce anomaly and positive Gd and Er anomalies, In summary, the REE take up is more plant species dependent than mineral composition dependent: R. raphanistrum takes up 3.5 to 6.7 times more REEs than R. sativus, depending on the substrate, its porosity and the considered plant segments. Increased substrate porosity favors the pick up of the REEs, but no particular uptake is observed in leaves relative to that in the combined stems and roots. The transfer of the REEs from minerals to plant organs does not appear to induce systematically identical patterns. The effect of the plant species in the elemental uptake suggests that the root exudates are different, with a varied control on the micro-organism activity in the rhizosphere and probably different microbial compounds. New questionings about the identification of the organic compounds that influence and control the process of elemental exchanges activated by the root exudates in the soils within the rhizosphere, are also raised.

  11. Effects of organic ligands on fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants: an application to the determination of binding capacities by humic acid for modeling.

    PubMed

    Ding, ShiMing; Liang, Tao; Zhang, ChaoSheng; Yan, JunCai; Zhang, ZiLi

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed the fractionation processes of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants, with a heavy REE (HREE, the elements from Gd to Lu) enrichment in leaves. In this study, effects on the HREE enrichment in soybean leaves with additions of carboxylic acids (acetate, malate, citrate, NTA, EDTA and DTPA) and two soil humic acids (HAs) were investigated. REE speciation in carboxylic acid and HA solutions was simulated using Visual MINTEQ and Model V, respectively. The results showed that the effects caused by carboxylic acids were strongly dependent on the differences between their binding strengths for light REEs (LREEs, the elements from La to Eu) and those for HREEs. A good correlation existed between these effects and the changes of free REE ions in solutions. This relationship was also observed for the HA treatments, provided that the intrinsic equilibrium constants of REEs for cation-proton exchange with HA (i.e., pK(MHA)) in Model V were estimated using a free-energy relationship with the stability constants for REE complexation with lactic acid. It is suggested that this set of pK(MHA) values is more suitable for use in Model V for the simulation of REE complexation with HA. PMID:16930675

  12. Uptake and fractionation of rare earth elements on hydrothermal plume particles at 9{degree}45(minutes)N, East Pacific Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, R.M.; Field, M.P. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Inst. of Marine and Coastal Sciences] [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Inst. of Marine and Coastal Sciences; Ravizza, G. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States). Dept. of Marine Geology and Geophysics] [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States). Dept. of Marine Geology and Geophysics

    1999-06-01

    Particulate samples (>0.45 {micro}m) from a neutrally buoyant hydrothermal plume at 9{degree}45(minutes)N on the northern East Pacific Rise were collected using large volume in situ filtration and analyzed for Fe, Al, Mn, Ni, and fourteen rate earth elements (REE). The Sm/Fe ratio (a proxy for overall REE/Fe) and Nd/Er (light/heavy REE fractionation) increased moderately with decreasing particulate Fe. After subtraction of non-plume background particle composition, plume particles at 9{degree}45(minutes)N and in the TAG plume on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge had indistinguishable ranges of light REE-enriched fractionation relative to ambient seawater and had very similar Sm/Fe, demonstrating that plume particles in both oceans reflect to a first degree the local seawater REE composition. Within-plume REE variations at 9{degree}45(minutes)N were investigated using a simple mixing model which accounts for the bulk Fe-Al-Mn variations in the plume using two endmembers: fresh hydrothermal oxyhydroxide precipitates and ridge-crest background particles. Sm/Fe and Nd/Er plot linearly with mixing ratio (R > 0.96), implying that the observed REE trends result from mixing of these two endmembers. Extrapolation to the composition of pure hydrothermal precipitates suggests that Nd/Er is fractionated relative to seawater by a factor of 1.8 during adsorption onto fresh Fe oxyhydroxide particles. In sum, REE behavior in hydrothermal plumes is more consistent with equilibrium adsorption and mixing of distinct particle types, than with kinetic uptake control.

  13. Fractionation of rare-earth elements in allanite and monazite as related to geology of the Mt. Wheeler mine area, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald E. Lee; Harry Bastron

    1967-01-01

    Rare-earth contents of 20 allanites and 13 monazites, accessory minerals from a restricted outcrop area of intrusive granitic rocks, are reported. A quantity called sigma ( ), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce and Pr, is used as an index of composition with respect to the rare-earth elements. Values of sigma vary from 61.3 to

  14. Are C1 chondrites chemically fractionated - A trace element study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, M.; Wolf, R.; Anders, E.

    1982-01-01

    Six C1 chondrite samples and a C2 xenolith from the Plainview H5 chondrite were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for a large variety of elements, including rare earths. The sample processing is described, including the irradiation, chemical procedure, rare earths separation, counting techniques, radiochemical purity check, and chemical yields. The results of consistency checks on a number of elements are discussed. Abundances for siderophiles, volatiles, and rare earths are presented and discussed. Tests are presented for fractionation of rare earths and other refractories, compositional uniformity of C1's, and interelement correlations. There is no conclusive evidence for nebular fractionation affecting C1's. Three fractionation-prone rare earths have essentially the same relative abundances in C1's and all other chondrite classes, and hence are apparently not fractionated in C1's.

  15. Rare earth element fractionation and concentration variations along a groundwater flow path within a shallow, basin-fill aquifer, southern Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johannesson, K.H.; Farnham, I.M.; Guo, C.; Stetzenbach, K.J.

    1999-09-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured in 5 well water samples and 3 springs located along a groundwater flow path in a shallow, tuffaceous alluvial aquifer from southern Nevada, USA. The REE concentrations in these groundwaters decrease in the direction of groundwater flow. A previous investigation demonstrated that REE solid-liquid phase partitioning coefficients (i.e., K{sub d}'s) for groundwaters from tuffaceous alluvial aquifers in southern Nevada are relatively high (mean K{sub d} = 10{sup 2.6}). The groundwater REE data, in conjunction with these K{sub d}'s support strong sorption of aqueous REEs to aquifer surface sites as the primary removal mechanism of REEs from these groundwaters. In addition, relatively high aqueous REE concentrations occur at distinct locations along the groundwater flow path. The elevated REE concentrations are explained by addition of deeper groundwaters, influx of geothermal waters from a hot spring system, differences in solution complexation, and/or mixtures of regional and local recharge sources. Solution complexation modeling of REEs in the groundwaters indicate that carbonate complexes account for more than 99% of each REEs in solution. Moreover, groundwater Yb/Nd ratios (a measure of REE fractionation) are associated with alkalinity (HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} + CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}; r = 0.71). The data and speciation model results indicate that REE fractionation (i.e., the observed heavy REE, HREE, enrichments compared to rock-sources) is controlled by formation of progressively stronger carbonate complexes in solution with increasing atomic number, which inhibits HREE sorption compared to light REEs (LREE); and a greater affinity for the LREEs to sorb to surface sites in the local tuffaceous alluvial aquifers compared to the HREEs.

  16. Rare Earth Elements in Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengyi Hu; Silvia Haneklaus; Gerd Sparovek; Ewald Schnug

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise a group of 17 elements with very similar chemical and physical properties, which include scandium (Sc, Z=21), yttrium (Y, Z=39), and the lanthanides with successive atomic numbers (Z from 57 to 71). Lanthanides are the elements lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium

  17. Condensation and fractionation of rare earths in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. M.; Grossman, L.

    1979-01-01

    The condensation behavior of the rare earth elements in the solar nebula is calculated on the basis of the most recent thermodynamic data in order to construct a model explaining group II rare earth element patterns in Allende inclusions. Models considered all involve the removal of large fractions of the more refractory heavy rare earth elements in an early condensate, followed by the condensation of the remainder at a lower temperature. It is shown that the model of Boynton (1975) in which one rare earth element component is dissolved nonideally in perovskite according to relative activity coefficients can not reasonably be made to fit the observed group II patterns. A model in which two rare earth components control the patterns and dissolve ideally in perovskite is proposed and shown to be able to account for the 20 patterns by variations of the perovskite removal temperature and the relative proportions of the two components.

  18. Rare earth element distribution in the acetic acid soluble fraction of combusted coals: Its implication as a proxy for the original coal-forming plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FENG FU FU; TASUKU AKAGI; YUICHIRO SUZUKI; KAZUO WATANABE; SADAYO YABUKI

    The precise concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in Japanese Ashibetsu and Taiheiyo coals, in Indonesian Ambalut coal, and in Australian boghead coal have been determined, in order to compare the REE contents of the coals with those of plants and also to obtain further knowledge of the original plants from which these coals were formed. By leaching the coals

  19. RAPID RADIOCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rengan; W. W. Meinke

    1962-01-01

    Rapid separation of different rare earth elements was effected in ten to ; sixteen minutes with a small cation exchange resin column and alpha -hydroxy-; isobutyric acid as eluent. Individual rare earth fractions could be obtained ; with controlled eluent concentrations and pH. Good separation with peak to ; valley ratio between 50 and 100 in the elution curves was

  20. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  1. Isotopic fractionation of alkali earth metals during carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yotsuya, T.; Ohno, T.; Muramatsu, Y.; Shimoda, G.; Goto, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The alkaline earth metals such as magnesium, calcium and strontium play an important role in a variety of geochemical and biological processes. The element ratios (Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in marine carbonates have been used as proxies for reconstruction of the past environment. Recently several studies suggested that the study for the isotopic fractionation of the alkaline earth metals in marine carbonates has a potentially significant influence in geochemical research fields (e.g. Eisenhauer et al., 2009). The aim of this study is to explore the influence of carbonate polymorphs (Calcite and Aragonite) and environmental factors (e.g., temperature, precipitation rate) on the level of isotopic fractionation of the alkaline earth metals. We also examined possible correlations between the level of isotopic fractionation of Ca and that of other alkaline earth metals during carbonate precipitation. In order to determine the isotope fractionation factor of Mg, Ca and Sr during carbonate precipitation, calcite and aragonite were synthesized from calcium bicarbonate solution in which the amount of magnesium was controlled based on Kitano method. Calcium carbonates were also prepared from the mixture of calcium chlorite and sodium hydrogen carbonate solutions. The isotope fractionation factors were measured by MC-ICPMS. Results suggested that the level of isotopic fractionation of Mg during carbonate precipitation was correlated with that of Sr and that the change of the carbonate crystal structure could make differences of isotopic fractionations of Mg and Ca, however no difference was found in the case of Sr. In this presentation, the possible mechanism will be discussed.

  2. Trace and rare earth elements fractionation in volcanic- and sediment-hosted Mn ores: a study case of Sardinia (western Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    It is widely accepted that, regardless of the geological environment (continental, marine or hydrothermal), the occurrences of clay minerals and/or mineral phases with clay-type crystal structure (as zeolites and Mn-oxides), play a key role in the trace elements and REEs uptake processes. The REE resources are produced mostly from ion-adsorption type REE deposits of southern China that are formed by weathering of granitic rocks and subsequent chemical adsorption of REE on clay minerals. A significant group of minerals with a high metal uptake capacity is represented by Mn oxides. Their "tunnel" structure, in fact, allows both the absorption (inside the minerals) and adsorption (outside the minerals) of cations and anions producing metal accumulations with economic and environmental significance. However, the ores, mainly that forming within sedimentary environment, often have impurities due to presence of minerals unrelated to mineralization. These minerals can significantly alter the compositional features of the ores and suggest misleading conclusions. In Sardinia (Italy, western Mediterranean), Mn-oxide mineralizations occur and recently their origin has been discussed and identified (Sinisi et al. 2012). In this study the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Sardinian sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn-ore are exhibit exploring the possibility that they can represent exploitable trace and REE mineralizations. High contents of metals characterize these Mn deposits. Besides some trace elements (Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Pb, and U) that commonly typify the Mn oxi-hydroxide ores, all rare earth elements showed high concentrations in the Sardinian deposits, comparable to those of the main actually exploited REE sinks. For this reason, a simple statistical data treatment (R-mode Factor Analysis) was performed on fifteen and nineteen samples of sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn ore respectively, in order to identify both the mineral phases trapping trace and REE in Mn ores from different geological settings and the geochemical processes promoting the metal accumulation. Results clearly showed that in the studied deposits only the contents of trace metals may be referred to uptake process on Mn mineral phases. On the contrary, REE are probably hosted in silicates, such as zircons and clay minerals, that also characterize the mineralization or their presence is due to redox processes not linked to Mn ore deposition. Sinisi R., Mameli P., Mongelli G., Oggiano G. (2012). Different Mn-ores in a continental arc setting: geochemical and mineralogical evidence from Tertiary deposits of Sardinia (Italy). Ore Geology Reviews, 47, 110-125.

  3. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences by Greta J. Orris1 and Richard I. Grauch2 Open Table 1. Rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names.......................................................................................6 Table 2. Non-rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names

  4. Early cosmochemical fractionation by collisional erosion during the Earth's accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujibar, A.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Bouhifd, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Early in the Solar System history, planets grew through energetic collisions between planetesimals. Partial destruction of planetary embryos could have produce heterogeneous bodies, because of widespread internal chemical differentiation through core-segregation, partial melting of silicated mantles and fractional crystallization of magma oceans. On larger proto-planets, including the early Earth, meteoritic impacts have potentially induced erosion of part of the surface, which could have affected significantly the final chemical composition of terrestrial planets. Here we report that collisional erosion of 15-18% of the early Earth's surface reconciles the major apparent compositional differences between the known enstatite chondrites (EC) and the bulk Earth. We base our arguments on experimental measurements of the melting properties of an EC body at pressures between 1 bar and 25 GPa. At low degree of partial melting, the silicate melts are found highly enriched in SiO2, Al2O3 and Na2O and strongly depleted in MgO. Loss through collisional erosion of the surface of such differentiated planetesimal should ultimately raise its Mg/Si ratio and decrease its concentration in incompatible elements. We elaborate auto-coherent models of the Earth formation. Vaporization into space of the protocrusts could be a source of the Na-rich SiO gas that interacted with chondrules and explain the enrichments of enstatite chondrites in SiO2 and volatile lithophile elements.

  5. Mineral resource of the month: rare earth elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    The article provides information on rare earth elements, which are group of 17 natural metallic elements. The rare earth elements are scandium, yttrium and lanthanides and classified into light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rate earth elements (HREE). The principal ores of the rare earth elements are identified. An overview of China's production of 97 percent of the rare earths in the world is provided. Commercial applications of rare earths are described.

  6. Systematic variation of rare-earth elements in cerium-earth minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, K.J.; Rose, H.J., Jr.; Carron, M.K.; Glass, J.J.

    1957-01-01

    In a continuation of a study reported previously, rare-earth elements and thorium have been determined in monazite, allanite, cerite, bastnaesite, and a number of miscellaneous cerium-earth minerals. A quantity called sigma (???), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce, and Pr, is proposed as an index of composition of all cerium-earth minerals with respect to the rare-earth elements. The value of ??? for all of the minerals analysed falls between 58 and 92 atomic per cent. Monazites, allanites, and cerites cover the entire observed range, whereas bastnaesites are sharply restricted to the range between 80 and 92 atomic per cent. The minimum value of ??? for a cerium-earth mineral corresponds to the smallest possible unit-cell size of the mineral. In monazite, this structurally controlled minimum value of ??? is estimated to be around 30 atomic per cent. Neodymium, because of its abundance, and yttrium, because of its small size, have dominant roles in contraction of the structure. In the other direction, the limit of variation in composition will be reached when lanthanum becomes the sole rare-earth element in a cerium-earth mineral. Cerium-earth minerals from alkalic rocks are all characterized by values of ??? greater than 80 atomic per cent, indicating that the processes that formed these rocks were unusually efficient in fractionating the rare-earth elements-efficient in the sense that a highly selected assemblage is produced without eliminating the bulk of these elements. Analyses of inner and outer parts of two large crystals of monazite from different deposits show no difference in ??? in one crystal and a slightly smaller value of ??? in the outer part of the other crystal compared to the inner part. The ??? of monazites from pegmatites that intrude genetically related granitic rocks in North Carolina is found to be either higher or lower than the ??? of monazites in the intruded host rock. These results indicate that the fractionation of the rare-earth elements is not a simple unidirectional process. When a cerium-earth mineral undergoes replacement, its rare-earth elements may be fractionated into two parts, one forming a new mineral with ??? that is smaller, and the other a second new mineral with ??? that is larger than that of the original mineral. The complete analysis of a cerium-earth mineral to determine its ??? is time consuming. The discovery of a direct relationship between ??? and the Ce/(Nd + Y) atomic ratio in cerium earth minerals allows a rapid determination of ??? from spectrograms obtained in a previously described method for determining thorium in these minerals. ?? 1957.

  7. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2002-01-01

    Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

  8. Siderophile element fractionation in enstatite chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaldi, E. R.; Cendales, M.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of the concentration of 10 to 15 siderophile elements was made in the magnetic regions of Abee (E4) and Hvittis (E6). All elements, except Cu, W, and Fe were concentrated in the metal phase; unlike ordinary chondrites, the metal phase Abee and Hvittis consists of homogeneous, uniform grain size kamacite. The Ir/Ni ratio was 25% lower in Abee than in Hvittis, showing that more Ir was lost from Abee during the refractory element fractionation; Abee and other E4-5 members were not depleted in moderately volatile elements. It was concluded that E4-5 and E6 chondrites evolved from two different reservoirs, and that exchange of material among them has not occurred.

  9. TWO EXTRASOLAR ASTEROIDS WITH LOW VOLATILE-ELEMENT MASS FRACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Koester, D., E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: kleinb@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: koester@astrophysik.uni-kiel.de [Institut fur Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, University of Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Using ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we extend our previous ground-based optical determinations of the composition of the extrasolar asteroids accreted onto two white dwarfs, GD 40 and G241-6. Combining optical and ultraviolet spectra of these stars with He-dominated atmospheres, 13 and 12 polluting elements are confidently detected in GD 40 and G241-6, respectively. For the material accreted onto GD 40, the volatile elements C and S are deficient by more than a factor of 10 and N by at least a factor of 5 compared to their mass fractions in primitive CI chondrites and approach what is inferred for bulk Earth. A similar pattern is found for G241-6 except that S is undepleted. We have also newly detected or placed meaningful upper limits for the amount of Cl, Al, P, Ni, and Cu in the accreted matter. Extending results from optical studies, the mass fractions of refractory elements in the accreted parent bodies are similar to what is measured for bulk Earth and chondrites. Thermal processing, perhaps interior to a snow line, appears to be of central importance in determining the elemental compositions of these particular extrasolar asteroids.

  10. The rare earth elements in seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Elderfield; Mervyn J. Greaves

    1982-01-01

    The depth distributions of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb in the oceanic water column are used to evaluate the marine geochemical cycle of the rare earth elements and their application as water-mass tracers.

  11. Rare-Earth and Transuranic Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Goeppert Mayer

    1941-01-01

    The possible existence of a second rare-earth-like group of elements beginning with uranium and extending to the transuranic elements, is discussed by a calculation of the atomic eigen-functions of the 4f and 5f electrons. Energy and spatial extension of the 4f eigenfunctions drop suddenly at the beginning of the rare-earth group; the binding energy is calculated to be 0.95 ev

  12. Light element controlled iron isotope fractionation in planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, A.; Hillgren, V. J.; Horan, M. F.; Duke, L.; Mock, T. D.

    2013-12-01

    Using iron isotope fractionations measured in planetary and meteorite samples to trace planetary differentiation or formation has yielded contradictory results. Iron from high-Ti lunar basalts is more enriched in 57Fe/54Fe than mantle-derived terrestrial samples, in contrast to the isotopic similarity for almost every other element between the Earth and Moon. SNC (Shergottite, Nakhlite, Chassigny) and HED (Howardite, Eucrite, Diogenite) meteorites, which are thought to be derived from the mantles of Mars and Vesta, respectively, show no isotopic fractionation relative to chondrites. While the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) value is debated, recent work has shown effectively that basalts (mid-ocean ridge basalts, terrestrial basalts, and ocean island basalts) are enriched in 57Fe/54Fe relative to chondrites, but the causes of that fractionation are unclear (Craddock et al. 2013). Angrites, basaltic achondrite meteorites, also show enrichment in ?57Fe (Wang et al. 2012). Possible mechanisms include high-pressure core formation, oxidation during perovskite disproportionation, evaporation during the giant impact, and mantle melting. It is important to reconcile why the Earth's basalts are enriched in 57Fe/54Fe but the meteorites from Mars and Vesta are not. One possible explanation is that Mars and Vesta are smaller and the lower pressure attenuated the potential Fe fractionation during core formation. A second possibility is that the intrinsic oxidation states of the planets are causing the differences. However, another option is that the light elements (e.g. S, C, O, H, Si) in the cores of differentiated bodies control the iron isotope fractionation during differentiation. We have conducted experiments at 1 GPa and 1650-1800°C in a piston cylinder apparatus to address how sulfur, carbon and silicon alloyed with iron affect the iron isotopic fractionation between metallic alloy and silicate melt. We find that sulfur has the greatest effect on the iron isotopic fractionation at these conditions.This has wide implications for tracing differentiation processes as the nature of the light element in the core is directly related to the mode of formation and the conditions present. Therefore, by comparing the experimental data with meteoritic data, the composition of planetary cores can be estimated.

  13. Chemical and isotopic fractionation during the evaporation of the FeO-MgO-SiO 2-CaO-Al 2O 3-TiO 2 rare earth element melt system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhua Wang; Andrew M Davis; Robert N Clayton; Toshiko K Mayeda; Akihiko Hashimoto

    2001-01-01

    A synthetic material with solar elemental proportions of iron, magnesium, silicon, titanium, calcium, and aluminum oxides and doped with rare earth elements was evaporated in a vacuum furnace at 1800 and 2000°C for different durations to study its chemical and isotopic evolution during the evaporation process. It is demonstrated that kinetic evaporation of solar composition material can produce residues of

  14. Principles of the extraction of rare earth elements with naphthenic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. Korpusov; N. A. Danilov; V. Ya. Shvartsman; Yu. S. Krylov

    1975-01-01

    The composition of the extractable lanthanum compounds with the individual naphthenic acid CââHââOâ was determined. The influence of the concentration of nitrates and chlorides of the rare earth elements, as well as salting out agents, on the values of the coefficients of separation of the rare earth elements by naphthenic acids, isolated from petroleum fractions and from stratum waters, was

  15. Iridium anomalies and fractionated siderophile element patterns in impact ejecta, Brockman Iron Formation, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia: evidence for a major asteroid impact in simatic crustal regions of the early Proterozoic earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew; Allen, Charlotte

    2004-04-01

    A stratigraphically consistent <20-cm-thick unit of microkrystite spherule and microtektite-bearing impact fallout ejecta overlying volcanic tuff of the 4th Shale Macroband (DGS4) of the Dales Gorge Member (2.47-2.50 Ga), Brockman Iron Formation, Hamersley Group, Western Australia, displays anomalous platinum group element (PGE) and other trace metal patterns. The unit has high Ir (13 ppb) and Pt (35 ppb), and low Pd (2.7 ppb) and Au (1.55-1.88 ppb). The low Pd/Ir ratios and low Cr/V suggest depletion in volatile PGE and metals relative to refractory PGE and V, contrasted to the ubiquitous high Pd/Ir of most terrestrial rocks. Marked depletion in the volatile Rare Earth Element (REE) abundances in stilpnomelane spherule cores is consistent with this model. The loss of volatile PGE, analogous to relations in 3.24 Ga impact fallout units of the Barberton greenstone belt (S3 and S4), suggests fractionation related to atmospheric spherule condensation. The microkrystite spherule unit locally incorporate fragments and up to meter-scale boulders of banded chert and stromatolite carbonate, suggesting tsunami transport postdating spherule deposition. DGS4 microkrystite spherules are dominated by stilpnomelane mantled by K-feldspar shells, which consist of inward-radiating fibrous feldspar aggregates suggestive of devitrification. The K and REE enrichment of spherule margins are contrasted to flat REE patterns of the stilpnomelane cores, suggesting adsorption of lithophile elements during settling of the spherules through the hydrosphere. K-feldspar shells contain submicron-scale Ni metal, oxide, sulfide and arsenide grains and euhedral needles of feldspar-exsolved ilmenite. Associated magnetite may have high nickel (<1.25% NiO). The generally mafic composition of the spherules and high Ni/Cr and Ni/Co are consistent with a target mafic-ultramafic crust, consistent with the lack of shock-metamorphosed quartz. Mixing calculations suggest a contribution of 2.5-3% projectile component to the impact-generated volatile cloud. Conservative mass balance estimates derived from the Ir and Pt flux, assuming global extent of a 10-cm-thick spherule unit and chondritic projectile composition, suggest an asteroid diameter on the scale of ˜30 km. Similar estimates are obtained from spherule sizes, which in DGS4 reach a mean diameter of ˜2.0 mm in aerodynamically elongate spherules. The evidence implies formation of an impact basin on the scale of 400 km in simatic/oceanic regions of the early Proterozoic crust.

  16. Determination of thorium and light rare-earth elements in soil water and its high molecular mass organic fractions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and on-line-coupled size-exclusion chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelton A. Casartelli; Norbert Miekeley

    2003-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) has been used for the determination of thorium and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) in soil and soil water samples from a mineral deposit (Morro do Ferro, Minas Gerais, Brazil). Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) on-line coupled to ICP–MS and UV-detection was applied to verify possible association\\/complexation of these elements with organic matter in soil water separated

  17. Rare earth element scavenging in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    1990-10-01

    Examinations of rare earth element (REE) adsorption in seawater, using a variety of surface-types, indicated that, for most surfaces, light rare earth elements (LREEs) are preferentially adsorbed compared to the heavy rare earths (HREEs). Exceptions to this behavior were observed only for silica phases (glass surfaces, acid-cleaned diatomaceous earth, and synthetic SiO 2). The affinity of the rare earths for surfaces can be strongly affected by thin organic coatings. Glass surfaces which acquired an organic coating through immersion in Tampa Bay exhibited adsorptive behavior typical of organic-rich, rather than glass, surfaces. Models of rare earth distributions between seawater and carboxylate-rich surfaces indicate that scavenging processes which involve such surfaces should exhibit a strong dependence on pH and carbonate complexation. Scavenging models involving carboxylate surfaces produce relative REE abundance patterns in good general agreement with observed shale-normalized REE abundances in seawater. Scavenging by carboxylate-rich surfaces should produce HREE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs and may produce enrichments of lanthanum relative to its immediate trivalent neighbors. Due to the origin of distribution coefficients as a difference between REE solution complexation (which increases strongly with atomic number) and surface complexation (which apparently also increases with atomic number) the relative solution abundance patterns of the REEs produced by scavenging reactions can be quite complex.

  18. Rare earth element scavenging in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Kim, Kihyun (Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Examinations of rare earth element (REE) adsorption in seawater, using a variety of surface-types, indicated that, for most surfaces, light rare earth elements (LREEs) are preferentially adsorbed compared to the heavy rare earths (HREEs). Exceptions to this behavior were observed only for silica phases. The affinity of the rare earths for surfaces can be strongly affected by thin organic coatings. Glass surfaces which acquired an organic coating through immersion in Tampa Bay exhibited adsorptive behavior typical of organic-rich, rather than glass, surfaces. Models of rare earth distributions between seawater and carboxylate-rich surfaces indicate that scavenging processes which involve such surfaces should exhibit a strong dependence on pH and carbonate complexation. Scavenging models involving carboxylate surfaces produce relative REE abundance patterns in good general agreement with observed shale-normalized REE abundances in seawater. Scavenging by carboxylate-rich surfaces should produce HREE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs and may produce enrichments of lanthanum relative to its immediate trivalent neighbors. Due to the origin of distribution coefficients as a difference between REE solution complexation and surface complexation the relative solution abundance patterns of the REEs produced by scavenging reactions can be quite complex.

  19. Rare earth elements in alpine peridotites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Loubet; N. Shimizu; C. J. Allègre

    1975-01-01

    The samples from alpine peridotite massifs (Beni Bouchera, Lherz and the Alps) have been analyzed for rare earth elements. The peridotites as a whole are characterized by various degrees of light REE depletion (Ce varies from 1.2 to 0.02 times chondrite) and a small variation in heavy REE (Yb varies about a factor of 2, from 1.3 to 2.2 times

  20. Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Michard

    1989-01-01

    Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (>230°C) percolating

  1. Rare-Earth Element Geochemistry of the Samail Ophiolite near Ibra, Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Pallister; Roy J. Knight

    1981-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) analyses of 68 rock and mineral separate samples from the Samail ophiolite clearly. differentiate the various units of the ophiolite suite and indicate that the crustal suite is cogenetic, produced by crystal fractionation of basaltic magma in a spreading ridge magma chamber. Mantle peridotires are residual in rare-earth character, but cannot be clearly related to the overlying

  2. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Imashuku, Susumu, E-mail: imashuku.susumu.2m@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fuyuno, Naoto; Hanasaki, Kohei; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera.

  3. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Susumu; Fuyuno, Naoto; Hanasaki, Kohei; Kawai, Jun

    2013-12-01

    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera. PMID:24387481

  4. Rare earth element systematics of fossil bone revealed by LA-ICPMS analysis

    E-print Network

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    November 2012 Abstract Intra-bone rare earth element (REE) fractionation trends were studied by LA-ICPMS analysis to put constraints on (1) the mechanisms controlling REE fractionation within fossil bones; (2) the relative timing of REE uptake in various parts of fossil bone and (3) the origin of REE in fossil bones. We

  5. Activation analysis of rare-earth elements in opium and cannabis samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Henke; Wilhelms-Universitdt Miinster

    1977-01-01

    Rare earth concentrations in 65 Opium, Cannabis and Cannabis resin samples seized from various parts of world were determined\\u000a by destructive NAA. Great variations in absolute element concentrations, but only small significant differences of rare earth\\u000a concentration ratios were found, indicating inconsiderable biogeochemical fractionation. The mean values of these ratios correspond\\u000a with the relative abundances of the rare earths in

  6. Rare Earth Elements: A Tool for Understanding the Behaviour of Trivalent Actinides in the Geosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Buil, Belen; Gomez, Paloma; Garralon, Antonio; Turrero, M. Jesus [Medioambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined in groundwaters, granite and fracture fillings in a restored uranium mine. The granitoids normalized REE patterns of groundwaters show heavy rare earth elements (HREE)-enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. This suggests that the REE are fractionated during leaching from the source rocks by groundwaters. Preferential leaching of HREE would be consistent with the greater stability of their aqueous complexes compared to those of the light rare earth elements (LREE), together with the dissolution of certain fracture filling minerals, dissolution/alteration of phyllosilicates and colloidal transport. (authors)

  7. Rare earth elements in weathering profiles and sediments of Minnesota: Implications for provenance studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morey, G.B.; Setterholm, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The relative abundance of rare earth elements in sediments has been suggested as a tool for determining their source rocks. This correlation requires that weathering, erosion, and sedimentation do not alter the REE abundances, or do so in a predictable manner. We find that the rare earth elements are mobilized and fractionated by weathering, and that sediments derived from the weathered materials can display modifications of the original pattern of rare earth elements of some due to grain-size sorting of the weathered material. However, the REE distribution pattern of the provenance terrane can be recognized in the sediments.

  8. Siderophile elements and the earth's formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Capobianco, C. J.; Drake, M. J.; O'Neill, Hugh

    1992-01-01

    Two comments on a work by Murthy (1991) concerning the abundances of siderophile elements in the earth's mantle are presented. In the first comment it is asserted that the basis of Murthy's extrapolation is the assumption that the Gibbs free energy change for the partitioning reaction is independent of temperature, and as this is generally not a valid assumption thermodynamically, and as this is contradicted by most experimental data, the issue of mantle siderophile elements remains unresolved. In the second comment it is asserted that the extrapolation method used by Murthy does not appear to be valid thermodynamically, and that an extrapolation based on generally accepted thermodynamic assumptions yields different results. In a reply, Murthy takes issue with the comments.

  9. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

    PubMed Central

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Hall, Jim W.; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The term “tipping point” commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here we introduce the term “tipping element” to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. We critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and we assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then we explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points. PMID:18258748

  10. Rare earth element abundances and distribution patterns in plant materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Aidid

    1994-01-01

    Eight out of the fourteen rare earth elements were estimated from the leaves ofPelthophorum pterocarpum, the leaves and roots ofImpatiens balsamina, and the soils from four sampling sites by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The chondrite normalized rare earth element abundances and distribution patterns in the plant materials were found to be significantly correlated to the abundances of the rare earth

  11. EXTRACTION OF RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS FROM BASTNAESITE CONCENTRATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaw

    1959-01-01

    Bastnaesite is a natural rare-earth fluorcarbonate of the cerium group ; that affords an abundant and highgrade source of the lighter rare-earth elements. ; A simple and efficient method has been developed by the Bureau of Mines for ; extracting rare-earth compounds from this mineral. Digesting of a flotation ; concentrate with sulfuric acid converts the rare-earth compounds firm ;

  12. Accumulation of rare earth elements in maize plants ( Zea mays L.) after application of mixtures of rare earth elements and lanthanum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingkai Xu; Wangzhao Zhu; Zijian Wang; Geert-Jan Witkamp

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth elements are applied in China to improve crop production, and the distribution patterns of individual rare earth elements in native plants have widely been reported. But our knowledge is still limited about the dose-dependent accumulation of individual rare earth elements in agricultural crops after application of rare earth elements. Effects of lanthanum and mixtures of rare earth elements

  13. Speciation of rare earth elements in soil and accumulation by wheat with rare earth fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Shan, X Q

    2001-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the accumulation of rare earth elements (REEs), La, Ce, Pr and Nd, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and the speciation of these elements in soil following the application of REE-based fertilizers. Improved crop yield was confirmed by the experiment. The accumulation behavior of La, Ce, Pr and Nd in wheat varied depending on the concentration of REE fertilizer application, i.e. increased with increasing REE concentration at low fertilization application, constant over the medium REE range, and decreased with increasing REE concentration at high fertilizer application. Significant negative correlation was obtained between REE contents in roots and soil pH (r = -0.5787 to -0.8442 for La). REEs in both the fertilized and unfertilized soils were fractionated by a three-stage sequential extraction procedure into three chemically distinct fractions: water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound (B1), Fe-Mn oxide bound (B2), and organic and sulfide bound (B3). REEs in fertilized soils were found mainly in the B2 and B3 fractions, with only a small amount in the B1 fraction. REEs in B1 and B2 fractions were negatively correlated with soil pH (r = -0.6892 to -0.8927 and -0.7462 to -0.9482). Significant correlation was obtained between REEs in B1 fraction and REE contents in root. The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.6159 to 0.7410 when fertilizer application was lower than 20.0 mg/kg soil. No acceptable relationship was observed between REE contents in shoot and any of the extractable fractions in soils. PMID:11291446

  14. Xenon Fractionation, Hydrogen Escape, and the Oxidation of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Catling, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Xenon in Earth's atmosphere is severely mass fractionated and depleted compared to any plausible solar system source material, yet Kr is unfractionated. These observations seem to imply that Xe has escaped from Earth. Vigorous hydrodynamic hydrogen escape can produce mass fractionation in heavy gases. The required hydrogen flux is very high but within the range permitted by solar EUV heating when Earth was 100 Myrs old or younger. However this model cannot explain why Xe escapes but Kr does not. Recently, what appears to be ancient atmospheric xenon has been recovered from several very ancient (3-3.5 Ga) terrestrial hydrothermal barites and cherts (Pujol 2011, 2013). What is eye-catching about this ancient Xe is that it is less fractionated that Xe in modern air. In other words, it appears that a process was active on Earth some 3 to 3.5 billion years ago that caused xenon to fractionate. By this time the Sun was no longer the EUV source that it used to be. If xenon was being fractionated by escape — currently the only viable hypothesis — it had to be in Earth's Archean atmosphere and under rather modest levels of EUV forcing. It should be possible for Xe, but not Kr, to escape from Earth as an ion. In a hydrodynamically escaping hydrogen wind the hydrogen is partially ionized. The key concepts are that ions are much more strongly coupled to the escaping flow than are neutrals (so that a relatively modest flow of H and H+ to space could carry Xe+ along with it, the flux can be small enough to be consistent with diffusion-limited flux), and that Xe alone among the noble gases is more easily ionized than hydrogen. This sort of escape is possible along the polar field lines, although a weak or absent magnetic field would likely work as well. The extended history of hydrogen escape implicit in Xe escape in the Archean is consistent with other suggestions that hydrogen escape in the Archean was considerable. Hydrogen escape plausibly played the key role in creating oxidizing conditions at the surface of the Earth and setting the stage for the creation of an O2 atmosphere (Urey 1951, Catling et al 2001, Zahnle et al 2013). Catling, McKay, Zahnle (2001) Science 293, 839. Pujol, Marty, Burnard, Phillipot (2009) GCA 73, 6834. Pujol, Marty, Burgess (2011) EPSL 308, 298. Urey, H.C. (1952) PNAS 38, 351. Zahnle, Catling, Claire (2013) Ch. Geol. 362, 26.

  15. Rare earth element analysis indicates micropollutants in an urban estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajerin, T. J.; Johannesson, K. H.; Kolker, A.; Burdige, D. J.; Chevis, D.

    2011-12-01

    Rare earth element analysis of Bayou Bienvenue waters shows anomalously high gadolinium, Gd, concentrations relative to its nearest neighbors in the REE series, europium and terbium. The anomalously high Gd concentrations indicate anthropogenic input from waste-water treatment plants in the area as anthropogenic Gd input can be traced back to its use as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging in hospitals. Others have shown that anomalously high levels of Gd in natural waters are likely to be associated with other micropollutants that also occur in hospital effluent and that are not removed in the wastewater treatment process, including pharmaceuticals in the form of steroids, antihistamines, and antibiotics. Estuaries serve as many important ecological roles and have been shown to act as a filter for pollutants. To better understand the transport, biogeochemical cycling, and ultimate fate of trace elements in estuaries, I collected surface water samples from Bayou Bienvenue, a wetland triangle that covers an area of 427 acres directly adjacent to New Orleans, Louisiana. Water samples from Bayou Bienvenue were collected along the salinity gradient and subsequently filtered through progressively smaller pore-size filters. The resulting fractions were analyzed for trace element concentions, including the REEs, by magnetic sector ICP-MS. The attached figure shows the Gd anomaly present in the particulate (>0.45?m) fraction. Upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized plots of colloidal REEs (0.02?m - 0.45?m) fraction is lacking this anomaly indicating anthropogenic Gd is found chiefly in the particulate fraction in Bayou Bienvenue. No clear relationship between Gd concentration and salinity was apparent.

  16. The chemistry of rare earth elements in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, J. W.; Bartholomay, H. A.; Fegley, B.

    1984-01-01

    The high concentration of rare earth elements (REE) in primitive CaS suggests that the REE along with the other normally lithophile elements form stable sulfides under the unusual conditions which existed during the formation of enstatite chrondites. In order to acquire a more quantitative framework in which to interpret these data, the behavior of the REE in systems with solar, or slightly fractionated solar, composition is being studied. These new data introduce modest changes in the behavior of some of the REE when compared to previous studies. For example, the largest differences are in the stabilities of the gaseous monoxides of Ce, Eu, Tb, Ho, and Tm, all of which now appear to be less stable than previously thought, and YbO(g) which is somewhat more stable. Much more significant are the changes in REE distribution in the gas phase in fractionated systems, especially those made more reducing by changing the C/O ratio from the solar value of 0.6 to about 1.0. In almost all cases, the exceptions being Eu, Tm and Yb whose elemental gaseous species dominate, the monosulfides become more abundant. Moreover, the solid oxides of Eu, Tm and Yb become less stable under more reducing conditions which, in effect, should reduce the condensation temperature of all REE in more reduced systems.

  17. Rare earth elements in river waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  18. Rare Earth Elements in Global Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, C.; Karamalidis, A.; Dzombak, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    We are examining the occurrence and abundance of rare earth elements (REE) associated with produced waters from shale gas development, and factors controlling aqueous REE concentrations in geochemical environments, to provide information for: (1) potential recovery of REE as a valuable byproduct, and (2) utilization of unique REE signatures as a risk assessment tool. REE include the lanthanide series of elements - excluding short-lived, radioactive promethium - and yttrium. These elements are critical to a wide variety of high-tech, energy efficient applications such as phosphors, magnets, and batteries. Escalating costs of REE resulting from divergent supply and demand patterns motivates the first goal. The second goal relates to the search for a reliable, naturally occurring tracer to improve understanding of fluid migration and water-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing and natural gas recovery. We compiled data from 100 studies of REE occurrence and concentrations in groundwaters, ocean waters, river waters, and lake waters. In the groundwater systems documented, total dissolved REE concentrations ranged over eight orders of magnitude; however the average concentrations across the lanthanides varied by less than two orders of magnitude. This leads to exceptional inter-element correlations, with a median correlation coefficient greater than 0.98, implying potential usefulness of REE ratios for groundwater signatures. Reports describing reactions governing REE solubilization were also investigated. We assembled information about important solution chemistries and performed equilibrium modeling using PHREEQC to examine common hypotheses regarding the factors controlling REE compositions. In particular, effects of pH, Eh, and common complexing ligands were evaluated. Produced and connate waters of the Marcellus shale are well characterized for their major chemical elements. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, regarding the occurrence of REE in Marcellus shale brines and in high TDS brines in general. From synthesis of available brine and geological data, we have developed hypotheses about REE occurrence and content of these hypersaline solutions. It is well documented that the REE concentrations of a solution can serve as a signature of the water and changes in this signature represent interactions with fluids of different compositions or changing mineral strata. We will discuss how the unique signatures and reactivity of REE potentially makes these elements uniquely capable tracers of hydrogeologic activity.

  19. Volatile element depletion and K-39/K-41 fractionation in lunar soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, S. E.; Tilton, G. R.; Wright, J. E.; Lee-Hu, C.-N.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence for selective loss and isotopic fractionation (in the case of K) of volatile elements during formation of agglutinates by micrometeoritic bombardment of lunar soils is presented. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of volatile elements (K, Rb, Pb) and nonvolatile elements (U, Th, Ba, Sr, rare earths) in separates taken from soils 14163, 14259, 15041, 68501, and 71500 are examined. Rayleigh fractionation calculations applied to K-39/K-41 isotopic data indicate ten-fold recycling of bulk soil, to account for observed isotopic anomalies. The lunar soil fines fraction seems to be a site of deposition for volatile or labile Pb produced during agglutination. Local fines (below 75 microns) are viewed as representative of the parent material for agglutinates formed in situ by micrometeoritic impact. Magnetic separation of agglutinates from soil 68501 revealed a bimodal population, with one class comprising welded blocky magnetic glasses.

  20. W/Hf Fractionation in Chondrites and the Earth: Constraints on Timing of Core Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, H. E.

    1996-03-01

    The recent measurements of the Hf and W isotope systematics in terrestrial and meteorite material has led Lee and Halliday to conclude that terrestrial core formation occurred at least 60 Myr after the formation of the iron meteorites. This calculation depends on assumptions regarding the Hf/W ratio for the bulk silicate Earth, and for the ratio in the chondritic material from which the iron meteorites, and the Earth formed. A new study of the abundance and depletion of W in the Earth, relative to refractory lithophile elements, such as Hf, provides constraints on the terrestrial Hf/W ratio. In the chondrites, the ratio of W to refractory lithophile elements is also variable, because W did not fully participate in the metal-silicate fractionation which occurred in the solar nebula. Therefore, the uncertainties in the Hf/W ratios in the chondrites and in the Earth must be considered to determine the constraints on the timing of core formation in the Earth. In the case of the heterogeneous accretion theory, W is accreted to the Earth's primitive mantle in an additive process, which has important implications for the significance of the Hf-W isotope systematics.

  1. Biogeochemistry of the rare-earth elements with particular reference to hickory trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, W.O.; Bastron, H.; Murata, K.J.

    1958-01-01

    Hickory trees concentrate the rare-earth elements in their leaves to a phenomenal degree and may contain as much as 2300 p.p.m. of total rare earths based on the dry weight of the leaves. The average proportions of the individual elements (atomic percent of the total rare-earth elements) in the leaves are: Y 36, La 16, Ce 14, Pr 2, Nd 20, Sm 1, Eu 0.7, Gd 3, Tb 0.6, Dy 3, Ho 0.7, Er 2, Tm 0.2, Yb 1, and Lu 0.2. The similarity in the proportions of the rare-earth elements in the leaves and in the exchange complex of the soil on which the hickory trees grow indicates that the trees do not fractionate the rare earths appreciably. The variation of the rare-earth elements in the leaves and soils can be explained generally in terms of the relative abundance of the cerium group and the yttrium group, except for the element cerium. The large fluctuations in the proportion of cerium [Ce/(La + Nd) atomic ratios of 0.16 to 0.86] correlate with oxidation-reduction conditions in the soil profile. The substitution of dilute H2SO3 for dilute HC1 in the determination of available rare-earth elements brings about a large increase in the proportion of cerium that is extracted from an oxygenated subsoil. These relationships strongly suggest that quadrivalent cerium is present in oxygenated subsoil and is less available to plants than the other rare-earth elements that do not undergo such a change in valence. A few parts per billion of rare-earth elements have been detected in two samples of ground water. ?? 1958.

  2. Rare earths and other trace elements in Luna 16 soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis has been made of four small samples of material brought to earth by the Luna 16 mission, with the aim to determine rare earths and other trace elements in these samples. The analytical results are tabulated, and the rare earth abundances are compared with the average for chondrites. A comparison is also made with the results of similar analyses of Apollo samples.

  3. DETERMINATION OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nakazima; M. Takahashi; H. Kawaguchi

    1958-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of rare earth elements ; including yttrium in uranium and its compounds. The greater portion of the ; uranium is separated from the rare earths by ether extraction. The rare earths ; are then precipitated as fluorides and subsequently purified as hydroxides. ; Lanthanum was used as the carrier. The efficiency of

  4. EARTH'S CORE FORMATION: NEW CONSTRAINTS FROM SIDEROPHILE ELEMENTS PARTITIONING (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Siebert; A. Corgne; F. J. Ryerson

    2009-01-01

    The abundances of siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle are the result of core formation in the early Earth. Many variables are involved in the prediction of metal\\/silicate siderophile partition coefficients during core segregation: pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, silicate and metal compositions. Despite publications of numerous results of metal-silicate experiments, the experimental database and predictive expressions for elements partitioning are

  5. Peculiarities of rare-earth-element distribution in environmental objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Gorbunov; T. L. Onischenko; S. F. Gundorina; M. V. Frontasyeva

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the production of phosphorus fertilizers on the pollution of the environment by rare-earth elements is reviewed. The main sources of rare-earth element pollution in the environment are described. The levels of REEs in components of the environment — atmosphere, snow, different types of soil, native and agricultural types of vegetation — that provide evidence for their participation

  6. Action of Slow Neutrons on Rare Earth Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hevesy; Hilde Levi

    1936-01-01

    IN view of the discrepancy between the values obtained by different workers for the periods and the intensity of radiation emitted by the radio rare earth elements1-5 after neutron bombardment, we carried out a detailed investigation on this subject and also on the absorption of slow neutrons in rare earth elements. The latter measurements were carried out chiefly to ascertain

  7. Hydrogen-absorbing characteristics of 15 rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hirano; J. Kadono; S. Yamamoto; T. Tanabe; H. Miyake

    2006-01-01

    The amounts of absorbed hydrogen and the rates of hydrogen-absorption reaction were measured for 15 rare earth elements. The cohesive energy and energy fluctuation of metal clusters were also calculated by using the extended-Hückel method. The characteristics of each rare earth element in the capacity of hydrogen absorption and the reaction rate were discussed by comparing the experimental results with

  8. Light elements in the Earth's outer core: A critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Poirier

    1994-01-01

    There is little doubt that densities for the Earth's outer core, inferred from seismology, require that it is constituted of an alloy of liquid iron and light elements. However, the nature of the light alloying elements is still uncertain as it depends in a large measure on the conditions of accretion of the Earth and formation of the core. The

  9. The rare earth element compositions of the Changjiang (Yangtze) and Huanghe (Yellow) river sediments

    E-print Network

    Yang, Shouye

    were analyzed to characterize their rare earth element (REE) compositions. Although REE concentrations samples and acid-leachable fractions have convex REE patterns and middle REE enrichments relative to upper is the primary control on REE composition, and weathering processes play a minor role. Grain size exerts some

  10. Rare earth element partitioning between hydrous ferric oxides and acid mine water during iron oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip L. Verplanck; D. Kirk Nordstrom; Howard E. Taylor; Briant A. Kimball

    2004-01-01

    Ferrous iron rapidly oxidizes to Fe (III) and precipitates as hydrous Fe (III) oxides in acid mine waters. This study examines the effect of Fe precipitation on the rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of acid mine waters to determine the pH range over which REEs behave conservatively and the range over which attenuation and fractionation occur. Two field studies were

  11. Rare earth elements as indicators of different marine depositional environments in chert and shale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Murray; D. L. Jones; M. R. Bruchholtz ten Brink; David C. Gerlach; G. Price Russ III

    1990-01-01

    Differences in rare earth element (REE) relative fractionations and total abundances in marine cherts and shales reflect the depositional location of the sediments. Based on cerium anomaly (Ce\\/Ce*) and total REE abundance (ΣREE) variations preserved in interbedded chert and shale sequences of the Franciscan assemblage, the Claremont Formation, and the Monterey Formation of coastal California, we can resolve three depositional

  12. Vibration spectra and physicochemical properties of sesquisulfides of rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Kutolin; R. N. Samoilova; M. N. Korotkevich

    1972-01-01

    The vibration spectra of sesquisulfides of rare earth elements were investigated in the IR region. A set of lattice vibrations were interpreted by multiphonon approximation, analogous to the method described in connection with wurtzite lattice vibrations for cadmium sulfide. We compared the experimental and the theoretical changes in the effective fraction of the dielectric permeability with the frequency by a

  13. The aquatic chemistry of rare earth elements in rivers and estuaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward R. Sholkovitz

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine how pH, colloids and salinity control the fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in river and estuarine waters. By using natural waters as the reaction media (river water from the Connecticut, Hudson and Mississippi Rivers) geochemical reactions can be studied in isolation from the large temporal and spatial variability inherent in river and

  14. Project EARTH-12-SHELL3: Isotopic and elemental records of ocean redox conditions

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    as micronutrients (both processes are associated with isotope fractionation). This project aims to investigate whichProject EARTH-12-SHELL3: Isotopic and elemental records of ocean redox conditions Supervisors: Hugh is funded by Shell and is part of a larger Shell-supported research project on metal isotopes in source

  15. [Content of rare earth elements in wild Hypericum japonicum Thunb].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen-Lin; Rui, Yu-Kui; Tian, Zhi-Huan

    2009-06-01

    Rare earth elements are important nutritional elements for human health, and today more and more attention has been paid to the effective components in Chinese traditional medicine, especially to rare earth elements. Fifteen rare earth elements in wild hypericum japonicum Thunb were analyzed by the methods of ICP-MS. The results showed that the concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Tm, Lu and Y ranged from 6 ng x g(-1) x DW to 14 522 ng x g(-1) x DW, and among them the concentrations of La, Ce and Nd were higher than 2 000 ng x g(-1) x DW. Compared with the concentration of rare earth elements in rice, corn, wheat and barley, the total concentration of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb was much higher, which could be the mechanism of curative effect of hypericum japonicum Thunb on liverish diseases. The character of elements and the content of rare earth elements in soil should be responsible for the difference, but the distributive mechanism of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb should be further studied. PMID:19810563

  16. Rapid separation of heavy rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.W.; Froisland, I.J.; Petersen, A.E.

    1995-10-01

    The US Bureau of Mines investigated the separation of heavy rare-earth elements (REE) in an ion-exchange process. An ion-exchange column consisting of two sections, a loading section and a separation section, provides high levels of REE loading and good REE separation with an expected processing cycle of less than a month, while current ion-exchange technology requires more than 5 months. A different resin is used in each section: sulfonic resin in the loading section and iminodiacetic resin in the separation section. The separation section is further divided into two segments: the first conditioned with NH{sub 4} and the second with acid. Erbium is loaded onto both segments of the separation column as a retaining ion. Bands of mixed REE eluting between separated bands of pure REE were recycled directly to the column. Without mixed-band recycle, over 80% of the REE eluted from the column was separated into fractions with 99% purity of each element; with such recycle, the percentage of separated elements can be increased to around 90%.

  17. Sc, Y, La-Lu - Rare Earth Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    At present extensive efforts are being made in completing work on system number Rare Earth Elements. Part A is devoted to the occurrence of these elements on the earth and in the universe. Part B deals with the pure metals; the 7 volumes published cover the description of the separation from the raw materials, the preparation of pure metals,their uses and toxicology, the physical properties of nuclei, atoms, molecules, and isotopes; in addition the behavior of ions in solution and the electrochemical behavior of rare earth elements are described. The compounds are described in Part C. Part D with 6 volumes has been devoted to the description of coordination compounds and is completed. The volume ''Rare Earth Elements C 10'' deals with the rare earth tellurides, oxide tellurides, tellurates, telluride halides, tellurate halides, sulfide tellurides, selenide tellurides, and alkali rare earth tellurates. Another topic of this volume are the compounds of the rare earth elements with polonium. So far as meaningful and in accordance with all earlier volumes of ''Rare Earth Elements'' Series C, comparative data are presented in sections preceding treatment of the individual compounds and systems.

  18. Fractional generalization of memristor and higher order elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenreiro Machado, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fractional calculus generalizes integer order derivatives and integrals. Memristor systems generalize the notion of electrical elements. Both concepts were shown to model important classes of phenomena. This paper goes a step further by embedding both tools in a generalization considering complex-order objects. Two complex operators leading to real-valued results are proposed. The proposed class of models generate a broad universe of elements. Several combinations of values are tested and the corresponding dynamical behavior is analyzed.

  19. Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

  20. Nebular fractionation of silicon isotopes and implications for silicon in Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, N.; Poitrasson, F.; Burkhardt, C.

    2014-12-01

    The silicate Earth has a heavy silicon isotopic composition relative to all chondrite groups, which was taken as evidence for the presence of sufficient amounts of silicon in Earth's core to explain its density deficit. A difficulty remains, however, in that chondrites themselves show variable silicon isotopic composition. For example, enstatite chondrites, the only group of meteorites that matches the Earth's composition for 17O, 48Ca, 50Ti, 54Cr, and 92Mo, have very light silicon isotopic compositions that would require unrealistic amounts of silicon in Earth's core if they were its main constituents. We have measured the silicon isotopic composition of several achondrites that had not been measured before. In particular, we have found that angrites have a heavy silicon isotopic composition, similar to the Earth and the Moon. These meteorites formed under relatively oxidizing conditions (~IW+1) and core formation in their parent-body occurred at relatively low pressure (<0.1 GPa), so core-mantle silicon isotopic fractionation is excluded as a cause for their Earth-like silicon isotopic composition. Angrites are among the most volatile-depleted meteorites and their heavy silicon isotope signature most likely reflects isotopic fractionation by nebular processes. All chondrite groups and the bulk silicate Earth form a trend in silicon isotopic composition vs. Mg/Si ratio, which we will show quantitatively can be explained by a simple nebular process. This can also explain the similarity in silicon isotopic composition between lunar and terrestrial rocks. Therefore, silicon isotopes in terrestrial rocks provide no constraints on the amount of Si in the core and are consistent with the presence of other light elements such as oxygen.

  1. Rare earth elements in seawater near hydrothermal vents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Klinkhammer; H. Elderfield; A. Hudson

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) patterns in the deep Pacific are strongly depleted in the lighter elements and have a large negative cerium anomaly. These REE patterns and associated concentration-depth profiles are maintained by regeneration in deep waters modified by preferential scavenging of the lighter elements. Scavenging by iron- and manganese-rich hydrothermal plumes might explain why vast areas of sediments far

  2. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN FLY ASHES AS POTENTIAL INDICATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC SOIL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.

    2003-08-01

    Studies of rare earth element (REE) content of disposed fly ashes and their potential mobility were neglected for decades because these elements were believed to be environmentally benign. A number of recent studies have now shown that REE may pose a long-term risk to the biosphere. Therefore, there is a critical need to study the REE concentrations in fly ash and their potential mobilization and dispersal upon disposal in the environment. We analyzed the REE content of bulk, size fractionated, and density separated fractions of three fly ash samples derived from combustion of sub bituminous coals from the western United States and found that the concentrations of these elements in bulk ashes were within the range typical of fly ashes derived from coals from the North American continent. The concentrations of light rare earth elements (LREE) such as La, Ce, and Nd, however, tended towards the higher end of the concentration range whereas, the concentrations of middle rare earth elements (MREE) (Sm and Eu) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) (Lu) were closer to the lower end of the observed range for North American fly ashes. The concentrations of REE did not show any significant enrichment with decreasing particle size, this is typical of nonvolatile lithophilic element behavior during the combustion process. The lithophilic nature of REE was also confirmed by their concentrations in heavy density fractions of these fly ashes being on average about two times more enriched than the concentrations in the light density fractions. Shale normalized average of REE concentrations of fly ashes and coals revealed significant positive anomalies for Eu and Dy. Because of these distinctive positive anomalies of Eu and Dy, we believe that fly ash contamination of soils can be fingerprinted and distinguished from other sources of anthropogenic REE inputs in to the environment.

  3. Rare earth elements in soil and plant systems - A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Germund Tyler

    2004-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) form a chemically uniform group and include yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La) and the lanthanides\\u000a cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb),\\u000a dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and lutetium (Lu). Their average abundance in the\\u000a Earth’s crust range from 66µg g?1 in

  4. Determination of rare earth elements in plant protoplasts by MAA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyong Zhang; Yuqi Wang; Jingxin Sun; Fuliang Li; Zhifang Chai; Lei Xu; Xin Li; Guoyin Cao

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary study on the speciation of rare earth elements in plant cells has been carried out by molecular activation analysis\\u000a (MAA). Mesophyll protoplasts ofBrassica napus were isolated by enzymatic digestion. After being washed with isosmotic solution containing EDTA for several times, the protoplasts\\u000a were purified by gradient centrifugation. Then the concentration of rare earth elements (REEs) in the protoplasts

  5. Element distributions in metallic fractions of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, P.; Ebihara, M.; Endo, K.

    1994-07-01

    Kamacite and taenite are the major metallic phases in ordinary chondrite, in individual grains of pure alloy. Wood interpreted the concentration gradients of Ni found in two metal phases as a result of exsolution of kamacite from taenite followed by sluggish diffusion of Ni into the taenite crystals upon cooling through approximately 500 C. A selective chemical dissolution method was developed to separated taenite from kamacite and this method was applied to several ordinary chondrites. Based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) data and Mossbauer spectra for the metal separates, we evaluated the distribution of various elements between taenite and kamacite. The magnetic fraction separated from ALH 77231 (L6) was boiled in HF for 2 min and named M-1. The M-1 fraction was further treated for 5, 10, and 15 min and the remaining fractions were designed as M-2, M-3, and M-4 respectively. Mossbauer spectrum showed that M-1 was composed almost of alpha-phase kamacite. Mossbauer spectra of the M-2, M-3, and M-4 showed each having similar intensities of kamacite, taenite, and tetrataenite. On the basis of different leaching rate with concentrated HF acid between kamacite and taenite, we can determine element distributions in these different fractions. INAA analyses show that the M-1 is composed of 10% Ni. Contents of Ni in the M-2, M-3, and M-4 show that these three metal fractions are mainly composed of Ni-rich metals with a mean value of 36% Ni. Based on different proportions of kamacite and taenite in these metal fractions, we calculated siderophile-element contents in taenite and kamacite.

  6. Fractionated space infrastructure for long-term earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jing; Guo, Jian; Gill, E. K. A.

    A fractionated spacecraft is a space system that distributes its functionalities, such as computation, communication, data storage, payload and even power generation, over several independent satellite modules that share those functionalities through a wireless link. This paper exploits this innovational architecture to design a space infrastructure that is able to accept and support multiple Earth Observation (EO) payload modules. In this paper the functional, physical and organizational architectures of the infrastructure are presented. To start with, EO programs utilizing monolithic spacecraft especially SPOT and Landsat programs are reviewed and analyzed to derive the inherent EO functional requirements. Then these functional requirements are integrated into an EO scenario based on a reference orbit typically for EO missions. Next, novel architectures of fractionated spacecraft are reviewed and the inherent non traditional attributes are summarized and classified in such a way to show their close interrelation with the EO functional requirements. Then four resources components: high bandwidth downlink component, data relay satellite communication component, mission data processor component and large volume data storage component are identified and designated to establish the EO space infrastructure. Based on those four components different physical architectures are designed for the specific scenario and then are evaluated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with eight selection criteria. Afterwards, the best option has been identified, which comprises four heterogeneous modules assigned to host those four resources components separately. Finally, this physical architecture is organized by means of the Multi-Agent System (MAS) theory, which fulfills best the EO non traditional requirements. The proposed organization is tailored for the autonomous operations of the fractionated infrastructure and is based on the peer-to-peer architecture. From a physica- and organizational perspective, the developed space infrastructure is able to self-adapt, self-optimize and self-configure to dynamic changes in various local environmental conditions.

  7. 1 INTRODUCTION The rare earth elements (REE's) form a unique

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongxing

    1 INTRODUCTION The rare earth elements (REE's) form a unique chemical set wherein the gradual waters this results in the light REE's being more readily adsorbed to particle surfaces than the heavier REE's. In contrast, the heavy REE's are more strongly complexed in solution than the lighter elements

  8. RARE EARTH ELEMENT SENSITIVITY FACTORS IN CALCIC PLAGIOCLASE (ANORTHITE)

    E-print Network

    , and the resulting mass spectrum was deconvolved in the REE mass region into elemental and monoxide components. REE Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 1. Introduction The rare earth elements (REE) are sensitive indicators microprobe analyses of the REE on individual minerals within a petrographic context has become increasingly

  9. Fractionation of various elements in CRMs and in polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Kubová, J; Stresko, V; Bujdos, M; Matús, P; Medved', J

    2004-05-01

    An optimised BCR three steps sequential extraction procedure (BCR SEP) and several single extractions with KCl, NH(4)Cl, Na(4)P(2)O(7) and 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl were used for the fractionation of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in CRMs and in samples from a mining area with sulphidic deposits. A good interlaboratory comparability was obtained for Cu, Pb and Zn in CRM 483, CRM 701, SRM 2710 and SRM 2711 by BCR SEP. The reliability of the results obtained is also very satisfactory. Some differences were found between our results and the indicative data for Al and Fe fractionation. However, serious discrepancies were found for Mn, not only for individual steps of the fractionation, but for the data obtained overall (sum of 1-3 steps), and for the total concentration as well. Our results could be utilized as a contribution to the existing indicative values for CRM 483, SRM 2710 and SRM 2711 for interlaboratory study. Moreover, data for the fractionation of elements mentioned above for CRM 701 are first presented here.A high correlation between 0.5 mol L(-1) of HCl-extractable amounts of the elements studied, and the sum of the three steps of BCR SEP in acid sulphatic weathering products and naturally acidified soils was established, which allows us to suggest this rapid and cost-effective single extraction procedure as a valuable tool in contamination assessment. PMID:14985915

  10. Concentration levels of rare-earth elements and thorium in plants from the Morro do Ferro environment as an indicator for the biological availability of transuranium elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Miekeley; E. A. Casartelli; R. M. Dotto

    1994-01-01

    Plants and soils from a natural thorium and rare-earth element occurrence (Morro do Ferro, Brazil) were analyzed by alpha spectrometry (Th) and ICP-AES (REE), after pre-concentration of the elements by solvent extraction, co-precipitation and ion exchange procedures. Leaching experiments with humic acid solutions and different soils were performed to estimate the fraction of elements biologically available. High concentrations of the

  11. Attenuation of rare earth elements in a boreal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, Mats E.; Österholm, Peter; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Nystrand, Miriam; Peltola, Pasi; Nordmyr, Linda; Boman, Anton

    2012-11-01

    This study focuses on attenuation of rare earth elements (REE) when a boreal creek, acidified and loaded with REE and other metals as a result of wetland drainage, empties into a brackish-water estuary (salinity < 6‰). Surface water was collected in a transect from the creek mouth to the outer estuary, and settling (particulate) material in sediment traps moored at selected locations in the estuary. Ultrafiltration, high-resolution ICP-MS and modeling were applied on the waters, and a variety of chemical reagents were used to extract metals from the settling material. Aluminium, Fe and REE transported by the acidic creek were extensively removed in the inner/central estuary where the acidic water was neutralised, whereas Mn was relatively persistent in solution and thus redistributed to particles and deposited further down the estuary. The REE removal was caused by several contemporary mechanisms: co-precipitation with oxyhydroxides (mainly Al but also Fe), complexation with flocculating humic substances and sorption to suspended particles. Down estuary the dissolved REE pool, remaining after removal, was fractionated: the <1 kDa pool became depleted in the middle REE and the colloidal (0.45 ?m-1 kDa) pool depleted in the middle and heavy REE. This fractionation was controlled by the removal process, such that those REE with highest affinity for the settling particles became most depleted in the remaining dissolved pool. Modeling, based on Visual MINTEQ version 3.0 and the Stockholm Humic Model after revision and updating, predicted that the dissolved (<0.45 ?m) REE pool in the estuary is bound almost entirely to humic substances. Acid sulphate soils, the source of the REE and other metals in the creek water, are widespread on coastal plains worldwide and therefore the REE attenuation patterns and mechanisms identified in the studied estuary are relevant for recognition of similar geochemical processes and conditions in a variety of coastal locations.

  12. Exponentially accurate spectral and spectral element methods for fractional ODEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayernouri, Mohsen; Karniadakis, George Em

    2014-01-01

    Current discretizations of fractional differential equations lead to numerical solutions of low order of accuracy. Here, we present different methods for fractional ODEs that lead to exponentially fast decay of the error. First, we develop a Petrov-Galerkin (PG) spectral method for Fractional Initial-Value Problems (FIVPs) of the form Dt?0u(t)=f(t) and Fractional Final-Value Problems (FFVPs) DT?tu(t)=g(t), where ??(0,1), subject to Dirichlet initial/final conditions. These schemes are developed based on a new spectral theory for fractional Sturm-Liouville problems (FSLPs), which has been recently developed in [1]. Specifically, we obtain solutions to FIVPs and FFVPs in terms of the new fractional (non-polynomial) basis functions, called Jacobi polyfractonomials, which are the eigenfunctions of the FSLP of first kind (FSLP-I). Correspondingly, we employ another space of test functions as the span of polyfractonomial eigenfunctions of the FSLP of second kind (FSLP-II). Subsequently, we develop a Discontinuous Spectral Method (DSM) of Petrov-Galerkin sense for the aforementioned FIVPs and FFVPs, where the basis functions do not satisfy the initial/final conditions. Finally, we extend the DSM scheme to a Discontinuous Spectral Element Method (DSEM) for efficient longer time-integration and adaptive refinement. In these discontinuous schemes, we employ the asymptotic eigensolutions to FSLP-I & -II, which are of Jacobi polynomial forms, as basis and test functions. Our numerical tests confirm the exponential/algebraic convergence, respectively, in p- and h-refinements, for various test cases with integer- and fractional-order solutions.

  13. Rare earth elements and other trace elements in wastewater treatment sludges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Kawasaki; Ryosuke Kimura; Shigemitsu Arai

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility of contamination of soil with trace elements by the application of sludges to soil, the contents of rare earth elements (REEs; La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) and other trace elements (Be, As, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Bi, and U) in wastewater treatment sludges were determined.

  14. Distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in plants from a rare earth ore area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Y. Zhang; Y. Q. Wang; F. L. Li; H. Q. Xiao; Z. F. Chai

    2002-01-01

    The contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in various plant species taken from a rare earth ore area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For a given plant, the REE patterns in root, leaf and host soil are different from each other. The REE distribution characteristics in roots of various

  15. Rare-earth elements in the Permian Phosphoria Formation: Paleo proxies of ocean geochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Z. Piper; R. B. Perkins; H. D. Rowe

    2007-01-01

    The geochemistry of deposition of the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation (MPM) in southeast Idaho, USA, a world-class sedimentary phosphate deposit of Permian age that extends over 300,000km2, is ascertained from its rare earth element (REE) composition. Ratios of REE:Al2O3 suggest two sources—seawater and terrigenous debris. The seawater-derived marine fraction identifies bottom water in the Phosphoria Sea as

  16. Rare-earth elements in the Permian Phosphoria Formation: Paleo proxies of ocean geochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Z. Piper; R. B. Perkins; H. D. Rowe

    2007-01-01

    The geochemistry of deposition of the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation (MPM) in southeast Idaho, USA, a world-class sedimentary phosphate deposit of Permian age that extends over 300,000 km2, is ascertained from its rare earth element (REE) composition. Ratios of REE:Al2O3 suggest two sources---seawater and terrigenous debris. The seawater-derived marine fraction identifies bottom water in the Phosphoria Sea

  17. The behaviour of the rare earth elements during mixing of river and sea waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hoyle; H. Elderfield; A. Gledhill; M. Greaves

    1984-01-01

    Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in organic-rich Luce river water and coastal sea water. Concentrations ( e.g. ~350-1850 pmol\\/kg Nd in the Water of Luce and ~45-350 pmol\\/ kg Nd in Luce Bay) are related to the presence of particles, with 30-60% of the REE associated with >0.4-0.7 m particles, and to riverine Fe concentrations. REE fractionation occurs

  18. Mass-Independent Fractionation of Oxygen Isotope in Earth Wind: First Principle Calculations for Photodissociation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yamada; S. Nanbu; Y. Kasai; M. Ozima

    2009-01-01

    Mass-independently fractionated oxygen isotope were reported on metal particles extracted from Apollo lunar soils [1, 2], but these origins are still unknown. Since the substantial fraction of Earth-escaping O+ flux (Earth Wind, EW hereafter), comparable to the amount of the anomalous oxygen implanted on the metal particles, could reach the lunar surface [3], Ozima et al. [4] suggested that EW

  19. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Bauer; A. C. Rice; J. S. Berber

    1960-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction techniques were investigated for use in ; fractionation of rare-earth solutions. Laboratory extractions using TBP for ; ceric nitrate resulted in almost complete extraction. Tests with primary amines ; were also promising. In scale-up extractions of the ceric nitrate procedure 84% ; efficiency was obtained. (J.R.D.);

  20. Uptake and distribution of rare earth elements in rice seeds cultured in fertilizer solution of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Yuan, D; Shan, X; Huai, Q; Wen, B; Zhu, X

    2001-04-01

    The uptake behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) under pot conditions using deionized water and a REE fertilizer solution as the culture media as well as the distribution of REEs in rice proteins were studied. The uptake of REEs in rice seeds increased dramatically after a lag period of approximately three days. Roots can accumulate a much higher content of REEs than germs and the resting seeds. The REE content in each water-soluble (albumin) and salt-soluble (globulin) component of the rice seeds accounted for 5-8% and 4-6% of the total REEs, respectively. However, there are less than 1.5% of the total REEs were found in the alcohol-soluble (prolamin) and acetic acid-soluble (glutelin) components. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the gel permeation and the reserved-phase were used to monitor changes in the molecular weight distribution changes of the soluble proteins of rice seeds during germination after having been cultured in the same solution for seven days. No changes occurred in the prolamin, while a slight change occurred in the albumin, globulin and glutelin. Fractionation of the albumin of rice seeds cultured in a REE fertilizer solution on the Sephadex G-100 column indicated that REEs, especially Ce, La, Pr and Nd, were associated mainly with biological compounds of a molecular weight between 10,000 and 12,000. PMID:11302578

  1. Rare earth elements in scleractinian cold-water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, J.; Liebetrau, V.; Hathorne, E. C.; Rüggeberg, A.; Dullo, W.; Frank, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Rare Earth Elements (REE) have a great potential to trace continental input, particle scavenging and the oxidation state of seawater. These REE are recorded in the skeleton of the cosmopolitan cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa. Here we use an online preconcentration ICP-MS method (Hathorne et al. 2012) to measure REE concentrations in seawater and associated cold-water coral carbonates in order to investigate their seawater origin. Scleractinian cold-water corals were collected in-situ and alive and with corresponding seawater samples covering from the European Continental Margin. The seawater REE patterns are characterized by the typical negative cerium anomaly of seawater, but are distinct for the northern Norwegian Margin and the Oslo Fjord, probably related to continental input. Initial results for the corresponding coral samples suggest that these distinct REE patterns of ambient seawater are recorded by the coral skeletons although some fractionation during incorporation into the aragonite occurs. This indicates that scleractinian cold-water corals can serve as a valuable archive for seawater derived REE signatures, as well radiogenic Nd isotope compositions. In a second step we analysed fossil coral samples from various locations, which were oxidatively and reductively cleaned prior to analysis. Initial results reveal that sediment-buried fossil (early Pleistocene to Holocene) coral samples from the Norwegian Margin and the Porcupine Seabight (Challenger Mound, IODP Site 1317) do not show the expected seawater REE patterns. In particular, the fossil coral-derived REE patterns lack a negative cerium anomaly suggesting that fossil coral-REE patterns do not represent ambient seawater. Thus, we suggest that the oxidative-reductive cleaning method widely used for cleaning of marine carbonates such as foraminifera prior to measurements of seawater-derived trace metal and isotope compositions are not sufficient for REE and Nd isotopes in sediment-buried coral-water corals and require alternative or additional approaches. Hathorne, E.C., B. Haley, T. Stichel, P. Grasse, M. Zieringer, and M. Frank (2012). Online preconcentration ICP-MS analysis of rare earth elements in seawater, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst.,13, Q01020, doi:10.1029/2011GC003907. .

  2. Highly Siderophile Element Fractionation During Magma Transport in the Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, H.; van Acken, D.; Fischer-Goedde, M.

    2009-12-01

    Compared to mantle rocks, MORBs and many OIBs show very low, but fractionated PGE abundances (e. g., Hertogen et al., 1980; Rehkämper et al., 1999; Bezos et al. 2005). The basalt data have been explained by fractional crystallization of sulfides, olivine, and possibly alloy phases or chromite (e. g., Rehkämper et al., 1999; Mallmann and O’Neill, 2007). Where these fractionations occur, and what the actual HSE compositions of near-primary mantle melts are, remain open questions. Here we examine evidence for HSE fractionation during magma transport in the mantle. Strongly fractionated highly siderophile element patterns (HSE, the PGE, Re and Au) and relatively high Re abundances of mantle pyroxenites indicate close affinities of these rocks with basalts. This may come hardly as a surprise if pyroxenites represent high-pressure cumulates or melting residues of basic rocks. Sulphide compositions and subparallel HSE patterns of pyroxenite whole rocks suggest that their HSE abundances reflect variable precipitation of sulphides from silicate melt, and thus should be controlled by sulphide-silicate partitioning. Detailed work shows that absolute and relative HSE abundances in some pyroxenites vary with proximity of the peridotite wall rock. Major element, HSE and Os isotopic compositions of Cr diopside websterite and orthopyroxenite rocks suggest that these rocks crystallized from hybrid melts. Such melts likely were modified during reactive infiltration of peridotite, causing dissolution of olivine, Cr spinel and HSE bearing sulphides. Sulfides with melt like and peridotite like compositions in websterites may indicate that some peridotite derived sulphides may have never completely dissolved in these hybrid melts (van Acken et al., in press). Contamination with unradiogenic Os from peridotite results in dramatic shifts of the Os isotopic composition from highly radiogenic in unmodified melts to moderately suprachondritic in hybrid melts and their precipitates. Most HSE have very high sulphide-silicate partitioning coefficients (e. g., Bezmen et al. 1994; Sattari et al., 2002, Mallmann and O’Neill, 2007). Thus, basaltic magmas that precipitated sulphides in the mantle must have lost a substantial fraction of their HSE inventory. Parent melts of Mg rich pyroxenites, i. e. hybrid melts produced during reactive infiltration of peridotite, may be a logical source of the chondritic to moderately suprachondritic Os isotopic composition of basalts and their fractionated HSE pattern. Little reacted Ca-Al rich clinopyroxenites may more closely mirror the HSE pattern and Os isotopic composition of “pristine” mantle melts. If such reaction and infiltration processes are common in the upper mantle, it is difficult to imagine how true pristine source signatures of HSE and Os isotopic compositions can be preserved in basalts.

  3. Study on separation of rare earth elements in complex system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongtao CHANG; Mei LI; Zhaogang LIU; Yanhong HU; Fushun ZHANG

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the feed acidity, acetic acid concentration and rare earth concentration on the distribution ratio, separation coefficient and extraction capacity of light rare earth elements were studied in the P204(DEHPA)-HCl system and P507(HEH\\/EHP)-HCl system both containing acetic acid, respectively. The results showed that the distribution ratio and separation coefficient decreased with increasing of acidity, and increased with increasing

  4. Determination of thorium and of rare earth elements in cerium earth minerals and ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carron, M.K.; Skinner, D.L.; Stevens, R.E.

    1955-01-01

    The conventional oxalate method for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements in acid solution exhibits definite solubilities of these elements. The present work was undertaken to establish conditions overcoming these solubilities and to find optimum conditions for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements as hydroxides and sebacates. The investigations resulted in a reliable procedure applicable to samples in which the cerium group elements predominate. The oxalate precipitations are made from homogeneous solution at pH 2 by adding a prepared solution of anhydrous oxalic acid in methanol instead of the more expensive crystalline methyl oxalate. Calcium is added as a carrier. Quantitative precipitation of thorium and the rare earth elements is ascertained by further small additions of calcium to the supernatant liquid, until the added calcium precipitates as oxalate within 2 minutes. Calcium is removed by precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and rare earths at room temperature by adding ammonium hydroxide to pH > 10. Thorium is separated as the sebacate at pH 2.5, and the rare earths are precipitated with ammonium sebacate at pH 9. Maximum errors for combined weights of thorium and rare earth oxides on synthetic mixtures are ??0.6 mg. Maximum error for separated thoria is ??0.5 mg.

  5. ?-decay of neutron-rich Z?60 nuclei and the origin of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan and School of Physics and State key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University (China); Nishimura, S.; Lorusso, G.; Baba, H.; Doornenbal, P.; Isobe, T.; Söderström, P. A.; Sakurai, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Xu, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033 Tokyo (Japan); Browne, F. [School of Computing Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton (United Kingdom); Daido, R.; Fang, Y. F.; Yagi, A.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Yamamoto, T. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-machi 1-1, Osaka 560-0043 Toyonaka (Japan); Ideguchi, E.; Aoi, N.; Tanaka, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Collaboration: EURICA Collaboration; and others

    2014-05-02

    A large fraction of the rare-earth elements observed in the solar system is produced in the astrophysical rapid neutron capture process (r-process). However, current stellar models cannot completely explain the relative abundance of these elements partially because of nuclear physics uncertainties. To address this problem, a ?-decay spectroscopy experiment was performed at RI Beam Factory (RIBF) at RIKEN, aimed at studying a wide range of very neutron-rich nuclei with Z?60 that are progenitors of the rare-earth elements with mass number A?460. The experiment provides a test of nuclear models as well as experimental inputs for r-process calculations. This contribution presents the experimental setup and some preliminary results of the experiment.

  6. Speciation of rare earth elements in soil and accumulation by wheat with rare earth fertilizer application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuzhen Zhang; Xiao-quan Shan

    2001-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the accumulation of rare earth elements (REEs), La, Ce, Pr and Nd, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and the speciation of these elements in soil following the application of REE-based fertilizers. Improved crop yield was confirmed by the experiment. The accumulation behavior of La, Ce, Pr and Nd in wheat varied depending

  7. Artificial Radioactivity of Dysprosium and other Rare Earth Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hevesy; Hilde Levi

    1935-01-01

    IN their pioneer work on artificial radioactivity through neutron bombardment, Fermi and his collaborators announced the discovery of the activity of some of the rare earth elements, namely, of lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium and gadolinium. Recently, Sugden1 found that terbium shows an appreciable, and europium a very strong, radioactivity after bombardment with neutrons. We find that dysprosium shows an unusually

  8. Standard reference water samples for rare earth element determinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Verplanck; R. C. Antweiler; D. K. Nordstrom; H. E. Taylor

    2001-01-01

    Standard reference water samples (SRWS) were collected from two mine sites, one near Ophir, CO, USA and the other near Redding, CA, USA. The samples were filtered, preserved, and analyzed for rare earth element (REE) concentrations (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These two samples

  9. Accumulation of environmental residues of rare earth elements in sugarcane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Kwang; Q. Y. Liu; X. H. Liu

    1998-01-01

    Increased applications of rare earth elements (REEs) have led to scattering and bio-accumulation in the environment. This study shows that the environmental residue of cerium as a representative for REEs could enter into sugarcane plants via the leaves that were exposed to atmospheric contaminants and REEs could also enter into sugarcane plants via the roots in substrate soils that were

  10. Gamma Activation Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in Uranium Rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Tonchev; B. Gleisberg; Ch. G. Christov; F. G. Kondev; L. P. Kulkina; N. P. Balabanov; V. D. Tcholakov

    1991-01-01

    A method is proposed for the chemical separation of the rare earth elements (REE) in samples with a high uranium content (0.1% to 3%) with the subsequent ?-ray irradiation in the microtron MT-25. For the quantitative determination of REE the relative analysis method was used. The method allows to analyse the massive samples (from 3 to 10 g) and provides

  11. Effects of rare earth elements on the distribution of mineral elements and heavy metals in horseradish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihong Wang; Xiaohua Huang; Qing Zhou

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of rare earth elements (REEs) on horseradish, the distribution of the mineral elements and heavy metals in different organs of horseradish have been studied by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Meanwhile, three variable major parameters, namely the concentration of REEs, the type of REEs, and the growth stage of plant were chosen.

  12. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND ELEMENT FRACTIONATION IN EV Lac

    SciTech Connect

    Laming, J. Martin [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7674L, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hwang, Una, E-mail: Una.Hwang-1@nasa.go [NASA/GSFC Code 662, Greenbelt MD 20771, and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2009-12-10

    We present a 100 ks Suzaku observation of the dMe flare star EV Lac, in which the star was captured undergoing a moderate 1500 s flare. During the flare, the count rate increased by about a factor of 50 and the spectrum showed overall enhanced element abundances relative to quiescence. While the quiescent element abundances confirm the inverse first ionization potential (FIP) effect previously documented for EV Lac, with relatively higher depletions for low FIP elements, abundances during the flare spectra show a composition closer to that of the stellar photosphere. We discuss these results in the context of models that explain abundance fractionation in the stellar chromosphere as a result of the ponderomotive force due to Alfven waves. Stars with FIP or inverse FIP effects arising from differently directed ponderomotive forces may have quite different abundance signatures in their evaporated chromospheric plasma during flares, if the same ponderomotive force also affects thermal conduction downward from the corona. The regulation of the thermal conductivity by the ponderomotive force requires a level of turbulence that is somewhat higher than is normally assumed, but plausible in filamentary conduction models.

  13. The anthropogenic atmospheric elements fraction: A new interpretation of elemental deposits on tree barks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catinon, Mickaël; Ayrault, Sophie; Clocchiatti, Roberto; Boudouma, Omar; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Ravanel, Patrick

    The superficial deposit on the bark surface of several trees (mainly Fraxinus excelsior L.) was sampled in the experimental station of the university campus in Grenoble (France). Its composition was studied by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray emission (SEM-EDX) and, after digestion, by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The deposit was composed of 81.3% ± 7.4 organic matter, 9.4% ± 4.9 of geogenic minerals issued from the atmosphere (atmospheric geogenic fraction: AGF) and 9.3% ± 2.7 of a mixture of elements which was called anthropogenic atmospheric elements fraction (AAEF). The SEM-EDX analysis showed the presence of particles of geogenic compounds such as different types of silicates, phosphates, carbonates, sulphates, oxides and also particles of metals such as iron or of alloys of Fe-Zn, Fe-Ni, Ni-Cr and Ca sulphates or phosphates. Typical spheres of "fly ashes" composed of pure iron or Al-silicates were detected. Using the SEM-EDX analysis of the deposit and the average local soil composition, an empiric formula for the AGF (without polluting elements) was chosen, which presented a clear analogy with the global formula of the upper continental crust. In the same way, a formula for the pure organic matter fraction was chosen. Withdrawing the elements corresponding to these two fractions allows a tentative estimation of the content of the AAEF which was supposed to better represent the elemental anthropogenic contamination issued from the atmosphere. In the station, most of Sb, Cd, Sn, Pb, Cu, V and Zn were found in the AAEF. This AAEF composition was compared to that of the deposit in a highway tunnel where Pb and Cu were at a very high level. The meaning and the limits of the AAEF concept were critically discussed.

  14. Biological availability and environmental behaviour of Rare Earth Elements in soils of Hesse, Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loell, M.; Duering, R.-A.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise a group of 17 transition metals with very similar chemical and physical properties. They include the elements scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) and the 14 elements (cerium to lutetium) that follow La in the periodic table. Their average abundance in the earth's crust varies from 0,01 to 0,02% so they are as common as Cu and Pb. Beside their widespread use in industry, REEs are applied in Chinese agriculture. Their beneficial effects both on crop yield and on animal production are reported in various investigations. As a result - by using microelement fertilisers and manure - REEs enter the pedosphere while their fate and behaviour in the environment up to now remains unexamined. The first aim of our investigation was to evaluate the concentration of REEs in agricultural used soils in central Germany (Hesse) by ICP-MS. In addition to their total concentration (aqua regia digestion) their bioavailable contents - determined by EDTA (potentially available fraction) and ammonium nitrate extraction (mobile fraction) - were analysed. The occurrence of the three REE fractions in different soils will be discussed and influencing soil properties (e.g. pH-value, content of clay and organic carbon) will be revealed. Additionally the uptake of REEs by grassland plants was determined and resulting transfer factors will be presented.

  15. Uptake and distribution of rare earth elements in rice seeds cultured in fertilizer solution of rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongan Yuan; Xiao-quan Shan; Qing Huai; Bei Wen; Xinru Zhu

    2001-01-01

    The uptake behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) under pot conditions using deionized water and a REE fertilizer solution as the culture media as well as the distribution of REEs in rice proteins were studied. The uptake of REEs in rice seeds increased dramatically after a lag period of approximately three days. Roots can accumulate a much higher content of

  16. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies. PMID:23602698

  17. Coal fly ash as a resource for rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Franus, Wojciech; Wiatros-Motyka, Ma?gorzata M; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been recognised as critical raw materials, crucial for many clean technologies. As the gap between their global demand and supply increases, the search for their alternative resources becomes more and more important, especially for the countries which depend highly on their import. Coal fly ash (CFA), which when not utilised is considered waste, has been regarded as the possible source of many elements, including REE. Due to the increase in the energy demand, CFA production is expected to grow, making research into the use of this material a necessity. As Poland is the second biggest coal consumer in the European Union, the authors have studied different coal fly ashes from ten Polish power plants for their rare earth element content. All the fly ashes have a broadly similar distribution of rear earth elements, with light REE being dominant. Most of the samples have REE content relatively high and according to Seredin and Dai (Int J Coal Geol 94: 67-93, 2012) classification can be considered promising REE raw materials. PMID:25613802

  18. Rare earth element budgets in subduction-zone fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsay, A.; Zajacz, Z.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2012-12-01

    Subduction zone fluids play a fundamental role in the geochemical cycle of the Earth. The nature and composition of these fluids are determined by complex processes and still poorly understood. As a result of a variety of metasomatic and partial melting events, arc-related magmas display a typical trace element abundance spectrum, in which the rare earth elements' (REE) signature is an important record of petrogenetic processes. Therefore, investigating the behavior of REE in fluids at high pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions is crucial for constraining fluid composition, as well as understanding subduction-zone processes in general. However, up to date, the experimental studies on REE solubility and speciation are limited to quite low P-T conditions (300 °C, saturated water vapor pressure) [1]. The theoretical predictions of the stability of REE complexes have been performed up to 350 °C [2] and 1000 °C, 0.5 GPa [3] by the extrapolation of thermodynamic data obtained at ambient conditions. In this study we present new experimental data on REE silicate (REE2Si2O7) solubility in aqueous quartz saturated fluids, containing various ligands, at conditions relevant for subducting slabs (600, 700, 800 °C, 2.6 GPa). The aim of the experiments was to investigate the relative effect of temperature and ligands on the solubility of REE. The experiments were conducted in an end-loaded piston-cylinder apparatus and the fluids were in situ sampled at P-T in the form of primary fluid inclusions in quartz [4]. The gold capsule was typically loaded with a chip of synthetic REE silicate (La,Nd,Gd,Dy,Er,Yb)2Si2O7, an aqueous fluid (~20 wt.%) and a piece of natural quartz. During the experiment (24-48 h) a thermal gradient along the capsule promoted intensive dissolution of quartz at the hottest part and precipitation of new quartz at the cooler part of the capsule, allowing the primary fluid inclusions to be trapped (~30-50 ?m). Rubidium and cesium were added to the fluid as the internal standards for LA-ICPMS analyses. The solubility of REE in quartz saturated water, free of additional ligands, increases more than an order of magnitude as temperature is increased from 600 °C to 800 °C. The effect of halogen ligands (Cl-, F-) on the solubility of REE was tested on experiments conducted at 800 °C. Addition of 1.5 m NaCl enhances the solubilities of all REE by a factor of 2 to 4 and induces moderate LREE/HREE fractionation; the La/Yb ratio increases by factor of 2. Unlike chlorine, the presence of fluorine ligands in the fluid (0.3 m NaF) promotes increase in HREE solubilities with almost no change in LREE solubilities compared to water, hence decreasing the La/Yb ratio by a factor of 2. The results of our experiments suggest that temperature plays an important role in mobilization of all REE by fluids. The presence of Cl- and F- ligands in the fluid shows opposing effects on the REE pattern: Cl- seems to be a more efficient ligand for LREE, while F- tends to form more stable complexes with HREE. [1] Migdisov A. A. et al., 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 73, 7087-7109 [2] Wood S. A. 1990b, Chem Geo., 82, 159-186 [3] Haas J. R. 1995, Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 59, 4329-4350 [4] Bali E. et al., 2011, Contrib Mineral Petrol, 161, 597-613

  19. Recovery of rare earths from sludges containing rare-earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuji Saito; Hironori Sato; Tetsuichi Motegi

    2006-01-01

    To develop a process for the recovery of rare-earth elements from sludges, a chemical recycling process was applied to neodymium-containing boron trioxide. It was found that the neodymium was successfully extracted as either sodium neodymium sulfate hydrate or neodymium hydroxide from neodymium-containing boron trioxide by this process.

  20. Rare earth elements as geochemical tracers of regional groundwater mixing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin H. Johannesson; Klaus J. Stetzenbach; Vernon F. Hodge

    1997-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) were analyzed in a groundwater system from south-central Nevada (i.e., Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, the Spring Mountains, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and the Nevada Test Site) in order to investigate their potential use as tracers of regional groundwater flow. Previous investigations using conservative tracers (e.g., deuterium and uranium isotopes) identified recharge in local mountains

  1. Energy-adjusted pseudopotentials for the rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dolg; H. Stoll; A. Savin; H. Preuss

    1989-01-01

    Nonrelativistic and quasirelativistic energy-adjusted pseudopotentials and optimized (7s6p5d)\\/[5s4p3d]-GTO valence basis sets for use in molecular calculations for fixed f-subconfigurations of the rare earth elements, La through Lu, have been generated. Atomic excitation and ionization energies from numerical HF, as well as SCF pseudopotential calculations using the derived basis sets, differ by less than 0.1 eV from numerical HF all-electron results.

  2. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the compositional and phase relationships among minerals in which rare earth elements (REE) occur as essential constituents (e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite). Particular consideration is given to the vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals and to the REE partitioning between minerals as related to the acid-base tendencies and mineral stabilities. It is shown that the treatment of coupled substitutions as vector quantities facilitates graphical representation of mineral composition spaces.

  3. Concentrations of rare earth elements in topsoil from East China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian Yang; Zhaoyu Zhu; Yi Wu; Zhiguo Rao

    2008-01-01

    Fifty topsoil samples collected from 12 different regions of East China have been analyzed for rare earth elements (REEs).\\u000a The average REE concentrations of the 50 topsoil samples are much higher than world average and are characterized by LREE-enrichment,\\u000a HREE-depletion, Eu-depletion and Ce-enrichment. However, the REE concentration is not strongly affected by the climate of\\u000a the sampling site; it is

  4. EXAFS study of rare-earth element coordination in calcite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Elzinga; Richard Reeder; S. H. Withers; Robert E. Peale; R. A. Mason; Kenneth M. Beck; Wayne P. Hess

    2002-01-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is used to characterize the local coordination of selected rare-earth elements (Nd3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Yb3+) coprecipitated with calcite in minor concentrations from room-temperature aqueous solutions. Fitting results confirm substitution in the Ca site, but first-shell Nd-O and Sm-O distances are longer than the Ca-O distance in calcite and longer than what is consistent with

  5. Determination of the Light Element Fraction in MSL APXS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrett, G. M.; Pradler, I.; Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; Leshin, L. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Additional light invisible components (ALICs), measured using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS), represent all light elements (e.g. CO3, OH, H2O) present in a sample below Na, excluding bound oxygen. The method for quantifying ALICs was originally developed for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) APXS (Mallet et al, 2006; Campbell et al, 2008). This method has been applied to data collected by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) APXS up to sol 269 using a new terrestrial calibration. ALICs are investigated using the intensity ratio of Pu L-alpha Compton and Rayleigh scatter peaks (C/R). Peak areas of the scattered X-rays are determined by the GUAPX fitting program. This experimental C/R is compared to a Monte Carlo simulated C/R. The ratio of simulated and experimental C/R values is called the K-value. ALIC concentrations are calculated by comparing the K-value to the fraction of all invisibles present; the invisible fraction is produced from the spectrum fit by GUAPX. This method is applied to MSL spectra with long integration duration (greater than 3 hours) and with energy resolution less than 180 eV at 5.9 keV. These overnight spectra encompass a variety of geologic materials examined by the Curiosity Rover, including volcanic and sedimentary lithologies. Transfer of the K-value calibration produced in the lab to the flight APXS has been completed and temperature, geometry and spectrum duration effects have been thoroughly examined. A typical limit of detection of ALICs is around 5 wt% with uncertainties of approximately 5 wt%. Accurate elemental concentrations are required as input to the Monte Carlo program (Mallet et al, 2006; Lee, 2010). Elemental concentrations are obtained from the GUAPX code using the same long duration, good resolution spectra used for determining the experimental C/R ratios (Campbell et al. 2012). Special attention was given to the assessment of Rb, Sr, and Y as these element peaks overlap the scatter peaks. Mineral effects, supported by CheMin results (Blake et al, 2013), as well as accurate geometry and environmental conditions are also considered for producing the best bulk chemistry, despite complications inherent to surface dust on unbrushed rock surfaces. The calculation of ALICs by the MSL APXS is a useful tool for producing in-situ values for volatile elements and provides an intermediate connection between the sub millimeter cubed scale of possible hydrogen concentrations found by ChemCam and the meter cubed hydrogen signature detected by DAN. These values also provide useful constraints on the absolute volatile concentrations found by SAM. MSL ALIC results are compared to previous results obtained for the 'dry' soils collected by the APXS on the MER rovers and provide a unique comparison of Martian samples from distinct locations on Mars. Results of MSL APXS data, including comparison with previous rover APXS analyses and complementary data from Curiosity's other instruments, will be presented.

  6. Isotopic fractionation of the major elements of molten basalt by chemical and thermal diffusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank M. Richter; E. Bruce Watson; Ruslan Mendybaev; Nicolas Dauphas; Bastian Georg; James Watkins; John Valley

    2009-01-01

    Samples produced in piston cylinder experiments were used to document the thermal isotopic fractionation of all the major elements of basalt except for aluminum and the fractionation of iron isotopes by chemical diffusion between a natural basalt and rhyolite. The thermal isotopic fractionations are summarized in terms of a parameter ?i defined as the fractionation in per mil per 100°C

  7. Melted Murataite Ceramics Containing Simulated Actinide/Rare Earth Fraction of High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanovsky, S.V.; Ptashkin, A.G.; Knyazev, O.A.; Zen'kovskaya, M.S.; Stefanovsky, O.I. [State Unitary Enterprise SIA Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yudintsev, S.V.; Nikonov, B.S.; Lapina, M.I. [Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Russian, Academy of Sciences (IGEM RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Murataite-based ceramics with three different chemical compositions containing simulated actinide/rare earth (RE) fraction of HLW were produced in a resistive furnace at a temperature of 1500 deg. C and two of them - in a cold crucible energized from a 5.28 MHz/10 kW high frequency generator. All the samples prepared in resistive furnace were composed of major murataite and minor perovskite, crichtonite, zirconolite, and pyrophanite/ilmenite. The samples produced in the cold crucible were composed of murataite, perovskite, crichtonite, and rutile. Higher content of perovskite and crichtonite in the cold crucible melted ceramic than in the ceramic with the same chemical composition but melted in resistive furnace may be due to higher temperature in the cold crucible (up to 1600-1650 deg. C) at which some fraction of murataite was subjected to decomposition yielding additional amount of perovskite and crichtonite. Method of melting may effect on elemental partitioning in the murataite-containing ceramics because light (Ce-group) REs enter preferably perovskite phase whereas Nd, Sm, and heavy (Y-group) REs are accommodated in the murataite polytypes. Thus, perovskite and murataite are major host phases for the Ce- and Y-group REs, respectively, whereas tetravalent actinides (U) enter murataite only.

  8. Hydrogeochemistry and rare earth element behavior in a volcanically acidified watershed in Patagonia, Argentina

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    and analyzed for major ions, trace metals, and rare earth elements (REE). The concentrations of REE in the RioHydrogeochemistry and rare earth element behavior in a volcanically acidified watershed to oxidation of sulfide minerals. D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Rare earth elements

  9. Aquatic geochemistry of the rare earth elements and yttrium in the Pioneer River catchment, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. LawrenceA; Stacy D. JupiterB; Balz S. KamberC

    2006-01-01

    The rare earth elements are strong provenance indicators in geological materials, yet the potential for tracing provinciality in surface freshwater samples has not been adequately tested. Rare earth element and yttrium concentrations were measured at 33 locations in the Pioneer River catchment, Mackay, central Queensland,Australia. The rare earth element patterns were compared on the basis of geological, topographical and land-use

  10. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells Lihong Wanga,b,1

    E-print Network

    Deng, Xing-Wang

    Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells Lihong Wanga,b,1 , Jigang Lic,d,1 , Qing (sent for review May 15, 2014) It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate, such as rare earth elements (REEs), have been observed for a long time to be beneficial to plant growth (1, 2

  11. Source and mobility of Rare Earth Elements in a sedimentary aquifer system: Aquitaine basin (Southern France)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Source and mobility of Rare Earth Elements in a sedimentary aquifer system: Aquitaine basin Geological Survey Service, Bordeaux, France, e.malcuit@brgm.fr The study of rare earth elements (REEs such as rivers and lakes and groundwaters. Rare earth elements) are of great interest because of their unique

  12. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-11-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  13. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare-earth elements are essential constituents, e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals (zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet) are also derived. Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented. As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together.

  14. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    PubMed

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B; Cohen, Serge X; Thiaudière, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clément, Gaël; Bertrand, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies. PMID:24489809

  15. Standard reference water samples for rare earth element determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Antweiler, R.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Taylor, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    Standard reference water samples (SRWS) were collected from two mine sites, one near Ophir, CO, USA and the other near Redding, CA, USA. The samples were filtered, preserved, and analyzed for rare earth element (REE) concentrations (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These two samples were acid mine waters with elevated concentrations of REEs (0.45-161 ??g/1). Seventeen international laboratories participated in a 'round-robin' chemical analysis program, which made it possible to evaluate the data by robust statistical procedures that are insensitive to outliers. The resulting most probable values are reported. Ten to 15 of the participants also reported values for Ba, Y, and Sc. Field parameters, major ion, and other trace element concentrations, not subject to statistical evaluation, are provided.

  16. Magnetic property improvement of niobium doped with rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; He, Fei-Si; Jiao, Fei; He, Fa; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Zhao, Kui; Zhao, Hong-Yun; You, Yu-Song; Chen, Lin

    2014-05-01

    A new idea is proposed by the PKU group to improve the magnetic properties of the Type-II superconductor niobium. Rare earth elements like scandium and yttrium are doped into ingot niobium during the smelting processes. A series of experiments have been done since 2010. The preliminary testing results show that the magnetic properties of niobium materials have changed with different doping elements and proportions while the superconductive transition temperature does not change very much. This method may increase the superheating magnetic field of niobium so as to improve the performance of the niobium cavity, which is a key component of SRF accelerators. A Tesla-type single-cell cavity made of scandium-doped niobium is being fabricated.

  17. Rare earth elements in the phosphatic-enriched sediment of the Peru shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Baedecker, P.A.; Crock, J.G.; Burnett, W.C.; Loebner, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Apatite-enriched materials from the Peru shelf have been analyzed for their major oxide and rare earth element (REE) concentrations. The samples consist of (1) the fine fraction of sediment, mostly clay material, (2) phosphatic pellets and fish debris, which are dispersed throughout the fine-grained sediment, (3) tabular-shaped phosphatic crusts, which occur within the uppermost few centimeters of sediment, and (4) phosphatic nodules, which occur on the seafloor. The bulk REE concentrations of the concretions suggest that these elements are partitioned between the enclosed detrital material and the apatite fraction. Analysis of the fine-grained sediment with which the samples are associated suggested that this detrital fraction in the concretions should have shale REE values; the analysis of the fish debris suggested that the apatite fraction might have seawater values. The seawater contribution of REE's is negligible in the nodules and crust, in which the apatite occurs as a fine-grained interstitial cement. That is, the concentration of REE's and the REE patterns are predominantly a function of the amount of enclosed fine-grained sediment. By contrast, the REE pattern of the pelletal apatite suggests a seawater source and the absolute REE concentrations are relatively high. The REE P2O5 ratios of the apatite fraction of these samples thus vary from approximately zero (in the case of the crust and nodules) to as much as approximately 1.2 ?? 10-3 (in the case of the pellets). The range of this ratio suggests that rather subtle variations in the depositional environment might cause a significant variation in the REE content of this authigenic fraction of the sediment. Pelletal glauconite was also recovered from one sediment core. Its REE concentrations closely resemble those of the fish debris. ?? 1988.

  18. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel “magic boron” counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters. PMID:25848014

  19. Rare Earth Elements--End Use and Recyclability Scientific Investigations Report 20115094

    E-print Network

    Rare Earth Elements--End Use and Recyclability Scientific Investigations Report 2011­5094 U Pass, Calif., mine. The Mountain Pass mine is one of the two largest rare earth mines in the world outside of China. Photograph by Dan Cordier, U.S. Geological Survey. #12;Rare Earth Elements--End Use

  20. Stable isotope and Rare Earth Element evidence for recent ironstone pods within the Archean Barberton

    E-print Network

    Hren, Michael

    Stable isotope and Rare Earth Element evidence for recent ironstone pods within the Archean greenstone belt. We examined oxygen and hydrogen isotopes and Rare Earth Element (REE) concentrations pro- vide a valuable geochemical record of the conditions on the surface of the early Earth. Many

  1. Rare earth element sorption onto hydrous manganese oxide A modeling study

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 1 Rare earth, Université Rennes 1, CNRS, 35042 Rennes cedex, France Keywords: rare earth element, manganese oxyhydroxides modeling, PHREEQC, PhreePlot 1. Introduction The distributions of rare earth elements (REE) in natural

  2. The elements of the Earth's magnetism and their secular changes between 1550 and 1915

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsche, H.

    1983-01-01

    The results of an investigation about the magnetic agents outside the Earth's surface as well as the Earth's magnetic elements for the epochs 1550, 1900, 1915 are presented. The secular changes of the Earth's magnetic elements during the time interval 1550 - 1900 are also included.

  3. "EXAFS Study of Rare-Earth Element Coordination in Calcite"

    SciTech Connect

    Elzinga, E. J.; Reeder, Richard; Withers, S. H.; Peale, Robert E.; Mason, R. A.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2002-03-11

    X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is used to characterize the local coordination of selected rare-earth elements (Nd3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Yb3+) coprecipitated with calcite in minor concentrations from room-temperature aqueous solutions. Fitting results confirm substitution in the Ca site, but first-shell Nd-O and Sm-O distances are longer than the Ca-O distance in calcite, and longer than consistent with ionic radii sums for 6-fold coordination in the octahedral Ca site. In contrast, first-shell Dy-O and Yb-O distances are shorter than the Ca-O distance and consistent with ionic radii sums for 6-fold coordination. Comparison of Nd-O and Sm-O bond lengths with those in lanthanide sesquioxides and with ionic radii trends across the lanthanide series suggested that Nd3+ and Sm3+ impurities have 7-fold coordination in a modified Ca site in calcite. This would require some disruption of the local structure, with an expected decrease in stability and possibly a different charge compensation mechanism. A possible explanation for the increased coordination for the larger rare earth elements involves bidenate ligation from a CO3 group. Because trivalent actinides such as Am3+ and Cm3+ have ionic radii similar to Nd3+, their incorporation in calcite may result in similar defect structure.

  4. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.; Nickodem, K.

    2014-01-01

    Depletions of siderophile elements in mantles have placed constraints on the conditions on core segregation and differentiation in bodies such as Earth, Earth's Moon, Mars, and asteroid 4 Vesta. Among the siderophile elements there are a sub-set that are also volatile (volatile siderophile elements or VSE; Ga, Ge, In, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cu, Cd), and thus can help to constrain the origin of volatile elements in these bodies, and in particular the Earth and Moon. One of the fundamental observations of the geochemistry of the Moon is the overall depletion of volatile elements relative to the Earth, but a satisfactory explanation has remained elusive. Hypotheses for Earth include addition during accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core, multiple stage origin, or addition after the core formed. Any explanation for volatile elements in the Earth's mantle must also be linked to an explanation of these elements in the lunar mantle. New metal-silicate partitioning data will be applied to the origin of volatile elements in both the Earth and Moon, and will evaluate theories for exogenous versus endogenous origin of volatile elements.

  5. Origin of Terrestrial Water: Hydrogen/Deuterium Fractionation into Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic compositions are among the most important constraints on the origin of Earth's water. Earth's bulk water content, which is small but not negligible, is significantly greater than what the thermal gradient of the solar nebula disk would suggest for planetesimal materials condensed at one astronomical unit. The proto-solar nebula is a likely source of early Earth's water, with probable contributions from one or more of the following: water-rich planetesimals, ordinary and carbonaceous meteorites, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary dust particles. However, all of these sources have been questioned, and the proposed proto-solar nebular origin has been disputed in light of the large difference in hydrogen isotopic composition between it and terrestrial water. Current opposition to the solar nebular hypothesis is based on the critical assumption that no processes in the interior of the early Earth changed the isotopic composition of hydrogen. Nevertheless, a hypothesized hydrogenation reaction of liquid iron (2Fe + xH2 ? 2FeHx) during core formation likely provided a fractionation mechanism between hydrogen and deuterium (D). We propose that modern D/H ratios at Earth's surface resulted from this isotopic fractionation and that terrestrial water originated from oxidation of proto-solar hydrogen dissolved in the magma ocean in the early Earth by coexisting oxides (such as FeO). Thus, the isotopic composition of water on Earth can be mainly explained by internal terrestrial processes.

  6. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF THE RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO HICKORY TREES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. O. Robinson; H. Bastron; K. J. Murata

    1958-01-01

    Hickory trees concentrate the rare-earth elements in their leaves to a ; phenomenal degree and may contain as much as 2300 ppm of total rare earths based ; on the dry weight of the leaves. The average proportions of the individual ; elements (atomic percent of the total rareearth elements) in the leaves are: Y ; 36, La 16, Ce

  7. Determination of Major and Rare Earth Elements in Bastnasite Ores by ICP?AES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eftade O. Gaga; Aysun Do?angün; Semra G. Tuncel

    2004-01-01

    Analytical procedure for direct determination of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Y, Yb, Pr, and Nd by ICP?AES in bastnasite ores without need for the initial separation or preconcentration of the rare earth elements (REEs), has been developed. Besides, rare earth elements, five major elements (Al, Ca, Ba, Fe, and Mg) were also measured. Two standard reference materials (GSP?2 and STM1

  8. Rare earth elements in sinters from the geothermal waters (hot springs) on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jin-Liang; Zhao, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Feng; Hu, Hai-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The mineralogical and geochemical composition of sinters from the geothermal areas on the Tibetan Plateau was determined. They occur as siliceous, salty and calcareous sinters but biogenic siliceous sinters were also found. The analyses indicate that there are no distinct inter -element relationships between individual rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements. Formed from the same geothermal water, the mineralogical and chemical composition of the sinters is influenced by their genesis and formation conditions. The REE distributions depend on the origin of the sinters. Fe-Mn phases in sinters tend to scavenge more REEs from geothermal water. Neither the REE fractionation nor the Ce anomaly seems to be associated with Fe-Mn phases in the sinters. The fourth tetrads of some sinters display weak W-type (concave) effects. In contrast, the third tetrads present large effects in some sinters due to positive Gd anomalies. The origin of the positive Eu anomalies in some sinters seems to be caused by preferential dissolution of feldspars during water-rock interaction. The complexing ligands in geothermal water may contribute significantly to the fractionation of REEs in sinters. The dominant CO32- and HCO3- complexing in geothermal water favors enrichment of heavy REEs in calcareous sinters.

  9. Chemical properties of rare earth elements in typical medical waste incinerator ashes in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Zhang, Jingxin

    2008-10-30

    Medical waste (MW) ashes from different types of MW incinerators were examined to detect the characteristics and environmental impact of rare earth elements (REEs). The results showed that total REE contents in the ash samples ranged from 10.2 to 78.9 mg/kg. REEs in bottom ash were apparently higher than those in fly ash. Average REE contents in the ashes followed the sequence of Ce>La>Nd>Y>Gd>Pr>Sm>Dy>Er>Yb>Ho>Eu>Tb>Lu>Tm. Some of the elements, such as Sm, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb in the ash samples were in normal or nearly normal distribution, but Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Lu were not normally distributed, indicating some of the ash samples were enriched with these elements. Crust-normalized REE patterns indicated that two types of the MW ashes were obviously enriched with Gd and La. Sequential extraction results showed that REEs in the ash mainly presented as residual fraction, while exchangeable and carbonate fractions were relatively low. DTPA- and EDTA-extraction tests indicated that REEs in the MW ashes were generally in low bioavailability. PMID:18329796

  10. Certification for trace elements and methyl mercury mass fractions in IAEA-452 scallop (Pecten Maximus) sample

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in seafood and also for quality assurance/quality control purposes. Keywords: Trace elements; Methyl mercuryCertification for trace elements and methyl mercury mass fractions in IAEA-452 scallop (Pecten by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and certified for trace elements and methyl mercury (Me

  11. Rare-earth elements and Nd and Pb isotopes as source indicators for Labrador Sea clay-size sediments during Heinrich event 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Benson; Don Barber; John T. Andrews; Howard Taylor; Paul Lamothe

    2003-01-01

    Elemental abundances and Nd and Pb isotope ratios were determined on samples from the carbonate-free, clay-size fractions of sediments from intervals above, within, and below Heinrich event 2 (H-2) in core HU87-9 from the Northwest Labrador Sea slope. In HU87-9, rare-earth element (REE) distributions and elemental concentrations within the H-2 event are distinct from those outside this event. ?Nd(0) and

  12. Biogeochemistry of the rare-earth elements with particular reference to hickory trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. O. Robinson; H. Bastron; K. J. Murata

    1958-01-01

    Hickory trees concentrate the rare-earth elements in their leaves to a phenomenal degree and may contain as much as 2300 p.p.m. of total rare earths based on the dry weight of the leaves. The average proportions of the individual elements (atomic percent of the total rare-earth elements) in the leaves are: Y 36, La 16, Ce 14, Pr 2, Nd

  13. [Physiological effects of rare earth elements and their application in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lanping; Xiao, Wenjuan; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao; Shi, Xin'gang; Dan, Staerk

    2012-08-01

    The process in the studies on physiological effects of rare earth elements in plants and their action mechanisms were summarized in the aspects of seed germination, photosynthesis, mineral metabolism and stress resistance. And the applications of rare earth elements in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in recent years were also overviewed, which will provide reference for further development and application of rare earth elements in TCM. PMID:23189726

  14. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Li, Jigang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Guangmei; Ding, Xiao Lan; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Chen Xin; Zhang, Zhao; Wei, Hai Yan; Lu, Tian Hong; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-09-01

    It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate multiple facets of plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, using electron microscopic autoradiography, we show the life cycle of a light REE (lanthanum) and a heavy REE (terbium) in horseradish leaf cells. Our data indicate that REEs were first anchored on the plasma membrane in the form of nanoscale particles, and then entered the cells by endocytosis. Consistently, REEs activated endocytosis in plant cells, which may be the cellular basis of REE actions in plants. Moreover, we discovered that a portion of REEs was successively released into the cytoplasm, self-assembled to form nanoscale clusters, and finally deposited in horseradish leaf cells. Taken together, our data reveal the life cycle of REEs and their cellular behaviors in plant cells, which shed light on the cellular mechanisms of REE actions in living organisms. PMID:25114214

  15. Effects of rare earth elements on the distribution of mineral elements and heavy metals in horseradish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2008-09-01

    In order to investigate the effects of rare earth elements (REEs) on horseradish, the distribution of the mineral elements and heavy metals in different organs of horseradish have been studied by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Meanwhile, three variable major parameters, namely the concentration of REEs, the type of REEs, and the growth stage of plant were chosen. The results indicated that the test REEs, Ce(III) and Tb(III), could be accumulated in leaves, stems and roots of horseradish. In addition, we found that the content of mineral elements was increased in horseradish treated with 20mgl(-1) of Ce(III), but not those with the 20mgl(-1) of Tb(III). Moreover, the content of mineral elements in horseradish was decreased with the increasing concentration of REEs (100, 300mgl(-1)). Furthermore, we found that there were the opposite effects on the content of the heavy metals in horseradish treated with REEs. Finally, we found that the effect of REEs on the accumulation of REEs, and the content of mineral elements or heavy metals of horseradish during vigorous growth stage, no matter positive or negative, was more obvious than that of the other growth stages. These results demonstrated that the distribution behaviors of mineral elements and heavy metals in horseradish can be affected by the type and concentration of REEs, and the growth period of plant. PMID:18639916

  16. Rare Earth elements in individual minerals in Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1993-01-01

    Shergottites (i.e., Shergotty, Zagami, EETA79001, ALHA77005, and LEW88516) are an important set of achondrites because they comprise the majority of the SNC group of meteorites (nine, in total, known to us), which are likely to be samples of the planet Mars. Study of these meteorites may therefore provide valuable information about petrogenetic processes on a large planetary body other than Earth. Rare earth element (REE) distributions between various mineral phases were found to be useful in geochemically modeling the petrogenesis of various rock types (terrestrial and meteoritic). However, with the exception of a few ion microprobe studies and analyses of mineral separates, there has previously not been any comprehensive effort to characterize and directly compare REE in individual minerals in each of the five known shergottites. Ion microprobe analyses were made on thin sections of each of the shergottites. Minerals analyzed were pyroxenes (pigeonite and augite), maskelynite, and whitlockite. The REE concentrations in each mineral type in each shergottite is given.

  17. Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AAA Math

    2007-12-12

    This site has explanatory lessons, interactive practice, and challenges all dealing with fractions. Includes information, practice, and games on basic fractions, adding fractions, subtracting fractions, multiplying fractions, dividing fractions, reducing fractions, comparing fractions, converting fractions, relating fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions, and divisibility rules to help simplify fractions. Problems are randomly selected and students receive immediate feedback with the correct response. The bottom of each lesson page contains timed exercises.

  18. Assessing the utility of trace and rare earth elements as biosignatures in microbial iron oxyhydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Christine; Simon, Klaus; Ionescu, Danny; Reimer, Andreas; De Beer, Dirk; Quéric, Nadia-Valérie; Reitner, Joachim; Thiel, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Microbial iron oxyhydroxides are common deposits in natural waters, recent sediments and mine drainage systems and often contain significant accumulations of trace and rare earth elements (TREE). TREE patterns are widely used to characterize minerals and rocks, and to elucidate their evolution and origin. Whether and which characteristic TREE signatures distinguish between a biological and an abiological origin of iron minerals is still not well understood. Long-term flow reactor studies were performed in the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory to investigate the development of microbial mats dominated by iron-oxidizing bacteria, namely Mariprofundus sp. and Gallionella sp. The experiments investigated the accumulation and fractionation of TREE under controlled conditions and enabled us to assess potential biosignatures evolving within the microbial iron oxyhydroxides. Concentrations of Be, Y, Zn, Zr, Hf, W, Th, Pb, and U in the microbial mats were 1e3- to 1e5-fold higher than in the feeder fluids whereas the rare earth elements and Y (REE+Y) contents were 1e4 and 1e6 fold enriched. Except for a hydrothermally induced Eu anomaly, the normalized REE+Y patterns of the microbial iron oxyhydroxides were very similar to published REE+Y distributions of Archaean Banded Iron Formations. The microbial iron oxyhydroxides from the flow reactors were compared to iron oxyhydroxides that were artificially precipitated from the same feeder fluid. These abiotic and inorganic iron oxyhydroxides show the same REE+Y distribution patterns. Our results indicate that the REE+Y mirror quite exactly the water chemistry, but they do not allow to distinguish microbially mediated from inorganic iron precipitates. All TREE studied showed an overall similar fractionation behavior in biogenic, abiotic and inorganic iron oxyhydroxides. Exceptions are Ni and Tl, which were only accumulated in the microbial iron oxyhydroxides and may point to a potential usage of these elements as microbial biosignatures.

  19. Separation of rare earth elements with high-speed countercurrent chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazome, E.; Ito, Y.; Ficca, S.

    1990-02-28

    The invention relates to continuous countercurrent chromatography, and more particularly relates to methods for continuous countercurrent chromatography separation and detection of rare earth elements and compounds.

  20. EARTH’S CORE FORMATION: NEW CONSTRAINTS FROM SIDEROPHILE ELEMENTS PARTITIONING (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, J.; Corgne, A.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2009-12-01

    The abundances of siderophile elements in the Earth’s mantle are the result of core formation in the early Earth. Many variables are involved in the prediction of metal/silicate siderophile partition coefficients during core segregation: pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, silicate and metal compositions. Despite publications of numerous results of metal-silicate experiments, the experimental database and predictive expressions for elements partitioning are hampered by a lack of systematic study to separate and evaluate the effects of each variable. Only a relatively complete experimental database that describes Ni and Co partitioning now exists but is not sufficient to unambiguously decide between the most popular model for core formation with a single stage core-mantle equilibration at the bottom of a deep magma ocean (e.g. Li and Agee, 2001) and more recent alternative models (e.g. Wade and Wood, 2005; Rubie et al., 2007). In this experimental work, systematic study of metal-silicate partitioning is presented for elements normally regarded as moderately siderophile (Mo, As, Ge, W, P, Ni, Co), slightly siderophile (Zn, Ga, Mn, V, Cr) and refractory lithophile (Nb, Ta). New results are obtained for elements whose partitioning behavior is usually poorly constrained and not integrated into any accretion or core formation models. A new piston-cylinder design assembly allows us to present a suite of isobaric partitioning experiments at 3 GPa within a temperature range from 1600 to 2600 C and over a range of relative oxygen fugacity from IW-1.5 to IW-3.5. Silicate melts range from basaltic to peridotite in composition. The individual effect of pressure is also investigated through a combination of piston cylinder and multi anvil isothermal experiments from 0.5 to 18 GPa at 1900 C. Absolute measurements of partitioning coefficients combining EMP and LA-ICPMS analytical methods are provided. Moreover, thermodynamic calculations were performed to assess the effects of light elements (S, Si, C, O) dissolved in the segregating core on partitioning behaviors. We will discuss the implications of partitioning data collected in this study for proposed single-stage and continuous core formation models.

  1. Fractions!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Lerdahl

    2011-02-01

    Practice all of the activities to help you learn fractions! Go through all five levels of Fractions Review Activities Practice Naming Fractions Do you remember how to do Fraction Sets? Play these games when you have finished the top three activities: Cross the River Pizza Party Fractions Rescue Island Adding Subtracting Fractions SPLAT Mrs. Anderson's Fraction Games Action Fraction Soccer Shootout Fraction Multiplication Soccer Shootout Fraction Division Dirt Bike Fractions Comparisons ...

  2. Fractionation of various elements in CRMs and in polluted soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kubová; V. Streško; M. Bujdoš; P. Matúš; J. Medved’

    2004-01-01

    An optimised BCR three steps sequential extraction procedure (BCR SEP) and several single extractions with KCl, NH 4Cl, Na 4P 2O 7 and 0.5 mol L -1 HCl were used for the fractionation of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in CRMs and in samples from a mining area with sulphidic deposits. A good interlaboratory comparability was obtained for Cu, Pb and

  3. Rare Earth Elements reveal past earthquakes on limestone normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manighetti, I.; Boucher, E.; Chauvel, C.; Schlagenhauf, A.; Benedetti, L.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008, we suggested that the chemical composition of the rocks which form well preserved, seismically exhumed fault scarps might record past major earthquakes (Carcaillet et al., 2008) because those scarp surfaces consist of a vertical succession of zones that have been exposed at different times by the repeating earthquakes, thus weathered over different time spans. In this pioneer study, we validated this hypothesis using the changes in chemical compositions (major and trace elements) of 15 carbonate rock samples collected from the base to the top of the seismically exhumed, 10 m-high Magnola normal fault scarp (Abruzzes, Central Italy). However, the number of available samples was insufficient to fully assess the validity of the model. Here we present trace element data on 27 additional samples collected systematically every 25 cm along the Magnola scarp, as well as on 7 scarp samples buried below the colluvium hence representing the first 4 meters of the scarp before exhumation. The scarp rocks buried in the first meter of the ground appear significantly enriched in Rare Earth elements (REE): they contain 60% more REE than the rocks located either deeper in the ground or immediately above the ground level. This concentration peak most probably results from enrichment of the scarp rocks by interaction with the impurity-doped, acidic, upper soil. Above the ground surface and along the scarp, most element concentrations (70%) decrease up-dip, generally by more than 50%; we attribute this trend to leaching and dissolution-recrystallization of purer calcite through time. The top of the scarp having been exposed for a longer period of time, its surface lost more of the trace elements contained in the rocks. However, the upward decrease in REE contents is not linear and 4 REE concentration peaks can be recognized along the exposed scarp. The position of these 4 peaks coincide with the zones identified by Schlagenhauf et al. (2009) and Palumbo et al. (2004) as separating the major earthquake ruptures that produced the scarp exhumation (the identification was independently performed using cosmogenic 36Cl modeling). This finding confirms that the REE concentration peaks are excellent indicators of the position of paleo-ground levels and good markers for the large earthquake ruptures that created the exhumation. We thus conclude that simple REE chemical analyses of seismically exhumed fault scarp rocks may be used to identify past major earthquakes. They also allow the measurement of the vertical slip produced by the earthquakes along the fault. This simple novel approach is thus very promising to recover seismic histories on active faults.

  4. ON THE SEPARATION OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS. VI. FURTHER STUDY OF RARE EARTH ELEMENT SEPARATION BY COMPLEX ELUTION. METHOD OF RAPID LANTHANUM SEPARATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massonne

    1958-01-01

    Lanthanum was separated from a mixture of rare earth elements by ion ; exchange. All the nare earths, with the exception of lanthanum, were eluted from ; the resin with a 4% solution of beta -oxyethyliminodiacetic acid at pH 5 and a ; temperature of 70 icient laborato C. The lanthanum was then eluted with a 4% ; nitryltriacetic acid

  5. Rare earth element components in atmospheric particulates in the Bayan Obo mine region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Li, Kexin

    2014-05-01

    The Bayan Obo mine, located in Inner Mongolia, China, is the largest light rare earth body ever found in the world. The research for rare earth elements (REEs) enrichment in atmospheric particulates caused by mining and ore processing is fairly limited so far. In this paper, atmospheric particulates including total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10) were collected around the Bayan Obo mine region, in August 2012 and March 2013, to analyze the levels and distributions of REEs in particles. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP were 149.8 and 239.6 ng/m(3), and those for PM10 were 42.8 and 68.9 ng/m(3), in August 2012 and March 2013, respectively. Enrichment factor was calculated for all 14 REEs in the TSP and PM10 and the results indicated that REEs enrichment in atmosphere particulates was caused by anthropogenic sources and influenced by the strong wind in springtime. The spatial distribution of REEs in TSP showed a strong gradient concentration in the prevailing wind direction. REE chondrite normalized patterns of TSP and PM10 were similar and the normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light REEs and heavy REE, which supported by the chondrite normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La(N)/Yb(N), La(N)/Sm(N), Gd(N)/Yb(N)). PMID:24657942

  6. Isotopic fractionation of the major elements of molten basalt by chemical and thermal diffusion

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Jim

    by chemical diffusion between a natural basalt and rhyolite. The thermal isotopic fractionations for isotopes of the same element. The iron isotopic mea- surements of the basalt­rhyolite diffusion couple by chemical diffusion between molten basalt and rhyolite (Richter et al., 2003) and large fractionations

  7. Carbon and other light element contents in the Earth’s core based on first-principles molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yigang; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Carbon (C) is one of the candidate light elements proposed to account for the density deficit of the Earth’s core. In addition, C significantly affects siderophile and chalcophile element partitioning between metal and silicate and thus the distribution of these elements in the Earth’s core and mantle. Derivation of the accretion and core–mantle segregation history of the Earth requires, therefore, an accurate knowledge of the C abundance in the Earth’s core. Previous estimates of the C content of the core differ by a factor of ?20 due to differences in assumptions and methods, and because the metal–silicate partition coefficient of C was previously unknown. Here we use two-phase first-principles molecular dynamics to derive this partition coefficient of C between liquid iron and silicate melt. We calculate a value of 9 ± 3 at 3,200 K and 40 GPa. Using this partition coefficient and the most recent estimates of bulk Earth or mantle C contents, we infer that the Earth’s core contains 0.1–0.7 wt% of C. Carbon thus plays a moderate role in the density deficit of the core and in the distribution of siderophile and chalcophile elements during core–mantle segregation processes. The partition coefficients of nitrogen (N), hydrogen, helium, phosphorus, magnesium, oxygen, and silicon are also inferred and found to be in close agreement with experiments and other geochemical constraints. Contents of these elements in the core derived from applying these partition coefficients match those derived by using the cosmochemical volatility curve and geochemical mass balance arguments. N is an exception, indicating its retention in a mantle phase instead of in the core. PMID:23150591

  8. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) correspond to seventeen elements of the periodic table. They are used in high technology, cracking, electric cars' magnet, metal alloy for batteries, and also in phone construction or ceramics for electronic card. REEs are an important resource for high technology. This project targets 16 years old students in the subject "personalized aid" and will last six weeks. The purpose of this project is to develop autonomy and research in groups for a transdisciplinary work. This project gathers knowledge in geology, geography and economics. During the first session students analyze the geology applications of the REE. They begin the analysis with learning the composition in different rocks such as basalt and diorite to make the link with crystallization. Then they compare it with adakite to understand the formation of these rocks. In the second session, they study REE exploitation. We can find them as oxides in many deposits. The principal concentrations of rare earth elements are associated with uncommon varieties of igneous rocks, such as carbonatites. They can use Qgis, to localize this high concentration. In the third session, they study the environmental costs of REE exploitation. Indeed, the exploitation produces thorium and carcinogenic toxins: sulphates, ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Processing one ton of rare earths produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste. This session focuses, first, on Baotou's region, and then on an example they are free to choose. In the fourth session, they study the geopolitical issues of REE with a focus on China. In fact this country is the largest producer of REE, and is providing 95% of the overall production. REE in China are at the center of a geopolitical strategy. In fact, China implements a sort of protectionism. Indeed, the export tax on REE is very high so, as a foreign company, it is financially attractive to establish a manufacturing subsidiary in China in order to use REE. As a matter of fact, establishing a company in China can lower the production cost (since the company buys the products used in its production at a lower price). In the fifth session, they study the raw materials trading based on the futures contracts example. A producer, to avoid a rise in prices of raw materials used in his production can use derivative products on the financial market: futures contracts for instance. This product ensures a quantity and quality for a price and a delivery date agreed upon today. Actually, producers can use a method called Fix price hedging in order to fix the price of a specific product. The main idea is to balance out the "physical position" (spot market) and the "paper position" (futures market). Even if the REE are commercialized in form of a non-perishable's oxide, the flow of the stock must be guaranteed and this is why it is important for producers to secure their supply of raw materials. In the last session, students search local companies that use REE in their production process and study their strategy on the market.

  9. Rare earth element components in atmospheric particulates in the Bayan Obo mine region

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingqing, E-mail: wanglq@igsnrr.ac.cn; Liang, Tao, E-mail: liangt@igsnrr.ac.cn; Zhang, Qian; Li, Kexin

    2014-05-01

    The Bayan Obo mine, located in Inner Mongolia, China, is the largest light rare earth body ever found in the world. The research for rare earth elements (REEs) enrichment in atmospheric particulates caused by mining and ore processing is fairly limited so far. In this paper, atmospheric particulates including total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM{sub 10}) were collected around the Bayan Obo mine region, in August 2012 and March 2013, to analyze the levels and distributions of REEs in particles. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP were 149.8 and 239.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and those for PM{sub 10} were 42.8 and 68.9 ng/m{sup 3}, in August 2012 and March 2013, respectively. Enrichment factor was calculated for all 14 REEs in the TSP and PM{sub 10} and the results indicated that REEs enrichment in atmosphere particulates was caused by anthropogenic sources and influenced by the strong wind in springtime. The spatial distribution of REEs in TSP showed a strong gradient concentration in the prevailing wind direction. REE chondrite normalized patterns of TSP and PM{sub 10} were similar and the normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light REEs and heavy REE, which supported by the chondrite normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La{sub N}/Yb{sub N}, La{sub N}/Sm{sub N}, Gd{sub N}/Yb{sub N}). - Highlights: • TSP and PM{sub 10} samples were collected to analyze the levels and distributions of REE. • Enrichment factors indicated that REE enrichment was caused by anthropogenic sources. • The distribution of REEs showed a strong gradient in the prevailing wind direction. • Obvious fractionation between LREEs and HREEs is observed in atmospheric particulates.

  10. NREL Highlights SCIENCE These polycrystalline cells use Earth-abundant elements.

    E-print Network

    an 8.4%-efficient CZTSe solar cell produced using commercially acceptable manufacturing techniquesNREL Highlights SCIENCE These polycrystalline cells use Earth-abundant elements. NREL scientists (CZTSe) solar cells, which are based on non-toxic, Earth-abundant elements. Recently, NREL demonstrated

  11. Geochemistry of the Rare Earth elements in spilites from the oceanic and continental crust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Günter Herrmann; Mark J. Potts; Doris Knake

    1974-01-01

    Analytical data including major elements, the Rare Earths, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr are presented for twenty-three spilites from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Hercynian part of the Variscan geosyncline in Germany, and several localities in Switzerland. Low grade metamorphism (up to approximately 400° C) and spilitization of basaltic rocks apparently do not alter the original Rare Earth element (REE)

  12. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS AFFECTING THE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND YIELDING ABILITIES OF CULTIVATED CROPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rare earth elements affecting the biological processes and yielding abilities of cultivated crops. The research work was conducted at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 1997-2002. For the trials a high- concentration original solution of rare earth elements (REE), resulting from the production process of AS Silmet, was used. REE solutions of different concentrations were used to treat the

  13. Special glassy materials doped with rare-earth elements for fiber optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Wasylak; Dominik Dorosz; Jan Kucharski; Jan Kityk

    2003-01-01

    Lead-bismuth-gallium-cadmium glasses doped with rare earths elements have been investigated. Certain optical properties of the glasses have been determined. The results of luminescence investiations in the form of absorption and luminescence spectra are presented, and the quantum yields as well as the calculated and measured luminescence lifetimes of the particular rare earths elements in the matrix of the examined glasses

  14. Physiological and Biochemical Effects of Rare Earth Elements on Plants and Their Agricultural Significance: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengyi Hu; Herfried Richter; Gerd Sparovek; Ewald Schnug

    2004-01-01

    The rare earths include the elements scandium [Sc, atomic number (Z) = 21], yttrium (Y, Z = 39), and the lanthanides from lanthanum (La, Z = 57) to lutetium (Lu, Z = 71). Crop responses to application of rare earth elements (REEs) have only been documented in a few countries. The reasons for promoting growth or yield increases are still not sufficiently understood. Recently, physiological interaction of REEs

  15. Distribution of 28 elements in size fractions of lunar mare and highlands soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Wasson, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Four volatile, six siderophile and 18 generally lithophile elements were determined in six sieve fractions of mare soil 15100 (moderately mature) and seven sieve fractions of highlands soil 66080 (highly mature). Previous work (Boynton et al., 1976) showed that the volatile elements in lunar soils were enriched in the finest size fraction relative to the coarsest factors by up to about 20. The present investigation tests Boynton's interpretation that the distribution pattern of the volatiles indicates the presence of two components: a volume-correlated component having volatile concentrations independent of grain size and a surface-correlated component with concentration increasing with decreasing grain size.

  16. Minor and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks dredged from the Galapagos spreading center: role of crystal fractionation and mantle heterogeneity.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Frey, F.A.; Thompson, G.; Rindge, S.

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of rock types (abyssal tholeiite, Fe-Ti-rich basalt, andesite, and rhyodacite) were dredged from near 95oW and 85oW on the Galapagos spreading center. Computer modeling of major element compositions has shown that these rocks could be derived from common parental magmas by successive degrees of fractional crystallization. However, the P2O5/K2O ratio implies distinct mantle source compositions for the two areas. These source regions also have different rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns. The sequence of fractionated lavas differs for the two areas and indicates earlier fractionation of apatite and titanomagnetite in the lavas from 95oW. The mantle source regions for these two areas are interpreted to be depleted in incompatible (and volatile?) elements, although the source region beneath 95oW is less severely depleted in La and K. -Authors

  17. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  18. Recovery of rare earth elements from the sulfothermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria using aqueous acid.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Ayumi; Sawada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Sonoe; Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Takaiku; Tsuzuki, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    The demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically in recent years because of their numerous industrial applications, and considerable research efforts have consequently been directed toward recycling these materials. The accumulation of metals in microorganisms is a low-cost and environmentally friendly method for the recovery of metals present in the environment at low levels. Numerous metals, including rare earth elements, can be readily dissolved in aqueous acid, but the efficiency of metal biosorption is usually decreased under the acidic conditions. In this report, we have investigated the use of the sulfothermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria for the recovery of metals, with particular emphasis on the recovery of rare earth metals. Of the five different growth conditions investigated where G. sulphuraria could undergo an adaptation process, Nd(III), Dy(III), and Cu(II) were efficiently recovered from a solution containing a mixture of different metals under semi-anaerobic heterotrophic condition at a pH of 2.5. G. sulphuraria also recovered Nd(III), Dy(III), La(III), and Cu(II) with greater than 90% efficiency at a concentration of 0.5 ppm. The efficiency remained unchanged at pH values in the range of 1.5-2.5. Furthermore, at pH values in the range of 1.0-1.5, the lanthanoid ions were collected much more efficiently into the cell fractions than Cu(II) and therefore successfully separated from the Cu(II) dissolved in the aqueous acid. Microscope observation of the cells using alizarin red suggested that the metals were accumulating inside of the cells. Experiments using dead cells suggested that this phenomenon was a biological process involving specific activities within the cells. PMID:25283836

  19. Rare earth element geochemistry and petrogenesis of miles (IIE) silicate inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Weibiao

    2003-12-01

    An ion probe study of rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of silicate inclusions in the Miles IIE iron meteorite was carried out. Individual mineral phases among inclusions have distinct REE patterns and abundances. Most silicate grains have homogeneous REE abundances but show considerable intergrain variations between inclusions. A few pyroxene grains display normal igneous REE zoning. Phosphates (whitlockite and apatite) are highly enriched in REEs (50 to 2000 × CI) with a relatively light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched REE pattern. They usually occurred near the interfaces between inclusions and Fe host. In Miles, albitic glasses exhibit two distinctive REE patterns: a highly fractionated LREE-enriched (CI normalized La/Sm ˜15) pattern with a large positive Eu anomaly and a relatively heavy rare earth element (HREE)-enriched pattern (CI-normalized Lu/Gd ˜4) with a positive Eu anomaly and a negative Yb anomaly. The glass is generally depleted in REEs relative to CI chondrites. The bulk REE abundances for each inclusion, calculated from modal abundances, vary widely, from relatively depleted in REEs (0.1 to 3 × CI) with a fractionated HREE-enriched pattern to highly enriched in REEs (10 to 100 × CI) with a relatively LREE-enriched pattern. The estimated whole rock REE abundances for Miles are at ˜ 10 × CI with a relatively LREE-enriched pattern. This implies that Miles silicates could represent the product of a low degree (˜10%) partial melting of a chondritic source. Phenocrysts of pyroxene in pyroxene-glassy inclusions were not in equilibrium with coexisting albitic glass and they could have crystallized from a parental melt with REEs of ˜ 10 × CI. Albitic glass appears to have formed by remelting of preexisting feldspar + pyroxene + tridymite assemblage. Yb anomaly played an important role in differentiation processes of Miles silicate inclusions; however, its origin remains unsolved. The REE data from this study suggest that Miles, like Colomera and Weekeroo Station, formed when a molten Fe ball collided on a differentiated silicate regolith near the surface of an asteroid. Silicate fragments were mixed with molten Fe by the impact. Heat from molten Fe caused localized melting of feldspar + pyroxene + tridymite assemblage. The inclusions remained isolated from one another during subsequent rapid cooling.

  20. Dihydrated and anhydrous fluoride oxalates of rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkina, G.Ya.; Arkhangel'skii, I.V.; Kizhlo, M.R.; Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskii, V.M.

    1987-11-01

    The conditions for the synthesis of crystal dihydrates and anhydrous fluoride oxalates of the rare-earth elements of the yttrium subgroup (Tb-Lu and Y) with the general formulas LnC/sub 2/O/sub 4/F x 2H/sub 2/O and LnC/sub 2/O/sub 4/F have been worked out. Crystalline forms of LnC/sub 2/O/sub 4/F appear when LnC/sub 2/O/sub 4/F x nH/sub 2/O (n = 2, 4) are dehydrated in autoclaves (50 atm, 220/sup 0/C) and sealed ampuls (10 atm, 270/sup 0/C), and the dehydrates are obtained as a result of the dehydration of LnC/sub 2/O/sub 4/F x 4H/sub 2/O in a stream of dry air at 120/sup 0/C. A comparative analysis of the IR spectra has provided evidence of alteration of the coordination of the oxalato groups in the anhydrous compounds, where they are bidentate, from that in the corresponding hydrates, where they are apparently tetradentate.

  1. Elemental fractionation in ultraviolet laser ablation sampling of igneous silicate minerals relevant to Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E Taylor; D. L Blaney; G Cardell

    2000-01-01

    Laser ablation sampling (LAS) has significant potential for remote terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications if fractionation can be understood and controlled. This study focuses on acmite, albite, augite, diopside, forsterite, and labradorite, silicate minerals that are relevant to Mars, Earth, the moon, and asteroids. The minerals were sampled using a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser and the samples were deposited as films on

  2. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Siderophile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickodem, K.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Lee, C.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently several hypotheses on the origin of volatile siderophile elements in the Earth. One hypothesis is that they were added during Earth s accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core [1], others claim multiple stage origin [2], while some hypothesize that volatiles were added after the core already formed [3]. Several volatile siderophile elements are depleted in Earth s mantle relative to the chondrites, something which continues to puzzle many scientists. This depletion is likely due to a combination of volatility and core formation. The Earth s core is composed of Fe and some lighter constituents, although the abundances of these lighter elements are unknown [4]. Si is one of these potential light elements [5] although few studies have analyzed the effect of Si on metal-silicate partitioning, in particular the volatile elements. As, In, Ge, and Sb are trace volatile siderophile elements which are depleted in the mantle but have yet to be extensively studied. The metal-silicate partition coefficients of these elements will be measured to determine the effect of Si. Partition coefficients depend on temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and metal and silicate composition and can constrain the concentrations of volatile, siderophile elements found in the mantle. Reported here are the results from 13 experiments examining the partitioning of As, In, Ge, and Sb between metallic and silicate liquid. These experiments will examine the effect of temperature, and metal-composition (i.e., Si content) on these elements in or-der to gain a greater understanding of the core-mantle separation which occurred during the Earth s early stages. The data can then be applied to the origin of volatile elements in the Earth.

  3. Enhancement of source traceability of atmospheric PM by elemental chemical fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, Silvia; Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Perrino, Cinzia; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Marzo, Maria Letizia

    During a 1-year study ("Fine dust" Project) funded by the Lazio regional government (Italy), about 1000 daily PM 10 and PM 2.5 samples collected from six sites in the region were subjected to chemical fractionation based on differences in elemental solubility. In this way, it was possible to achieve meaningful characterization of the elemental composition of individual samples. For most of the investigated elements, we found significant differences between the extracted and the mineralized residual fraction. In general, fine particulate was best characterized by the composition of the extracted fraction, while coarse particles from traffic-related sources were best characterized using residues. For several metals (Cd, Pb, Sn, Sb and V) having a critical environmental impact, this result was particularly clear. The application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and receptor modelling (PCR) to the data set allowed us to evidence the enhancement of selectivity towards different emission sources that is obtained when chemical fractionated data are considered instead of total element content. Chemical fractionation seems to generate very selective markers for specific emission sources and in particular for re-suspended road dusts, one of the main factors responsible for the increase of elemental concentrations in urban areas.

  4. Composition of the earth's upper mantle-I. Siderophile trace elements in ultramafic nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Wandless, G.A.; Petrie, R.K.; Irving, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Seven siderophile elements (Au, Ge, Ir, Ni, Pd, Os, Re) were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in 19 ultramafic rocks, which are spinel lherzollites-xenoliths from North and Central America, Hawaii and Australia, and garnet Iherzolitexenoliths from Lesotho. Abundances of the platinum metals are very uniform in spinel lherzolites averaging 3.4 ?? 1.2 ppb Os, 3.7 ?? 1.1 ppb Ir, and 4.6 ?? 2.0 ppb Pd. Sheared garnet lherzolite PHN 1611 has similar abundances of these elements, but in 4 granulated garnet lherzolites, abundances are more variable. In all samples, the Pt metals retain cosmic ( Cl-chondrite) ratios. Abundances of Au and Re vary more than those of Pt metals, but the Au/Re ratio remains close to the cosmic value. The fact that higher values of Au and Re approach cosmic proportions with respect to the Pt metals, suggests that Au and Re have been depleted in some ultramafic rocks from an initially chondrite-like pattern equivalent to about 0.01 of Cl chondrite abundances. The relative enrichment of Au and Re in crustal rocks is apparently the result of crust-mantle fractionation and does not require a special circumstance of core-mantle partitioning. Abundances of moderately volatile elements Ni, Co and Ge are very uniform in all rocks, and are much higher than those of the highly siderophile elements Au, Ir, Pd, Os and Re. When normalized to Cl chondrites, abundances of Ni and Co are nearly identical, averaging 0.20 ?? 0.02 and 0.22 ?? 0.02, respectively; but Ge is only 0.027 ?? 0.004. The low abundance of Ge relative to Ni and Co is apparently a reflection of the general depletion of volatile elements in the Earth. The moderately siderophile elements cannot be derived from the same source as the highly siderophile elements because of the marked difference in Cl chondrite-normalized abundances and patterns. We suggest that most of the Ni, Co and Ge were enriched in the silicate by the partial oxidation of pre-existing volatile-poor Fe-Ni, whereas the corresponding highly siderophile elements remained sequestered by the surviving metal. The highly siderophile elements may have been introduced by a population of ~103 large (~1022 g) planetisimals, similar to those forming the lunar mare basins. ?? 1981.

  5. Recovery and Separation of Rare Earth Elements Using Salmon Milt

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Miyaji, Asami; Watanabe, Yusuke; Fan, Qiaohui; Honma, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Recycling rare earth elements (REEs) used in advanced materials such as Nd magnets is important for the efficient use of REE resources when the supply of several REEs is limited. In this work, the feasibility of using salmon milt for REE recovery and separation was examined, along with the identification of the binding site of REEs in salmon milt. Results showed that (i) salmon milt has a sufficiently high affinity to adsorb REEs and (ii) the adsorption capacity of the milt is 1.04 mEq/g, which is comparable with that of commercial cation exchange resin. Heavier REEs have higher affinity for milt. A comparison of stability constants and adsorption patterns of REEs discussed in the literature suggests that the phosphate is responsible for the adsorption of REE in milt. The results were supported by dysprosium (Dy) and lutetium (Lu) LIII-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The REE-P shell was identified for the second neighboring atom, which shows the importance of the phosphate site as REE binding sites. The comparison of REE adsorption pattern and EXAFS results between the milt system and other adsorbent systems (cellulose phosphate, Ln-resin, bacteria, and DNA-filter hybrid) revealed that the coordination number of phosphate is correlated with the slope of the REE pattern. The separation column loaded with milt was tested to separate REE for the practical use of salmon milt for the recovery and separation of REE. However, water did not flow through the column possibly because of the hydrophobicity of the milt. Thus, sequential adsorption–desorption approach using a batch-type method was applied for the separation of REE. As an example of the practical applications of REE separation, Nd and Fe(III) were successfully separated from a synthetic solution of Nd magnet waste by a batch-type method using salmon milt. PMID:25490035

  6. Rare earth elements as geochemical tracers of regional groundwater mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Johannesson, K.H.; Stetzenbach, K.J.; Hodge, V.F. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) were analyzed in a groundwater system from south-central Nevada (i.e., Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, the Spring Mountains, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and the Nevada Test Site) in order to investigate their potential use as tracers of regional groundwater flow. Previous investigations using conservative tracers (e.g., deuterium and uranium isotopes) identified recharge in local mountains as the primary source (60-70% of total discharge) for the springs in the regional discharge zone (i.e., Ash Meadows) with the remaining contribution being interbasin flow from the northeast. Initial mixing calculations for these groundwaters using shale-normalized REE patterns agreed well with the previous studies; however, because the REEs are not expected to behave conservatively in natural waters, the effect of both solution complexation, which acts to enhance the stability of the REEs in solution, as well as surface complexation, responsible for the particle reactive behavior of the REEs, were examined in subsequent mixing calculations. In order to assess the roles of solution and surface complexation, relative partitioning coefficients were estimated for each REE in each groundwater by evaluating the ratio of the ionic strength corrected {sub CO3}{beta}{sub 1}REE, {sub CO3}{beta}{sub 2}REE and [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}]{sub F} to the first hydrolysis binding constants for the REEs. The relative partitioning coefficients were then used to calculate REE patterns expected to develop and persist in solution as a consequence of solution and surface complexation. The calculated REE values closely resembled the actual measured REE concentrations, suggesting that the REEs are, in fact, controlled by solution and surface complexation in these groundwaters. 81 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Accumulation of rare earth elements in corn after agricultural application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Liu, D; Lu, P; Wang, C

    2001-01-01

    Using both pot and plot experiments, the dose-dependent accumulation of rare earth elements (REs) in corn (Zea mays L.) after application of an agricultural REs mixture was measured. In the pot experiment, the dose-dependent accumulation of REs in corn root and stem was observed, but it could not be detected in corn leaf under the dosage of 20 mg REs kg(-1) soil (oven-dry mass). The non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) for accumulation of REs in corn seedling with the pot experiment was 1.0 mg REs kg(-1). In the plot experiment, the dose-dependent accumulation was observed at an early stage after application of REs and the NOEC value of 32 mg REs m(-2) was obtained. At harvest, no dose-dependent accumulation of REs was observed in any part of the corn. These results can be confirmed by the fingerprinting analysis based on the differences between La to RE ratios in the REs mixture and in pot or plot soil. We observed that the plant shows no preference on individual RE and the results of fingerprinting indicated clearly the incorporation of exogenous REs in plant tissues, in a similar manner as that observed in the dose-dependent distribution of RE concentrations. The results indicated also a translocation process of REs from plant root to leaf when applied to soil or from leaf to root when applied to leaf. A homeostatic regulation mechanism for excessive uptake of REs in plants is suggested to regulate the concentrations of REs in the plant. PMID:11215665

  8. Kiglapait geochemistry VII: Yttrium and the rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.; Nolan, K. M.

    1985-07-01

    Based on 51 wholerock analyses by XRF and summation over the layered group, the Kiglapait Intrusion contains 4.7 -1.6+1.2 ppm Y, which resides principally in augite and apatite. Using liquid compositions calculated by summation, the partition coefficient D AUG/LY is 0.95 ± 0.12 from 84 to 97 PCS (percent solidified) and 1.5 ± 0.4 above 97 PCS. For feldspar, the most likely value for D is 0.028 ± 0.02 ( N = 6). REE analyses for 13 whole rocks were interpreted with the aid of yttrium models to yield trends for wholerocks and liquids vs PCS. Summations over the rocks of the layered group gave La = 2.5, Ce = 5.8, Nd = 3.9, Sm = 1.0, Eu = 0.8, Tb = 0.17, Yb = 0.37, and Lu = 0.06 ppm, with 2 s.d. errors near ± 30%. All these elements are highly incompatible until the arrival of augite, which affects chiefly the HREE, and apatite, which affects all (but more strongly, the LREE). The net result is that after apatite arrival at 94 PCS, the liquid compositions are nearly constant, hence D REEWR/L ? 1.0. These results are compatible with the mineralogy of the intrusion and the estimated partition coefficients for feldspar, olivine, augite, apatite, and Fe-Ti oxide minerals. For pre-apatite liquids, D REEFSP/L vary regularly with the normative di content of the liquid and change by an order of magnitude, hence the bulk liquid composition must be considered in any attempt to invert the compositions of feldspars to parent liquids. The Eu anomaly at first decreases in Kiglapait liquids due to plagioclase fractionation, but then increases due to removal of augite and apatite with negative Eu anomalies. The features dominantly responsible for Eu partitioning are liquid structure and, for monoclinic ternary feldspars, crystal structure. The former is best monitored by the augite or diopside content of the liquid and the latter, by the K content of the feldspar. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern for the intrusion has LaN = 7.4, LuN = 1.6, ( Ce/Yb) N = 3.6 , and Eu/Eu? = 2.4 , indicating its feldspar-rich nature. The chilled margin of the nearby Hettasch Intrusion has a similar but more evolved pattern, corresponding roughly to the Kiglapait liquid at 70 PCS. As with other data, those for the REE suggest source differences for the two intrusions rather than a relationship due to fractionation.

  9. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste--sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Morf, Leo S; Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf; Haupt, Melanie; Skutan, Stefan; Di Lorenzo, Fabian; Böni, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are essential for the improvement of resource recovery in the Thermo-Re® process. PMID:23085306

  10. Review of rare earth element concentrations in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of the lanthanide series or rare earth elements and yttrium were determined for lacustrine oil shale samples from the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of Colorado and the Uinta Basin of Utah. Unprocessed oil shale, post-pyrolysis (spent) shale, and leached shale samples were examined to determine if oil-shale processing to generate oil or the remediation of retorted shale affects rare earth element concentrations. Results for unprocessed Green River oil shale samples were compared to data published in the literature on reference materials, such as chondritic meteorites, the North American shale composite, marine oil shale samples from two sites in northern Tibet, and mined rare earth element ores from the United States and China. The Green River oil shales had lower rare earth element concentrations (66.3 to 141.3 micrograms per gram, ?g g-1) than are typical of material in the upper crust (approximately 170 ?g g-1) and were also lower in rare earth elements relative to the North American shale composite (approximately 165 ?g g-1). Adjusting for dilution of rare earth elements by organic matter does not account for the total difference between the oil shales and other crustal rocks. Europium anomalies for Green River oil shales from the Piceance Basin were slightly lower than those reported for the North American shale composite and upper crust. When compared to ores currently mined for rare earth elements, the concentrations in Green River oil shales are several orders of magnitude lower. Retorting Green River oil shales led to a slight enrichment of rare earth elements due to removal of organic matter. When concentrations in spent and leached samples were normalized to an original rock basis, concentrations were comparable to those of the raw shale, indicating that rare earth elements are conserved in processed oil shales.

  11. Minimum-time Earth–Moon and Moon–Earth orbital maneuvers using time-domain finite element method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Fazelzadeh; G. A. Varzandian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the minimum-time orbital trajectories for Earth–Moon and Moon–Earth flights of a continuous-thrust spacecraft are obtained by the time-domain finite element method. The problem is formulated using a simplified version of the restricted three-body model at the Cartesian coordinate system. Moreover, the performance index is considered as the minimum-time problem with free final time. Through the calculus of

  12. Rare earth element deposition in pelagic sediment at the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary, Exmouth Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, G.R.; Owen, R.M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ODP Site 762 (eastern Indian Ocean) includes a section of sediment that spans the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (CTB) and was deposited along a continental margin during a period of widespread oceanic O{sub 2} deficiency. The rare earth element (REE) content of pre- and post-boundary sediment is similar to that of present-day continental slope material deposited in well-oxygenated seawater, whereas the CTB section is characterized by significantly depleted REE abundances, a bulk Ce anomaly that increases to maximum of 1.0, and a REE pattern that resembles that of present-day fluvial material. The authors suggest the change in REE patterns reflucts release of scavenged REEs upon reductive dissolution of authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides, such that sediment deposited during the CTB is dominated by the lithogeneous REE fraction. These results are consistent with recent models concerning pervasive fractionation of Mn and Fe and redirection of Mn in pelagic CTB waters. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. State of rare earth elements in different environmental components in mining areas of China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tao; Li, Kexin; Wang, Lingqing

    2014-03-01

    China has relatively abundant rare earth elements (REEs) reserves and will continue to be one of the major producers of REEs for the world market in the foreseeable future. However, due to the large scale of mining and refining activities, large amounts of REEs have been released to the surrounding environment and caused harmful effects on local residents. This paper summarizes the data about the contents and translocation of REEs in soils, waters, atmosphere, and plants in REE mining areas of China and discusses the characteristics of their forms, distribution, fractionation, and influencing factors. Obviously high concentrations of REEs with active and bioavailable forms are observed in all environmental media. The mobility and bioavailability of REEs are enhanced. The distribution patterns of REEs in soils and water bodies are all in line with their parent rocks. Significant fractionation phenomenon among individual members of REEs was found in soil-plant systems. However, limited knowledge was available for REEs in atmosphere. More studies focusing on the behavior of REEs in ambient air of REE mining areas in China are highly suggested. In addition, systematic study on the translocation and circulation of REEs in various media in REEs mining areas and their health risk assessment should be carried out. Standard analytical methods of REEs in environments need to be established, and more specific guideline values of REEs in foods should also be developed. PMID:24135922

  14. Characterization of size, morphology and elemental composition of nano-, submicron, and micron particles of street dust separated using field-flow fractionation in a rotating coiled column.

    PubMed

    Fedotov, Petr S; Ermolin, Mikhail S; Karandashev, Vasily K; Ladonin, Dmitry V

    2014-12-01

    For the first time, nano- and submicron particles of street dust have been separated, weighted, and analyzed. A novel technique, sedimentation field-flow fractionation in a rotating coiled column, was applied to the fractionation of dust samples with water being used as a carrier fluid. The size and morphology of particles in the separated fractions were characterized by electronic microscopy before digestion and the determination of the concentration of elements by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The elements that may be of anthropogenic origin (Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Sn, Pb) were found to concentrate mainly in <0.3 and 0.3-1 ?m fractions. It has been shown that the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn in the finest fraction (<0.3 ?m) of street dust can be one order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of elements in bulk sample and coarse fractions. For example, the concentrations of Ni in <0.3, 0.3-1, 1-10, and 10-100 ?m fractions were 297 ± 46, 130 ± 21, 36 ± 10, and 21 ± 4 mg/kg, correspondingly. Though the finest particles present only about 0.1 mass% of the sample they are of special concern due to their increased mobility and ability to penetrate into the deepest alveolar area of the lungs. For rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) that are evidently of natural source and may be found in soil minerals, in contrary, higher concentrations were observed in large particles (10-100 ?m). Sc was an exception that needs further studies. The proposed approach to the fractionation and analysis of nano-, submicron, and micron particles can be a powerful tool for risk assessment related to toxic elements in dust, ash, and other particulate environmental samples. PMID:25159372

  15. The direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c at the nanometer-sized rare earth element oxide particle-modified gold electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaogang Qu; Xiangting Dong; Ziyong Cheng; Tianhong Lu; Shaojun Dong

    1996-01-01

    The direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c was studied at nanometer-sized rare earth element dioxide particle-modified gold electrodes. It was demonstrated that rare earth element oxides can accelerate the electrochemical reaction of cytochrome c and the reversibility of the electrochemical reaction of cytochrome c was related to the size of rare earth element oxide particles.

  16. PII S0016-7037(02)00888-8 EXAFS study of rare-earth element coordination in calcite

    E-print Network

    Peale, Robert E.

    PII S0016-7037(02)00888-8 EXAFS study of rare-earth element coordination in calcite E. J. ELZINGA,1-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is used to characterize the local coordination of selected rare-earth elements (Nd3 for the increased coordination for the larger rare-earth elements involves bidentate ligation from a CO3 group

  17. Origin of Archean lamprophyre dykes, Superior Province, Canada: rare earth element and Nd?Sr isotopic evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Stern; Gilbert N. Hanson

    1992-01-01

    Hornblende- and clinopyroxene-phyric lamprophyre dykes exposed in the Roaring River Complex, Superior Province are alkaline, nepheline-normative, basaltic compositions (>50 wt% SiO2), that range from primitive to fractionated [Mg\\/(Mg + total Fe)=0.66–0.40; Ni=200–35 ppm], and which have high abundances of light rare earth elements (REE) [(Ce\\/Yb)n=16–26, Cen=60–300; n = chondrite normalized], Sr (870–1,800 ppm), P2O5 (0.4–1.3 wt%), and Ba (150–900 ppm).

  18. Technical Information Resource on Rare Earth Elements Now Available to Public and Private Sector Stakeholders

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new EPA technical information resource, ?Rare Earth Elements: A Review of Production, Processing, Recycling, and Associated Environmental Issues? has been produced as an introductory resource for those interested in learning more about REE mining and alternatives to meet demand...

  19. Rare Earth Element Partition Coefficients from Enstatite/Melt Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwandt, Craig S.; McKay, Gordon A.

    1997-01-01

    Enstatite (En(80)Fs(19)Wo(01)) was synthesized from a hypersthene normative basaltic melt doped at the same time with La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb and Lu. The rare earth element concentrations were measured in both the basaltic glass and the enstatite. Rare earth element concentrations in the glass were determined by electron microprobe analysis with uncertainties less than two percent relative. Rare earth element concentrations in enstatite were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry with uncertainties less than five percent relative. The resulting rare earth element partition signature for enstatite is similar to previous calculated and composite low-Ca pigeonite signatures, but is better defined and differs in several details. The partition coefficients are consistent with crystal structural constraints.

  20. Analysis for the rare-earth elements by neutron activation and Ge(Li) spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Denechaud; P. A. Helmke; L. A. Haskin

    1970-01-01

    A procedure for analysis of 12 of the rare-earths, tested on more than a hundred samples of rocks and minerals, is described.\\u000a Carrier is added for each element to be determined. Samples are fused with Na2O2. The rare-earths are separated as a group, then precipitated and mounted as oxalates for Ge(Li) spectrometry. Following radioassay,\\u000a chemical yields for the individual rare-earths

  1. FLUORESCENCE PROPERTIES OF As2S3 GLASS DOPED WITH RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Iovu; A. Andriesh; I. Culeac

    Chalcogenide glasses doped with various rare-earth ions are extensively studied as potential materials for fiber optic amplifiers operating at 1.3 and 1.5 ?m telecommunication windows. The experimental results on optical absorption and photoluminescence of arsenic sulfide glasses and optical fibers doped with rare-earth elements (Pr3+, Sm3+, Er3+ and Dy3+) are presented. Near the absorption edge the rare-earth impurities affect strongly

  2. Maria Goeppert Mayer's Theoretical Work on Rare-Earth and Transuranic Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Y. Wang

    2008-01-01

    After the discovery of element 93 neptunium by Edwin McMillan and Philip H. Abelson in 1941, Maria Goeppert Mayer applied the Thomas-Fermi model to calculate the electronic configuration of heavy elements and predicted the occurrence of a second rare-earth series in the vicinity of elements 91 or 92 extending to the transuranic elements. Mayer was motivated by Enrico Fermi, who

  3. Maria Goeppert Mayer's Theoretical Work on Rare-Earth and Transuranic Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Y. Wang

    2008-01-01

    After the discovery of element 93 neptunium by Edwin McMillan and Philip H.\\u000aAbelson in 1941, Maria Goeppert Mayer applied the Thomas-Fermi model to\\u000acalculate the electronic configuration of heavy elements and predicted the\\u000aoccurrence of a second rare-earth series in the vicinity of elements 91 or 92\\u000aextending to the transuranic elements. Mayer was motivated by Enrico Fermi, who

  4. Use of rare earth elements as external markers for mean retention time measurements in ruminants

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in ruminants Laurence BERNARD*, Michel DOREAU Unité de Recherche sur les Herbivores, INRA de Clermont -- The present review deals with the utilisation of rare earth (RE) elements as particulate markers for ruminant earth / retention time / feedstuff / methodology / ruminant Résumé -- Utilisation des terres rares comme

  5. Mechanochemical decomposition of monazite to assist the extraction of rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wantae Kim; Inkook Bae; Soochun Chae; Heeyoung Shin

    2009-01-01

    Mechanochemical decomposition by milling a mixture of monazite and sodium hydroxide powder and subsequent leaching by sulfuric acid for the extraction of rare earth elements at room temperature has been investigated. The milling of the mixture allows the mechanochemical formation of rare earth hydroxides and sodium phosphate as milling progresses. Nearly all the monazite is decomposed within 120min under the

  6. EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION OF YTTRIUM AND RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS FOUND IN EUXENITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gruzensky

    1960-01-01

    Studies relative to the separation of yttrium and the individual rare-; earth elements (lanthanons) from mixtures in which they occur was undertaken at ; the Federal Bureau of Mines Albany Metallurgy Research Center and resuited in the ; development of a solvent extraction method by which yttrium can be separated from ; the rare-earth metals. A separation factor of l0.93

  7. Separation of rare earth elements from sulfate leach liquor by heterocyclic nitrogen compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mahmoud GHADA; T. El Hazek NABIL; M. Farag AHMAD; M. El Hussaini OMNEYA

    2008-01-01

    Separation of rare earth elements by solvent extraction has actually been widely used in various fields from analytical chemistry to hydrometallurgy. A representative ore sample obtained from Kadabora Batholiths-Eastern Desert of Egypt, containing the multiple oxides rare earth minerals: Samarskite, Fergusonite, Betafite, and Pyrochlore, was subjected to sulfuric acid leaching. Different sets of equilibrium loading experiments were carried out on

  8. Use of GEOCHEM-PC to predict rare earth element (REE) species in nutrient solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Diatloff; C. J. Asher; F. W. Smith

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of results of some experiments examining effects of rare earth elements (REE) on plant growth may have been complicated by rare earth phosphate precipitation. Simulations were undertaken using the computer model GEOCHEM-PC to define REE solubility limits and predict REE species in low and high ionic strength nutrient solutions. In low ionic strength solutions containing 5 µM P,

  9. Input impedance and gain of monopole elements with disk ground planes on flat earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Weiner

    1990-01-01

    This paper extends previously reported results for a quarterwave monopole element on a disk ground plane in free space to the case where the disk ground plane rests on flat earth. Numerical results are obtained by utilizing Richmond's method of moments computer program for disk ground planes over flat earth.

  10. Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Anisotropy and Microstructure of Al-Li Alloy 2195 Sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Yue; Geng Jiping; Liu Yufeng

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of decreasing the applied limitation resulting from the anisotropic mechanical property of Al-Li alloy 2195, this study employed a complex heat treatment process, involving the pre-tension, thermo-infiltration of the rare earth element Ce, solution treatment, and artificial aging technology. The results indicate that the infiltration of rare earth element Ce benefits the abatement of anisotropy of Al-Li

  11. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel–metal–hydride batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo Rodrigues; Marcelo Borges Mansur

    2010-01-01

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2–10.9%), cobalt (5.1–5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3–29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium

  12. Research of the entry of rare earth elements Eu 3+ and La 3+ into plant cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongsheng Gao; Fuli Zeng; An Yi; Shi Ping; Lanhua Jing

    2003-01-01

    Whether rare earth elements can enter into plant cells remains controversial. This article discusses the ultracellular structural\\u000a localization of lanthanum (La3+) and europium (Eu3+) in the intact plant cells fed by rare earth elements Eu3+ and La3+. Eu-TTA fluorescence analysis of the plasmalemma, cytoplast, and mitochondria showed that Eu3+ fluorescence intensities in such structures significantly increased. Eu3+ can directly enter

  13. Sensitive detection of flame absorption spectra of rare-earth elements with a dye laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Maeda; F. Ishitsuka; M. Matsumoto; Y. Miyazoe

    1976-01-01

    The dye-laser amplified absorption method is applied to observe the atomic absorption lines of rare-earth elements in a nitrous-oxide-acetylene flame. All of the rare-earth elements except Pm are analyzed and about 1200 lines have been recorded within the continuous spectral region from 432 to 670 nm. A much larger number of absorption lines can be detected than those measured by

  14. Impurity Absorption Loss due to Rare Earth Elements in a Fluoride Glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasutake Ohishi; Seiko Mitachi; Shuichi Shibata; Toyotaka Manabe

    1981-01-01

    Optical spectra for each of the rare earth element doped BaF2-GdF3-ZrF4 glasses were measured. It was found that, in the 2-5 mum wavelength region, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb and Dy contribute to the absorption loss and the loss magnitude due to each rare earth element of lppmw is several tens of dB per kilometer at the absorption peaks. It

  15. Laser-induced luminescence of rare-earth elements in natural fluor-apatites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reisfeld; M. Gaft; G. Boulon; C. Panczer; C. K. Jørgensen

    1996-01-01

    The luminescence spectra of naturally occurring fluor-apatites containing traces of rare-earth elements have been compared with synthetic fluor-apatites to which single rare-earth elements have been intentionally added. Comparison of the laser-induced spectra obtained after different time delays allows identification of the following luminescence centers: Ce3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Er3+, Tm3+, Yb3+ and possibly Yb2+. The technique described

  16. Overview of the effects of impurities and rare earth elements in Al?Li alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Meng; X. L. Zheng

    1997-01-01

    The current status of the effects of impurities and rare earth elements on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of Al?Li alloys has been surveyed in the present paper. Particular attention has been paid to the mechanical properties in respect of different conditions and the mechanisms responsible for both impurity-induced embrittlement and rare earth element microalloying. Al?Li alloys usually show

  17. Fractionation of rare-earth metallofullerenes via reversible uptake and release from reactive silica.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Steven; Rottinger, Khristina A; Field, Jessica S

    2014-05-28

    Minimal research exists for non-chromatographic separations of rare-earth metallofullerenes containing di-metallic (M2), di-metallic carbide (M2C2), and tri-metallic nitride (M3N) clusters trapped inside fullerene cages. Herein, we demonstrate a non-HPLC method (i.e., SAFA, Stir and Filter Approach) for purifying Er3N@Ih-C80, a rare-earth, metallic nitride clusterfullerene. We describe a strategic method that chemically releases rare-earth metallofullerenes (e.g., M2@C2n, M3N@C2n) trapped by aminosilica during SAFA. Recovery of metallofullerenes from spent silica represents a "green approach" because the spent silica and its useful, immobilized rare-earth metallofullerenes would have been discarded as waste material. We observe selectivity during metallofullerene uptake to aminosilica and also during its release from spent silica via addition of CS2. We describe a procedure to obtain samples enriched in M2 and M3N endohedrals. M2C2n fractions from our SAFA release process contain a wide range of higher metallofullerenes (e.g., Gd2C90-Gd2C140 or Er2C76-Er2C122). It is facile to obtain samples enriched in M3N@C82-M3N@C92. Note that unreacted M3N@C80 remains in the filtrate. The strategy for handling rare-earth metallofullerenes with different degrees of reactivity toward aminosilica is also discussed. PMID:24522624

  18. Siderophile elements and metal-silicate fractionation in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.

    1994-01-01

    The most important nebular fractionation affecting the siderophile elements is the metal-silicate fractionation process and its relationship to the chondrule formation process is poorly understood. Understanding these processes is important in terms of understanding the expected compositional range for planetary building blocks. In a general way the composition of chondrites can be derived from the composition of the CI chondrites by addition or subtraction of a refractory component similar to CAI's (in some cases with a Mg2SiO4 component) and by addition or subtraction of Fe metal. Thus normalization to Fe produces the least spread in the normalized abundances of most siderophile elements relative to CI abundances. Detailed bulk chemical studies of chondrules have shown that their siderophile elements have refractory-element siderophile-element signatures (for example, Ir/Ni) that are similar to the bulk meteorites, but distinct among the different chondrite groups. This data suggests that the chondrules were not supplied to the chondrule groups from a single homogeneous source, and that each chondrite group's characteristic siderophile-element signature was established before chondrule formation. These authors make a further inference that all siderophile-lithophile-element fractionation occurred before chondrule formation, but recent discoveries and observations suggest this is not true. The discovery of the metal-rich CH meteorites, the recognition of the role of aerodynamic forces in the solar nebula, and the possible role of metal-silicate segregation during the chondrule formation process suggests that metal-silicate fractionation occurred before, during and after chondrule formation.

  19. Ligand extraction of rare earth elements from aquifer sediments: Implications for rare earth element complexation with organic matter in natural waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianwu Tang; Karen H. Johannesson

    2010-01-01

    The ability of organic matter as well as carbonate ions to extract rare earth elements (REEs) from sandy sediments of a Coastal Plain aquifer was investigated for unpurified organic matter from different sources (i.e., Mississippi River natural organic matter, Aldrich humic acid, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Suwannee River natural organic matter) and for extraction solutions

  20. Rare earth elements in hydrothermal systems: Estimates of standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous complexes of the rare earth elements at high pressures and temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson R. Haas; Everett L. Shock; David C. Sassani

    1995-01-01

    Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties including association constants for 246 inorganic aqueous rare earth element (REE) complexes with chloride, fluoride, hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and orthophosphate can be calculated at pressures from 1 to 5000 bars and temperatures from 0 to 1000°C, using experimental data from the literature and correlation algorithms. Predicted association constants for REE complexes are used

  1. Rare earth element abundances in rocks and minerals from the Fiskenaesset Complex, West Greenland. [comparison with lunar anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, P.; Fishlock, S. J.; Laul, J. C.; Cooper, T. D.; Conard, R. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports activation-analysis determinations of rare-earth-element (REE) and other trace-element concentrations in selected rocks, plagioclase, and mafic separates from the Fiskenaesset Complex. The REE abundances are found to be very low and atypical in comparison with other terrestrial anorthosites. The plagioclases are shown to be characterized by a deficiency in heavy RE elements relative to light ones and a positive Eu anomaly, while the mafic separates are enriched in heavy rare earths and have no Eu anomaly, except in one sample. It is found that the bulk and trace-element abundances of the plagioclases are similar to those observed in some lunar anorthosites, but the degree of Eu anomaly is less in the plagioclases. The data are taken as confirmation of the idea that fractionation processes were involved in the origin of the Complex, and it is concluded that the Complex may have been produced from a magma generated by partial melting of a garnet-bearing source.

  2. The leaching behaviour and geochemical fractionation of trace elements in hydraulically disposed weathered coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Nyale, Sammy M; Eze, Chuks P; Akinyeye, Richard O; Gitari, Wilson M; Akinyemi, Segun A; Fatoba, Olanrewaju O; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-01

    A five-step sequential extraction (SE) procedure was used to investigate the leaching behaviour and geochemical partitioning of the trace elements As, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mo, Cr and Cu in a 20-year-old fly ash (FA) dump. The weathered FA, which was hydraulically co-disposed with salt laden brine in slurry form (FA: brine ratio of 1:5), was analyzed and compared with fresh FA. The weathered FA samples were collected from three cores, drilled at a coal-fired power station in the Republic of South Africa while the fresh FA sample was collected from the hoppers in the ash collection system at the power station. The FA samples were sequentially leached using: ultrapure water; ammonium acetate buffer solution (pH 7); ammonium acetate buffer solution (pH 5); hydroxylamine hydrochloride in nitric acid (pH 2) and finally the residues were digested using a combination of HClO4: HF: HNO3 acids. Digestion of as received (unleached) FA samples was also done using a combination of HClO4: HF: HNO3 acids in order to determine the total metal content. The trace element analysis was done using ICP-OES (Varian 710-ES). The SE procedure revealed that the trace elements present in the fresh FA and the weathered FA samples obtained from the three cores could leach upon exposure to different environmental conditions. The trace elements showed continuous partitioning between five geochemical phases i.e., water soluble fraction, exchangeable fraction, carbonate fraction, Fe and Mn fraction and residual fraction. Although the highest concentration of the trace elements (ranging 65.51%-86.34%) was contained in the residual fraction, a considerable amount of each trace element (ranging 4.42%-27.43%) was released from the labile phases (water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate fractions), indicating that the trace species readily leach from the dumped FA under environmental conditions thus pose a danger to the receiving environment and to groundwater. PMID:24171424

  3. Rare earth element recycling from waste nickel-metal hydride batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuli; Zhang, Junwei; Fang, Xihui

    2014-08-30

    With an increase in number of waste nickel-metal hydride batteries, and because of the importance of rare earth elements, the recycling of rare earth elements is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate the effects of temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time to optimize leaching conditions and determine leach kinetics. The results indicate that an increase in temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time enhance the leaching rate of rare earth elements. A maximum rare earth elements recovery of 95.16% was achieved at optimal leaching conditions of 70°C, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, 20% hydrochloric acid concentration, -74?m particle size, and 100min leaching time. The experimental data were best fitted by a chemical reaction-controlled model. The activation energy was 43.98kJ/mol and the reaction order for hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.64. The kinetic equation for the leaching process was found to be: 1-(1-x)(1/3)=A/?r0[HCl](0.64)exp-439,8008.314Tt. After leaching and filtration, by adding saturated oxalic solution to the filtrate, rare earth element oxalates were obtained. After removing impurities by adding ammonia, filtering, washing with dilute hydrochloric acid, and calcining at 810°C, a final product of 99% pure rare earth oxides was obtained. PMID:25089667

  4. Project EARTH-11-RK2: Magma dynamics: Trace element transport in simulations of channelised

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    of magmatic channelisation, both in terms of the fluid dynamics and trace element transport. Since the scale activity of the project will be the development and analysis of mathematical/computational modelsProject EARTH-11-RK2: Magma dynamics: Trace element transport in simulations of channelised

  5. Acid extractable rare earth elements in Florida citrus soils and trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz K. Wutscher; Robert E. Perkins

    1993-01-01

    To determine the levels of elements not usually included in soil analyses, aqua regia extracts from 10 soils in eight locations throughout the Florida citrus belt were analyzed for 14 rare earth elements (lanthanides), scandium, and yttrium with an IGP spectrophotometer. Leaves, bark, wood, and roots of citrus trees growing at two of the sampling locations, a fertilizer (14% N?l.7%

  6. Determination of rare earth elements in rice by INAA and ICP-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pham Thi Huynh; F. Carrot; S. Chu Pham Ngoc; M. Dang Vu; G. Revel

    1997-01-01

    Irrigation of rice plants with a solution of rare earth elements increases both the production capacity and the resistance to disease. Assuming that the treated plants remain expendable, the different parts of plants, root stalk and grain, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and by mass spectrometry after plasma excitation (ICP-MS). About 40 elements were determined. The results

  7. Rare earth element evidence for differentiation of McMurdo volcanics, Ross Island, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shen-Su Sun; Gilbert N. Hanson

    1976-01-01

    Eighteen samples of the McMurdo volcanics on Ross Island, Antarctica consisting of basanitoid, trachybasalt and phonolite have been analyzed for rare earth elements (REE) in order to determine the details of differentiation using quantitative trace element modeling. The basanitoids have REE patterns similar to those for alkali basalts or nephelinites from ocean islands. Since there is no correlation between REE

  8. Matrix Elements and Operator Equivalents Connected with the Magnetic Properties of Rare Earth Ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K W H Stevens; K. W. H

    1952-01-01

    An account is given of the methods used to determine the matrix elements of crystal field potentials with particular reference to rare earth ions. Emphasis is laid on the importance of Wigner coefficients in such problems and the idea of using equivalent angular momentum operators is developed. For convenience in applying the results tables of matrix elements are included.

  9. Rare earth element behavior in the development of energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.

    1984-04-02

    The REE patterns in soil-soil extract-plant-coal-flyash are all identical, show a negative Eu anomaly, and follow a smooth function of the REE ionic radii. The patterns are similar to that observed in the secondary mineral apatite. Their enrichment factors in various liquefaction products and ash depositories of a coal fired power plant are nearly unity (Class 1). The REE do not chemically fractionate even in size fractions 25 ..mu..m-0.5 ..mu..m of flyash. Almost all (99%) of the REE are bound in an inorganic form in high temperature clay minerals. The remarkable similarity in REE patterns in a wide variety of matrices with REE content varying over six orders of magnitude demonstrates that the REE do not significantly fractionate during transformation from the geological-biological-geological chain over geological time scales.

  10. Study on Orbital Decay of Near Earth Satellites with KS Orthogonal Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ps, Sandeep

    STUDY ON ORBITAL DECAY OF NEAR EARTH SATELLITES WITH KS ORTHOGONAL ELEMENTS SANDEEP P S The knowledge of satellite orbit decay and its expected life prior to launch is necessary for mission planning purpose. Several sets of data for various parametric studies is sought quite often, it is necessary to minimize computational time involved for generating decay predictions, keeping the prediction accuracy normally good. A number of factors play dominant role in perturbation modelling for near earth satellites such as oblateness of the Earth, presence of the atmosphere, luni-solar attraction and solar radiation pressure. This paper concerns with the study of orbital decay of near earth satellites with KS orthogonal elements, which provide accurate orbit predictions at low computational time. Perturbations considered are due to oblateness of the Earth and the atmospheric drag. The Earth’s zonal harmonic terms J2 to J6 are included and the drag is modeled with an analytical diurnally oblate atmosphere. Effect of Earth’s geomagnetic and solar activity is included in density and density scale height computations. JACCHIA77 atmospheric model is utilized. The developed software is validated with the orbital data of decayed objects taken from www.space-track.org.

  11. Elemental fractionation of glass using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Figg, D. [CST-9, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico, 87545 (United States)] [CST-9, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Kahr, M.S. [CST-9, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico, 87545 (United States)] [CST-9, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico, 87545 (United States); [Orbital Sciences Corporation, 2771 North Garey Ave., Pomona, California 91767 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Three laser wavelengths (1064, 532, and 266 nm) were employed for laser ablation at varied laser pulse energies to study the effect of irradiance and wavelength upon analytical results for laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Two important results were observed and are reported here: (1) the intensity of the MS signal came to a local minimum when the laser focal point was on the sample surface, and (2) elemental fractionation based upon laser wavelength and laser pulse energy was observed. For the waste glass simulant studied, ablation with 1064-nm (IR) and 532-nm (green) radiation produced elemental fractionation that relates to the melting point of the elemental oxide, whereas with 266-nm (UV) ablation the response was independent of the elemental oxide melting point. At high laser powers, ablation at 266 nm produced an elemental bias based upon the mass of the elements. These observations suggest the use of ultraviolet radiation at low pulse energies to obtain improved analytical results. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  12. Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A. Blundred

    2012-01-01

    In this collection of 13 interactive Flash applets learners can check their understanding of various fraction concepts, including comparison to 1/2, location on the number line, equivalent fractions, and simplest form. Activities for the learners include sorting, labeling, constructing diagrams, and converting improper fractions. Displays are suitable for classroom demonstrations.

  13. A programme for electron-impact broadening parameter calculations of ionized rare-earth element lines

    E-print Network

    L. C. Popovic; M. S. Dimitrijevic

    1998-05-15

    In order to provide atomic data needed for astrophysical investigations, a set of electron-impact broadening parameters for ionized rare-earth element lines should be calculated. We are going to calculate the electron-impact broadening parameters for more than 50 transitions of ionized rare-earth elements. Taking into account that the spectra of these elements are very complex, for calculation we can use the modified semiempirical approach - MSE or simplified MSE. Also, we can estimate these parameters on the basis of regularities and systematic trends.

  14. Experimental productivity rate optimization of rare earth element separation through preparative solid phase extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Hans-Kristian; Max-Hansen, Mark; Jönsson, Christian; Borg, Niklas; Nilsson, Bernt

    2014-06-27

    Separating individual rare earth elements from a complex mixture with several elements is difficult and this is emphasized for the middle elements: Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium. In this study we have accomplished an overloaded one-step separation of these rare earth elements through preparative ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with an bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid impregnated column and nitric acid as eluent. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry unit was used for post column element detection. The main focus was to optimize the productivity rate, subject to a yield requirement of 80% and a purity requirement of 99% for each element, by varying the flow rate and batch load size. The optimal productivity rate in this study was 1.32kgSamarium/(hmcolumn(3)), 0.38kgEuropium/(hmcolumn(3)) and 0.81kgGadolinium/(hmcolumn(3)). PMID:24835593

  15. Rare earth element concentrations and speciation in organic-rich blackwaters of the Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia, USA

    E-print Network

    Burdige, David

    Rare earth element concentrations and speciation in organic-rich blackwaters of the Great Dismal Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), major inorganic solutes, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were crustal (UCC) values. Rare earths are positively correlated to DOC concentrations in Great Dismal Swamp

  16. Concentrations of Elements in Sediments and Selective Fractions of Sediments, and in Natural Waters in Contact with Sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Washington, September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Wagner, Richard J.; Sanzolone, Richard F.; Cox, Steven E.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-eight composite and replicate sediment samples from 8 Lake Roosevelt sites were collected and analyzed for 10 alkali and alkaline earth elements, 2 non-metals, 20 metals, and 4 lanthanide and actinide elements. All elements were detected in all sediment samples except for silver (95 percent of the elements detected for 1,008 analyses), which was detected only in 4 samples. Sequential selective extraction procedures were performed on single composite samples from the eight sites. The percentage of detections for the 31 elements analyzed ranged from 76 percent for the first extraction fraction using a weak extractant to 93 percent for the four-acid dissolution of the sediments remaining after the third sequential selective extraction. Water samples in various degrees of contact with the sediment were analyzed for 10 alkali and alkaline earth elements, 5 non-metals, 25 metals, and 16 lanthanide and actinide elements. The filtered water samples included 10 samples from the reservoir water column at 8 sites, 32 samples of porewater, 55 samples from reservoir water overlying sediments in 8 cores from the site incubated in a field laboratory, and 24 water samples that were filtered after being tumbled with sediments from 8 sites. Overall, the concentrations of only 37 percent of the 6,776 analyses of the 121 water samples were greater than the reporting limit. Selenium, bismuth, chromium, niobium, silver, and zirconium were not detected in any water samples. The percentage of concentrations for the water samples that were above the reporting limit ranged from 14 percent for the lanthanide and actinide elements to 77 percent for the alkali and alkaline earth elements. Concentrations were greater than reporting limits in only 23 percent of the analyses of reservoir water and 29 percent of the analyses of reservoir water overlying incubation cores. In contrast, 47 and 48 percent of the concentrations of porewater and water samples tumbled with sediments, respectively, were greater than the reporting limit.

  17. Comparison of Highly Siderophile Elements Between Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.

    2007-07-01

    The similarity in HSE ratios and the very systematic compatible-incompatible element behaviour of IIIAB irons, pallasitic metal and the martian crust strongly supports a genetic link between these meteorites and the HSE component of the martian crust.

  18. Parameter estimation for the generalized fractional element network Zener model based on the Bayesian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wenping; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Qi, Haitao

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, an inverse problem to estimate parameters in the Zener model of viscoelasticity based on the generalized fractional element (GFE) network is studied. The Bayesian method is proposed to obtain the optimal estimation of the viscoelastic parameters. Three examples are performed to certify the validity of the method. All numerical results lead to an excellent fitting between the calculative results and experimental data. It is shown that the Bayesian method is feasible in the inverse problem of parameter estimation for the fractional constitutive equation, and the GFE network Zener model is efficient in the modeling of the viscoelastic behavior.

  19. A predictive model for rare earth element partitioning between clinopyroxene and anhydrous silicate melt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard J. Wood; Jonathan D. Blundy

    1997-01-01

    We present a quantitative model to describe the partitioning of rare earth elements (REE) and Y between clinopyroxene and\\u000a anhydrous silicate melt as a function of pressure (P), temperature (T) and bulk composition (X). The model is based on the Brice (1975) equation, which relates the partition coefficient of element i (D\\u000a \\u000a i\\u000a ) to that of element o (D

  20. Rare earth elements as indicators of different marine depositional environments in chert and shale

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.W.; Jones, D.L. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); Bruchholtz ten Brink, M.R.; Gerlach, D.C.; Russ, G.P. III (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Differences in rare earth element (REE) relative fractionations and total abundances in marine cherts and shales reflect the depositional location of the sediments. Based on cerium anomaly (Ce/Ce{asterisk}) and total REE abundance ({Sigma}REE) variations preserved in interbedded chert and shale sequences of the Franciscan assemblage, the Claremont Formation, and the Monterey Formation of coastal California, we can resolve three depositional regimes: spreading ridge proximal, ocean-basin floor, and continental margin. This resolution of depositional environment, previously unattainable in otherwise physically indistinct marine sedimentary rocks, provides a potentially powerful new tool for tectonic and stratigraphic reconstructions. Chert and shale deposited near the spreading ridge (within {approximately} 400 km) under the influence of metalliferous activity are characterized by extremely low Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce{asterisk} {approximately} 0.29), those from an ocean-basin floor setting by well-developed yet less extreme Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce{asterisk} {approximately} 0.55), and those from continental margin regimes by no or slight anomalies (Ce/Ce{asterisk} {approximately} 0.90 to 1.30). {Sigma}REE in chert and shale are extremely low in regimes greatly influenced by continental input, owing to the high sedimentation rats, which minimizes exposure time to seawater and, thus, the adsorption of REE. Preliminary results indicate that the effect of diagenesis does not mask the primary REE depositional signature.

  1. Modeling of rare-earth element partitioning between particles and solution in aquatic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Erel, Y.; Stolper, E.M. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The authors have modeled the partitioning of rare earth elements (REEs) between O-donor surface groups and aqueous solutions with a simple thermodynamic treatment. Their model predicts that the La-normalized ratios of adsorbed to dissolved REEs depend primarily on the first hydroxide binding contants of the REEs, their first and second carbonate complexing constants, and the ionic strength and carbonate concentration of the solution. For modern and for ancient seawater, they predict an overall light REE (LREE) enrichment of surfaces relative to coexisting aqueous solutions and a positive Eu anomaly in the adsorbed component. The REE pattern of average modern ocean water can be explained quantitatively if the oceans are equilibrated with particle surfaces having REE patterns similar to average upper continental crust. Applying their treatment to the REE patterns of sediments from the Archean Hamersley-basin iron formation, they show that the observed positive Eu anomalies and LREE depletions of these rocks can be qualitatively accounted for if a significant fraction of the REEs in these rocks were initially present as an adsorbed component equilibrated with Archean ocean water that had no Eu anomaly. This suggests that the sources of REEs in the Archean ocean could have been dominantly continental as they are today and that the observed positive Eu anomalies of banded iron formations need not be inherited from the aqueous solutions from which they were deposited and do not necessarily indicate a significant ocean hydrothermal component in these solutions. 42 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Rare earth element partitioning between hydrous ferric oxides and acid mine water during iron oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ferrous iron rapidly oxidizes to Fe (III) and precipitates as hydrous Fe (III) oxides in acid mine waters. This study examines the effect of Fe precipitation on the rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of acid mine waters to determine the pH range over which REEs behave conservatively and the range over which attenuation and fractionation occur. Two field studies were designed to investigate REE attenuation during Fe oxidation in acidic, alpine surface waters. To complement these field studies, a suite of six acid mine waters with a pH range from 1.6 to 6.1 were collected and allowed to oxidize in the laboratory at ambient conditions to determine the partitioning of REEs during Fe oxidation and precipitation. Results from field experiments document that even with substantial Fe oxidation, the REEs remain dissolved in acid, sulfate waters with pH below 5.1. Between pH 5.1 and 6.6 the REEs partitioned to the solid phases in the water column, and heavy REEs were preferentially removed compared to light REEs. Laboratory experiments corroborated field data with the most solid-phase partitioning occurring in the waters with the highest pH. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rare earth element chemistry of zircon and its use as a provenance indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, Paul W. O.; Ireland, Trevor R.

    2000-07-01

    Sedimentary mineral assemblages commonly contain detrital zircon crystals as part of the heavy-mineral fraction. Age spectra determined by U-Pb isotopic analysis of single zircon crystals within a sample may directly image the age composition—but not the chemical composition—of the source region. Rare earth element (REE) abundances have been measured for zircons from a range of common crustal igneous rock types from different tectonic environments, as well as kimberlite, carbonatite, and high-grade metamorphic rocks, to assess the potential of using zircon REE characteristics to infer the rock types present in sediment source regions. Except for zircon with probable mantle affinities, zircon REE abundances and normalized patterns show little intersample and intrasample variation. To evaluate the actual variation in detrital zircon REE composition in a true sediment of known mixed provenance, zircons from a sandstone sample from the Statfjord Formation (North Sea) were analyzed. Despite a provenance including high-grade metasediment and granitoids and a range in zircon age of 2.82 b.y., the zircon REEs exhibit a narrow abundance range with no systematic differences in pattern shape. These evidences show zircon REE patterns and abundances are generally not useful as indicators of provenance.

  4. Experimental investigations of trace element fractionation in iron meteorites. III - Elemental partitioning in the system Fe-Ni-S-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malvin, D. J.; Jones, J. H.; Drake, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of solid metal/liquid metal trace element partition coefficients, which are used to interpret the crystallization history of magmatic iron meteorite groups differ greatly between different research groups, using different experimental techniques. Specifically, partition coefficients measured utilizing 'static' experiments which approach equilibrium cannot be reconciled with the results of 'dynamic' experiments which mimic fractional crystallization. We report new tests of our 'static' experimental technique and demonstrate that our methodology yields reliable equilibrium values for Ni, P and Ge partition coefficients. Partition coefficients in the Fe-Ni-S-P system are well matched by interpolation between the Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-P subsystems. In contrast, the predictions of 'dynamic' experiments do not agree with our measurements and, consequently, the ability of 'dynamic' experiments to reproduce iron meteorite Ge vs. Ni fractionation trends successfully must be regarded as fortuitous.

  5. Advances in Understanding Elements of the Sun—Earth Links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Rozelot; Sandrine Lefebvre

    2006-01-01

    The study of the Sun–Earth connections is a science in full effervescence, as much as for the physical problems that arise\\u000a as for its growing impact on our societies. This last case is illustrated by the emergence of a new field of research called\\u000a Space Weather. The launch of this new concept (translated in French by météorologie de l’espace) deserves

  6. Extension of lattice strain theory to mineral/mineral rare-earth element partitioning: An approach for assessing disequilibrium

    E-print Network

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    Extension of lattice strain theory to mineral/mineral rare-earth element partitioning: An approach a Department of Earth Science, MS-126, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA b Earth 2006; accepted in revised form 20 September 2006 Abstract Olivine/melt and orthopyroxene/melt rare-earth

  7. Determination and size-fractional distribution of the elements in garlic.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbei; Inagaki, Kazumi; Haraguchi, Hiroki; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Thirty elements in garlic sample were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after microwave digestion. The concentrations of K, Ca,Na, Sr, and Hg in the present garlic sample were higher than those in rice and wheat, but the concentration of Se in the garlic sample was relatively lower. The extractability of the elements in the garlic sample was also examined; the results showed that most of the elements could be easily extracted by pure water and/or a 0.1 M HNO(3) solution, except for Hg. Furthermore, the size-fractional distribution of the elements in garlic was investigated by pure water extraction and centrifugal ultrafiltration. PMID:19139589

  8. Fractional Snowcover Estimates from Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua missions has shown considerable capability for mapping snowcover. The typical approach that has used, along with other criteria, the Normalized Snow Difference Index (NDSI) that takes the difference between 500 meter observations at 1.64 micrometers (MODIS band 6) and 0.555 micrometers (MODIS band 4) over the sum of these observations to determine whether MODIS pixels are snowcovered or not in mapping the extent of snowcover. For many hydrological and climate studies using remote sensing of snowcover, it is desirable to assess if the MODIS snowcover observations could not be enhanced by providing the fraction of snowcover in each MODIS observation (pixel). Pursuant to this objective studies have been conducted to assess whether there is sufficient "signal%o in the NDSI parameter to provide useful estimates of fractional snowcover in each MODIS 500 meter pixel. To accomplish this objective high spatial resolution (30 meter) Landsat snowcover observations were used and co-registered with MODIS 500 meter pixels. The NDSI approach was used to assess whether a Landsat pixel was or was not snowcovered. Then the number of snowcovered Landsat pixels within a MODIS pixel was used to determine the fraction of snowcover within each MODIS pixel. The e results were then used to develop statistical relationships between the NDSI value for each 500 meter MODIS pixel and the fraction of snowcover in the MODIS pixel. Such studies were conducted for three widely different areas covered by Landsat scenes in Alaska, Russia, and the Quebec Province in Canada. The statistical relationships indicate that a 10 percent accuracy can be attained. The variability in the statistical relationship for the three areas was found to be remarkably similar (-0.02 for mean error and less than 0.01 for mean absolute error and standard deviation). Independent tests of the relationships were accomplished by taking the relationship of fractional snow-cover to NDSI from one area (e.g., Alaska) and testing it on the other two areas (e.g. Russia and Quebec). Again the results showed that fractional snow-cover can be estimated to 10 percent. The results have been shown to have advantages over other published fractional snowcover algorithms applied to MODIS data. Most recently the fractional snow-cover algorithm has been applied using 500-meter observations over the state of Colorado for a period spanning 25 days. The results exhibit good behavior in mapping the spatial and temporal variability in snowcover over that 25-day period. Overall these studies indicate that robust estimates of fractional snow-cover can be attained using the NDSI parameter over areas extending in size from watersheds relatively large compared to MODIS pixels to global land cover. Other refinements to this approach as well as different approaches are being examined for mapping fractional snow-cover using MODIS observations.

  9. Research of the entry of rare earth elements Eu3+ and La3+ into plant cell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongsheng; Zeng, Fuli; Yi, An; Ping, Shi; Jing, Lanhua

    2003-03-01

    Whether rare earth elements can enter into plant cells remains controversial. This article discusses the ultracellular structural localization of lanthanum (La(3+)) and europium (Eu(3+)) in the intact plant cells fed by rare earth elements Eu(3+) and La(3+). Eu-TTA fluorescence analysis of the plasmalemma, cytoplast, and mitochondria showed that Eu(3+) fluorescence intensities in such structures significantly increased. Eu(3+) can directly enter or be carried by the artificial ion carrier A23187 into plant cells through the calcium ion (Ca(2+)) channel and then partially resume the synthesis of amaranthin in the Amaranthus caudatus growing in the dark. Locations of rare earth elements La(3+) and Eu(3+) in all kinds of components of cytoplasmatic organelles were determined with transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The results of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicated that Eu(3+) and La(3+) can be absorbed into plant cells and bind to the membranes of protoplasm, chloroplast, mitochondrion, cytoplast, and karyon. These results provide experimental evidence that rare earth elements can be absorbed into plant cells, which would be the basis for interpreting physiological and biochemical effects of rare earth elements on plant cells. PMID:12663949

  10. The igneous crystallization history of an ancient Martian meteorite from rare earth element microdistributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1998-07-01

    Rare earth element (REE) and other selected trace and minor element concentrations were measured in individual grains of orthopyroxene, feldspathic glass (of plagioclase composition) and whitlockite of the ALH84001 martian meteorite. Unlike in other martian meteorites, phosphate is not the main REE carrier in ALH84001. The REE pattern of ALH84001 bulk rock is dependent on the modal abundances of three REE-bearing phases, i.e., orthopyroxene (which contains most of the HREEs), feldspathic glass (which dominates the Eu abundances) and whitlockite (which contains the majority of the LREEs). Variations in the REE abundances previously observed in different splits of ALH84001 can easily be explained in terms of small variations in the modal abundances of these three minerals, without the need to invoke extensive redistribution of LREEs. At least some orthopyroxenes (i.e., those away from contacts with feldspathic glass) in ALH84001 appear to have preserved their original REE zonation from igneous fractionation. Estimate of the ALH84001 parent magma composition from that of the unaltered orthopyroxene `core' (i.e., zoned orthopyroxene with the lowest REE abundances) indicates that it is LREE-depleted. This implies that the martian mantle was already partly depleted within ~100 Ma of solar system formation, consistent with rapid accretion and differentiation of Mars. Although equilibration and exchange of REEs between phases (in particular, transport of LREEs into the interstitial phases, feldspathic glass and whitlockite) cannot be ruled out, our data suggest that the LREE-enrichment in melts `in equilibrium' with these interstitial phases is most likely the result of late-stage infiltration of the cumulate pile by a LREE-enriched melt.

  11. Comparative study of yttrium and rare-earth element behaviours in fluorine-rich hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bau, Michael; Dulski, Peter

    1995-03-01

    The mineral ‘fluorite’ is utilized as a probe to investigate the behaviour of the pseudolanthanide yttrium with respect to the lanthanides (rare-earth elements, REE) in fluorine-rich hydrothermal solutions. Hydrothermal vein fluorites are characterized by the close association of Y and REE, but in contrast to igneous and clastic rocks they show variable and non-chondritic Y/Ho ratios of up to 200. This suggests that Y and Ho, although similar in charge and size, may be fractionated in fluorine-rich medium-temperature aqueous fluids. In such solutions Y acts as a pseudolanthanide heavier than Lu. Y/Ho ratios of hydrothermal siderites are slightly below those of chondrites, suggesting that in (bi)carbonate-rich siderite-precipitating solutions Y may act as a Sm-like light pseudolanthanide. This indicates that Y-Ho fractionation is not a source-related phenomenon but depends on fluid composition. Based on these results it is strongly recommended that discussions of normalized REE patterns in general should be extended to normalized Rare-Earth-and-Yttrium (REY) patterns (Y inserted between Dy and Ho), because the slightly variable behaviour of the pseudolanthanide yttrium with respect to the REE may provide additional geochemical information. Available thermodynamic data suggest a negative correlation between Y/Ho and La/Ho during migration of a fluorite-precipitating hydrothermal solution. Cogenetic fluorites, therefore, should display either similar Y/Ho and similar La/Ho ratios, or a negative correlation between these ratios. This criterion may help to choose samples suitable for Sm-Nd isotopic studies prior to isotope analysis. However, in cogenetic hydrothermal vein fluorites the range of Y/Ho ratios is often almost negligible compared to the range of La/Ho ratios. This may be explained by modification of REE distributions by post-precipitation processes involving (partial) loss of a separate LREE-enriched phase. The presence of variable amounts of such an accessory phase in most fluorite samples is revealed by experiments employing stepwise incomplete fluorite decomposition. Fluorites derived from and deposited near to igneous rocks apparently display chondritic Y/Ho ratios close to those of their igneous source-rocks. However, a positive YSN anomaly is likely to develop as the distance between sites of REY mobilization and deposition increases.

  12. Distribution Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements in Children's Scalp Hair from a Rare Earths Mining Area in Southern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Lu Tong; Wang-Zhao Zhu; Zhao-Hua Gao; Yu-Xiu Meng; Rui-Ling Peng; Guo-Cheng Lu

    2004-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the validity of using scalp hair rare earth elements (REEs) content as a biomarker of human REEs exposure, data were collected on REEs exposure levels from children aged 11–15 years old and living in an ion-adsorptive type light REEs (LREEs) mining and surrounding areas in southern China. Sixty scalp hair samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for

  13. Rare earth element oxides for tracing sediment movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. O. Polyakov; M. A. Nearing

    2004-01-01

    The development of soil conservation plans and evaluation of spatially distributed erosion models require knowledge of rates of soil loss and sedimentation on different landscape elements and slope positions. Characterization of soil erosion rates and patterns within watersheds is important for the understanding of erosion processes and landscape evolution. Experimental data that show spatial translocation of soil on slopes are

  14. Rare earth element mobility in the Roffna Gneiss, Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Vocke; Gilbert N. Hanson; Marc Griinenfelder

    1987-01-01

    The Roffna Gneiss, a deformed Hercynian granite porphyry within the Penninic nappes of eastern Switzerland, underwent extreme cataclasis with the progressive development of phengite towards the margins of the nappe under conditions of the glaucophane schist to greenschist facies. This resulted in the selective mobilization of major and trace elements over distances of 10's to 100's of meters and the

  15. RARE EARTH ELEMENT OXIDES FOR TRACING SEDIMENT MOVEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of soil conservation plans and evaluation of spatially distributed erosion models require knowledge of rates of soil loss and sedimentation on different landscape elements and slope positions. Characterization of soil erosion rates and patterns within watersheds is important for the ...

  16. The variation of REE (rare earth elements) patterns in soil-grown plants: a new proxy for the source of rare earth elements and silicon in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FengFu Fu; Tasuku Akagi; Sadayo Yabuki; Masaya Iwaki

    2001-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) in five species of soil-grown plants (Taxodium japonicum, Populus sieboldii, Sasa nipponica, Thea sinensis and Vicia villosa) and in the soil on which each plant grew were determined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) in order to observe the variation in the distribution of REEs and to elucidate their source in soil-grown plants. The

  17. Rare-earth element distribution characteristics of biological chains in rare-earth element-high background regions and their implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhang; Jia Feng; Weifang Zhu; Congqiang Liu; Dongsen Wu; Wenjiao Yang; Jianghong Gu

    2000-01-01

    The rare-earth element (REE) contents of water and vegetables from two typical REE-high background regions and a normal region\\u000a in Gannan, Jiangxi Province, indicated that the REE contents were significantly different from those of water and vegetables,\\u000a respectively. The average values are 0.03 mg\\/L and 0.11 mg\\/L REE for water from regions A and B. As the REE contents of

  18. Determination of rare earth elements in Camellia oleifera seeds from rare earth elements mining areas in Southern Jiangxi, China by ICP-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dingjian Cai; Yu-kui Rui

    For detection and analysis of the potential accumulation of rare earth elements (REE) in food products originating from REE\\u000a mining area the REE content of Camellia\\u000a oleifera seeds from these area was determined by ICP-MS; the results for limits of detection of REE (mostly lower than 3.00 ng\\/L)\\u000a and the relative standard deviation (1.97–11.7 %) for 10 REE demonstrate the significance of

  19. Geochemistry of the rare-earth elements in hypersaline and dilute acidic natural terrestrial waters: Complexation behavior and middle rare-earth element enrichments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin H. Johannesson; W. Berry Lyons; Mary A. Yelken; Henri E. Gaudette; Klaus J. Stetzenbach

    1996-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) speciation was modelled in acid (2.9 ? pH ? 3.5), hypersaline groundwaters from Australia and from the Palo Duro Basin in Texas, USA, using a combined specific ion interaction (Pitzer model) and ion pairing model. The free metal ion species (i.e. Ln3+) is the dominant form of dissolved REEs in these systems, accounting for 40–70% of the

  20. [Study on speciation and fractionation of rare earth eleinents in surface sediments in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jun; Lai, Zi-Juan; Liu, Ying

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper, BCR sequential extraction and high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) were performed to analyze the speciation contents of 14 kinds of rare earth elements (REE) in the surface sediments from 12 sampling sites (S1-S12) in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of Yellow River, and REE fractionation were also studied. The results indicated that the contents of REE in 12 sediment samples werethe same order. The average contents of 14 rare earth elements were in this order: Ce(66.4)>La(35.8)>Nd(28.6)>Pr(7.88)>Sm(5.87) >Gd(5.01)>Dy (4.53)>Yb(2.86)>Er(2.51)>Eu(1.31)>Ho(0.856)>Tb(0.760)>Tm(0.428)>Lu(0.404), which were similar to the Chinese soil background. The residual fractions of all elements were present at the highest percentages(71.9%-93.9%), which indicated that the bioavailability or environmental impact was low. The percentage of reducible fraction was the lowest, ranged from 0. 20% to 3. 87% with the mean value of 0.83%, while the oxidizable fraction percentage(7.61%) was close to acid-soluble fraction(7.69%). But in Maqu (S12), oxidizable percentage (16.1%) was significantly higher than the acid-soluble fraction (1.73%). Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) content and oxidizable percentage, and the correlation coefficients were between 0.763 and 0.914. REE fractionation results showed that: the contents of REE in surface sediments of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of Yellow River were mainly from soil weathering, with light-REE enrichment and Eu depletion. The chondrite-normalized curve implied that La and Ce in Jinshawan (S8) and Baotou-Dengkou (S1) and heavy REE at all the sampling points might have external REE sources. PMID:23705457

  1. Laser photolysis of complexes of etioporphyrin I with rare-Earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Pyatosin; M. P. Tsvirko; K. N. Solov'ev; T. F. Kachura

    1981-01-01

    gate nonluminescent complexes also. We undertook an investigation of the spectra and kinetics of induced absorption in complexes of porphyrins with rare-earth elements with a nanosecond laser-photolysis unit. In the present communication, we present the results of an investigation of rare-earth complexes of etioporphyrin I. Excitation was carried out with the second harmonic of an LTI PCh-7 neodymium laser. A

  2. Sol-Gel synthesis of an optical silica glass doped with rare-earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Khimich; G. M. Berdichevskii; E. N. Poddenezhnyi; V. V. Golubkov; A. A. Boiko; V. M. Ken’ko; O. B. Evreinov; L. A. Koptelova

    2007-01-01

    An optical quality silica glass doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Lu3+ ions is synthesized by the sol-gel method. Virtually unavoidable clusterization of rare-earth elements that occurs upon introduction\\u000a of lanthanide salts into a sol-gel system and leads to concentration quenching of luminescence of the glass is eliminated\\u000a through the use of rare-earth phosphate complexes that are chemically bound to the

  3. Rare earth elements and the petrogenesis of aubrites

    SciTech Connect

    Floss, C.; Crozaz, G. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA)); Strait, M.M. (Alma College, MI (USA))

    1990-12-01

    REE measurements in the Bishopville aubrite confirm that oldhamite (CaS) is the dominant REE carrier, while most other phases, including the major silicates, are extremely REE-depleted. In oldhamite, a variety of REE patterns are observed, which could not have been produced during crystallization from a single fractionating magma. Although the aubrites have clearly undergone igneous processing, oldhamite (which is highly refractory) may be a relict phase. In this case, whole-rock REE data cannot provide information on the igneous evolution of these meteorites.

  4. Geochemistry of ultrahigh-pressure anatexis: fractionation of elements in the Kokchetav gneisses during melting at diamond-facies conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Aleksandr S.; Hermann, Joerg; Korsakov, Andrey V.; Rubatto, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    The Kokchetav complex in Kazakhstan contains garnet-bearing gneisses that formed by partial melting of metasedimentary rocks at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) conditions. Partial melting and melt extraction from these rocks is documented by a decrease in K2O and an increase in FeO + MgO in the restites. The most characteristic trace element feature of the Kokchetav UHP restites is a strong depletion in light rare earth elements (LREE), Th and U. This is attributed to complete dissolution of monazite/allanite in the melt and variable degree of melt extraction. In contrast, Zr concentrations remain approximately constant in all gneisses. Using experimentally determined solubilities of LREE and Zr in high-pressure melts, these data constrain the temperature of melting to ~1,000 °C. Large ion lithophile elements (LILE) are only moderately depleted in the samples that have the lowest U, Th and LREE contents, indicating that phengite retains some LILE in the residue. Some restites display an increase in Nb/Ta with respect to the protolith. This further suggests the presence of phengite, which, in contrast to rutile, preferentially incorporates Nb over Ta. The trace element fractionation observed during UHP anatexis in the Kokchetav gneisses is significantly different from depletions reported in low-pressure restites, where generally no LREE and Th depletion occurs. Melting at UHP conditions resulted in an increase in the Sm/Nd ratio and a decoupling of the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf systems in the restite. Further subduction of such restites and mixing with mantle rocks might thus lead to a distinct isotopic reservoir different from the bulk continental crust.

  5. Chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in aquatic plants of the Yenisei River.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    The Yenisei River is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian nuclear plants. The aquatic plants growing in the radioactively contaminated parts of the river contain artificial radionuclides. The aim of the study was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides and stable elements by submerged plants of the Yenisei River and estimate the strength of their binding to plant biomass by using a new sequential extraction scheme. The aquatic plants sampled were: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Batrachium kauffmanii. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of the samples of aquatic plants has revealed more than 20 radionuclides. We also investigated the chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in the biomass and rated radionuclides and stable elements based on their distribution in biomass. The greatest number of radionuclides strongly bound to biomass cell structures was found for Potamogeton lucens and the smallest for Batrachium kauffmanii. For Fontinalis antipyretica, the number of distribution patterns that were similar for both radioactive isotopes and their stable counterparts was greater than for the other studied species. The transuranic elements (239)Np and (241)Am were found in the intracellular fraction of the biomass, and this suggested their active accumulation by the plants. PMID:21815683

  6. Vanadium oxide bronzes containing rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, V.L.; Zubkov, V.G.; Fedyukov, A.S.; Zainulin, Yu.G.

    1988-05-01

    We attempted to make phases having the general formula Ln/sub x/V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (Ln = La, Eu, Yb) without success; the specimens usually consisted of three phases: the rare-earth orthovanadate LnVO/sub 4/, vanadium(V) oxide, and VO/sub 2/. To shift the process to give Ln/sub x/V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, heat treatment was applied to mixtures of the initial high-purity substances. The x-ray patterns were recorded with a DRON-UM1 apparatus with Cr K..cap alpha.. radiation and were processed by the Poroshok program. The IR spectra were recorded with UR-20 spectrometer with oil mulls.

  7. Fractionation of highly siderophile and chalcogen elements in components of EH3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlag, Yogita; Becker, Harry

    2015-07-01

    Abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, platinum group elements and Au), chalcogens (Te, Se and S), 187Os/188Os and the major and minor elements Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni and Co were determined in the components of Sahara 97072 (EH3, find) and Kota Kota (EH3, find) in order to understand the element fractionation processes. In a 187Re-187Os isochron diagram, most magnetic components lie close to the 4.56 Ga IIIA iron meteorite isochron, whereas most other components show deviations from the isochron caused by late redistribution of Re, presumably during terrestrial weathering. Metal- and sulfide rich magnetic fractions and metal-sulfide nodules are responsible for the higher 187Os/188Os in bulk rocks of EH chondrites compared to CI chondrites. The HSE and chalcogens are enriched in magnetic fractions relative to slightly magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions and bulk compositions, indicating that Fe-Ni metal is the main host phase of the HSE in enstatite chondrites. HSE abundance patterns indicate mixing of two components, a CI chondrite like end member and an Au-enriched end member. Because of the decoupled variations of Au from those of Pd or the chalcogens, the enrichment of Au in EH metal cannot be due to metal-sulfide-silicate partitioning processes. Metal and sulfide rich nodules may have formed by melting and reaction of pre-existing refractory element rich material with volatile rich gas. A complex condensation and evaporation history is required to account for the depletion of elements having very different volatility than Au in EH chondrites. The depletions of Te relative to HSE, Se and S in bulk EH chondrites are mainly caused by the depletion of Te in metal. S/Se and S/Mn are lower than in CI chondrites in almost all components and predominantly reflect volatility-controlled loss of sulfur. The latter most likely occurred during thermal processing of dust in the solar nebula (e.g., during chondrule formation), followed by the non-systematic loss of S during terrestrial weathering.

  8. Mass-Independent Fractionation of Oxygen Isotope in Earth Wind: First Principle Calculations for Photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, A.; Nanbu, S.; Kasai, Y.; Ozima, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mass-independently fractionated oxygen isotope were reported on metal particles extracted from Apollo lunar soils [1, 2], but these origins are still unknown. Since the substantial fraction of Earth-escaping O+ flux (Earth Wind, EW hereafter), comparable to the amount of the anomalous oxygen implanted on the metal particles, could reach the lunar surface [3], Ozima et al. [4] suggested that EW may be responsible to the anomalous oxygen. The purpose is to test this EW hypothesiss, we study oxygen isotopic ratios of O+ at the upper atmosphere. From quantum chemical calculations of photo-dissociation of O2, we show the results in mass-independent isotopic fractionation of oxygen, thereby in conformity with the EW hypothesis. First principles reaction dynamics simulations were performed to compute the photolysis rate for the B3?u- ? X3?g- electronic transition, for Schumann-Runge band. With the assumption of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we performed the wave-packet dynamics for the nuclei-motion in the potential energy curves determined by the first step calculation. Quantum chemical program package [5] was used for the first step calculation, and the quantum dynamics was carried out by our own program package. Assuming the quantum yield of the corresponding photolysis is unity, the photo-absorption cross section can be correlated with the photolysis rate. Therefore, following the time dependent approach, the autocorrelation function (A(t) = ) was numerically computed by the second step calculation. Finally, the theoretical spectrum as a function of wavelength of excitation light was estimated by the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function A(t) [6]. Calculated absorption cross sections for C16O showed similar wavelength dependence with experiment [7], although the absolute magnitude was yet to be calibrated for a quantitative comparison. Assuming Boltzmann distribution at 1200 K, we estimated enrichment factors defined as ??(?)/?16(?) - 1 (i = 17, 18) using the above calculated cross sections. Assuming SMOW for the initial oxygen isotopic composition, the isotopic ratios of O atom dissociated from O2 are ?17O = 5.62‰, ?18O = 3.53‰, ?17O = 3.8‰, suggesting large mass-independent isotopic fractionation in photo-dissociation of CiO. Numerical values of isotopic fractionation (e.g. ?17O) can be obtained by solving photochemical reaction equations in the thermosphere conditions (>100 km) with the above estimated dissociation rates, where effective O+ pickup is likely to take place. We are currently working on the latter problem with hopes that this would test the EW hypothesis. References: [1] Ireland et al., 2006, Nature, 440:776. [2] Hashizume & Chaussidon, 2009, GCA, 73:3038. [3] Seki et al., 2001, Science, 291:1939. [4] Ozima et al., 2008, PNAS, 105:17654. [5] Werner & Knowles, http://www.molpro.net. [6] Heller, 1978, J. Chem. Phys., 68:2066. [7] Ackermann et al., 1970, Planet. Space Sci., 18:1639.

  9. [Geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements on sunflower growing area in the west of Jilin Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Jie; Dou, Sen; Wang, Li-Min; Liu, Zhao-Shun

    2011-07-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from the sunflower growing area in the west of Jilin province. A variety of ancillary methods were used to determine the soil element content. Then the rare earth elements geochemistry in soil was studied, and the correlation of REEs in this region with other elements and the quality of plant was investigated. The results show that, (1) REE content of the soil in Nong'an is relatively higher to those in Daan and Tongyu. Distribution pattern of rare earth elements in soil for the right tilt of the light rare earth enrichment patterns which is consistent with the national distribution pattern of rare earth elements; (2) REE contents in the three studying areas in the soil are different, and this primarily relates to the soil parent materials; (3) The REEs which positively correlate with soil available potassium are Se, Fe2O3, Ti, P, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mo, B, F. The protein content of sunflower seeds has a negative correlation with REE. With the exception of Lu, all REEs show a similar correlation. PMID:21922834

  10. Rare earths and other trace elements in Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziege, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    REE and other trace elements have been determined in igneous rocks 14053, 14072, and 14310, in breccias 14063 and 14313, and in fines 14163. All materials analyzed have typical depletions of Eu except for feldspar fragments from the breccias and igneous fragments from 14063. Igneous rocks 14072 and 14053 have REE concentrations very similar to Apollo 12 basalts; 14310 has the highest REE concentrations yet observed for a large fragment of lunar basalt. The effects of crystallization of a basaltic liquid as a closed system on the concentrations of Sm and Eu in feldspar are considered. Small anorthositic fragments may have originated by simple crystallization from very highly differentiated basalt (KREEP) or by closed-system crystallization in a less differentiated starting material. Application of independent models of igneous differentiation to Sm and Eu in massive anorthosite 15415 and to Sm and Eu in lunar basalts suggests a common starting material with a ratio of concentrations of Sm and Eu about the same as that in chondrites and with concentrations of those elements about 15 times enriched over chondrites.

  11. Chemical Weathering of Black Shales and Rare Earth Element Composition of Surface Waters and Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannigan, R. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2001-05-01

    Weathering processes dominate the dissolved and suspended loads of most of the world's major rivers. Among sedimentary rocks, black shales are particularly sensitive to chemical weathering. Therefore, shale systems are useful for investigating the partitioning of chemical elements during chemical weathering. Recent studies, such as those by Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Ravizza and others, link chemical weathering of black shales to changes in marine isotopic composition. Rare earth elements (REE) have a unique chemistry and are ideal for such tracer studies. We explored the effect of modern chemical weathering of black shales on the hydrochemistry of surface and groundwaters in the Mohawk Valley of New York State. This region provides an ideal site for the investigation of trace element remobilization during the chemical weathering of black shales. In this region, surface and groundwaters, in intimate contact with black shales and have high dissolved metal concentrations presumably due to water-rock interactions. The extent to which the dissolved REE composition of the surface and ground waters retains the rock signature is, in someway related to the length of time that the water remains in contact with the rock. We compared the REE compositions of surface and groundwaters in areas draining black shale to those of waters draining regions of dolostone-limestone to explore the extent of metal release due to chemical weathering. Shale normalized REE patterns for stream waters exhibit slight heavy REE enrichments and, at some locations, LREE depletion. REE patterns of the waters normalized to their respective sediments show some LREE depletion. However, waters associated with the Little Falls dolomite show fractionation predominantly enriched in the heavy REEs. Differences between the black shale sites, recorded as light REE depletion and/or middle REE enrichment, may be related to the discharge of the streams and the total dissolved solids. The dissolved REE chemistry of rivers draining the limestone-dolostone facies to the north and west of the black shale facies is dominated by the Ln-carbonate species. REE speciation in the black shale sites when compared to the dolomitic sites show interesting features. For example, the "dolomite" lake exhibits a significant amount of free metal species as well as lanthanide-fluoride complexation. Our preliminary results indicate that the surface and groundwaters discretely record metal release from black shales. These data lend further credence to the hypothesis that black shale weathering may significantly contribute to the ocean metal budget.

  12. Petrogenesis of Archaean ultrabasic and basic volcanics: Evidence from rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shen-Su Sun; Robert W. Nesbitt

    1978-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) and major element data are presented on 44 Archaean samples which include spinifex textured ultramagnesian lavas (STPK) spinifex textured basalts (STB) and low MgO tholeiites. The samples come from the Yilgarn and Pilbara Blocks (W. Australia), Barberton (South Africa), Belingwe and Que Que (Rhodesia), Abitibi (Canada) and the 3.7 b.y. Isua Belt of Western Greenland. In

  13. Distribution of rare earth elements in crystalline bedrock groundwaters: Oslo and Bergen regions, Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Banks; G. Hall; C. Reimann; U. Siewers

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and fifty Norwegian bedrock groundwater samples, from Bergen and from Vestfold (Oslofjord), have been analysed by ICP-MS techniques at two laboratories for a large suite of trace elements including rare earth elements (REEs) and Y. The bedrock lithologies include granites (dominated by the Permian Drammen Granite) and Permian latites\\/rhomb porphyries from Oslofjord, and Caledonian\\/Precambrian granitic and gneissic lithologies

  14. Calcium Isotopic Ratios and Rare Earth Element Abundances in Refractory Inclusions from Allende CV3 Chondrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shichun Huang; Juraj Farkaš; Gang Yu; Michail I. Petaev; Stein B. Jacobsen

    Refractory inclusions in primitive meteorites are the oldest objects formed in the Solar System. They exhibit large mass-dependent isotopic effects in many elements, including Si, Mg and Ca, indicative of their complex origin. We report data for both mass-dependent (?) and mass-independent (?) Ca isotopic effects, and rare earth element (REE) abundances in six refractory inclusions from the Allende CV3

  15. Determination of rare-earth elements in Luna 16 regolith sample by chemical spectral method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroganova, N. S.; Ryabukhin, V. A.; Laktinova, N. V.; Ageyeva, L. V.; Galkina, I. P.; Gatinskaya, N. G.; Yermakov, A. N.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made of regolith from layer A of the Luna 16 sample for rare earth elements, by a chemical spectral method. Chemical and ion exchange concentrations were used to determine the content of 12 elements and Y at the level 0.001 to 0.0001 percent with 10 to 15 percent reproducibility of the emission determination. Results within the limits of reproducibility agree with data obtained by mass spectra, activation, and X-ray fluorescent methods.

  16. Partitioning of rare earth elements between clinopyroxene and silicate melt Crystal-chemical controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn A. Gaetani; Timothy L. Grove

    1995-01-01

    This study explores some of the effects of major element compositional variations on the partitioning of trivalent rare earth elements between high-Ca clinopyroxene and silicate melt. Experiments performed in the system CaO?MgO?A12O3?SiO2 at 1 atm pressure, over a small temperature range, differentiate crystal-chemical controls on mineral\\/melt partitioning from the effects of pressure and temperature. The experimental results demonstrate that the

  17. Sulfur isotope fractionation during the reduction of elemental sulfur and thiosulfate by Dethiosulfovibrio spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkov, A. V.; Böttcher, M. E.; Kuever, J.

    2009-04-01

    Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur are typical by-products of the oxidation of dissolved sulfide and important sulfur intermediates in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle of natural sediments where they can be further transformed by microbial or chemical oxidation, reduction, or disproportionation. Due to the often superimposing reaction pathways of the sulfur intermediates in natural environments specific tracers are needed to better resolve the complex microbial and biogeochemical reactions. An important fingerprint for sulfur cycling is provided by the microbial fractionation of the stable sulfur isotopes S-34 and S-32. Proper interpretation of isotope signals in nature, however, is only possible by the calibration with results obtained with pure cultures under defined experimental conditions. In addition, sulfur isotope discrimination may provide informations about specific encymatic biochemical pathways within the bacterial cells. In this study, we report the results for the discrimination of stable sulfur isotopes S-32 and S-34 during reduction of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur by non-sulfate, but sulfur- and thiosulfate-reducing bacteria which are phylogenetically not related to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Experiments with were conducted at known cell-specific thiosulfate reduction rates. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation was investigated during reduction of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur at 28°C by growing batch cultures of Dethiosulfovibrio marinus WS100 (type strain DSM 12537) and Dethiosulfovibrio russensis (type strain DSM 12538) using citrate as carbon and energy source. The cell-specific reduction rates were 0.3 to 2.4 fmol cell-1 d-1 (thiosulfate) and 31 to 38 fmol cell-1 d-1 (elemental sulphur), respectively. The sulfide produced was depleted in S-34 by 12 per mil compared to total thiosulfate sulfur, close to previous results observed for sulfate-reducing bacteria, indicating that the thiosulfate-reducing mechanism of sulfate reducers is similar to that of the investigated thiosulfate-reducing strains. Elemental sulfur reduction yields sulfide depleted in S-34 and isotope fractionation effects between 1.3 and 5.2 per mil for Dethiosulfovibrio russensis and 1.7 and 5.1 per mil Dethiosulfovibrio marinus, with the smaller fractionation effects observed in the exponential growth phase and enhanced discrimination under conditions of citrate depletion and cell lysis.

  18. Potential toxic element fractionation and phytoavailability assessment in technosoils from former smelting and mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, Bashar; Motelica-Heino, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    High metal and metalloid concentrations in soils have negative effects on terrestrial ecosystems and generate potential health risk. Mining and smelting activities are the major source of metal contamination by release a huge amounts of these potentially toxic elements (PTE) into the environment. Since the determination of the total concentration of PTE in soils does not give sufficient information about their mobility and toxicity, additional information on their bioavailability and their chemical speciation is required. Our study aimed at reporting the chemical fractionation and phytoavailability assessment of several PTE (Zn, Pb, Cd, As and Sb) in contaminated technosoils of two former smelting and mining areas. Soil samples were taken from a metallophyte grassland contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd located at Mortagne - du -Nord (MDN) (North France) and from a former mining settling basin contaminated with As, Pb and Sb located at la Petite Faye (LPF) (Limoges district, France). Two sequential extraction schemes were used to evaluate the PTE speciation in various technosoils as operationally defined fractions. The extraction schemes used in this study were the Tessier's scheme and a modified BCR scheme. The fractions were rearranged into four equivalent fractions defined as acid soluble, reducible, oxidisable and residual fraction. To assess the metals and metalloids phytoavailability a series of selective single extraction procedures (CaCl2, NaNO3, NH4NO3, DTPA and EDTA) were used together with short-term germination tests with dwarf beans whose primary leaves were analyzed for their PTE concentration after 21 days of sowing under controlled conditions (16h light/8h darkness regime, 25°C/21°C, relative humidity of 55 - 65% and photon flux of 150 ?E m-2s-1). Our results indicates that Zn, Cd and Pb were mainly associated with the acid soluble and reducible fractions for the MDN site, while As, Sb and Pb were mostly associated with residual fraction for the LPF site. The extraction capacity of the PTE followed the order: EDTA>DTPA>NH4NO3>CaCl2> NaNO3 for both studied locations. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis between the concentrations of PTE accumulated in the bean primary leaves with their extractable concentrations showed a positive significant correlation with dilute CaCl2 and unbuffered nitrate solutions extraction procedures. In contrast, for all studied elements, except for Pb, the complexing and chelating extractants (e.g. EDTA and DTPA) exhibited poor correlation with the dwarf bean leaves concentrations.

  19. Spatiotemporal correlations in Earth's temperature field from fractional stochastic-diffusive energy balance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Rypdal, Martin; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate

    2015-04-01

    In the Earth temperature field, spatiotemporal long-range dependence is usually explained as a result of nonlinear cross-scale coupling and cascading. In this contribution we challenge that paradigm, demonstrating that the observed correlation structure can arise from simple, linear, conceptual models. A two-dimensional stochastic-diffusive energy balance model (EBM) formulated on a sphere by G. R. North et al., J. Climate, 24:5850-5862, 2011, is explored and generalized. We compute instantaneous and frequency-dependent spatial autocorrelation functions, and local temporal power spectral densities for local sites and for spatially averaged signal up to the global scale. On time scales up to the relaxation time scale given by the effective heat capacities of the ocean mixed layer and land surface, respectively, we obtain scaling features reminiscent of what can be derived from the observed temperature field. On longer time scales, however, the EBM predicts a transition to a white-noise scaling, which is not reflected in the observed records. We propose and explore a fractional generalization (FEBM), which can be considered as a spatiotemporal version of the zero-dimensional, long-memory EBM of M. Rypdal and K. Rypdal, J. Climate, 27:5240-5258, 2014. The fractional equation introduces a power-law (rather than exponential) impulse response representing the delayed action due to the slow heat exchange between the mixed layer and the deep ocean. It is demonstrated that this generalized model describes qualitatively the main spatiotemporal correlation characteristics of the temperature field derived from instrumental data and from a 500 yr control run of the Nor-ESM model. For instance, the FEBM implies temporal power-law spectra where the spectral exponent for globally averaged temperature is twice that of local temperatures, and spatial autocorrelation lengths increases with time scale, in good agreement with the Nor-ESM simulations. It also reproduces the long-time response to a step-function forcing in the Nor-ESM model.

  20. Composition of the earth's upper mantle. I - Siderophile trace elements in ultramafic nodules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Wandless, G. A.; Petrie, R. K.; Irving, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation is concerned with a reexamination of the question of the distribution of siderophile elements in the earth's upper mantle, taking into account a more unified data base which is now available. A comprehensive suite of ultramafic inclusions was collected as part of the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project and has been analyzed by instrument neutron activation analysis for major, minor, and some lithophile trace elements. In addition, 18 of these rocks and the important sheared garnet lherzolite PHN 1611 have been analyzed by means of radiochemical neutron activation analysis for 7 siderophile elements (Au, Ge, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, and Re) and 9 volatile elements (Ag, Bi, Cd, In, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and Zn). The siderophile element data reveal interesting inter-element correlations, which were not apparent from the compiled abundance tables of Ringwood and Kesson (1976) and Chou (1978).

  1. Radioluminescence and thermoluminescence of rare earth element and phosphorus-doped zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Karali, T.; Can, N.; Townsend, P.D.; Rowlands, A.P.; Hanchar, J.M.

    2000-06-01

    The radioluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra of synthetic zircon crystals doped with individual trivalent rare earth element (REE) ions (Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb) and P are reported in the temperature range 25 to 673 K. Although there is some intrinsic UV/blue emission from the host lattice, the dominant signals are from the rare-earth sites, with signals characteristic of the REE{sup 3+} states. The shapes of the glow curves are different for each dopant, and there are distinct differences between glow peak temperatures for different rare-earth lines of the same element. Within the overall set of signals there are indications of linear trends in which some glow peak temperatures vary as a function of the ionic size of the rare earth ions. The temperature shifts of the peaks are considerable, up to 200{degree}, and much larger than those cited in other rare-earth-doped crystals of LaF{sub 3} and Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The data clearly suggest that the rare-earth ions are active both in the trapping and luminescence steps, and hence the TL occurs within localized defect complexes that include REE{sup 3+} ions.

  2. Environmental biogeochemical behaviors of rare earth elements in soil-plant systems.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tao; Zhang, Shen; Wang, Lijun; Kung, Hsiang-Te; Wang, Yuqi; Hu, Aitang; Ding, Shiming

    2005-12-01

    With the continual increase in the utilization of rare earth elements (REEs) for industrial and agricultural purposes in China, the research into the environmental biogeochemical behavior of REEs has become a pressing issue. The REEs' content in soil and various parts of wheat under different conditions in soil-plant systems were measured by INAA and ICP-MS. The results showed four aspects. (1) The mean value of total REEs in soil of China was 176.8 mg kg(-1). The mean ratio of SigmaLREE/SigmaHREE in soils was 8.0 and cerium accounts for 42% of the total REEs. The content of REEs in wheat seed ranged between 10(-11) and 10(-8) g g(-1), 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than that in soil. (2) The REEs contents in ryegrass, especially in roots, were significantly related to that of soil. The bioavailability of REEs in soil mainly depended on the exchangeable fraction of REEs, which was strongly affected by the physico-chemical properties of the soil. (3) Long-term foliage-dressing with Changle microfertilizer of REEs did not affect the contents and distribution patterns of REEs in soil. At the maturing stage of spring wheat, the REEs content was in the order of root > leaf >stem and crust. Compared with the control, foliage-dressing has a higher accumulation of REEs in root and leaf. However, no significant difference was found in stem and crust between the two treatments. (4) There was no significant accumulation with the soil-dressing method. When comparing controls in both foliage- and soil-dressing methods, no distinct residue of REEs in grains was found. PMID:16027965

  3. Preprint of the paper "A Boundary Element Numerical Approach for Earthing Grid Computation"

    E-print Network

    Colominas, Ignasi

    of grounding systems, as well as distribution of potentials on the earth surface due to fault currents [1 in the margin of error [4]. A Boundary Element approach for the numerical computation of substation grounding formulation has been implemented in a speci#12;c Computer Aided Design system for grounding analysis developed

  4. Undecaprenyl Pyrophosphate Involvement in Susceptibility of Bacillus subtilis to Rare Earth Elements

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    The rare earth element scandium has weak antibacterial potency. We identified a mutation responsible for a scandium-resistant phenotype in Bacillus subtilis. This mutation was found within the uppS gene, which encodes undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase, and designated uppS86 (for the Thr-to-Ile amino acid substitution at residue 86 of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase). The uppS86 mutation also gave rise to increased resistance to bacitracin, which prevents cell wall synthesis by inhibiting the dephosphorylation of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate, in addition to enhanced amylase production. Conversely, overexpression of the wild-type uppS gene resulted in increased susceptibilities to both scandium and bacitracin. Moreover, the mutant lacking undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (BcrC) showed increased susceptibility to all rare earth elements tested. These results suggest that the accumulation of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate renders cells more susceptible to rare earth elements. The availability of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate may be an important determinant for susceptibility to rare earth elements, such as scandium. PMID:22904278

  5. Rare earth element behavior and Pb, Sr, Nd isotope systematics in a heavy metal contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Steinmann; Peter Stille

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the processes and phases which control migration and retention of rare earth elements (REE) in a heavy metal contaminated soil. In addition to concentration data, we used Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in order to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic trace metals and to characterize the phases leached away during the

  6. Hydrothermal transport and deposition of the rare earth elements by fluorine-bearing aqueous liquids

    E-print Network

    environmental concerns, have created a great demand for the rare earth elements (REE), and focused considerable of the world's largest econom- ic REE deposit, i.e. Bayan Obo, China. Until recently, many researchers have assumed that hydrothermal transport of the REE in fluorine-bearing ore-forming systems occurs mainly due

  7. EXTRACTION OF RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS FROM NITRIC SOLUTIONS BY PHOSPHORYL-CONTAINING PODANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Turanov; V. K. Karandashev; V. E. Baulin

    1999-01-01

    The extraction of microquantities of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y from HNO3 solutions by phosphoryl-containing podands of various structures has been studied. It has been found that the maximum extraction of rare earth elements is exhibited by reagents containing one ether oxygen atom in the molecule, bound to diphenylphosphoryl

  8. Rare earth element geochemistry of upper Ordovician cherts from the Southern Uplands of Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. OWEN; H. A. ARMSTRONG; J. D. FLOYD

    1999-01-01

    Caradoc and Ashgill radiolarian cherts and siliceous mudstones from the Southern Uplands preserve primary rare earth element (REE) signatures which are comparable to those of more recent deposits from continental margin settings. This is incompatible with the widely held view of these rocks as open ocean deposits incorporated in an accretionary prism and reinforces the model of deposition on an

  9. Sources of rare earth elements in Appin Group limestones, Dalradian, north-east Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Summary Rare earth elements (REE) have been determined in 15 samples from three metamorphosed limestone units of the Appin Group of the Dalradian of north-east Scotland. Total REE contents range from about 7 to about 50 ppm and the light REEs are slightly enriched compared with REE in the North American Shale Composite (NASC). In the more impure limestones, the

  10. Rare earth element variations resulting from inversion of pigeonite and subsolidus reequilibration in lunar ferroan anorthosites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odette B. James; Christine Floss; James J. McGee

    2002-01-01

    We present results of a secondary ion mass spectrometry study of the rare earth elements (REEs) in the minerals of two samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite, and the results are applicable to studies of REEs in all igneous rocks, no matter what their planet of origin. Our pyroxene analyses are used to determine solid-solid REE distribution coefficients (D = CREE

  11. Rare-earth element distributions in volcanic rocks from Archean greenstone belts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent C. Condie; W. R. A. Baragar

    1974-01-01

    Rare-earth element distributions in Archean volcanic rocks from the South Pass (Wyoming), Yellowknife (NW Canada) and Abitibi (Quebec) greenstone belts and from the Upper Fig Tree Group of the Barberton (S. Africa) greenstone belt reveal two distinct types of Archean volcanism. One type, herein referred to as the arc-type, is characterized by flat (or slightly enriched) REE distributions in tho

  12. Cerium redox cycles and rare earth elements in the Sargasso Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Sholkovitz; D. L. Schneider

    1991-01-01

    Two profiles of the rare earth elements (REEs) are reported for the upper water column of the Sargasso Sea. The trivalent-only REEs have remarkably constant concentrations in the upper 500m of an April 1989 profile and in the upper 200m of a May 1989 profile. In contrast, Ce concentrations decrease smoothly with increasing depth. In April 1989 Ce decreases from

  13. Rare earth element partitioning between clinopyroxene and silicate liquid at moderate to high pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Green; N. J. Pearson

    1985-01-01

    Experimental determination of over seventy sets of clinopyroxene\\/silicate liquid (glass) partitition coefficients (D) for four rare earth elements (REE — La, Sm, Ho, Lu) in a range of REE-enriched natural rock compositions (basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite and rhyodacite) demonstrate a convex upward pattern, favouring the heavy REE (Ho, Lu) and markedly discriminating against the light REE (La). These patterns are

  14. Rare earth elements in soil and in soil-grown plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wyttenbach; V. Furrer; P. Schleppi; L. Tobler

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of the rare earth elements (REEs) La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu were determined in leaves of 6 plant species (Norway spruce, silver fir, maple, ivy, blackberry, and wood fern), and in pertinent soils and soil extracts, also taken from the same site. The distribution of the individual REEs in plants showed little or no

  15. Island weathering: river sources of rare earth elements to the Western Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. r. Sholkovitz; H. Elderfield; R. Szymczak; K. Casey

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on two of the largest rivers and estuaries of Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Fly and Sepik and explores the degree to which river input and estuarine reactions affect the rare earth element (REE) composition of surface sea water in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. The dissolved phases of the Fly and Sepik River waters have striking

  16. Determination of the rare-earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick E. Lichte; Allen L. Meier; James G. Crock

    1987-01-01

    A method of analysis of geological materials for the determination of the rare-earth elements using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique (ICP-MS) has been developed. Instrumental parameters and factors affecting analytical results have been first studied and then optimized. Samples are analyzed directly following an acid digestion, without the need for separation or preconcentration with limits of detection of

  17. The partitioning of rare earth elements between garnet and liquid at high pressures: Preliminary experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Shimizu; I. Kushiro

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary experiments were made to determine the partition coefficients of rare earth elements between garnet and liquid at 30 kb and 1275°C in the system diopside (30 wt%) -pyrope(70%) -water. REE were added to the system by titration at concentration levels in the range of natural basalts. The phases were separated by differential dissolution technique (DDT) and analized for REE

  18. Rare earth element patterns: A tool for understanding processes in remediation of acid mine drainage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Merten; Jörn Geletneky; Hans Bergmann; Götz Haferburg; Erika Kothe; Georg Büchel

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) was applied to study processes in remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD). The concentration of total REE is up to 3mgl?1 in AMD. Normalization of REE concentrations in seepage and surface waters to Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) shows strong enrichment of heavy REE. For the case of the studied AMD REE patterns are

  19. Distribution of rare earth elements among chloroplast components of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-ping Wang; Xiao-quan Shan; Shu-zhen Zhang; Bei Wen

    2003-01-01

    .  A rare earth element (REE) hyperaccumulator, Dicranopteris dichotoma, that accumulates more than 0.1% REEs dry leaf mass has been discovered in southern China. The different components of chloroplast were isolated and the concentration of REEs in each component was determined by ICP-MS. The experimental data indicated that about 8% of total leaf REEs was present in the chloroplast of Dicranopteris

  20. Concentrations of rare earth elements in sediments, mussels and fish from a Danish marine environment, Lillebaelt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Drabaek; P. Eichner; L. Rasmussen

    1987-01-01

    Results for the content of the rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu in sediments, mussels and fish are presented for an area polluted by REE. The REE are emitted with the process waste water stream from a fertilizer production plant. The method of analysis has been INAA. An attempt to combine the INAA

  1. Certified reference materials for the quality control of rare earth element determinations in the environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph Quevauviller

    2002-01-01

    The European Commission (through its BCR activity) is active in organising interlaboratory studies, the final aim of which is the production of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) representing the best of the state of the art in given analytical sectors. As a response to needs expressed by laboratories for environmental reference materials certified for rare earth elements (REEs), a programme was

  2. Rare earth elements leaching from Chadormalu apatite concentrate: Laboratory studies and regression predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esmaeil Jorjani; Amir Hossein Bagherieh; Saeed Chehreh Chelgani

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of rare earth elements from apatite concentrate of Chadormalu plant of Iran was studied with the dissolution of ore in nitric acid. The parameters of acidity: 60%, solid to liquid ratio: 30%, leaching time: 30 minute, agitation rate: 200 rpm, temperature: 60 °C and particle size (d80): 50 microns were determined as the optimum operational conditions. The recoveries

  3. Effect of rare earth elements on growth and antioxidant metabo- lism in Lemna minor L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Paola; Costantino Paciolla; Luigi d'Aquino; Massimo Morgan; Franca Tommasi

    Lemna minor is frequently used in bioremediation processes to remove nutrients and contaminants from waste water. In this work the response of L. minor to treatments with lanthanum nitrate and with a mix of several light rare earth elements (REE) nitrates was investigated. Preliminary results indicate that L. minor shows an overall good tolerance to the presence of REE in

  4. Accumulation and uptake of light rare earth elements in a hyperaccumulator Dicropteris dichotoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoquan Shan; Haiou Wang; Shuzhen Zhang; Hanfa Zhou; Yan Zheng; Hong Yu; Bei Wen

    2003-01-01

    Dicropteris dichotoma, a natural perennial fern, grows in acidic soil in southern China. It hyperaccumulates several light rare earth elements La, Ce, Pr and Nd (LREEs) up to about 0.7% of its dry leaf biomass. Through electron microscopic and X-ray microanalyses, LREEs deposits were observed in the cell wall, intercellular space, plasmalemma, vesicles and vacuoles of the root endodermis and

  5. Rare Earth Element Fluxes in Diverse Soils and Their Absorption by Coconut Palm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Wahid; N. V. Kamalam; R. Krishna Prabhu; J. K. Sekhar; S. Vijayalakshmi; T. R. Mahalingam; C. E. Ajith Kumar

    2003-01-01

    The pattern of uptake of six rare earth elements (REEs) [lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), and gadolinium (Gd)] by coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) from three types of soils varying widely in their chemical characteristics and monazite content were studied through soil and plant tissue analysis employing ICP?MS method. Absorption of the REEs by the

  6. Content of rare earth elements in Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge from different areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangsheng LIU; He ZHANG; Zhiyong ZHANG; Xian'en LI; Xuewei HAN; Yanping WU

    2010-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge (SMB) has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time, and today more and more attention has been paid to the effective components in Chinese traditional medicine, especially to rare earth elements (REEs). 14 kinds of REEs in SMB from different areas were analyzed by the methods of ICP-MS. The results showed that

  7. Abundance of rare earth elements in rice paddy soils from three regions of Sri Lanka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohana Chandrajith; Chandrasekara Bandara Dissanayake; Heinz Jürgen Tobschall

    2004-01-01

    Very few studies deal with the rare earth element (REE) content within paddy soil systems. This paper presents, for the first time, the distribution of REEs in paddy soils from three different regions in Sri Lanka. Seventy samples from the Kalutara and Kandy regions located in the Wet Zone and Anuradhapura region in the Dry Zone were selected for this

  8. Total concentrations and bioavailability of rare-earth elements in latesol in Hainan Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weihuang Zhu; Yuangen Yang; Fengchang Wu; Hua Bi; Qiang Liu

    2006-01-01

    Total and bioavailable concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in the latesol of Hainan Province, China, were measured by ICP-MS, and the distribution characteristics of REEs were discussed in various latesol profiles. The results show that the total concentrations of REEs were higher than the average statistical data of the whole China. The correlation coefficients between the total and bioavailable

  9. Differences in Behavior among the Chlorides of Seven Rare Earth Elements Administered Intravenously to Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yumiko Nakamura; Yukari Tsumura; Yasuhide Tonogai; Tadashi Shibata; Yoshio Ito

    1997-01-01

    Differences in behavior among the chlorides of seven rare earth elements (REEs)—yttrium (Y), cerium (Ce), and praseodymium (Pr) (light REEs); europium (Eu) and dysprosium (Dy) (medium REEs); ytterbium (Yb) and lutetium (Lu) (heavy REEs)—were investigated through intravenous administration of the REEs to rats. (1) Distributions of REEs and mineral concentrations in the organs on Day 1 were investigated at low

  10. Rare earth elements in the sediments of Lake Baikal Lawrence M. Och a

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Rare earth elements in the sediments of Lake Baikal Lawrence M. Och a , Beat Müller a, , Adrian Baikal sediments Iron and manganese cycling Early diagenesis Lake Baikal is the deepest and probably of the REE chemistry in Lake Baikal and its catchment area and more specifically REE distribution in five 11

  11. SEDIMENT REWORKING AND TRANSPORT IN EASTERN LAKE SUPERIOR: IN SITU RARE EARTH ELEMENT TRACER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rare earth element (REE) tracer pellet was deployed at the floor of the Ile Parisienne basin of eastern Lake Superior to measure representative sediment reworking and transport processes in the benthic boundary layer of the prnfundal Great Lakes. Samarium oxide, a high neutron-...

  12. Major element fractionation in chondrites by distillation in the accretion disk of a T Tauri Sun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Redistribution or loss of batches of condensate from a cooling protosolar nebula is generally thought to have led to the formation of the chemical groups of chondrites. This demands a nebula hot enough for silicate vaporization over 1-3 AU, the region where chondrites formed. Alternatively, heating of a protosolar accretion disk may have been confined to an annular zone at its inner edge, about 0.06 AU from the protosun. Most infalling matter was accreted by the protosun, but a proportion was heated and carried outwards by an x-wind. Shu et al. (1996; 1997) proposed that larger objects such as chondrules and Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) were returned to the disk at asteroidal distances by sedimentation from the x-wind. Fine dust and gas were lost to space. The model implies that solids were not lost from the cold disk. The chemical compositions of the chondrite groups were produced by mixing different proportions of CAIs and chondrules with disk solids of CI composition. Heating at the inner edge of the disk was accompanied by particle irradiation, which synthesized nuclides including 26Al. The x-wind model can produce CAIs, not chondrules, and allows survival of presolar grains >0.06 AU from the protosun. Normalization to Al and CI indicates that non-carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) may be disk material that gained a Si- and Mg-enriched fraction. CCs are different; they appear to be CI that lost lithophile elements more volatile than Ca. Five CC groups also lost Ni and Fe but the CH group gained siderophiles. Elemental loss from CI is incompatible with the x-wind model. Silicon and CI normalization confirms that the CM, CO, CK and CV groups may be CI that gained refractories as CAIs. The Si-, Mg-rich fraction may have formed by selective vaporization followed by precipitation on grains in the x-wind. This fractional distillation mechanism can account for lithophile element abundances in non-CC groups, but an additional process is required for the loss of Ca and Mn in the EL group and for fractionated siderophile abundances in the H, L and LL groups. Heated and recycled fractions were not homogenized across the disk so the chondrite groups were established in a single cycle of enhanced protosolar activity in <104 yr, the time for a mm-sized particle to drift into the Sun from 2-3 AU, due to gas-drag.

  13. Mutual influence of elements during coprecipitation. Cocrystallization of rare-earth elements under conditions for the formation of double sulfates of alkali and alkaline-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Tsizin, G.I.; Kalinchenko, N.B.; Malofeeva, G.I.; Marov, I.N.; Tobelko, K.I.; Urusov, V.S.

    1985-04-20

    This paper studies the coprecipitation of rare-earth metals under conditions for the crystallization of double salts in other sulfate systems, as well as the possibility of the employment of these double salts for the selective preconcentration of rare-earth metals from solutions of complex composition. The influence of electrolytes containing and not containing an element which may act as a charge compensator during isomorphous substitution was studied. Data are presented on the coprecipitation of cerium (III) and lutetium under the conditions for the crystallization of the double salt K/sub 2/SR(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ in the presence of LiC1 and LiNO/sub 3/, as well as HC1 and HNO/sub 3/.

  14. Rare-earth elements in hot brines (165 to 190 degree C) from the Salton Sea geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) concentrations are important indicators for revealing various chemical fractionation processes (water/rock interactions) and source region geochemistry. Since the REE patterns are characteristic of geologic materials (basalt, granite, shale, sediments, etc.) and minerals (K-feldspar, calcite, illite, epidote, etc.), their study in geothermal fluids may serve as a geothermometer. The REE study may also enable us to address the issue of groundwater mixing. In addition, the behavior of the REE can serve as analogs of the actinides in radioactive waste (e.g., neodymium is an analog of americium and curium). In this paper, the authors port the REE data for a Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brine (two aliquots: port 4 at 165{degree}C and port 5 at 190{degree}C) and six associated core samples.

  15. Rare earth element evidence for the petrogenesis of the banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, and its anorthosites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loferski, P.J.; Arculus, R.J.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    A rare earth element (REE) study was made by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry of plagioclase separates from a variety of cumulates stratigraphically spanning the Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Evaluation of parent liquid REE patterns, calculated on the basis of published plagioclase-liquid partition coefficients, shows that the range of REE ratios is too large to be attributable to fractionation of a single magma type. At least two different parental melts were present throughout the Banded series. This finding supports hypotheses of previous workers that the Stillwater Complex formed from two different parent magma types, designated the anorthosite- or A-type liquid and the ultramafic- or U-type liquid. -from Authors

  16. Behaviour of zirconium, niobium, yttrium and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare-metal

    E-print Network

    Behaviour of zirconium, niobium, yttrium and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare-metal © Emma Rebecca Sheard, 2010 #12;i ABSTRACT The Thor Lake rare-metal (Zr, Nb, Y, REE, Ta, Be, Ga) deposit and the heavy rare earth elements in the world. Much of the potentially economic mineralization was concentrated

  17. Study of rare earth element effect on microstructures and mechanical properties of an Al-Cu-Mg-Si cast alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiwei WAN; Jianmin HAN; Weijing LI; Jinhua WANG

    2006-01-01

    The improvements of microstructures and properties of a high strength aluminum cast alloy were studied. The effects of rare earth elements on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the high strength cast alloy Al-Cu-Mg-Si were investigated. The result shows that the addition of rare earth elements can change the microstructures in refining the grain size of the alloy and making

  18. Adsorption of rare earth elements onto bacterial cell walls and its implication for REE sorption onto natural microbial mats

    E-print Network

    Adsorption of rare earth elements onto bacterial cell walls and its implication for REE sorption of rare earth elements (REE) onto the cell walls of Bacillus subtilis (a gram-positive bacterium concentrations. The distribution coefficients of REE between the bacterial cell surface and water showed

  19. Rare Earth Element sorption by basaltic rock: experimental data and modeling results using the "Generalised Composite approach".

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rare Earth Element sorption by basaltic rock: experimental data and modeling results using Email address : emmanuel.tertre@univ-poitiers.fr Keywords: sorption, lanthanides, basalt, surface.1016/j.gca.2007.12.015 #12;Abstract Sorption of the 14 Rare Earth Elements (REE) by basaltic rock

  20. A hybrid boundary element-finite element approach to modeling plane wave 3D electromagnetic induction responses in the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2014-02-01

    A novel hybrid boundary element-finite element scheme which is accelerated by an adaptive multi-level fast multipole algorithm is presented to simulate 3D plane wave electromagnetic induction responses in the Earth. The remarkable advantages of this novel scheme are the complete removal of the volume discretization of the air space and the capability of simulating large-scale complicated geo-electromagnetic induction problems. To achieve this goal, first the Galerkin edge-based finite-element method (FEM) using unstructured meshes is adopted to solve the electric field differential equation in the heterogeneous Earth, where arbitrary distributions of conductivity, magnetic permeability and dielectric permittivity are allowed for. Second, the point collocation boundary-element method (BEM) is used to solve a surface integral formula in terms of the reduced electrical vector potential on the arbitrarily shaped air-Earth interface. Third, to avoid explicit storage of the system matrix arising from large-scale problems and to reduce the horrendous time complexity of the product of the system matrix with an initial vector of unknowns, the adaptive multilevel fast multipole method is applied. This leads to a matrix-free form suitable for the application of iterative solvers. Furthermore, a highly sparse problem-dependent preconditioner is developed to significantly reduce the number of iterations used by the iterative solvers. The efficacy of the presented hybrid scheme is verified on two synthetic examples against different numerical techniques such as goal-oriented adaptive finite-element methods. Numerical experiments show that at low frequencies, where the quasi-static approximation is applicable, standard FEM methods prove to be superior to our hybrid BEM-FEM solutions in terms of computational time, because the FEM method requires only a coarse discretization of the air domain and offers an advantageous sparsity of the system matrix. At radio-magnetotelluric frequencies of a few hundred kHz, the hybrid BEM-FEM scheme outperforms the FEM method, because it avoids explicit storage of the system matrices as well as dense volume discretization of the air domain required by FEM methods at high frequencies. In summary, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first attempt at completely removing the air space for large scale complicated electromagnetic induction modeling in the Earth.

  1. Rare earth and trace elements of fossil vertebrate bioapatite as palaeoenvironmental and sedimentological proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žigait?, Živil?; Fadel, Alexandre; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Jeffries, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth (REE) and trace element compositions of fossil vertebrate dental microremains have been studied in Silurian and Devonian vertebrate dental scales and spines in-situ, using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Samples were selected from the well-known Silurian bone beds of Vesiku and Ohesaare in Saaremaa island of Estonia, and a number of Lower Devonian localities from Spitsbergen (Svalbard), Andrée Land group. Biomineral preservation was assessed using spot semi-quantitative elemental chemistry (SEM-EDS) and electron back-scatter difractometry (EBSD) for cristallinity imaging. The obtained PAAS shale-normalised REE concentrations were evaluated using basic geochemical calculations and quantifications. The REE patterns from the Lower Devonian vertebrate apatite from Andrée Land, Spitsbergen (Wood Bay and Grey Hœk formations) did not show any recognisable taxon-specific behavior, but had rather well expressed differences of REE compositions related to biomineral structure and sedimentary settings, suggesting REE instead to reflect burial environments and sedimentological history. The Eu anomaly recorded in two of the studied localities but not in the other indicate different taphonomic conditions and palaeoenvironment, while La/Sm, La/Yb ratios sugeest considerable influence of terrestrial freshwater during the early diagenesis. The La/Yb and La/Sm plots also agree with the average REE concentrations, reflecting domination of the adsoption over substitution as principal REE uptake mechanism in the fossils which had significantly lower overall REE concentrations, and vice versa. Vesiku (Homerian, Wenlock) microremains yielded very uniform REE patterns with slightly lower overall REE concentrations in enameloid than in dentine, with strong enrichment in middle REE and depletion in heavy REE. Negative Europium (Eu) anomaly was pronounced in all the profiles, but Cerium (Ce) anomalies were not detected suggesting possible suboxic to anoxic conditions of the bottom and pore waters during the formation of Vesiku bone bed. In Ohesaare (Pridoli), the REE compositions were nearly identical across all the morphotypes and histologies of acanthodian microremains showing flat REE patterns with slight depletion in HREE. There were no visible enrichment in MREE, indicating relatively good preservation of original bioapatite and likely absence of any pronounced fractionated REE incorporation during later stages of diagenesis. The shale normalised (La/Yb)SN and (La/Sm)SN REE ratio compilations showed addsorption as dominating REE uptake mechanism across all the studied microfossils. The absence of well-defined Ce anomaly suggest oxic palaeoseawater conditions, which agrees with existing interpretations of Ohesaare sequence as high-energy shoal and regressive open ocean sedimentary environment.

  2. Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende Cai by Nanosims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in CAIs by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in CAIs are important to understand processes of CAI formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A CAI with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the CAI in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its formation process and subsequent metamorphic history.

  3. [Effect of rare earth elements on the seedling ratio of crops].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Chang, J; Wang, C; Chai, S; Han, X; Li, R

    2001-06-01

    The effects of rare earth elements(REEs) on the relative seedling ratio of three crops(rice, rape and soybean) in three soil(red soil, yellow fluvo-aquic soil and yellow cinnamon soil) were studied according to OECD method, and the LC50 were obtained. Toxicity effect of REEs on rice was minimum among the crops tested. The toxicity on crops in yellow cinnamon soil was lower, whereas on soybean in yellow fluvo-aquic soil and on rape in red earth were higher. PMID:11758421

  4. Osmium Isotope Constraints on the Origin of Highly Siderophile Elements in the Earth's Primitive Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.; Meisel, T.; Morgan, J. W.

    1996-03-01

    Using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS), Re and Os abundances were determined by isotope dilution, and 187Os/188Os ratios were measured in a variety of terrestrial upper mantle xenoliths, and also ordinary, enstatite and carbonceous chondrites. Our objective is to precisely constrain the Os isotopic composition of the Earth's primitive upper mantle (PUM) and compare it with the Re-Os systematics of the different chondrite classes. Ultimately, these results should provide us with a better understanding of the relative abundances of highly siderophile elements added to the Earth by late accretion, and how their abundances were modified by subsequent processes.

  5. Inter-element fractionation of highly siderophile elements in the Tonga Arc due to flux melting of a depleted source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Christopher W.; Macpherson, Colin G.; Pearson, D. Graham; Hammond, Samantha J.; Arculus, Richard J.

    2012-07-01

    Highly siderophile element concentrations (HSEs: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re) have been determined for a suite of fresh, submarine mafic lavas from the northern Tonga Arc front and the nascent backarc Fonualei Spreading Centre (FSC). Prior melt depletion of the Tongan mantle wedge combined with a high degree of fluid fluxed melting is thought to have produced boninitic magmas at several arc and FSC locations. As such, this arc system provides an opportunity to assess the fluid mobility of HSEs and to investigate the effects of fluid-induced melting and prior melt depletion on HSE behaviour during both mantle melting and magma evolution. Tongan lavas display extreme enrichment of Pt (2.5-32 ng/g) and Pd over Os (0.002-0.6 ng/g), Ir, and Ru, significantly greater than basalts from mid-ocean ridges. Magma evolution increases the degree of fractionation, resulting in the highest recorded Pt/Ru ratios (>300) in arc front samples with MgO <8 wt.%. This increasing fractionation is due to the mild incompatibility of Pt and Pd, and concurrent compatibility of Ru, during sulphide undersaturated magma evolution. However, the fractionation of Pt and Pd from Os, Ir, and Ru is observed in the highest MgO samples, indicating source inheritance. Prior melt depletion of the mantle and elevated oxygen fugacity both increase the likelihood of complete consumption of sulphide in the source during melting, which typically leads to melts with high concentrations of all the HSE. Indeed, modelling indicates that 25% aggregate partial melting of a depleted MORB-mantle source, proposed for the Tonga Arc, will lead to complete base-metal sulphide consumption unless there is considerable addition of S by the slab flux (at least 200 ?g/g). Although source enrichment of Pt, Pd, and Re by slab fluids may take place, the fractionation of Pt and Pd from Os, Ir, and Ru can largely be explained by relatively low-temperature, yet high-degree, melting of fluid-fluxed melt-depleted mantle. The high Pt and Pd contents can be produced by the exhaustion of sulphide in the source, while the presence of Ru-Os-(Ir) alloys or sulphides (e.g. laurite) associated with Cr-spinel can explain Os, Ir, and Ru retention in the source residue. Such phases have been documented in fluid-fluxed sub-arc mantle from ophiolites. Osmium isotopes co-vary negatively with Os abundance and thus appear to be dominated by shallow level contamination. The most Os-rich samples, however, have 187Os/188Os ratios (0.126-0.132) which are typical of DMM and MORB, suggesting an indistinguishable flux of radiogenic Os from the slab. The significant fractionation of Pt and Re from Os in arc settings will lead, over time, to elevated 186Os and 187Os which may be relevant to the observed enrichments of these isotopes in some mantle regions. In addition, the differing behaviour of Ru and Ir, and the implication of a mantle source containing Ru-rich microphases, may have consequences for the estimation of the HSE composition of primitive upper mantle.

  6. Flat rare earth element patterns as an indicator of cumulate processes in the Lesser Qinling carbonatites, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Xu; Ian H. Campbell; Charlotte M. Allen; Zhilong Huang; Liang Qi; Huan Zhang; Guishan Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The Lesser Qinling carbonatite dykes are mainly composed of calcites. They are characterized by unusually high heavy rare earth element concentrations (HREE; e.g. Yb>30 ppm) and flat to weakly light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized patterns (La\\/Ybn=1.0–5.5), which is in marked contrast with all other published carbonatite data. The trace element contents of calcite crystals were measured in situ by

  7. Structural Responses and Finite Element Modeling of Hakka Tulou Rammed Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sranislawski, Daniel

    Hakka Tulous are rammed earth structures that have survived the effects of aging and natural elements upwards of even over a thousand years. These structures have housed the Hakka people of the Fujian Province, China in natural yet modern housing that has provided benefits over newer building materials. The key building material, rammed earth, which is used for the walls of the Hakka Tulou structures, has provided structural stability along with thermal comfort to the respective inhabitants of the Hakka Tulous. Through material testing and analysis this study has examined how the Tulou structures have maintained their structural stability while also providing thermal comfort. Reports of self healing cracks in the rammed earth walls were also analyzed for their validity in this study. The study has found that although the story of the self healing crack cannot be validated, there is reason to believe that with the existence of lime, some type of autogenous healing could occur on a small scale. The study has also found, through the use of nondestructive testing, that both the internal wooden systems (flooring, roof, and column support) and the rammed earth walls, are still structurally sound. Also, rammed earth's high thermal mass along with the use of sufficient shading has allowed for a delay release of heat energy from the walls of the Tulous, thus providing thermal comfort that can be felt during both night and day temperatures. The Hakka Tulou structures have been found to resist destruction from natural disasters such as strong earthquakes even when more modern construction has not. Through finite element modeling, this study has shown that the high volume of rammed earth used in the construction of the Hakka Tulous helps dissipate lateral force energy into much lower stresses for the rammed earth wall. This absorption of lateral force energy allows the rammed earth structures to survive even the strongest of earthquakes experienced in the region. The Hakka Tulou, if rated by the LEED green building certification program, would earn the highest certification as this rammed earth construction has offered efficient living for hundreds of years. As historic as these rammed earth structures are, they present an environmentally friendly option to structures of the future.

  8. Surface kinetic model for isotopic and trace element fractionation during precipitation of calcite from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley Nat'l Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    A surface reaction kinetic model is developed for predicting Ca isotope fractionation and metal/Ca ratios of calcite as a function of rate of precipitation from aqueous solution. The model is based on the requirements for dynamic equilibrium; i.e. proximity to equilibrium conditions is determined by the ratio of the net precipitation rate (R{sub p}) to the gross forward precipitation rate (R{sub f}), for conditions where ionic transport to the growing crystal surface is not rate-limiting. The value of R{sub p} has been experimentally measured under varying conditions, but the magnitude of R{sub f} is not generally known, and may depend on several factors. It is posited that, for systems with no trace constituents that alter the surface chemistry, R{sub f} can be estimated from the bulk far-from-equilibrium dissolution rate of calcite (R{sub b} or k{sub b}), since at equilibrium R{sub f} = R{sub b}, and R{sub p} = 0. Hence it can be inferred that R{sub f} ? R{sub p} + R{sub b}. The dissolution rate of pure calcite is measureable and is known to be a function of temperature and pH. At given temperature and pH, equilibrium precipitation is approached when R{sub p} (=R{sub f} ? R{sub b}) ? R{sub b}. For precipitation rates high enough that R{sub p} ? R{sub b}, both isotopic and trace element partitioning are controlled by the kinetics of ion attachment to the mineral surface, which tend to favor more rapid incorporation of the light isotopes of Ca and discriminate weakly between trace metals and Ca. With varying precipitation rate, a transition region between equilibrium and kinetic control occurs near R{sub p} ? R{sub b} for Ca isotopic fractionation. According to this model, Ca isotopic data can be used to estimate R{sub f} for calcite precipitation. Mechanistic models for calcite precipitation indicate that the molecular exchange rate is not constant at constant T and pH, but rather is dependent also on solution saturation state and hence R{sub p}. Allowing R{sub b} to vary as R{sub p}{sup 1/2}, consistent with available precipitation rate studies, produces a better fit to some trace element and isotopic data than a model where R{sub b} is constant. This model can account for most of the experimental data in the literature on the dependence of {sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca and metal/Ca fractionation in calcite as a function of precipitation rate and temperature, and also accounts for {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O variations with some assumptions. The apparent temperature dependence of Ca isotope fractionation in calcite may stem from the dependence of R{sub b} on temperature; there should be analogous pH dependence at pH < 6. The proposed model may be valuable for predicting the behavior of isotopic and trace element fractionation for a range of elements of interest in low-temperature aqueous geochemistry. The theory presented is based on measureable thermo-kinetic parameters in contrast to models that require hyper-fast diffusivity in near-surface layers of the solid.

  9. Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K. Cowley

    2011-05-09

    This is an accessible, easy-to-read book introducing fractions. It can be downloaded in PowerPoint, Impress, and Flash formats. For struggling or non-readers the book can be read aloud in a variety of voices. All of the books on the Tar Heel Reader site can be used with the Intellikeys keyboard with a custom overlay, a touch screen, and/or 1-3 switches. The text and background colors can be modified for students with visual impairments.

  10. Experimental investigations of trace element fractionation in iron meteorites. II - The influence of sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Drake, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The partitioning of Ir, Ge, Ga, W, Cr, Au, P, and Ni between solid metal and metallic liquid is investigated as a function of temperature and the S-concentration of the metallic liquid. The partition coefficients for siderophile elements, such as Ir, W, Ga, and Ge, are found to increase by factors of 10-100 as the S-concentration of the metallic liquid increases from 0-30 wt percent. Partition coefficients for other siderophile elements, such as Ni, Au, and P, increase by factors of only 2-3. In contrast, a decrease is seen in the partition coefficients for the more chalcophile element Cr. These experimentally determined coefficients are used in conjunction with a fractional crystallization model to reproduce the geochemical behavior of Ni, P, Au, and Ir during the magmatic evolution of groups IIAB, IIIAB, IVA and IVB iron meteorites. The mean S-concentration for each group increases in the order IVB, IVA, IIIAB, IIAB, which is in accordance with cosmochemical prediction. However, the geochemical behavior of Ge, Ga, W, and Cr cannot be reproduced in an internally consistent way. It is concluded that the magmatic histories of these iron meteorite groups are more complex than has been generally assumed.

  11. Olivine Morphology and Trace Element Fractionation in Metal of Main Group Pallasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Pallasites are stony-iron meteorites consisting largely of olivine macrocrysts in a matrix of iron-nickel alloy in the form of kamacite-taenite intergrowth. Pallasites have been divided into Main Group (PMG), Eagle Station Grouplet (PES) and ungrouped (IrUn) also called pyroxene pallasites. Within PMG, six have anomalous metal contents (PMGam) and five have anomalous olivine compositions (PMGas). The morphologies of olivine macrocrysts in PMG are essentially of two types, angular or rounded. Of 19 normal PMG whose compositions and olivine morphologies are known, 17 have angular olivines. In the remaining two PMG, olivines are rounded as well as those of three PMGam and three PMGas. Experimental studies have demonstrated that rounding of olivines in molten iron-nickel alloy occurs in short times on a geological scale. Metallic cooling rates for PMG have been shown to be rapid at high temperature and slow at low temperature. Detailed analyses have demonstrated that angular olivines are compositionally zoned and therefore not in equilibrium with metal. These conditions imply that molten metal was injected into angular olivines fractured by an impact event. However, the presence of rounded olivine macrocrysts in PMGam and PMGas, as well as in two normal PMG, implies that these pallasites have retained an earlier generation of olivine. A long-standing theory for the origin of pallasites is that they represent the core-mantle boundary of a parent- body, subsequently disrupted by impact and injected by impact-melted metal. A relationship between the trace element fractionation trend in group IIIAB iron meteorites and metal of PMG is evident in that normal members cluster at the end of this fractionation trend. However, the theory does not account for the presence of rounded olivine macrocrysts. Log trace element vs log Au plots of indicate that most PMGam members exhibit the same fractionation trend as that seen for group IIIAB irons, and these correlate with PMGam and PMGas members with rounded olivines. The rounded olivine marcrocrysts may represent pre-impact olivines trapped in fractionating group IIIAB metal. Some scatter in these plots may be attributed to crystallization of melt trapped among olivine macrocrysts. Thus, the core-mantle boundary theory for the original of PMG is consistent with the evidence seen in olivine macrocrysts.

  12. The effect of rare earth elements on the texture and formability of asymmetrically rolled magnesium sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, Dr. Martyn [Magnesium Elektron North America; Cavin, Odis Burl [ORNL; Davis, Dr. Bruce [Magnesium Elektron North America; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Randman, David [Magnesium Elektron North America; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The lack of formability is a serious issue when considering magnesium alloys for various applications. Standard symmetric rolling introduces a strong basal texture that decreases the formability; however, asymmetric rolling has been put forward as a possible route to produce sheet with weaker texture and greater ductility. It has also been shown in recent work that weaker textures can be produced through the addition of rare earth elements to magnesium alloys. Therefore, this study has been carried out to investigate the effect of rare earth additions on the texture changes during asymmetric rolling. Two alloys have been used, AZ31B and ZEK100. The effect that the rare earth additions have on the texture of asymmetrically rolled sheet and the subsequent changes in formability will be discussed.

  13. Composition of the earth's upper mantle. II - Volatile trace elements in ultramafic xenoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Wandless, G. A.; Petrie, R. K.; Irving, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used to determine the nine volatile elements Ag, Bi, Cd, In, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and Zn in 19 ultramafic rocks, consisting mainly of spinel and garnet lherzolites. A sheared garnet lherzolite, PHN 1611, may approximate undepleted mantle material and tends to have a higher volatile element content than the depleted mantle material represented by spinel lherzolites. Comparisons of continental basalts with PHN 1611 and of oceanic ridge basalts with spinel lherzolites show similar basalt: source material partition factors for eight of the nine volatile elements, Sb being the exception. The strong depletion of Te and Se in the mantle, relative to lithophile elements of similar volatility, suggests that 97% of the earth's S, Se and Te may be in the outer core.

  14. Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Izawa, Yasukazu [ARCBS, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) and Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements (Sc, Y, and Gd) in the impact energy range of 30 to 1000 eV were measured for the first time. The experiments were performed with a crossed-beam apparatus that featured primary ion production by photoionization with a tunable dye laser. Comparing the cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements ({sigma}{sub Sc}, {sigma}{sub Y}, and {sigma}{sub Gd}) with those of alkali metals or helium {sigma}{sub 0}, we found that {sigma}{sub 0{approx_equal}{sigma}Sc}<{sigma}{sub Y}<{sigma}{sub Gd{approx_equal}}2{sigma}{sub 0}at an impact energy of 1000 eV.

  15. Extraction of rare-earth elements from nitric solutions by phosphoryl-containing podands

    SciTech Connect

    Turanov, A.N.; Karandashev, V.K.; Baulin, V.E.

    1999-11-01

    The extraction of microquantities of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y from HNO{sub 3} solutions by phosphoryl-containing podands of various structures has been studied.. It has been found that the maximum extraction of rare earth elements is exhibited by reagents containing one ether oxygen atom in the molecule, bound to diphenylphosphoryl or ditolylphosphoryl groups by methylene and o-phenylene fragments. The structure of these reagents is best suited for the polydentate coordination of the ligand and the conditions of a chelate complex formation. The effect of HNO{sub 3} concentration in the aqueous phase and that of the nature of an organic diluent on the extraction of rare earth elements and Y are considered. Stoichiometric of the extracted complexes has been determined and the extraction constants calculated.

  16. Study of the influence of the rare-earth elements on the properties of lead iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matuchova, M.; Zdansky, K.; Zavadil, J.; Danilewsky, A.; Riesz, F.; Hassan, M. A. S.; Alexiew, D.; Kral, R.

    2009-07-01

    Lead iodide (PbI 2) shows excellent electronic properties for detection of ionizing radiation. We report the introduction of rare-earth elements and other elements as admixtures during synthesis to study their influence on the quality of single crystals. Synthesized material as well as single crystals have been characterized by measurements of electrical resistivity and low-temperature photo luminescence and index of refraction. The structural quality with respect to polytypes was analysed by electron back scatter diffraction. Makyoh topography was applied for surface studies.

  17. Determination of picogram quantities of rare-earth elements in meteoritic materials by direct-loading thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Noda, S.; Nishikawa, Y.; Komi, H.; Nagamoto, H.; Nakayama, T.; Misawa, K.

    1989-04-01

    A procedure for direct-loading isotope dilution mass spectrometry (DL-IDMS) of rare-earth elements (REE), alkaline-earth metals, (Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba), alkali metals (K and Rb), and iron in microcomponents of meteorites is described. Without chemical separation the acid-decomposed sample was directly loaded onto a mass spectrometer filament and subjected to thermal ionization mass spectrometry with careful control of the filament current and the oxygen partial pressure. This technique permits, on a routine basis, precise concentration determinations of individual REE at the levels of > 10/sup /minus/13/ g (or > 10/sup /minus/15/ mol) in meteroritic and terrestrial materials such as chondrules, mineral fragments, and basaltic samples. The results demonstrate the presence of highly fractionated REE in microcomponents of meteorites, which indicates a new chemical aspect of REE in the early planetary materials. The DL-IDMS technique can thus be used as the only means of high-precision analyses of small planetary materials with low REE contents.

  18. Rare earth elements in waters from the albitite-bearing granodiorites of Central Sardinia, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Biddau; Rosa Cidu; Franco Frau

    2002-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the geochemical behaviour and mobility of the rare earth element (REE) in the natural water systems, the ground and surface waters of the Ottana–Orani area (Central Sardinia, Italy) were sampled. The study area consists of albititic bodies included in Hercynian granodiorites. The waters have pH in the range of 6.0–8.6, total

  19. Abundances of the fourteen rare-earth elements, scandium, and yttrium in meteoritic and terrestrial matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Schmitt; R. H. Smith; J. E. Lasch; A. W. Mosen; D. A. Olehy; J. Vasilevskis

    1963-01-01

    Abundances and isotopic ratios have been determined for the fourteen rare-earth elements (REE) (Pm excluded) plus Sc and Y by neutron-activation analysis in nineteen meteorites and in three terrestrial specimens. The meteorites investigated included eleven chondrites (1 carbonaceous, 2 pigeonitic, 2 hypersthenic, 3 bronzitic and 3 enstatitic), two calcium-rich and three calcium-poor achondrites, one mesosiderite and two iron meteorites; the

  20. Effect of temperature on the extraction of rare earth elements by alkylammonium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Proyaev; A. A. Kopyrin; V. V. Shokin

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of rare earth elements in the cerium subgroup by tri-n-octylammonium nitrates in the temperature range 283-328°K is discussed. The effects of the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficients on the nature of the extracted metal, the nature and concentration of the salting out agents, and additions of complexone to the aqueous phase were studied. In the majority of

  1. Extraction of rare-earth elements from nitric acid solutions with bis(dioctylphosphinylmethyl)phosphinic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Turanov; V. K. Karandashev; A. N. Yarkevich; Z. V. Safronova

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of microamounts of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y nitrates between aqueous\\u000a HNO3 solutions and solutions of bis(dioctylphosphinylmethyl)phosphinic acid in organic diluents was studied. The stoichiometry\\u000a of the extractable complexes was determined, and the diluent effect on the efficiency of extraction of rare-earth elements\\u000a from nitric acid solutions

  2. Extraction of rare-earth and transplutonium elements with dibutyl hydrogen phosphate in m -nitrobenzotrifluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Rodionov; A. N. Viznyi; V. M. Esimantovskii; B. Ya. Zilberman

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of rare-earth (REE) and transplutonium (TPE) elements, with Ce, Eu, and Am as examples, from aqueous HNO3 with dibutyl hydrogen phosphate (HDBP) in m-nitrobenzotrifluoride (MNBTF) was studied. The diluent effect on the Eu and Am extraction with dibutyl hydrogen phosphate\\u000a was examined at various HNO3 concentrations in the aqueous phase. Based on the data obtained, a mechanism of

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of rare earth elements from luminescent material in waste fluorescent lamps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryosuke Shimizu; Kayo Sawada; Youichi Enokida; Ichiro Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    Rare earth elements were extracted from luminescent material in waste fluorescent lamps using supercritical carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) complexes with HNO3 and H2O. The determined Y, Eu, La, Ce and Tb in the employed luminescent material were 29.6, 2.3, 10.6, 5.0 and 2.6wt.%, respectively. Aqueous droplets were generated in an extraction experiment from a reaction with metal

  4. Extraction of rare earth elements by high molecular weight amines from nitric acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Milyukova; N. S. Varezhkina; B. F. Myasoedov

    1986-01-01

    Extraction of trivalent rare earth elements by a high molecular weight primary amine \\/decylamine\\/ from 0.5–3M nitric acid solutions, containing potassium phosphotungstate \\/K10P2W17O61\\/, has been investigated. The effect of nitric acid and potassium phosphotungstate concentration of the organic solvent, and lanthanides ionic radii upon distribution coefficients has been studied. It has been established that decylamine solutions in chloroform can be

  5. Rare earth element distribution in some hydrothermal minerals: evidence for crystallographic control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Morgan; Gregory A. Wandless

    1980-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) abundances were measured by neutron activation analysis in anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), barite (BaSO 4 ), siderite (FeCO 3 ) and galena (PbS). A simple crystal-chemical model qualitatively describes the relative affinities for REE substitution in anhydrite, barite, and siderite. When normalized to `crustal' abundances (as an approximation to the hydrothermal fluid REE pattern), log REE

  6. Behaviour of rare earth elements during submarine weathering of tholeiitic basalt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Ludden; Geoffrey Thompson

    1978-01-01

    DREDGED oceanic basalts and those sampled by deep-ocean drilling have commonly undergone some weathering with subsequent changes in their chemical composition1-7. The rare-earth elements (REE) La-Lu are generally considered to be unaffected by weathering and are thus often used to characterise variations in basalt and magma composition. When considered relative to chondritic abundances8, the overall REE distribution is a critical

  7. The rare earth element geochemistry of Mono Lake water and the importance of carbonate complexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEVIN H. JOHANNESSON; W. BERRY LYONS

    1994-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations for the alkaline, saline waters of Mono Lake in eastern California are reported. The total REE concentrations of the lake water ranged from 4,68 1 to 7,979 pmol kg- I. Shale-normalized REE profiles for the lake water indicate that the heavy REEs (HREE) are enriched 20-200 times over the light REEs (LREE) compared to shale.

  8. Rare earth elements in Holocene reefal microbialites: a new shallow seawater proxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory E. Webb; Balz S. Kamber

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of rare earth elements and yttrium (REE + Y) was determined in Holocene Mg-calcite microbialites from shallow reef framework cavities at Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef. Shale-normalized REE + Y patterns of 52 microbialite samples show: (1) uniform heavy REE enrichment (NdSN\\/YbSN = 0.236, SD = 0.026); (2) consistent negative Ce and positive La anomalies; (3) marine Y\\/Ho

  9. Rare earth elements in chloride-rich groundwater, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Gosselin; M. R. Smith; E. A. Lepel; J. C. Laul

    1992-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data for groundwater samples from the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, USA, illustrates the potential use of REE for inferring groundwater flow paths through different geologic materials. The REE content of the groundwaters range over 2.5 orders of magnitude and are depleted by 10² to 10⁵ relative to aquifer materials. The shale-normalized

  10. Evaluation of single extractants for assessing plant availability of rare earth elements in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuliang Li; Xiaoquan Shan; Shuzhen Zhang

    2001-01-01

    The suitability of different extractants for estimating the plant availability of rare earth elements (REEs) in soils was assessed in a greenhouse study. 0.43 M CH3COOH, 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.1 M HCl, and DTPA were used as extractants and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as a test crop. Soil samples with diverse chemical and physical properties were collected from 9 different rural regions

  11. Pathway of rare-earth elements in a Brazilian forestry fragment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elvis J. França; Elisabete A. De Nadai Fernandes; Márcio A. Bacchi; Fábio S. Tagliaferro

    2002-01-01

    The Mata de Santa Genebra is a fragment of semi-deciduous tropical forest located in an urban area of São Paulo State, Brazil. Potential sources of rare-earth elements (REE), such as oil refinery, agricultural activities and high-traffic roads, are situated close to this region. In this study, the central portion of the fragment dominated by Pachystroma longifolium and Esenbeckia leiocarpa was

  12. Measurement of rare earths elements in Kakul phosphorite deposits of Pakistan using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabiha-Javied; S. Waheed; N. Siddique; R. Shakoor; M. Tufail

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) content of Kakul phosphate rock (PR) from different localities of the main Hazara deposits\\u000a of Pakistan were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 25 phosphorite samples were collected from\\u000a different phosphorite sites and 6 samples representing different batches from the crushing plant near Kakul Mine. Concentrations\\u000a of seven REEs (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Sm,

  13. Low-Molecular-Weight-Organic-Acids as Extractant to Predict Plant Bioavailability of Rare Earth Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuzhen Zhang; Xiao-Quan Shan; Fuliang Li

    2000-01-01

    A mixture of malic acid and citric acid as extractant for the evaluation of plant bioavailability of rare earth elements (REEs) in soils is presented. Extractable REEs by malic-citric acid, acetic acid (CH3COOH), DTPA, EDTA, Mehlich 3 and total REEs in soils were compared with the REEs in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the soils in greenhouse. Malic-citric

  14. Isolation and characterization of rare earth element-binding protein in roots of maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-an Yuan; Xiao-quan Shan; Bei Wen; Qing Huai

    2001-01-01

    Rare earth element-binding protein was isolated from maize, which was grown under greenhouse conditions and characterized\\u000a in terms of molecular weight, amino acid composition, and ultraviolet absorption. The molecular weight of the maize protein\\u000a was determined to be 183,000, with two distinct subunits of approximately molecular weights of 22,000 and 69,000, respectively.\\u000a The protein is particularly rich in asparagine\\/aspartic acid,

  15. Determination of rare earth elements in bauxites by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vukoti?

    1983-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis method was used for determination of 12 rare earth elements in red and white\\u000a bauxites. Consideration was given to those systematic errors which in a relative method of analysis can result from the effects\\u000a of neutron self-shielding, photon self-absorption and fission interfering reactions, due to different chemical composition\\u000a of bauxite samples and the standard of

  16. Performance of lead iodide nuclear radiation detectors with the introduction of rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Hassan; Marie Matuchova; Karel Zdansky

    2006-01-01

    Lead iodide has been recognized as a promising material for room temperature radiation detectors. It has a wide band-gap (?\\u000a 2.3 eV), high atomic numbers (82, 53) and it is environmentally very stable compared to mercuric iodide. Electrical and optical\\u000a properties of lead iodide grown crystals purified under the influence of selected rare earth elements have been investigated.\\u000a Photo-luminescence and

  17. Rare earth element deposition in pelagic sediment at the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary, Exmouth Plateau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald R. Dickens; Robert M. Owen

    1995-01-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 762 (eastern Indian Ocean) includes a section of sediment that spans the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (CTB) and was deposited along a continental margin during a period of widespread oceanic O2 deficiency. The rare earth element (REE) content of pre- and post-boundary sediment is similar to that of present-day continental slope material deposited in well-oxygenated seawater, whereas

  18. Rare earth element deposition in pelagic sediment at the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary, Exmouth Plateau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald R. Dickens; Robert M. Owen

    1995-01-01

    ODP Site 762 (eastern Indian Ocean) includes a section of sediment that spans the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (CTB) and was deposited along a continental margin during a period of widespread oceanic Oâ deficiency. The rare earth element (REE) content of pre- and post-boundary sediment is similar to that of present-day continental slope material deposited in well-oxygenated seawater, whereas the CTB section

  19. Rare earth element deposition in pelagic sediment at the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary, Exmouth Plateau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald R. Dickens; Robert M. Owen

    1995-01-01

    ODP Site 762 (eastern Indian Ocean) includes a section of sediment that spans the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (CTB) and was deposited along a continental margin during a period of widespread oceanic O2 deficiency. The rare earth element (REE) content of pre- and post-boundary sediment is similar to that of present-day continental slope material deposited in well-oxygenated seawater, whereas the CTB section

  20. [Determination of 15 trace rare earth elements in rice by microwave digestion ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Liu, H; Wang, N; Wang, X

    1998-10-01

    An ICP-MS method for direct determination of 15 trace rare earth elements in rice was developed. Rapid and complete dissolution of rice was achieved by a microwave digestion procedure with concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The detection limits are 7.0-25.8 pg/mL, the recoveries for spiked samples are 95-105%, RSDs are 2.3-4.2%. This method is rapid, sensitive and accurate. PMID:15825372

  1. Geographical Characterization of Greek Olive Oils Using Rare Earth Elements Content and Supervised Chemometric Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleni G. Farmaki; Nikolaos S. Thomaidis; Katerina S. Minioti; Evaggelia Ioannou; Constantinos A. Georgiou; Constantinos E. Efstathiou

    2012-01-01

    Different ANNs models (Multi-layer Perceptrons (MLPs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF)) were developed and evaluated for the discrimination of olive oils produced in four Greek regions according to their geographical origin. For this purpose, ninety-seven samples were analyzed for 10 rare earth elements (REE) by ICP-MS. Moreover, two additional supervised techniques, discriminant analysis (DA) and classification trees (CTs), were applied

  2. Environmental biogeochemical behaviors of rare earth elements in soil–plant systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Liang; Shen Zhang; Lijun Wang; Hsiang-Te Kung; Yuqi Wang; Aitang Hu; Shiming Ding

    2005-01-01

    With the continual increase in the utilization of rare earth elements (REEs) for industrial and agricultural purposes in China,\\u000a the research into the environmental biogeochemical behavior of REEs has become a pressing issue. The REEs’ content in soil\\u000a and various parts of wheat under different conditions in soil–plant systems were measured by INAA and ICP-MS. The results\\u000a showed four aspects.

  3. Laser-induced luminescence of rare-earth elements in natural zircon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Gaft; G Panczer; R Reisfeld; I Shinno

    2000-01-01

    Natural and synthetic zircons are investigated by time-resolved and high-resolution laser-induced luminescence to detect and ascribe various luminescence lines to a variety of rare-earth elements (REE). The selectivity of detection is possible by using different time delays after excitation, different gate widths and different excitation wavenumbers. This allowed us to detect REE in samples where they are hidden by intrinsic

  4. Light Rare Earth Elements enrichment in an acidic mine lake (Lusatia, Germany)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke Bozau; Marc Leblanc; Jean Luc Seidel; Hans-Joachim Stärk

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Rare Earth Elements (REE) was investigated in the acidic waters (lake and groundwater) of a lignite mining district (Germany). The Fe- and SO4-rich lake water (pH 2.7) displays high REE contents (e.g. La?70 ?g\\/l, Ce?160 ?g\\/l) and an enrichment of light REE (LREE) in the NASC normalised pattern. Considering the hydrodynamic model and geochemical data, the lake

  5. Determination of rare earth elements in black shales by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V Smirnova; I. N Fedorova; G. P Sandimirova; L. L Petrov; N. G Balbekina; V. I Lozhkin

    2003-01-01

    We report on the specific occurrence of rare-earth elements (REE) in carbonaceous black shales as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Black shales are categorized according to their formation: (i) biogenic (samples SCHS-1 and SLg-1 certified at the Institute of Geochemistry SB RAS); and (ii) bituminous (USGS standard reference samples SDO-1 and SGR-1). Comparison of ICP-MS results obtained

  6. Complexation of trivalent rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb) by carbonate ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Hyeon Lee; R. H. Byrne

    1993-01-01

    Carbonate stability constants for five rare earth elements (Ce[sup 3+], Eu[sup 3+], Gd[sup 3+], Tb[sup 3+], and Yb[sup 3+]) have been determined at t = 25[degrees]C and 0.70 [plus minus] 0.02 M ionic strength through solvent exchange techniques. Estimated stability constants for Ce, Eu, and Yb are in close agreement with previous work. Analyses using Gd and Tb provide the

  7. Oceanic crustal thickness from seismic measurements and rare earth element inversions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. White; Dan McKenzie; R. K. ONions

    1992-01-01

    Seismic refraction results show that the igneous section of oceanic crust averages 7.1 [plus minus] 0.8 km thick away from anomalous regions such as fracture zones and hot-spots, with extremal bounds of 5.0-8.5 km. Rare earth element inversions of the melt distribution in the mantle source region suggest that sufficient melt is generated under normal oceanic spreading centers to produce

  8. Methodologies for the analysis of rare earth elements and their relevance to reference materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Vijayalakshmy; T. Prasada Rao

    2001-01-01

    India has the third largest resources of rare earth elements (REE) in the world. These resources are essentially the monazite\\u000a sand present in the beaches of south-west, south-east, and mid-eastern coasts of India. Therefore, analytical methodologies\\u000a for the determination of REE in sea water and high-purity materials were developed. An overview of this work and its relevance\\u000a to the preparation

  9. Rare earth elements in forest-floor herbs as related to soil conditions and mineral nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Germund Tyler; Tommy Olsson

    2005-01-01

    Mixtures of rare earth elements (REEs) in fertilizers are widely used in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition. REE\\u000a concentrations in wild-growing plants, especially herbs, are little known. This study describes differences in the concentrations\\u000a and proportions of REEs in eight forest-floor herbaceous plants and relates these differences to soil and mineral nutrient\\u000a conditions. REEs studied were yttrium (Y), lanthanum

  10. A fractional four-step finite element formulation of the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using SUPG and linear equal-order element methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Choi; J. Y. Yoo

    1997-01-01

    A numerical algorithm using equal-order linear finite element and fractional four-step methods is presented for the analyses of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer problems. The SUPG (streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin) method is used for the weighted formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. With the fractional four-step method, the memory and cost requirements of computations are significantly reduced because the pressure is

  11. Numerical analysis of an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for time fractional telegraph equation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Min; Liu, Yang; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We discuss and analyze an H(1)-Galerkin mixed finite element (H(1)-GMFE) method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H(1)-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H(1)-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L(2)-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H(1)-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H(1)-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure. PMID:25184148

  12. Highly siderophile elements in Earth's mantle as a clock for the Moon-forming impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.; O'Brien, David P.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Rubie, David C.

    2014-04-01

    According to the generally accepted scenario, the last giant impact on Earth formed the Moon and initiated the final phase of core formation by melting Earth's mantle. A key goal of geochemistry is to date this event, but different ages have been proposed. Some argue for an early Moon-forming event, approximately 30 million years (Myr) after the condensation of the first solids in the Solar System, whereas others claim a date later than 50 Myr (and possibly as late as around 100 Myr) after condensation. Here we show that a Moon-forming event at 40 Myr after condensation, or earlier, is ruled out at a 99.9 per cent confidence level. We use a large number of N-body simulations to demonstrate a relationship between the time of the last giant impact on an Earth-like planet and the amount of mass subsequently added during the era known as Late Accretion. As the last giant impact is delayed, the late-accreted mass decreases in a predictable fashion. This relationship exists within both the classical scenario and the Grand Tack scenario of terrestrial planet formation, and holds across a wide range of disk conditions. The concentration of highly siderophile elements (HSEs) in Earth's mantle constrains the mass of chondritic material added to Earth during Late Accretion. Using HSE abundance measurements, we determine a Moon-formation age of 95 +/- 32 Myr after condensation. The possibility exists that some late projectiles were differentiated and left an incomplete HSE record in Earth's mantle. Even in this case, various isotopic constraints strongly suggest that the late-accreted mass did not exceed 1 per cent of Earth's mass, and so the HSE clock still robustly limits the timing of the Moon-forming event to significantly later than 40 Myr after condensation.

  13. Siku: A Sea Ice Discrete Element Method Model on a Spherical Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchitsky, A. V.; Hutchings, J. K.; Johnson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas can be significantly and adversely affected by sea ice. In the event of an oil spill, sea ice complicates the tracking of ice/oil trajectories and can hinder cleanup operations. There is a need for a sea ice dynamics model that can accurately simulate ice pack deformation and failure to improve the ability to track ice/oil trajectories and support oil response operations. A discrete element method (DEM) model, where each ice floe is represented by discrete elements that are initially bonded (frozen) together will be used to address the difficulty continuum modeling approaches have with representing discrete phenomena in sea ice, such as the formation of leads and ridges. Each discrete element in the DEM is a rigid body driven by environmental forcing (wind, current and Coriolis forces) and interaction forces with other discrete elements (compression, shear, tension, bond rupture and regrowth). We introduce a new DEM model ``Siku'', currently under development, to simulate ice drift of an ice floe on a spherical Earth. We will present initial free-drift results. Siku is focused on improving sea ice interaction mechanics and providing an accurate geometrical representation needed for basin scale and regional simulations. Upon completion, Siku will be an open source GNU GPL licensed user friendly program with embedded python capability for setting up simulations "scenarios" and coupling with other models to provide forcing fields. We use a unique quaternion representation for position and orientation of polygon sea-ice elements that use a second order integration scheme of sea-ice element motion on the Earth's sphere that does not depend on the location of the element and, hence, avoids numerical problems near the pole.

  14. Pourret Olivier, Gruau Grard, Dia Aline, Davranche Mlanie, and Molnat Jrome. (2010) Colloidal control on the distribution of rare earth elements in shallow

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2010-01-01

    control on the distribution of rare earth elements in shallow groundwaters. Aquatic Geochemistry 16 (1 OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATERS Olivier Pourret1, 2, § , Gérard Gruau1,* , Aline Dia1;3 Abstract A 7-year monitoring period of rare earth element (REE) concentrations and REE pattern shapes

  15. What Can Neutrinos Tell Us about Light Elements in Earth's Core?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Dye, S.; Enomoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    The light element composition of the Earth's core remains mysterious despite decades' of research. Without any direct samples, our knowledge of the core composition has relied on a diversity of constraints including the density and velocity profiles derived from seismic and geophysical observations, the composition models proposed on the basis of geochemical and cosmochemical measurements, the material properties determined by mineral physics investigations, and the thermal and dynamo requirements coming out of dynamic modeling. The leading candidates for the principal light element include hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, sulfur and silicon, in the order of increasing atomic number. While each candidate stands out in some aspects and raises questions in others, none has been universally accepted as the dominant light element in the core. The controversy arises partly because the properties and behavior of various iron-alloys at extreme pressure and temperature conditions have not been fully constrained. It is also conceivable that existing approaches will not produce unique solution, and therefore requires new strategies. Neutrino oscillation tomography has recently emerged as a promising technique to probe the composition of Earth's interior. Neutrinos are produced in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interactions. Atmospheric neutrinos pass through the Earth's mantle and core, with flavor oscillations being affected by the electron density of the medium along the trajectories. The unique sensitivity of the atmospheric neutrinos to electron density introduces a contrast between hydrogen, which has a higher electron density, and carbon, oxygen, sulfur, and silicon, which have lower and similar electron densities. With sufficient exposure to an appropriate energy range, atmospheric neutrino measurements may allow us to detect the presence of the core and measure its radius. Here we compare electron densities of candidate model compositions of Earth's core and estimate the exposure requirements for identifying the dominant light element thorough neutrino oscillation tomography for both neutrino mass hierarchies. In particular, we will evaluate if any of the on-going and next-generation projects IceCube, PINGU, MICA, and HyperK can tell us about the light elements in Earth's core.

  16. Iridium, sulfur isotopes and rare earth elements in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay at Stevns Klint, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Birger; Andersson, Per; Dahl, Jeremy

    1988-01-01

    Microbial activity and redox-controlled precipitation have been of major importance in the process of metal accumulation in the strongly Ir-enriched Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay, the Fish Clay, at Stevns Klint in Denmark. Two important findings support this view: 1) Kerogen, recovered by leaching the Fish Clay in HCl and HF, shows an Ir concentration of 1100 ppb; this represents about 50% of the Ir present in the bulk sample Fish Clay. Strong organometallic complexes is the most probable carrier phase for this fraction of Ir. Kerogen separated from the K-T boundary clay at Caravaca, Spain, similarly exhibits enhanced Ir concentrations. 2) Sulfur isotope analyses of metal-rich pyrite spherules, which occur in extreme abundance (about 10% by weight) in the basal Fish Clay, give a ? 34S value of -32%.. This very low value shows that sulfide formation by anaerobic bacteria was intensive in the Fish Clay during early diagenesis. Since the pyrite spherules are major carriers of elements such as Ni, Co, As, Sb and Zn, microbial activity may have played an important role for concentrating these elements. In the Fish Clay large amounts of rare earth elements have precipitated from sea water on fish scales. Analyses reveal that, compared with sea water, the Fish Clay is only about four times less enriched in sea-water derived lanthanides than in Ir. This shows that a sea-water origin is plausible for elements that are strongly enriched in the clay, but whose origin cannot be accounted for by a lithogenic precursor.

  17. Determination of rare earth elements in environmental materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Panday, V.K.; Hoppstock, K.; Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J. [Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen, Juelich (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Despite the fact that rare earth elements (REE) have found increasing use in modern technology only few data are available on their concentrations in biological and environmental samples. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been employed to study the concentration of rare earth elements (REE) in various environmental materials (e.g., pine needles, mussel tissue, apple leaves) available from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Bureau of European Communities (BCR), and the German Environmental Specimens Bank. After the decomposition of the environmental samples with HNO{sub 3}, the REE (present mostly in the ng/g-range) were separated from the matrix and simultaneously preconcentrated using liquid-liquid extraction with bis(2-ethyl hexyl)-ortho-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene as a selective reagent at pH = 2 and subsequent back extraction of the elements into the aqueous by 6M HNO{sub 3}. Recoveries of better 90% were obtained for almost all REE. A Perkin Elmer/Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP-MS and HR-ICP-MS ELEMENT from Finnigan MAT were used for quantitative analysis (by external calibration and ID-ICP-MS) of REE. The results of determination of REE concentrations agree well with the data available on some of these materials. Further supplement information on the contents of various REE in these materials.

  18. Alkylation of isobutane with butenes in the presence of HNaY zeolite modified by cations of nickel, calcium and rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, O.I.; Panchenkov, G.M.; Plakhotnik, V.A.; Razali, B.; Tolkacheva, Y.I.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of alkylation of isobutane with n-butenes in the presence of ion-exchange forms of zeolites, containing ions of Ni/sup 2 +/ and rare-earth elements. It was established that the addition to HCaY zeolite of Ni/sup 2 +/ ions reduces alkylate yield and increases the content of intermediate products. The use in the reaction studied of HCaY zeolite containing La/sup 3 +/ or Gd/sup 3 +/ ions increases the content of iso-octane hydrocarbons in the alkylate and reduces the content of fractions C/sub 9/ and higher.

  19. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as an element-specific detector for field-flow fractionation particle separation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H E; Garbarino, J R; Murphy, D M; Beckett, R

    1992-09-01

    An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer was used for the quantitative measurement of trace elements In specific,submicrometer size-fraction particulates, separated by sedimentation field-flow fractionation. Fractions were collected from the eluent of the field-flow fractionation centrifuge and nebulized, with a Babington-type pneumatic nebulizer, into an argon inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Measured Ion currents were used to quantify the major, minor, and trace element composition of the size-separated colloidal (< 1-microm diameter) particulates. The composition of surface-water suspended matter collected from the Yarra and Darling rivers in Australia is presented to illustrate the usefulness of this tool for characterizing environmental materials. An adsorption experiment was performed using cadmium lon to demonstrate the utility for studying the processes of trace metal-suspended sediment interactions and contaminant transport in natural aquatic systems. PMID:19518039

  20. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China. PMID:23548400

  1. Complementary rare earth element patterns in unique achondrites, such as ALHA 77005 and shergottites, and in the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Laul, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Abundances of major, minor, and trace elements are determined in the Antarctic achondrite Allan Hills (ALHA) 77005 via sequential instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The rare earth element (REE) abundances of ALHA 77005 reveal a unique chondritic normalized pattern; that is, the REEs are nearly unfractionated from La to Pr at approximately 1.0X chondrites, monotonically increased from Pr to Gd at approximately 3.4X with no Eu anomaly, nearly unfractionated from Gd and Ho and monotonically decreased from Ho to Lu at approximately 2.2X. It is noted that this unique REE pattern of ALHA 77005 can be modeled by a melting process involving a continuous melting and progressive partial removal of melt from a light REE enriched source material. In a model of this type, ALHA 77005 could represent either a crystallized cumulate from such a melt or the residual source material. Calculations show that the parent liquids for the shergottites could also be derived from a light REE enriched source material similar to that for ALHA 77005.

  2. Effect of rare earth elements on growth and nutrition of coconut palm and root competition for these elements between the palm and calotropis gigantea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Wahid; M. S. Valiathan; N. V. Kamalam; J. T. Eapen; S. Vijayalakshmi; R. Krishna Prabhu; T. R. Mahalingam

    2000-01-01

    Absorption of rare earth elements (REEs) namely lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd) by coconut, competition between coconut and Calotropis gigantea L. for these elements in mixed culture and the effects of the REEs on growth and nutrition of the palm were studied in a pot culture. At a low rate of application, REEs promoted root growth

  3. The geochemistry of rare earth elements in the seasonally anoxic water column and porewaters of Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Sholkovitz, E.R.; Shaw, T.J.; Schneider, D.L. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A twelve cruise time-series study of a seasonally anoxic basin in Chesapeake Bay was carried out between February 1988 and February 1989. Data from filtered bottom water and upper (0-1 cm) porewater samples are presented. This is the first study in which time-series measurements have been employed to understand the low temperature geochemistry of rare earth elements (REEs). The focus is on the coupling between REDOX (Reduction-Oxidation) variations and REE cycling, fractionation of trivalent REEs and development of cerium anomalies. The time-series results demonstrate that REEs have large seasonal cycles in both the water column and porewaters in response to the development of anoxia in the spring and reoxygenation in the fall. The transition from oxic to suboxic to anoxic conditions results in the release of REEs into the upper porewaters and bottom waters. The release of REEs and Fe are coincident in the bottom waters, while the release of REEs lags Fe by approximately 50 days in the upper porewaters. The release of REEs to the upper porewaters and bottom water are accompanied by (1) fractionation across the trivalent REE series and by (2) the preferential input of Ce relative to its trivalent-only REE neighbors. REE(III) fractionation is such that the relative rate of release increases from Lu to La (light REE > middle REE > heavy REE). During reoxygenation, removal of dissolved REEs occurs from both the water column and upper porewaters and follows the same relative rates, LREE > MREE > HREE. Cerium removal occurs faster than its neighbor REE(III), indicating a rapid oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV).

  4. Multi-element including rare earth content of lichens, bark, soils, and waste following industrial closure.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Ana-Maria; Chimonides, P D James; Jones, Gary C; Garcia-Sanchez, Raquel; Purvis, O William

    2006-08-01

    The fate of rare earth and other rare elements entering the environment is largely unknown. The lichen Hypogymnia physodes was transplanted over a 40 km long transect centered on a major metallurgical waste dump close to the Zlatna town center two weeks after smelter closure. Lichens, bark, soil, and waste dump materials were analyzed for 56 elements (including REE). Lichen and bark multi-element compositions were alike, reflecting fixation of elements of environmental concern and the ability for tree canopies to concentrate substances leading to enhanced deposition to both lichens and bark. Higher REE enrichment in lichens than in soil confirm efficient fixation in lichens. The negative europium anomaly in lichens and soil, similar to that in upper crust, confirm a strong crustal influence on lichen signatures across the transect area. Multi-element analysis supports the view that epiphytic lichens, unlike trees, are not influenced by lower groundwater, and they are excellent indicators for REE and other rare elements entering the surface environment, difficult to detect by conventional means. PMID:16913112

  5. New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars

    E-print Network

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Ivans, Inese I; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den

    2009-01-01

    We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rare-earth, and Hf (56<= Z <= 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  6. Multielement and rare earth element composition of lichens, mosses, and vascular plants from the Central Barrenlands, Nunavut, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chiarenzelli; L. Aspler; C. Dunn; B. Cousens; D. Ozarko; K. Powis

    2001-01-01

    Lichen (n=12) and moss (n=6) species from a remote region of northern Canada have remarkably similar multi-element patterns suggesting they are non-specific accumulators of metals under existing conditions. Within individual species the concentration of many metals analyzed range over an order of magnitude. Many elements have a positive correlation with multi-element (n=48) and REE (rare earth element) totals. Others, such

  7. Studies of various elements of nutritional and toxicological interest associated with different molecular weight fractions in Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G; Caruso, Joseph A

    2004-09-22

    On-line hyphenation of size exclusion chromatography (SEC), UV, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study the molecular weight distribution patterns of several elements in Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa). This technique was used for the elemental speciation of different elements of nutritional and toxicological interests such as Mg, Fe, Co, Mo, Ag, Hg, and Pb. Elemental fractionation in Brazil nuts was studied using a Superdex peptide column with resolving capacity in the range of 14 to 0.18 kDa. Three different mobile phases, Tris buffer solution (pH 8.0), phosphate buffer (pH 7.5), and CAPS buffer solution (pH 10.0), were tried for the SEC fractionation. Size exclusion fractionation of all the extracted solutions was performed using a 50 mmol L(-)(1) Tris buffer (pH 8) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-)(1). Three different extractions, 0.05 mol L(-)(1) NaOH, 0.05 mol L(-)(1) HCl, and hot water at 60 degrees C, were performed, and the association of elements with various molecular weight fractions was evaluated. Total elemental concentrations in the extracted samples were determined and compared with the values obtained after total digestion to calculate the recovery values. Generally, high extraction efficiency was obtained with the NaOH solution as compared with HCl and hot water except in the case of magnesium, for which HCl was found to be a good extractant. Chromatographic elution profiles for these extractions were quite distinct from each other in most cases. Most of the elemental species were found to be associated with high molecular weight fractions. To study the differences obtained during the sample-processing step, the results obtained for nuts with shell were treated differently from those obtained for nuts purchased without shell and were compared. PMID:15366819

  8. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A

    2014-05-15

    This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications. PMID:24681591

  9. Effect of rare earth elements from monazite on growth-vigor and chemical composition of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Sharoubeem; N. E. Milad

    1966-01-01

    This investigation deals with the effect of different concentrations of rare earth elements (as monazite extract containing Th, Ce, La, Pr, and Nd in the form of nitrates) on the growth and nutritional status of Phaseolus vulgaris. Phaseolus vulgaris plants were grown in sand cultures to which rare earths were added to supply 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 ppm. Growth

  10. Comparison of speciation and bioavailability of rare earth elements between wet rhizosphere soil and air-dried bulk soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongwen Wang; Xiao-quan Shan; Shuzhen Zhang

    2001-01-01

    A comparison was made between the speciation and bioavailability of rare earth elements in rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils and between wet and air-dried soils under greenhouse conditions by using a homemade rhizobox. The speciation of rare earth elements in soils is experimentally defined as water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound (B1), Fe–Mn oxide bound (B2) and organic matter and sulfide

  11. Photosystem 2 activities of hyper-accumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma Bernh from a light rare earth elements mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Wang; H. B. Ji; K. Z. Bai; L. B. Li; T. Y. Kuang

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in the fern Dicranopteris dichotoma Bernh plants from a light rare earth elements mine (LRM) and a non-mining (NM) area in Longnan county of Jiangxi province,\\u000a China were investigated by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive\\u000a X-ray microanalysis. The photosynthetic characteristics of D. dichotoma were studied by chlorophyll

  12. Determination of Trace Rare Earth Elements in Plant and Soil Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinde Cao; Ying Chen; Zhimang Gu; Xiaorong Wang

    2000-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to determine the concentration of rare earth elements (REEs) in plants and soils. Sample preparation and analytical conditions were investigated to set up a simple routine procedure for measuring rare earth elements. For prompt sample decomposition, a microwave digestion technique was successfully used with an acid mixture of HCl+HNO3+HF. Detection limits, reproducibility, accuracy

  13. Analytical long-term orbit predictions with the combined effect of Earth's flattening and atmospheric oblateness using KS element equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lila Sivan Kutty Nair

    2008-01-01

    An analytical theory for long-term orbit motion of near-Earth satellite orbits with Earth's zonal harmonic J2 and air drag is developed in terms of KS elements, utilizing an analytical oblate exponential atmospheric density model. Due to symmetry in KS element equations, only one of the eight equations is integrated analytically to obtain the state vector at the end of each

  14. Monopole elements with disk ground planes on flat earth: Atlas of directivity, radiation efficiency, radiation resistance, and input impedance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Weiner

    1992-01-01

    Richmond's moment-method programs RICHMOND3 and RICHMOND4 for monopole elements with disk ground planes above flat Earth are used to obtain computer plots of directivity, radiation efficiency, radiation resistance, and input impedance at 15 MHz. Results, in the form of an atlas, are presented as a function of Earth classification for thin, quarter-wave monopole elements whose ground planes or radii 0

  15. The chemistry of the light rare-earth elements as determined by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J.A.; Buck, E.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The energy loss spectra of the rare earths are characterized by sharp {ital M}{sub 4,5} edges, the relative intensities of which are characteristic of the 4{ital f}-shell occupancy of the excited ion. For the light rare earths, the dependence of these relative peak heights on 4{ital f}-shell occupancy is quite pronounced. Thus they may be used to determine the oxidation state of the multivalent elements Ce and Pr. The second derivative of the spectrum is shown to be extremely sensitive to the chemical environment. Modern instrumentation and detection techniques allow the oxidation state of Ce and Pr to be determined even when they are present as only minor constituents. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Trace rare earth element analysis of IAEA hair (HH-1), animal bone (H-5) and other biological standards by radiochemical neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a rare earth group separation scheme has been used to measure ultratrace levels of rare earth elements (REE) in IAEA Human Hair (HH-1), IAEA Animal Bone (H-5), NBS Bovine Liver (SRM 1577), and NBS Orchard Leaf (SRM 1571) standards. The REE concentrations in Human Hair and Animal Bone range from 10/sup -8/g/g to 10/sup -11/g/g and their chondritic normalized REE patterns show a negative Eu anomaly and follow as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii. The REE patterns for NBS Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaf are identical except that their concentrations are higher. The similarity among the REE patterns suggest that the REE do not appear to be fractionated during the intake of biological materials by animals or humans. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The recovery of rare earth oxides from a phosphoric acid by-product. Part 3. The separation of the middle and light rare earth fractions and the preparation of pure europium oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Preston; A. C. du Preez; P. M. Cole; M. H. Fox

    1996-01-01

    The development and operation of a continuous solvent extraction process for the separation of the middle (Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb) and light rare earth fractions (La, Ce, Pr, Nd) from a nitrate feed liquor is described. The process consists of extraction of the middle rare earths into a 15 vol% solution of D2EHPA in Shellsol AB in 8 counter-current stages,

  18. Contrasting behaviour of anthropogenic gadolinium and natural rare earth elements in estuaries and the gadolinium input into the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulaks?z, Serkan; Bau, Michael

    2007-08-01

    All major rivers in northwestern Germany that flow into the North Sea, including the Weser River, display rare earth element (REE) patterns with large positive gadolinium (Gd) anomalies that indicate the presence of anthropogenic Gd derived from contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging. This microcontaminant cannot be removed by common sewage treatment technology and enters rivers and lakes with the discharge from waste water treatment plants. As elsewhere, a large fraction of the natural dissolved REE in the Weser River are associated with colloids. These colloids aggregate during mixing of freshwater and seawater in the low-salinity part of the Weser Estuary and the dissolved REE are partially removed from the river water together with the colloids. In marked contrast to the natural REE, the anthropogenic Gd behaves conservatively during this estuarine mixing and transits through the Weser Estuary almost unaffected. This indicates that the speciation of anthropogenic Gd is different from that of natural Gd and suggests a long environmental half-life of the anthropogenic Gd complexes used as contrast agents. The amount of anthropogenic Gd introduced into seawater via rivers is significant and produces anthropogenic positive Gd anomalies in coastal seawater. This is observed in the southwestern North Sea, off the coast of the East Frisian Islands, where anthropogenic Gd is mostly derived from the rivers Rhine and Thames. Its long environmental half-life and conservative estuarine behaviour suggest that anthropogenic Gd might be utilized as a pseudo-natural far-field tracer for truly dissolved riverine REE input into seawater and for discharge from waste water treatment plants and for sewage in river, ground and drinking water. The widespread distribution of anthropogenic Gd is an example of how the increasing use of "exotic" (ultra)trace elements in high-tech processes will in the future significantly hamper studies of the distribution and geochemical behaviour of such elements in natural systems.

  19. Determination of rare earth elements in tomato plants by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques.

    PubMed

    Spalla, S; Baffi, C; Barbante, C; Turetta, C; Turretta, C; Cozzi, G; Beone, G M; Bettinelli, M

    2009-10-30

    In recent years identification of the geographical origin of food has grown more important as consumers have become interested in knowing the provenance of the food that they purchase and eat. Certification schemes and labels have thus been developed to protect consumers and genuine producers from the improper use of popular brand names or renowned geographical origins. As the tomato is one of the major components of what is considered to be the healthy Mediterranean diet, it is important to be able to determine the geographical origin of tomatoes and tomato-based products such as tomato sauce. The aim of this work is to develop an analytical method to determine rare earth elements (RRE) for the control of the geographic origin of tomatoes. The content of REE in tomato plant samples collected from an agricultural area in Piacenza, Italy, was determined, using four different digestion procedures with and without HF. Microwave dissolution with HNO3 + H2O2 proved to be the most suitable digestion procedure. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICPQMS) and inductively coupled plasma sector field plasma mass spectrometry (ICPSFMS) instruments, both coupled with a desolvation system, were used to determine the REE in tomato plants in two different laboratories. A matched calibration curve method was used for the quantification of the analytes. The detection limits (MDLs) of the method ranged from 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ho, Tm, and Lu to 2 ng g(-1) for La and Ce. The precision, in terms of relative standard deviation on six replicates, was good, with values ranging, on average, from 6.0% for LREE (light rare earth elements) to 16.5% for HREE (heavy rare earth elements). These detection limits allowed the determination of the very low concentrations of REE present in tomato berries. For the concentrations of REE in tomato plants, the following trend was observed: roots > leaves > stems > berries. PMID:19757452

  20. TES microcalorimeter SEM-EDS system for rare-earth elements analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Seiichiro; Takai, Yasuhiro; Shirose, Yohei; Fujii, Yuki

    A field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) detector of a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter is a new system for electron-microprobe chemical analyses. FE-SEM with TES was used for qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of rare-earth elements (REE) at a low accelerating voltage of 5 kV. Four characteristic M-lines were detected in the LaB6 spectrum: LaM? at 640, LaM?? at 841, LaM? at 1021, and a weak line (M2N4 transition) at 1100 eV. The spectra of other rare-earth borides, rare-earth phosphates, and monazite were assigned in the same way as the La M-lines were. For quantitative analyses, we used a calibration curve method, using standard specimens of known chemical compositions. Linear calibration curves for plots of P, Ca, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd intensities versus each weight percentage were obtained. Semi-quantitative analyses of rare-earth minerals should be carried out at low accelerating voltages using a calibration curve method. In a TES-EDS system, a low accelerating voltage can be used to improve the spatial resolution, without the sensitivity disadvantages of low-energy X-ray emissions. Moreover, a strong increase in the M?? intensity with increasing atomic number Z was seen, so the detection limits of heavy REE was much lower than those of light REEs. These results suggest that the TES-EDS system could be a useful analytical tool in rare-earth mineralogy.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Melt-processed light rare earth element - Ba - Cu - O

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Murakami; N. Sakai; T. Higuchi; S. I. Yoo

    1996-01-01

    Unlike Y123 which forms only a stoichiometric compound, the light rare earth elements (LREs: La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) form a solid solution 0953-2048\\/9\\/12\\/001\\/img1. The presence of such solid solution caused a depression in the superconducting transition temperatures 0953-2048\\/9\\/12\\/001\\/img2, particularly for La123, Nd123 and Sm123 when they are melt processed in air. Recently, we have found that the 0953-2048\\/9\\/12\\/001\\/img3 of

  2. Microwave absorbing properties of rare-earth elements substituted W-type barium ferrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Jing; Zhang Hong; Bai Shuxin; Chen Ke; Zhang Changrui

    2007-01-01

    W-type barium ferrites Ba(MnZn)0.3Co1.4R0.01Fe15.99O27 with R=Dy, Nd and Pr were prepared by chemical coprecipitation method. Effects of rare-earth elements (RE) substitution on microstructural and electromagnetic properties were analyzed. The results show that a small amount of RE3+ ions can replace Fe3+ ions and adjust hyperfine parameters. An obvious increase in natural resonance frequency and high frequency relaxation, and a sharp

  3. Phase composition of ceramics in systems with oxides of rare-earth elements, manganese, and titanium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Stefanovskii; S. V. Yudintsev; B. S. Nikonov; O. I. Stefanovskaya

    2007-01-01

    Ceramics based on systems with oxides of rare-earth elements (REE: Y2O3, Sm2O3, Gd2O3), manganese, and titanium, considered as hosts for immobilization of REE- and actinide-containing radioactive wastes (RAW),\\u000a were prepared by cold pressing and sintering at 1300–1400?C, and also by plasma treatment. Phases of the pyrochlore-murataite\\u000a series are prevalent in the ceramics, and perovskite-pyrophanite-type phases are impurity phases, as well

  4. Variation in trace element content of magnetite crystallized from a fractionating sulfide liquid, Sudbury, Canada: Implications for provenance discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges

    2012-07-01

    Laser ablation ICP-MS analysis has been applied to many accessory minerals in order to understand better the process by which the rock formed and for provenance discrimination. We have determined trace element concentrations of Fe-oxides in massive sulfides that form Ni-Cu-PGE deposits at the base of the Sudbury Igneous Complex in Canada. The samples represent the crystallization products of fractionating sulfide liquids and consist of early-forming Fe-rich monosulfide solution (MSS) cumulates and residual Cu-rich intermediate solid solution (ISS). This study shows that Fe-oxide geochemistry is a sensitive petrogenetic indicator for the degree of fractionation of the sulfide liquid and provides an insight into the partitioning of elements between sulfide and Fe-oxide phases. In addition, it is useful in determining the provenance of detrital Fe-oxide. In a sulfide melt, all lithophile elements (Cr, Ti, V, Al, Mn, Sc, Nb, Ga, Ge, Ta, Hf, W and Zr) are compatible into Fe-oxide. The concentrations of these elements are highest in the early-forming Fe-oxide (titanomagnetite) which crystallized with Fe-rich MSS. Upon the continual crystallization of Fe-oxide from the sulfide liquid, the lithophile elements gradually decrease so that late-forming Fe-oxide (magnetite), which crystallized from the residual Cu-rich liquid, is depleted in these elements. This behavior is in contrast with Fe-oxides that crystallized from a fractionating silicate melt, whereby the concentration of incompatible elements, such as Ti, increases rather than decreases. The behavior of the chalcophile elements in magnetite is largely controlled by the crystallization of the sulfide minerals with only Ni, Co, Zn, Mo, Sn and Pb present above detection limit in magnetite. Nickel, Mo and Co are compatible in Fe-rich MSS and thus the co-crystallizing Fe-oxide is depleted in these elements. In contrast, magnetite that crystallized later from the fractionated liquid with Cu-rich ISS is enriched in Ni, Mo and Co because Fe-rich MSS is absent. The concentrations of Sn and Pb, which are incompatible with Fe-rich MSS, are highest in magnetite that formed from the fractionated Cu-rich liquid. At subsolidus temperatures, ilmenite exsolved from titanomagnetite whereas Al-spinel exsolved from the cores of some magnetite, locally redistributing the trace elements. However, during laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of these Fe-oxides both the magnetite and its exsolution products are ablated so that the analysis represents the original magmatic composition of the Fe-oxide that crystallized from the sulfide melt.

  5. Analysis of rare earth elements in silicates by ion microprobe using doubly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Riciputi, L.R.; Christie, W.H.; Cole, D.R.; Rosseel, T.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    A technique for measurement of rare earth element (REE) concentrations in silicates using a Camecaims-4f ion microprobe and doubly-charged, odd-mass isotopes has been developed. The secondary ion spectra of the doubly-charged odd-mass REE are virtually free of interferences, allowing measurements to be carried out at low energies and without the need for spectral stripping. Calibration lines have been established for La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, and Yb using a suite of clinopyroxene standards. This technique offers a relatively fast, simple approach for the in-situ analysis of REE on spots of <20 [mu]m and detection limits of <15 ppb for most elements. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Effects of rare earth elements and REE-binding proteins on physiological responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwu; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhiwei

    2012-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), which include 17 elements in the periodic table, share chemical properties related to a similar external electronic configuration. REEs enriched fertilizers have been used in China since the 1980s. REEs could enter the cell and cell organelles, influence plant growth, and mainly be bound with the biological macromolecules. REE-binding proteins have been found in some plants. In addition, the chlorophyll activities and photosynthetic rate can be regulated by REEs. REEs could promote the protective function of cell membrane and enhance the plant resistance capability to stress produced by environmental factors, and affect the plant physiological mechanism by regulating the Ca²? level in the plant cells. The focus of present review is to describe how REEs and REE-binding proteins participate in the physiological responses in plants. PMID:21838699

  7. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Cristina; Serrano, Helena Cristina; Pinto, Manuel João; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia

    2007-03-01

    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P. almogravensis undoubtedly is an Al hyperaccumulator plant. If the recent proposed requirements were considered, most of them matching those for a plant to be used in phytoextraction, it can only be considered an unusual accumulator of Al. A discussion is made concerning the several criteria of a hyperaccumulator plant in order to include rare and endemic ones and abundant elements. In ecological terms, the enrichment in Al and Fe observed may account for the differences in the vegetation pattern. Due to the rarity and endangered nature of this plant, the contribution of this work is also relevant for the ecological understanding and the development of conservation options of this endemic species. PMID:17046127

  8. Biosorption of Uranium and Rare Earth Elements Using Biomass of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Nobuo; Kano, Naoki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) and uranium (U) in marine organism, the concentrations of REEs and U in some brown algae samples taken on the coast of Niigata Prefecture were determined. In addition, laboratory model experiment to uptake these elements using living and dried algae (Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum hemiphyllum) was also carried out to survey the uptake and bioaccumulation mechanism of REEs and U in algae. Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The order of the concentration of REEs for each organ in Sargassum hemiphyllum is “main branch” > “leaf” > “vesicle,” however for U, the order is “leaf” > “vesicle” > “main branch.” (2) The concentration of REEs in Sargassum hemiphyllum may be strongly affected by suspended solid in seawater. (3) The uptake and/or accumulate mechanism of REEs in brown algae may be different from that of U. PMID:19081786

  9. Application of rare-earth element Y in refining impure copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-hong; Sun, Xue-qin; Zhang, Shang-zhou; Zhao, Qin-yi; Wang, Guang-zhen

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rare-earth element Y in refining impure copper were investigated in this paper. The composition, microstructures, and corrosion resistance properties of impure copper before and after refinement with Y were investigated using direct-reading spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results show that the concentrations of impurities S, As, Sb, Bi, Al, Cd, and Se are remarkably decreased. Adding an appropriate amount of Y refines the microstructure and enhances the corrosion resistance properties of impure copper in HCl solution via a purification effect. The formation enthalpies of compounds formed between Y and various impurity elements were calculated on the basis of Miedema's theory. The thermodynamic mechanisms of the refinement of impure copper by Y were also discussed

  10. Rare earth elements in stream waters from the Rokko granite area, Japan: Effect of weathering degree of watershed rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAIGA NAKAJIMA; YASUTAKA TERAKADO

    The concentrations of major elements and rare earth elements (REE) of the stream waters from the Rokko granite area, Japan, were analyzed to examine the relationship between the degree of weathering and chemistry of the waters. The clay minerals in the related soils from the watershed areas were also examined. It was found that the relative proportion of kaolinite to

  11. Sample Preparation for Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Geological Samples by ICP-MS: A Critical Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederico Garcia Pinto; Rainério Escalfoni Junior; Tatiana Dillenburg SaintPierre

    2012-01-01

    The presence of rare earth elements (REE) in geological materials provides important information about the formation and the geochemical processes suffered by the rocks. Therefore, there is a constant necessity for accurate data and reliable and fast analytical methods. However, the low concentrations of these elements typically found in rocks require quantification by sufficiently sensitive techniques, such as Inductively Coupled

  12. Behavior of rare earth and trace elements in Lake Tanganyika and its three major tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, A.; Johnson, R.

    2004-12-01

    Water samples were collected, during the rainy and dry seasons 2003, from three major rivers and several locations of the Lake Tanganyika. They were directly filtered (0.45 im pore size) into pre-washed polyethylene bottles, and acidified at pH 2. Finnigan Element 2 high resolution (HR)-IC-MPS was used to measure trace and rare earth elements (REE) concentrations under clean laboratory conditions, and (115In) was used as an internal standard. Because of the close relationship between light rare earth element (LREE) and Fe, riverine REE of the three were used to study the process trace element scavenging by Fe oxyhydroxides in three different two sub-basins of the lake. This confirmed by the significant positive correlation between Nd and Fe. The vertical distribution of Fe and Mn oxides were also used to investigate removal and release of trace elements in the water column. The normalized lacustrine REE to their riverine counterpart showed a gradual removal of REE across the lake, which was in the order of LREE>MREE>HREE. Hence, the rivers are the sole source of the lacustrine REE abundance. Coincidence of Fe maxima with those of Ce anomalies and La indicates that trace element profiles are chiefly controlled by the coating of Fe oxyhydroxides through oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ under high dissolved oxygen contents and pH and vice versa. Due to differences in hydrodynamics between the extreme ends of the lake (upwelling in the southern end during the dry season), high mixing between bottom water and surface was observed at the surface in the Southern Basin while the mixing occurred mainly between 40 m and 80 m depth in the Northern Basin. There was also a clear similarity between Ba and NO3- and PO43- profiles in the southern end of the lake, supporting the idea that deep anoxic water, rich in nutrients and trace elements, are bought the surface during this period of intensive upwelling. In conclusion, the surface water chemical compositions of Lake Tanganyika are controlled by fluvial inputs and the seasonal changes in hydrodynamics across the lake.

  13. Comparison of the partitioning behaviours of yttrium, rare earth elements, and titanium between hydrogenetic marine ferromanganese crusts and seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bau, M.; Koschinsky, A.; Dulski, P.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to evaluate details of the partitioning behaviours of Y, rare earth elements (REEs), and Ti between inorganic metal oxide surfaces and seawater, we studied the distribution of these elements in hydrogenetic marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the Central Pacific Ocean. Nonphosphatized Fe-Mn crusts display shale-normalized rare earths and yttrium (REYSN) patterns (Y inserted between Dy and Ho) that are depleted in light REEs (LREEs) and which show negative anomalies for YSN, and positive anomalies for LaSN, EuSN, GdSN, and in most cases, CeSN. They show considerably smaller Y/ Ho ratios than seawater or common igneous and clastic rocks, indicating that Y and Ho are fractionated in the marine environment. Compared to P-poor crusts, REYSN patterns of phosphatized Fe-Mn crusts are similar, but yield pronounced positive YSN anomalies, stronger positive LaSN anomalies, and enrichment of the HREEs relative to the MREEs. The data suggest modification of REY during phosphatization and indicate that studies requiring primary REY distributions or isotopic ratios should be restricted to nonphosphatized (layers of) Fe-Mn crusts. Apparent bulk coefficients, KMD, describing trace metal partitioning between nonphosphatized hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts and seawater, are similar for Pr to Eu and decrease for Eu to Yb. Exceptionally high values of KCeD, which are similar to those of Ti, result from oxidative scavenging of Ce and support previous suggestions that Ce(IV) is a hydroxide-dominated element in seawater. Yttrium and Gd show lower KD values than their respective neighbours in the REY series. Results of modelling the exchange equilibrium between REY dissolved in seawater and REY sorbed on hydrous Fe-Mn oxides corroborate previous studies that suggested the surface complexation of REY can be approximated by their first hydroxide binding constant. Negative "anomalies" occur for stabilities of bulk surface complexes of Gd, La, and particularly Y. The differences in inorganic surface complex stability between Y and Ho and between Gd and its REE neighbours are similar to those shown by the stabilities of complexes with aminocarboxylic acids and are significantly larger than those shown by stabilities of complexes with carboxylic acids. Hence, sorption of Y and REEs onto hydrous Fe-Mn oxides may contribute significantly to the positive YSN and GdSN anomalies in seawater.

  14. Rare earth element variations resulting from inversion of pigeonite and subsolidus reequilibration in lunar ferroan anorthosites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, O.B.; Floss, C.; McGee, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present results of a secondary ion mass spectrometry study of the rare earth elements (REEs) in the minerals of two samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite, and the results are applicable to studies of REEs in all igneous rocks, no matter what their planet of origin. Our pyroxene analyses are used to determine solid-solid REE distribution coefficients (D = CREE in low-Ca pyroxene/CREE in augite) in orthopyroxene-augite pairs derived by inversion of pigeonite. Our data and predictions from crystal-chemical considerations indicate that as primary pigeonite inverts to orthopyroxene plus augite and subsolidus reequilibration proceeds, the solid-solid Ds for orthopyroxene-augite pairs progressively decrease for all REEs; the decrease is greatest for the LREEs. The REE pattern of solid-solid Ds for inversion-derived pyroxene pairs is close to a straight line for Sm-Lu and turns upward for REEs lighter than Sm; the shape of this pattern is predicted by the shapes of the REE patterns for the individual minerals. Equilibrium liquids calculated for one sample from the compositions of primary phases, using measured or experimentally determined solid-liquid Ds, have chondrite-normalized REE patterns that are very slightly enriched in LREEs. The plagioclase equilibrium liquid is overall less rich in REEs than pyroxene equilibrium liquids, and the discrepancy probably arises because the calculated plagioclase equilibrium liquid represents a liquid earlier in the fractionation sequence than the pyroxene equilibrium liquids. "Equilibrium" liquids calculated from the compositions of inversion-derived pyroxenes or orthopyroxene derived by reaction of olivine are LREE depleted (in some cases substantially) in comparison with equilibrium liquids calculated from the compositions of primary phases. These discrepancies arise because the inversion-derived and reaction-derived pyroxenes did not crystallize directly from liquid, and the use of solid-liquid Ds is inappropriate. The LREE depletion of the calculated liquids is a relic of formation of these phases from primary LREE-depleted minerals. Thus, if one attempts to calculate the compositions of equilibrium liquids from pyroxene compositions, it is important to establish that the pyroxenes are primary. In addition, our data suggest that experimental studies have underestimated solid-liquid Ds for REEs in pigeonite and that REE contents of liquids calculated using these Ds are overestimates. Our results have implications for Sm-Nd age studies. Our work shows that if pigeonite inversion and/or subsolidus reequilibration between augite and orthopyroxene occured significantly after crystallization, and if pyroxene separates isolated for Sm-Nd studies do not have the bulk composition of the primary pyroxenes, then the Sm-Nd isochron age and ??Nd will be in error. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Identifying calcium sources at an acid deposition-impacted spruce forest: A strontium isotope, alkaline earth element multi-tracer approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullen, T.D.; Bailey, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Depletion of calcium from forest soils has important implications for forest productivity and health. Ca is available to fine feeder roots from a number of soil organic and mineral sources, but identifying the primary source or changes of sources in response to environmental change is problematic. We used strontium isotope and alkaline earth element concentration ratios of trees and soils to discern the record of Ca sources for red spruce at a base-poor, acid deposition-impacted watershed. We measured 87Sr/86Sr and chemical compositions of cross-sectional stemwood cores of red spruce, other spruce tissues and sequential extracts of co-located soil samples. 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ba ratios together provide a tracer of alkaline earth element sources that distinguishes the plant-available fraction of the shallow organic soils from those of deeper organic and mineral soils. Ca/Sr ratios proved less diagnostic, due to within-tree processes that fractionate these elements from each other. Over the growth period from 1870 to 1960, 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ba ratios of stemwood samples became progressively more variable and on average trended toward values that considered together are characteristic of the uppermost forest floor. In detail the stemwood chemistry revealed an episode of simultaneous enhanced uptake of all alkaline earth elements during the growth period from 1930 to 1960, coincident with reported local and regional increases in atmospheric inputs of inorganic acidity. We attribute the temporal trends in stemwood chemistry to progressive shallowing of the effective depth of alkaline earth element uptake by fine roots over this growth period, due to preferential concentration of fine roots in the upper forest floor coupled with reduced nutrient uptake by roots in the lower organic and upper mineral soils in response to acid-induced aluminum toxicity. Although both increased atmospheric deposition and selective weathering of Ca-rich minerals such as apatite provide possible alternative explanations of aspects of the observed trends, the chemical buffering capacity of the forest floor-biomass pool limits their effectiveness as causal mechanisms. ?? Springer 2005.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of the rare earth element vapor complexes LnAl{sub 3}Cl{sub 12} from Ln = La to Ln = Lu

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Chang Wang; Lin-Shan Wang [Northeastern Univ., Liaoning (China)

    1997-04-09

    The rare earth element complexes have never been analyzed in the gaseous state due to experimental concerns. The thermodynamic properties of rare earth element complexes are important for various applications, from high-intensity discharge lamps to recovery of rare earth metals. 46 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The light element component of the Earth’s core: Constraints from in situ X-Radiography in the LHDAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, O. T.; Walter, M. J.; Walker, D.; Clark, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    The light element budget of the Earth’s core depends in part on the high-pressure melting relations of the relevant iron rich binary systems. Candidate alloying elements include H, C, O, Si and S, due to their cosmochemical abundance. Many of these systems are known to contain eutectic points, the temperatures and compositions of which are critical to reconstructing the phase relations of these systems. Thus far most studies reporting the composition of eutectic liquids depend on ex situ analysis with a potential for systematic errors introduced by quench induced exsolution. To circumvent this issue we have developed an in situ technique for the determination of liquid compositions in iron-rich binary systems at simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. Samples consist of Fe(1-x)O or FeS, surrounded by a ring of iron forming a ‘donut’ with a diameter of ~100?m and a thickness of ~20?m. Pressure is monitored by ruby fluorescence. The sample is heated at the boundary between the iron and light element compound using two 100 W IR lasers in a double-sided configuration at beamline 12.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source. Temperature is measured by spectroradiometry. Before, during and after melting, X-radiographic images of the sample are taken by shining a defocused beam of synchrotron X-rays through the sample and onto a CdWO4 phosphor. The visible light from the phosphor is then focused onto a high resolution CCD, where absorption contrast images are recorded. The absorption of the molten region is then determined, and it’s composition calculated by comparison to the absorption of the two solid end members. In previous work we measured the composition of the Fe-FeS eutectic to 20 GPa and the Fe-Fe3C eutectic to 44 GPa [1,2]. Further, we saw no discernible solubility of oxygen in liquid iron up to 43 GPa [1]. Here we extend the data for sulfur up to 70 GPa and for oxygen up to 63 GPa. Our new sulfur data fit well with previous studies at lower pressure, and suggest that the sulfur content of the eutectic is tending to ~15wt% with increasing pressure. In the Fe-FeO system, upon reaching the Fe-FeO eutectic temperature (indicated by a plateau in the power-temperature function), no evidence of a melt was seen within the absorption contrast images. Only when the temperature was raised above this first plateau to a second plateau, representing the melting point of FeO did a ‘ledge’ appear in the absorption contrast image, suggesting the presence of a liquid with a composition intermediate between Fe and FeO. Further, the composition of this ledge was pressure insensitive, and close to a 50:50 mix of Fe and FeO. We interpret these results as the formation of a eutectic melt with an oxygen content below the detection limit (~1 wt%), followed by melting of the FeO end-member and the subsequent mixing of the two liquid phases. These results suggest that the solubility of oxygen remains below ~1wt% beyond 60 GPa, in contradiction with several recent studies [3]. [1] Walker, D., et al. Chem Geol., 2008. [2] Lord, O. T., et al. EPSL, 2009. [3] Seagle, C. T., et al. EPSL, 2008.

  18. Role of nuclear volume in driving equilibrium stable isotope fractionation of mercury, thallium, and other very heavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauble, Edwin A.

    2007-05-01

    Equilibrium stable isotope fractionations of mercury and thallium are estimated for molecules, atoms and ions using first-principles vibrational frequency and electronic structure calculations. These calculations suggest that isotopic variation in nuclear volume is the dominant cause of equilibrium fractionation, driving 205Tl/ 203Tl and 202Hg/ 198Hg fractionations of up to 3‰ at room temperature. Mass-dependent fractionations are smaller, ca. 0.5-1‰ for the same isotopes. Both fractionation mechanisms tend to enrich the neutron-rich isotopes in oxidized mercury- and thallium-bearing phases (Tl 3+ and Hg 2+) relative to reduced phases (Tl + and Hg 0). Among Hg 2+-bearing species, inorganic molecules and complexes like HgCl 2, HgCl42- and Hg(HO)62+ will have higher 202Hg/ 198Hg than coexisting methylmercury species, suggesting a possible application of Hg-isotope measurements to understanding mercury methylation and increasing methylmercury concentrations at the top of the food chain. Estimated 205Tl/ 203Tl fractionation between Tl(HO)63+ and Tl(HO)3+ is in reasonable agreement with the fractionations previously observed between seawater and Fe-Mn crusts, supporting an equilibrium-like reduction/oxidation fractionation mechanism. More generally, nuclear-volume isotope fractionation will concentrate larger (heavier) nuclei in species where the electron density at the nucleus is small—due to lack of s-electrons (e.g., Hg 2+—[Xe]4f 145d 106s 0 vs. Hg 0—[Xe]4f 145d 106s 2) or enhanced s-electron screening by extra p, d, or f electrons (e.g., Tl 0—[Xe]4f 145d 106s 26p 1 vs. Tl +—[Xe]4f 145d 106s 26p 0). Nuclear-volume fractionations become much smaller for lighter elements, declining from ˜1‰/amu for thallium and mercury to ˜0.2‰/amu for ruthenium and ˜0.02‰/amu for sulfur.

  19. The impact of vegetation on fractionation of rare earth elements (REE) during waterrock interaction

    E-print Network

    Mailhes, Corinne

    sediment, between dissolved and particulate load can be extensive and is strongly controlled by weath and from the literature it is known that competition between the complexes and free ions as well at the outlet to 1146 meters a.s.l. at the top. The bedrock of the catch- ment is a base-poor, hercynian

  20. While China's dominance in rare earths dips, concerns remain about these and other elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    China's dominance in the production of rare earth elements (REEs) peaked with that nation producing 97% of them in 2010; this number already has dipped to 90% in 2012 as mines in other nations are coming online, according to REE expert Karl Gschneidner Jr., a professor at Iowa State University's Ames Laboratory. Chinese production could drop to 60% by 2014, with production increasing at mines in the United States and other countries, he said. However, this reduction in China's share of REE production does not signal an end to the production crisis in REEs and other critical minerals, Gschneidner and others noted during a 1 May panel discussion on critical materials shortages at the AGU Science Policy Conference in Washington, D. C. REEs are a group of 17 chemically similar metallic elements used in a variety of electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic applications, and despite their name, they are relatively plentiful in the Earth's crust. China's control of known REE reserves has dropped from 75% in 1975 to 30.9% in 2012, with other regions also having large reserves, including the Commonwealth of Independent States (some former Soviet Republic states), the United States, and Australia, according to Gschneidner. Critical minerals are mineral commodities that are particularly important for a nation's economy or national defense that could potentially face supply disruptions.

  1. Rare earth elements in naturally grown fern Dicranopteris linearis in relation to their variation in soils in south-Jiangxi region (southern China).

    PubMed

    Wei, Z; Yin, M; Zhang, X; Hong, F; Li, B; Tao, Y; Zhao, G; Yan, C

    2001-01-01

    Ferns (Dicranopteris linearis) and soils, sampled from four rare earth mining areas and one non-mining area locating in South-Jiangxi region, were chosen for analysis of 15 rare earth elements (REEs) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The fern samples were divided into 4 parts: root, stem, petiole, and lamina. The soils of the same sites were also sampled, and 4 soil layers were observed at the profile: A (0-20 cm depth), B (20-150 cm depth), C (150-400 cm depth), and D (rock). The distribution patterns and transportation characteristics of REEs of different soil layers and of different parts of D. linearis were studied. The results showed that in the soil layers, the sigma REE (the sum of the concentrations of 15 REEs) of A layer, as well as B layer were lower than that of C layer, but Ce was relatively concentrated in A layer. The sigma REE of different parts of D. linearis were lamina, root > stem > petiole. The REE distribution patterns of D. linearis root were similar to the total REE distribution patterns of the A layer of their host soils, especially to the soluble REE distribution patterns of the A layer of their host soils. The REEs were fractionated in their transportation in D. linearis. The abundances of heavy rare earth elements (HREEs, Gd to Lu and Y) in the stem, petiole, lamina are lower than those in the root. PMID:11584633

  2. Geochemistry and biogeochemistry of rare earth elements in a surface environment (soil and plant) in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Li; Xu, Ruisong; Ma, Yueliang; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Wang, Jie; Cai, Rui; Chen, Yu

    2008-11-01

    Plants and soils derived from different kinds of parent materials in South China were collected for analyses of rare earth elements (REEs) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution patterns and transportation characteristics of REEs in the soil-plant system were studied. The results show that geochemical characteristics of REEs depend on the types of soils, soils derived from granite being the highest in REE concentration. In a soil profile, REE concentrations are higher in B and C horizons than those in A horizon, with Eu negative anomaly and Ce positive anomaly. Plants of different genera growing in the same sampling site have quite similar REE distribution pattern, but plants of the same genera growing in different soils show considerable variation in characteristics of REEs. The patterns of the different parts of plant resemble each other, but the slope of the patterns becomes different. REEs have fractionated when they were transported and migrated from soil to plant root, stem and leaf, revealing that heavy REEs are relatively less available. REEs distributions in plants are influenced by the soil they grow in and also characterized by their individual biogeochemical characteristics. Biological absorption coefficients indicate difference of REE absorption capacity of plants.

  3. Enrichment of rare earth elements as environmental tracers of contamination by acid mine drainage in salt marshes: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Joaquín; Pérez-López, Rafael; Galván, Laura; Nieto, José Miguel; Boski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were analyzed in surface sediments from the Guadiana Estuary (SW Iberian Pyrite Belt). NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized REE patterns show clearly convex curvatures in middle-REE (MREE) with respect to light- and heavy-REE, indicating acid-mixing processes between fluvial waters affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) and seawater. However, REE distributions in the mouth (closer to the coastal area) show slightly LREE-enriched and flat patterns, indicating saline-mixing processes typical of the coastal zone. NASC-normalized ratios (La/Gd and La/Yb) do not discriminate between both mixing processes in the estuary. Instead, a new parameter (E(MREE)) has been applied to measure the curvature in the MREE segment. The values of E(MREE)>0 are indicative of acid signatures and their spatial distribution reveal the existence of two decantation zones from flocculation processes related to drought periods and flood events. Studying REE fractionation through the E(MREE) may serve as a good proxy for AMD-pollution in estuarine environments in relation to the traditional methods. PMID:22748838

  4. Rare earth elements in Japan Sea sediments and diagenetic behavior of Ce/Ce*: Results from ODP Leg 127

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.W. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Buchholtz Ten Brink, M.; Gerlach, D.C.; Price Russ, G. III. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)); Brumsack, H.J. (Geochemisches Inst., Gottingen (Germany))

    1991-09-01

    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the recorded rare earth element (REE) chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating REE total abundances and relative fractionations in 59 samples from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 127. REE total abundances ({Sigma}REE) in the Japan Sea are strongly dependent upon the paleoceanographic position of a given site with respect to terrigenous and biogenic sources. Ce/Ce* profiles at all three sites increase monotonically with depth, and record progressive diagenetic LREE fractionation. The observed Ce/Ce* record does not respond to changes in oxygenation state of the overlying water, and Ce/Ce* correlates slightly better with depth than with age. The downhole increase in Ce/Ce* at Site 794 and 797 is a passive response to diagenetic transfer of LREE (except Ce) from sediment to interstitial water. At Site 795, the overall lack of correlation between Ce/Ce* and La{sub n}/Yb{sub n} suggests that other processes are occurring which mask the diagenetic behavior of all LREEs. First-order calculations of the Ce budget in Japan Sea waters and sediment indicate that {approximately}20% of the excess Ce adsorbed by settling particles is recycled within the water column, and that an additional {approximately}38% is recycled at or near the seafloor. Thus, because the remaining excess Ce is only {approximately}10% of the total Ce, there is not a large source of Ce to the deeply buried sediment, further suggesting that the downhole increase in Ce/Ce* is a passive response to diagenetic behavior of the other LREEs. The REE chemistry of Japan Sea sediment therefore predicts successive downhole addition of LREEs to deeply-buried interstitial waters.

  5. Computational Design of Solar Energy Harvesting Materials Made of Earth-Abundant Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiyang

    2012-02-01

    Very large-scale deployment of photovoltaic (PV) technology based on both the first and second generation solar cells posts serious questions on the materials supply as they rely on either high-purity and high-quality silicon crystals or rare elements such as indium and tellurium. ``Ancient'' PV materials made of earth-abundant elements, such as oxides and sulfides of copper and iron, have attracted resurgent interests. There is also intensive research devoted to the search for ``modern'' earth-abundant PV materials, with a recent promising example being Cu2ZnSnSe4. Computational approaches play a key role in this endeavor by guiding the screening and optimization of the materials toward high device performance. In this paper, I will focus on two aspects of computational design of earth-abundant PV materials. First, I will discuss the methods for accurately predicting band gaps of semiconductor materials. The emphasis will be on the performance of hybrid functional method on different classes of materials. Based on these understandings, I will discuss how to tune the band gap of a material to match the solar spectrum. For example, one could reduce of the band gap of anatase to 1.5 eV by the chemical codoping approach. Second, I will discuss the methods for accurate computation of defect properties, which is important as the defectiveness is intrinsic to the low-cost synthesized materials. I will introduce a method for calculation of defect formation energies by minimizing the error due to the ``band-gap problem'' of the density functional theory. I will also discuss approaches to mitigating the effects of defects, e.g., by passivation.

  6. Siderophile and chalcophile element abundances in oceanic basalts, Pb isotope evolution and growth of the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; White, W. M.; Jochum, K. P.; Hofmann, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that the mantle Pb isotope ratios reflect continued extraction of Pb into the earth's core over geologic time is evaluated by studying the depeletion of chalcophile and siderophile elements in the mantle. Oceanic basalt samples are analyzed in order to determine the Pb, Sr, and Nd isotropic compositions and the abundances of siderophile and chalcophile elements and incompatible lithophile elements. The data reveal that there is no systematic variation of siderophile or chalcophile element abundances relative to abundances of lithophile elements and the Pb/Ce ratio of the mantle is constant. It is suggested that the crust formation involves nonmagmatic and magmatic processes.

  7. Trace Element Distributions and Size Fractionation in the Edmond Hydrothermal Plume, Central Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, C. M.; Connelly, D. P.; Green, D.; German, C. R.; Statham, P. J.; Gallant, R.; von Damm, K.

    2004-12-01

    Because cycling of the entire ocean volume through hydrothermal plumes is rapid relative to thermohaline circulation (order 103 years), understanding the processes active within these plumes is crucial if we are to assess their impact on global geochemical cycles. Preliminary results from hydrothermal plume particle analyses at the Kairei and Edmond systems (Indian Ocean) have indicated that key processes, previously identified to be important in the Atlantic Ocean, also appear broadly applicable to the Indian Ocean. This was not immediately expected because parallel work has shown that the rate of dissolved iron (II) oxidation in hydrothermal plumes decreases systematically from the Atlantic to the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Here, we examine dissolved-particulate trace metal distributions in greater detail within one Indian Ocean plume (Edmond), together with the complementary vent-fluid data, to investigate these processes further. Upon oxidation, dissolved iron (II) initially forms colloidal iron (III) which then aggregates to form particulate iron (III) - the oxyhydroxide particles which apparently co-precipitate and adsorb dissolved metals from the surrounding seawater. What has remained unstudied, however, is the role that colloidal rather than aggregated particulate Fe may play in these systems. To investigate this we have combined studies of large-volume plume-particle samples (1.0? m filters) with a series of dissolved, colloidal and finer-grained particles collected using a CTD-rosette. Here, we will discuss the distributions of Fe and the relative fractionations of Mn, Cu (representative of the chalcophile elements) and P (representative of the oxyanions) within and between different hydrothermal "pools": dissolved, colloidal, fine particles and coarse particles as determined from filtration through 0.1, 0.4 and 1.0? m filters.

  8. Strontium isotopes and rare-earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal carbonate deposits from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, J. A.; Boulègue, J.; Tiercelin, J. J.; Lesourd, M.

    2000-01-01

    At Cape Banza (North Tanganyika Lake), fluids and aragonite chimneys have been collected many times since the discovery of this sublacustrine field in 1987. This sampling has been investigated here for the Sr isotopic compositions and the rare-earth element features of the carbonates and a few fluid samples. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of the chimneys indicate that they have precipitated from a mixture of lake water (more than 95%) and hydrothermal fluids. No zoning in the chimneys was detected with our Sr data. For the rare-earth elements, the situation is more complex. The external walls of the chimneys are rare-earth-element-poor (La ? 500 ppb, Yb ? 200 ppb, La/Yb = 2 to 3.4). Their shale normalised rare-earth element patterns suggest that they are in equilibrium with the inferred carbonate-depositing fluids. The rare-earth element concentrations of the internal walls of the chimneys are significantly light rare earth elements (LREE)-enriched with La contents sometimes up to 5 ppm. We suggest that they contain more vent-fluid rare-earth elements than the external wall samples, possibly adsorbed on the surface of growing crystals or simply hosted by impurities. It was not possible to constrain the nature of these phases, but the variations of the compositions of the internal wall materials of the active chimneys with time, as well as data obtained on an inactive chimney indicate that this rare-earth element excess is mobile. Partition coefficients were calculated between the external wall aragonite and carbonate-depositing fluid. The results are strikingly similar to the values obtained by Sholkovitz and Shen (1995) on coral aragonite, and suggest that there is no significant biologic effect on the incorporation of rare-earth elements into coral aragonite and that the various carbonate complexes involved Me(CO 3+) complexes are the main LREE carriers in seawater (Cantrell and Byrne, 1987) instead of Me(CO 3) 2- in Banza fluids) have the same behaviour during aragonite precipitation.

  9. Strontium isotopes and rare-earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal carbonate deposits from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J.A.; Boulegue, J.; Tiercelin, J.J.; Lesourd, M.

    2000-01-01

    At Cape Banza (North Tanganyika Lake), fluids and aragonite chimneys have been collected many times since the discovery of this sublacustrine field in 1987. This sampling has been investigated here for the Sr isotopic compositions and the rare-earth element features of the carbonates and a few fluid samples. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of the chimneys indicate that they have precipitated from a mixture of lake water (more than 95%) and hydrothermal fluids. No zoning in the chimneys was detected with the Sr data. For the rare-earth elements, the situation is more complex. The external walls of the chimneys are rare-earth-element-poor (La {approx} 500 ppb, Yb {approx} 200 ppb, La/Yb = 2 to 3.4). Their shale normalized rare-earth element patterns suggest that they are in equilibrium with the inferred carbonate-depositing fluids. The rare-earth element concentrations of the internal walls of the chimneys are significantly light rare earth elements (LREE)-enriched with La contents sometimes up to 5 ppm. The authors suggest that they contain more vent-fluid rare-earth elements than the external wall samples, possibly adsorbed on the surface of growing crystals or simply hosted by impurities. It was not possible to constrain the nature of these phases, but the variations of the compositions of the internal wall materials of the active chimneys with time, as well as data obtained on an inactive chimney indicate that this rare-earth element excess is mobile. Partition coefficients were calculated between the external wall aragonite and carbonate-depositing fluid. The results are strikingly similar to the values obtained by Sholkovitz and Shen (1995) on coral aragonite, and suggest that there is no significant biologic effect on the incorporation of rare-earth elements into coral aragonite and that the various carbonate complexes involved Me(CO{sub 3}{sup +}) complexes are the main LREE carriers in seawater instead of Me(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup {minus}} in Banza fluids have the same behavior during aragonite precipitation.

  10. Post-depositional redistribution processes and their effects on middle rare earth element precipitation and the cerium anomaly in sediments in the South Korea Plateau, East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Cho, Jin Hyung; Lee, Jun Ho; Jang, Seok; Kim, Seong Ryul

    2014-03-01

    We sampled two box-core sediments from the slope of the eastern South Korea Plateau (SKP) in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) at water depths of 1400 and 1700 m. Two chemical fractions of extractable (hydroxylamine/acetic acid) and residual rare earth elements (REEs) together with Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, S, As, Mo, and U were analyzed to assess the post-depositional redistribution of REEs. Extractable Fe and Mn are noticeably abundant in the oxic topmost sediment layer (<3 cm). However, some trace elements (e.g., S, As, Mo, U) are more abundant at depth, where redox conditions are different. Analysis of upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized (La/Gd)UCC, (La/Yb)UCC, and (Ce/Ce*)UCC revealed that the extractable REE is characterized by middle REE (MREE) enrichment and a positive cerium (Ce) anomaly, different from the case of the residual fraction which shows slight enrichment in light REEs (LREEs) with no Ce anomaly. The extractable MREEs seem to have been incorporated into high-Mg calcite during reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides. In the top sediment layer, the positive Ce anomaly is attributed to Ce oxide, which can be mobilized in deeper oxygen-poor environments and redistributed in the sediment column. In addition, differential concentrations of Ce and other LREEs in pore water appear to result in variable (Ce/Ce*)UCC ratios in the extractable fraction at depth.

  11. Just How Earth-like are Extrasolar Super-Earths? Constraints on H+He Envelope Fractions from Kepler's Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgang, Angie; Lopez, E.; Kepler Team; SAMSI Bayesian Characterization of Exoplanet Populations Working Group

    2014-01-01

    With 3500 planetary candidates discovered in its first 3 years of data, the Kepler Mission promises to answer one of the most fundamental questions posed in exoplanetary research: what kinds of planets occur most often in our Galaxy? As Kepler primarily yields planetary radii and orbital periods, it has enabled numerous studies of the occurrence rate of planets as a function of these variables. Unfortunately, the full mass distribution, and thus a direct measure of these planets' possible compositions, remains elusive due to the unsuitability of these faint targets for radial velocity follow-up and the relative rareness of transit timing variations. We show, however, that relatively straightforward models of planetary evolution in an irradiated environment can make some progress without this full mass distribution towards understanding bulk compositions of the abundant Super-Earth/Sub-Neptunes that Kepler has discovered. In particular, we constrain the distribution of envelope fractions, i.e. the fraction of a planet's mass that is in a gaseous hydrogen and helium envelope around its rocky core, for this exoplanet population that has no analogs in our Solar System. This research builds on collaborations between astronomers and statisticians forged during a three week workshop on "Modern Statistical and Computational Methods for Analysis of Kepler Data" at SAMSI in June 2013.

  12. Finite difference/finite element method for two-dimensional space and time fractional Bloch-Torrey equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Weiping; Tang, Yifa; Wu, Yingchuan; Yang, Jiye

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a class of two-dimensional space and time fractional Bloch-Torrey equations (2D-STFBTEs) are considered. Some definitions and properties of fractional derivative spaces are presented. By finite difference method and Galerkin finite element method, a semi-discrete variational formulation for 2D-STFBTEs is obtained. The stability and convergence of the semi-discrete form are discussed. Then, a fully discrete scheme of 2D-STFBTEs is derived and the convergence is investigated. Finally, some numerical examples based on linear piecewise polynomials and quadratic piecewise polynomials are given to prove the correctness of our theoretical analysis.

  13. Cracking the Code of Soil Genesis. The Early Role of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Maier, R. M.; Huxman, T. E.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil is terrestrial life support system. Its genesis involves tight interactions between biota and mineral surfaces that mobilize structural elements into biogeochemical cycles. Of all chemical elements rare earth elements (REE) are a group of 16 non-nutrient elements of unusual geochemical similarity and present in all components of the surface environment. While much is known about the role of major nutrients in soil development we lack vital understanding of how early biotic colonization affects more conservative elements such as REE. A highly controlled experiment was set up at University of Arizona's Biosphere-2 that tested the effect of 4 biological treatments, incorporating a combination of microbe, grass, mycorrhiza and uninoculated control on REE leaching and uptake in 4 bedrock substrates: basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist. Generally the response of REE to biota presence was synergistic. Variation in total bedrock chemistry could explain major trends in pore water REE. There was a fast transition from chemistry-dominated to a biota dominated environment in the first 3-4 months of inoculation/seeding which translated into increase in REE signal over time. Relative REE abundances in water were generally reflected in plant concentrations, particularly in root, implying that below ground biomass is the main sync of REE in the ecosystem. Mycorrhiza effect on REE uptake in plant organs was significant and increased with infection rates. Presence of different biota translated into subtle differences in REE release, reveling potential biosignatures of biolota-rock colonization. The results thus bring fundamental insight into early stages non-nutrient cycle and soil genesis.

  14. PII S0016-7037(02)01117-1 Diopside-bearing EL6 EET 90102: Insights from rare earth element distributions

    E-print Network

    PII S0016-7037(02)01117-1 Diopside-bearing EL6 EET 90102: Insights from rare earth element a study of the rare earth element (REE) distributions in EET 90102, with a specific emphasis on diopside or rare in other terrestrial or extra- terrestrial rocks. Typically, lithophile elements form sulfide

  15. 'Nano' Morphology and Element Signatures of Early Life on Earth: A New Tool for Assessing Biogenicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Mostefaoui, S.; Meibom, A.; Selo, M.; McKay, D. S.; Robert, F.

    2006-01-01

    The relatively young technology of NanoSIMS is unlocking an exciting new level of information from organic matter in ancient sediments. We are using this technique to characterize Proterozoic organic material that is clearly biogenic as a guide for interpreting controversial organic structures in either terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. NanoSIMS is secondary ion mass spectrometry for trace element and isotope analysis at sub-micron resolution. In 2005, Robert et al. [1] combined NanoSIMS element maps with optical microscopic imagery in an effort to develop a new method for assessing biogenicity of Precambrian structures. The ability of NanoSIMS to map simultaneously the distribution of organic elements with a 50 nm spatial resolution provides new biologic markers that could help define the timing of life s development on Earth. The current study corroborates the work of Robert et al. and builds on their study by using NanoSIMS to map C, N (as CN), S, Si and O of both excellently preserved microfossils and less well preserved, non-descript organics in Proterozoic chert from the ca. 0.8 Ga Bitter Springs Formation of Australia.

  16. Accumulation of rare earth elements in human bone within the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Zaichick, Sofia; Zaichick, Vladimir; Karandashev, Vasilii; Nosenko, Sergey

    2011-02-01

    For the first time, the contents of rare earth elements (REEs) in a rib bone of a healthy human were determined. The mean value of the contents of Ce, Dy, Er, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, and Yb (10 elements out of 17 total REEs), as well as the upper limit of means for Ho, Lu, Tm, and Y (4 elements) were measured in the rib bone tissue of 38 females and 42 males (15 to 55 years old) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found age-related accumulation of REEs in the bone tissue of healthy individuals who lived in a non-industrial region. It was calculated that during a lifespan the content of REEs in a skeleton of non-industrial region residents may increase by one to two orders of magnitude. Using our results as indicative normal values and published data we estimated relative Gd accumulation in the bone tissue of patients according to magnetic resonance imaging with contrast agent and La accumulation in the bone tissue of patients receiving hemodialysis after treatment with lanthanum carbonate as a phosphate binder. It was shown that after such procedures contents of Gd and La in the bone tissue of patients are two to three orders of magnitude higher than normal levels. In our opinion, REEs incorporation may affect bone quality and health similar to other potentially toxic trace metals. The impact of elevated REEs content on bone physiology, biochemistry and morphology requires further investigation. PMID:21173982

  17. Evolution of major mineral compositions and trace element abundances during fractional crystallization of a model lunar composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The evolution of major mineral compositions and trace element abundances during perfect fractional crystallization of a model lunar magma ocean was calculated. The minerals in the model lunar composition were olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase. Lunar bulk composition data, major mineral/melt equilibria data, and trace element partition data were taken from published sources. The results show olivine beginning to crystallize at 1380 C. Approximately 50% of the system crystallizes as olivine. From 50 to 60% solidification, orthopyroxene crystallizes alone. During the final 40% solidification, Ca-rich clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallize together. Various changes in composition of all these minerals are also noted during the process. Concomitant evolution of major element abundances in the melt is followed along with that of trace element abundances. Consequences of the results for constraints on some aspects of the composition of the lunar magma ocean and of the primitive moon are discussed.

  18. Effects of rare earth elements La and Yb on the morphological and functional development of zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jun'an; Zhang, Zhiyong; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Ligang; He, Xiao; Ma, Yuhui; Liu, Yan; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the wide applications and mineral exploitation of rare earth elements, their potential environmental and health effects have caused increasing public concern. Effect of rare earth elements La and Yb on the morphological and functional development of zebrafish embryos were studied. The embryos were exposed to La3+ or Yb3+ at 0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mmol/L, respectively. Early life stage parameters such as egg and embryo mortality, gastrula development, tail detachment, eyes, somite formation, circulatory system, pigmentation, malformations, hatching rate, length of larvae and mortality were investigated. The results showed La3+ and Yb3+ delayed zebrafish embryo and larval development, decreased survival and hatching rates, and caused tail malformation in a concentration-dependent way. Moreover, heavy rare-earth ytterbium led to more severe acute toxicity of zebrafish embryo than light rare-earth lanthanum. PMID:22655378

  19. Experimental determination of the partitioning behavior of rare earth and high field strength elements between pargasitic amphibole and natural silicate melts

    SciTech Connect

    Hilyard, M.; Nielsen, R.L.; Beard, J.S.; Patino-Douce, A.; Blencoe, J.

    2000-03-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to derive a set of expressions that can be used to calculate the amphibole-melt partitioning behavior of the rare earth elements (REE) and the high field strength elements (HFSE) in natural systems. To supplement the existing data set on basaltic systems, the authors conducted experiments on systems where amphibole was in equilibrium with dacitic, tonalitic and low Si rhyolitic melts. These experiments, doped with La, Sm, Gd, Lu, Ta, Nb, Y, Zr, and Hf, were run at pressures of 2 and 5 kbar, temperatures between 900 C and 945 C, and oxidation conditions ranging from QFM-1 to NiNiO+1. The partitioning data obtained in this study were combined with published data to calculate two sets of expressions describing trace element partitioning. Partition coefficients calculated from the expressions derived in this study were used to model the partial melting and fractional crystallization of a hypothetical amphibolite and hydrous melt, respectively. Fractionation and/or melting in amphibole-bearing systems produces a magma with a convex upward REE pattern, a characteristic common to many hornblende-bearing dacites. However, the removal or addition of an amphibole component cannot produce the strong HFSE depletion relative to the REE observed in many arc magmas.

  20. Rare earth element and stable isotope (O, S) geochemistry of barite from the Bijgan deposit, Markazi Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehya, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    The Bijgan barite deposit, which is located northeast of Delijan in Markazi Province of Iran, occurs as a small lenticular body at the uppermost part of an Eocene volcano-sedimentary rock unit. The presence of fossiliferous and carbonaceous strata suggests that the host rocks were deposited in a quiet marine sedimentary environment. Barite, calcite, iron oxides and carbonaceous clay materials are found as massive patches as well as thin layers in the deposit. Barite is marked by very low concentrations of Sr (1-2%) and total amounts of rare earth elements (REEs) (6.25-17.39 ppm). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of barite indicate a fractionation of light REEs (LREEs) from La to Sm, similar to those for barite of different origins from elsewhere. The LaCN/LuCN ratios and chondrite-normalized REE patterns reveal that barite in the Bijgan deposit is enriched in LREE relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREEs). The similarity between the Ce/La ratios in the barite samples and those found in deep-sea barite supports a marine origin for barite. Lanthanum and Gd exhibit positive anomalies, which are common features of marine chemical sediments. Cerium shows a negative anomaly in most samples that was inherited from the negative Ce anomaly of hydrothermal fluid that mixed with seawater at the time of barite precipitation. The ?18O values of barites show a narrow range of 9.1-11.4‰, which is close to or slightly lower than that of contemporaneous seawater at the end of the Eocene. This suggests a contribution of oxygen from seawater in the barite-forming solution. The ?34S values of barites (9.5-15.3‰) are lower than that of contemporaneous seawater, which suggests a contribution of magmatic sulfur to the ore-forming solution. The oxygen and sulfur isotope ratios indicate that submarine hydrothermal vent fluids are a good analog for solutions that precipitated barite, due to similarities in the isotopic composition of the sulfates. The available data including tectonic setting, host rock characteristics, REE geochemistry, and oxygen and sulfur isotopic compositions support a submarine hydrothermal origin for the Bijgan barite deposit. At the seafloor, barite deposition occurred where ascending Ba-bearing hydrothermal fluids encountered seawater. Sulfate was derived from the sulfate-bearing marine waters, and, to a lesser extent, by oxidized H2S, which was derived from magmatic hydrothermal fluids.

  1. Deposition and element fractionation processes during atmospheric pressure laser sampling for analysis by ICP-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Eggins; L. P. J. Kinsley; J. M. G. Shelley

    1998-01-01

    We have used an ArF excimer laser coupled to a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the measurement of a range of elements during excavation of a deepening ablation pit in a synthetic glass (NIST 612). Analyte behaviour shows progressive volatile element enrichment at shallow hole depths, with a change to refractory element enrichment as the ablation pit

  2. Partition coefficients for rare earth elements in mafic minerals of high silica rhyolites: the importance of accessory mineral inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P MICHAEL

    1988-01-01

    REE concentrations of mafic mineral separates from high-silica rhyolites measured by INAA are high and variable compared to electron microprobe analyses of the minerals themselves. The mafic phases commonly contain inclusions or have adhering grains of accessory rare earth element (REE)-rich minerals. Optical and electron microscopic observation revealed discrete grains of chevkinite (rare earth titano-silicate) included within clinopyroxenes from the

  3. Development and application of a sensitive and rapid analytical method to determine the rare-earth elements in surface waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwendy E. M. Hall; Judy E. Vaive; John W. McConnell

    1995-01-01

    A new cost-effective method to determine the 14 rare-earth elements (REE's) in waters to levels as low as 0.2–1.0 ng l?1 (ppt) has been established. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used for measurement following automated preconcentration using the Dionex® MetPac CC-1 resin of iminodiacetate functionality. The free REE ion is chelated onto the resin while alkali and alkaline-earth

  4. Bounding dispersion analysis for rare-earth elements as it pertains to the Engineering Demonstration System surrogate testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of a bounding atmospheric dispersion of a rare-earth oxide shows that the off-site concentrations are significantly less than established health guidelines and ground deposition will not result in an impact to the food chain. For these reasons, we conclude that the use of rare-earth elements in the Engineering Demonstration System (EDS) will have no health impact to the

  5. Bounding dispersion analysis for rare-earth elements as it pertains to the Engineering Demonstration System surrogate testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, K.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of a bounding atmospheric dispersion of a rare-earth oxide shows that the off-site concentrations are significantly less than established health guidelines and ground deposition will not result in an impact to the food chain. For these reasons, we conclude that the use of rare-earth elements in the Engineering Demonstration System (EDS) will have no health impact to the public due to atmospheric dispersion. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Produced fluids and shallow groundwater in coalbed methane (CBM) producing regions of Alberta, Canada: Trace element and rare earth element geochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina Cheung; Hamed Sanei; Patrick Klassen; Bernhard Mayer; Fariborz Goodarzi

    2009-01-01

    The production of coalbed methane (CBM) represents a vital new source of natural gas supply in Western Canada. There are, however, concerns over potential negative environmental impacts on groundwater resources caused by potential contamination with fluids and gases from coal-bearing strata. This paper provides a brief description of the geochemistry and a detailed discussion of trace element and rare earth

  7. Light shifts and magic wavelengths for heavy alkaline earth elements: Ba and Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammalapati, U.; Santra, B.; Willmann, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate light shifts of heavy alkaline earth elements barium (Ba) and radium (Ra), which are interesting for optical lattice clocks and for permanent electric dipole moment searches. Detailed knowledge is required in the design of efficient loading of atoms from a magneto-optical trap into an optical dipole trap, to facilitate Doppler cooling while trapping and to achieve longer lifetimes of the trapped atoms with reduced heating rates. The wavelength dependence of light shifts of the ns2 1S0 ground state, the nsnp 3P1 and ns(n - 1)d 1D2 excited states in barium (n = 6) and the n s2 1S0 ground state, the nsnp 3P1 and ns(n - 1)d 3D2 excited states in radium (n = 7) are calculated. Several magic wavelengths in the visible and infrared regions accessible with commercial lasers for optical dipole trapping of Ba and Ra are identified.

  8. Tracing sediment movement on semi-arid watershed using rate Earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, V.; Nearing, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    A multi-tracer method employing rare earth elements (REE) was used to determine sediment yield and to track sediment movement in a small semiarid watershed. A 0.33 ha watershed near Tombstone, AZ was divided into five morphological units, each tagged with one of five REE oxides. Relative contribution of each unit to the total sediment yield was determined by collecting runoff and sediment, and the spatial redistribution of sediment was determined from sampling the soil surface. Average sediment yield was 1.0 t ha-1 y-1 from the entire watershed, but varied between 0.1 t ha-1 y-1 from the upper slope to 5.0 t ha-1 y-1 from the lower channel. Little re-deposition occurred in the channels indicating an effective transport system. The erosion pattern and rates were in agreement with the current morphology of the watershed, which has a well developed channel network.

  9. Investigation of rare-earth and associated elements, Zane Hills Pluton, Northwestern Alaska. Open File Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Unverified reports of rare earth element (REE) concentrations in gold placers and radioactive mineral prospects in the Zane Hills were investigated by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as part of the Alaska critical minerals program. The Bureau mapped and sampled all of the reported or suspected REE occurrences. Dredge concentrates contain abundant uranothorianite, a mineral species which incorporates cerium subgroup REE. Bostonite dikes occur in conjunction with a multiphased zoned alkalic intrusion, however, no significant REE concentrations were found. The Zane Hills exhibit attractive exploration targets for uranium deposits, primarily in a sedimentary form. Gold may be found peripheral to the pluton in both placer and lode deposits. Resource potential of REE, however, appears limited to a placer by-product of REE-Zr-Ti that is recoverable only during large scale gold placer mining. Placer exploration of the lower Wheeler and Dakli Creeks is suggested.

  10. Rare earth and trace element geochemistry of a fragment of Jurassic seafloor, Point Sal, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, M.; Blanchard, D.; Brannon, J.; Korotev, R.

    1977-01-01

    Rocks from an ophiolite suite once on the seafloor were analyzed for rare earth elements (REE), Sc, Co, Na2O, Cr, Zn and FeO. Strontium isotope exchange noted in some of the lavas is attributed to basalt-seawater interaction; the Ce abundance in smectite- and zeolite-bearing lavas may also be due to prolonged exposure to seawater. The higher grades of metamorphic rock, however, show no variation from the usual flat or slightly light REE depleted profiles. Plutonic igneous rock, all light REE depleted, have total REE abundances varying by a factor of 100 between the dunites and diorites. In order of decreasing REE abundance are hornblende, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, orthopyroxene and olivine. Calculations of REE contents of liquids in equilibrium with early cumulative clinopyroxenes suggest that the parent to the stratiform sequence was more depleted in light REE than the parent to the lava pile.

  11. Origin of middle rare earth element enrichment in acid mine drainage-impacted areas.

    PubMed

    Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The commonly observed enrichment of middle rare earth elements (MREE) in water sampled in acid mine drainage (AMD)-impacted areas was found to be the result of preferential release from the widespread mineral pyrite (FeS2). Three different mining-impacted sites in Europe were sampled for water, and various pyrite samples were used in batch experiments with diluted sulphuric acid simulating AMD-impacted water with high sulphate concentration and high acidity. All water samples independent on their origin from groundwater, creek water or lake water as well as on the surrounding rock types showed MREE enrichment. Also the pyrite samples showed MREE enrichment in the respective acidic leachate but not always in their total contents indicating a process-controlled release. It is discussed that most probably complexation to sulphite (SO3 (2-)) or another intermediate S-species during pyrite oxidation is the reason for the MREE enrichment in the normalized REE patterns. PMID:24385183

  12. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Wood

    2002-01-28

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two.

  13. X-ray fluorescence analysis of rare earth elements in rocks using low dilution glass beads.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kenichi; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2005-07-01

    Major and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Th and U) in igneous rocks were assayed with fused lithium borate glass beads using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Low dilution glass beads, which had a 1:1 sample-to-flux ratio, were prepared for determination of rare earth elements. Complete vitrification of 1:1 mixture required heating twice at 1200 degrees C with agitation. Extra pure reagents containing determinants were used for calibrating standards instead of the rock standard. The calibration curves of the 23 elements showed good linearity. Furthermore, the lower limits of detection corresponding to three times the standard deviation for blank measurements were 26 mass ppm for Na2O, 6.7 for MgO, 4.5 for Al2O3, 4.5 for SiO2, 18 for P2O5, 1.1 for K2O, 4.0 for CaO, 3.9 for TiO2, 1.6 for MnO, 0.8 for Fe2O3, 0.5 for Rb, 0.2 for Sr, 0.4 for Y, 0.5 for Zr, 3.3 for La, 6.5 for Ce, 2.7 for Pr, 2.1 for Nd, 1.7 for Sm, 0.7 for Gd, 2.7 for Dy, 0.5 for Th, and 0.6 for U. Using the present method, we determined the contents of these 23 elements in four rhyolitic and granitic rocks from Japan. PMID:16038502

  14. Quantitative estimation of concentrations of dissolved rare earth elements using reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jingjing; Wang, Denghong; Wang, Runsheng; Chen, Zhenghui

    2013-01-01

    Characteristic spectral parameters such as the wavelength and depth of absorption bands are widely used to quantitatively estimate the composition of samples from hyperspectral reflectance data in soil science, mineralogy as well as vegetation study. However, little research has been conducted on the spectral characteristic of rare earth elements (REE) and their relationship with chemical composition of aqueous solutions. Reflectance spectra of ore leachate solutions and contaminated stream water from a few REE mines in the Jiangxi Province, China, are studied for the first time in this work. The results demonstrate that the six diagnostic absorption features of the rare earths are recognized in visible and near-infrared wavelengths at 574, 790, 736, 520, 861, and 443 nm. The intensity of each of these six absorption bands is linearly correlated with the abundance of total REE, with the r2 value >0.95 and the detection limit at ?75,000 ?g/L. It is suggested that reflectance spectroscopy provides an ideal routine analytical tool for characterizing leachate samples. The outcome of this study also has implications for monitoring the environmental effect of REE mining, in particular in stream water systems by hyperspectral remote sensing.

  15. Galileo Earth approach navigation using connected-element interferometer phase-delay tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    The application of a Connected-Element Interferometer (CEI) to the navigation of the Galileo spacecraft during its encounter with Earth in December 1990 is investigated. A CEI tracking demonstration is planned for the week of November 11 through 18, 1990, from 27 days to 20 days prior to Earth encounter on December 8. During this period, the spacecraft will be tracked daily with Deep Space Network Stations 13 and 15 at Goldstone. The purpose of this work is twofold: first, to establish and define the navigation performance expected during the tracking demonstration and, second, to study, in a more general sense, the sensitivity of orbit demonstration results obtained with CEI to the data density within CEI tracking passes and to important system parameters, such as baseline orientation errors and the phase-delay measurement accuracy. Computer simulation results indicate that the use of CEI data, coupled with conventional range and Doppler data, may reduce the uncertainty in the declination of the spacecraft's incoming trajectory by 15 to 66 percent compared with the operational solution using range and Doppler data only. The level of improvement depends upon the quantity and quality of the CEI data.

  16. Planktonic foraminiferal rare earth elements as a potential new aeolian dust proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Liu, Y.; Lo, L.; Wei, K.; Shen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Characteristics of rare earth elements (REEs) have widely been used as important tracers in many fields of earth sciences, including lithosphere research, environmental change, ocean circulation and other natural carbonate materials. Foraminiferal test REE signatures have been suggested to reflect ambient seawater conditions and serve as valuable proxies in the fields of paleoceanography and paleoclimate. Here we present a 60-kyr planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white, 250-300 ?m) REE record of a sediment core MD05-2925 (9°20.61'S, 151°27.61'E, water depth 1660 m) from the Solomon Sea. The REE diagram shows two dominant sources of local seawater and nearby terrestrial input. The variability of foraminiferal REE/Ca time series is different from Mg/Ca-inferred sea surface temperature and ?18O records during the past 60-kyr. This inconsistency suggests that planktonic foraminiferal REE content cannot result only from changes in ice volume and temperature. Synchroneity between high planktonic foraminiferal REE content and Antarctic ice core dust amount record implies the same dust sources, probably from Australia or mainland China. Our results suggest that foraminiferal REE can potentially be as a new dust proxy and record dry/humid conditions at the source area.

  17. Rare earth element carriers in the Shergotty meteorite and implications for its chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.L.; Crozaz, G.; Zinner, E. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA)); McKay, G. (NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Ion probe measurements of the rare earth element (REE) concentrations of individual grains of the Shergotty meteorite are reported. Phases analyzed include whitlockite, apatite, baddeleyite, augite, pigeonite, maskelynite and K-rich glass. U concentrations of whitlockite and apatite crystals were also obtained. The whole rock REE pattern is dominated by whitlockite, which contains over 95% of the light rare earth elements (LREE). REE concentrations in apatite are much lower than estimated by Laul et al. (1986). All of the whitlockites have the same relative abundances of LREE. The observation, by Jones et al. (1985), of a skeletal whitlockite with LREE enrichment is not confirmed by analyses of the same grain. Pyroxene rims are not enriched in LREE. No leachable carrier, enriched in LREE and associated with pyroxene, has been found. Instead, either a laboratory contamination or a petrographically cryptic phase such as a film on grain boundaries is suspected as the carrier of LREE enrichments. Estimates of REE abundances in the Shergotty intercumulus melt indicate that a complex petrogenesis is required, in agreement with the conclusions of McKay et al. (1986a). Pyroxene distribution coefficients measured experimentally are compared with estimates from measured REE abundances in augite and pigeonite. Evolution of REE abundances in the Shergotty late-stage interstitial melt, as inferred from analyses of whitlockite, conforms with trends predicted from partitioning considerations, and requires no special processes such as metasomatism. The average U concentrations of whitlockite and apatite are respectively 540 and 1,550 ppb. Although the calcium phosphates are enriched in U, they contain less than 20% of the U in Shergotty.

  18. Extraction of rare-earth elements by crown ethers from acid solutions into 1,1,7-trihydrododecafluoroheptanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Demin; V. I. Zhilov; A. Yu. Tsivadze; V. V. Yakshin; O. M. Vilkova

    2009-01-01

    Extraction of rare-earth elements from acid solutions in the 1,1,7-trihydrododecafluoroheptanol-water system was studied using\\u000a crown ethers: dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6; isomer A) and di-tert-butyldicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DTBDCH18C6). All other conditions being equal, the extractability of rareearth elements by\\u000a DTBDCH18C6 is far higher than for DCH18C6 itself. Trifluoroacetic and trichloroacetic acids increase metal distribution ratios.\\u000a The distribution ratios for the cerium rare earths considerably exceed

  19. Tracing irradiation-induced defect state of monazite by photoluminescence of rare Earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panczer, G.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A. M.; Montel, J. M.; Champagnon, B.

    2003-04-01

    Natural monazite is known in contrast to zircon, to almost never be found in the metamict state (Ewing, 1975) despite the fact that it received intensive radiation doses during geologic history by U and Th incorporation. Radiation damages in natural monazite seems to be limited to isolated domains within the crystal (Meldrum et al., 1998). Such property controlled the fact that the monazite lattice is easily healed even at low temperature as it was shown by TEM, XRD and Raman spectrometry (Seydoux-Guillaume et al., 2002). In order to estimate the degree of disorder and the healing of defects we used trivalent neodymium as an internal luminescent probe (Gaft et al., 2001). As a matter of fact the radiative electronic transitions of rare earth elements are very sensible to the short-range crystallographic order around them. Three natural monazites thermally untreated and quenched at 450, 500, 700, 800 and 1000^oC were analyzed under 514 nm Argon laser excitation with a Renishaw microspectrometer. Nd3+ emission was recorded in the range of 750 nm to 1 ?m. The ^4F3/2 rightarrow ^4I9/2 transition parameters (position and width) show that 1) the position of the Stark levels do not change during thermal treatment, and 2) that the emission line widths decrease continuously (from 25 to 37%) from room temperature to 1000^oC. These results indicates that before annealing, sub sites of Nd were present with slight different environments induced by internal irradiation induced displacement of ions around them (short range disorder). After thermal treatment a continuous reorganization of the lattice occurs up to 1000^oC with quite strong rearrangement of the environment around the rare-earth leading to a decrease of the Nd sub site number. Thus, the luminescent probe reveals that defect healing continue at much higher temperatures than what was previously reported indicating that luminescence is a very sensible tool to appreciate the degree of disorder in mineral phases. Gaft M., Panczer G., Reisfeld R. &Uspensky E. (2001) Laser-induced time-resolved luminescence as a tool for rare-earth element identification in minerals., Phys. Chem. Minerals, 28, 347-363.

  20. Major element, rare earth element, and sulfur isotopic composition of a high-elevation firn core: Sources and transport of mineral dust in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutz, Karl J.; Sholkovitz, Edward R.

    2000-11-01

    The arid region extending from the Caspian Sea into China contains some of the most extensive dust aerosol production areas in the world. Major element (Al, Fe, Ca, and S), rare earth element (REE), and isotopic (?34S and ?18O) data from a 14.4-m-long firn core recovered on the Inilchek Glacier (Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan; 5100-m elevation) are presented and used to investigate the composition, sources, and transport of mineral dust to this central Asian site. The combination of geochemical compositions points to three distinct types of mineral deposits (loess, calcium carbonate, and gypsum), which do not covary in a linear fashion during the period recorded in the firn core, (1992-1998). Loess, identified by its REE composition, is characterized by distinct large-scale deposition events and by ubiquitous background deposition at other times. Significant interannual-scale variability is evident, with the two largest loess events occurring within a single accumulation year, (1997) and background conditions prevailing during 1994-1996. REE compositions, specifically Nd/Yb ratios, point to multiple sources and transport directions of loess to Inilchek Glacier. Nonloess sources provide a significant fraction of the total Ca and S deposited at the Inilchek Glacier. Hence the downcore profiles of Ca and S reflect variability in the deposition of calcium carbonate and gypsum. Differences in the sulfur isotopic composition (?34S) of high dust period (+15.0‰) and low (background) dust period (+5.4‰) samples provide strong evidence for two sources of sulfate. The former isotopic composition reflects a marine evaporite source of which there are many to the west of the Tien Shan Mountains. The latter composition indicates that a major portion of the atmospheric SO42- was derived from anthropogenic emissions. While the deposition of non-loess Ca (calcite) and non-loess S (gypsum) is also high during the periods of high loess deposition, there is pronounced Ca and S variability during background loess periods, (1994-1996). We suggest that the observed geochemical variability in the firn core can be explained by changes in local- to regional-scale atmospheric circulation and associated transport from multiple dust sources (western Kyrgyzstan/Kazakhstan versus the Taklimakan Desert, China).

  1. Fractionation of fluorine, chlorine and other trace elements during differentiation of a tholeiitic magma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenland, L.; Lovering, J. F.

    1966-01-01

    Fluorine, chlorine and other trace elements determined through differentiated tholeiitic dolerite sill from Tasmania using statistical techniques, showing hydroxyl lattice sites by chlorine and fluorine

  2. Subduction Zone Redox and the Deep Earth Cycles of Sulfur and Chalcophile Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canil, D.

    2013-12-01

    Subduction at convergent plate margins is a return flux to the mantle of rocks influenced by weathering, hydrothermal activity, atmospheric exchange, or bio-mineralization in the exosphere. The latter exogenic processes modify the long-term abundance and behaviour of certain elements in the deeper earth that can be traced over time in the chemistry of mantle-derived magmas. The redox budget of subduction is controlled by the flux of oxidized versus reduced forms of Fe, S, H, or C, and impacts the long-term evolution of oxygen on the planet, critical for life in the exosphere. In particular, the sulfur cycle is specifically tied to the evolution of oxygen on Earth's surface over time and critical to biogeochemical cycles on the surface. The behaviour of sulfur in the exogenic system is well-studied and fairly well understood using sedimentary records. An originally sulfidic ocean on Earth gave way with time and oxygenation to one that is sulfate dominated over the last two billion years. In contrast, far less is known of the deep earth cycle of S, and more so its history. The record of the endogenic cycle can only be monitored via what comes out of the mantle (magmas and their gases), or what goes down via subduction (hydrothermally-altered or weathered subducted lithosphere). Interest in the endogenic cycle of S is not new but several outstanding conundrums remain for sulfur in arc magmas that point to the importance of the subduction process. A hitherto ignored component of the paradox of the sulfur cycle is the sedimentary veneer that sits atop the subducted oceanic basalt crust. Compilations show only 0.12 wt% S in altered ocean basalt crust, but up to 10 times that amount in oceanic sediments, tied to their Fe content (in pyrite). These abundances may seem trivial, but the behaviour of this small amount of S in subduction is not fully appreciated and its oxidation potential in the arc mantle is enormous. The conversion of subducted sulfide to sulfate is a 8-electron change in redox state, with significant oxidation/ reduction capacity. The concomitant higher fO2 can in turn facilitate the mobility and/or extraction of chalcophile metals from the arc mantle into magmas by the melting process in arcs. Sedimentary records show that through most of Earth's history sulfur has mostly been subducted in reduced form as sulfide. The fate of sulfide in ocean sediments during subduction (and subsequent dehydration or melting) has not been thoroughly investigated, nor its interplay with other redox couples (C, H, Fe) in sediments, subducted basalt or in the mantle. I examine the redox controls on sulfate versus sulfide stability in subducted oceanic crust, and their disposition relative to other redox couples in the mantle. Sulfate-sulfide equilibria impact the fate of sulfur and chalcophile elements in subducted lithologies, especially if dehydrated or melted depending on a variety subduction P-T trajectories. In this light, new high P-T experiments show the utility of Cu as a proxy for S in the subduction system . These proxies can potentially be applied to examine the deep S cycle, subduction redox and its role in arc magmatism over geologic time.

  3. Rare earth element sources and modification in the Lower Kittanning coal bed, Pennsylvania: implications for the origin of coal mineral matter and rare earth element exposure in underground mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Schatzel; Brian W. Stewart

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we examine the variations in rare earth elements (REE) from the Lower Kittanning coal bed of eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania, USA, in an attempt to understand the factors that control mineral matter deposition and modification in coal, and to evaluate possible REE mixed exposure hazards facing underground mine workers. The results of this study suggest that

  4. Solution properties of rare earth elements in silicate melts: Inferences from immiscible liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Hess, P.C. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between immiscible silicate liquids was investigated as a function of temperature and total REE oxide concentration. REE preferentially partition into the end-member liquids that are rich in network-modifying cations, with two-liquid partition coefficients greater than any other cation. The two-liquid partition coefficients of REE in a given experiment are essentially identical to one another. No evidence was seen to suggest that the solution mechanisms of REE in high-silica liquids vary with differences in their ionic radii. Two-lattice models of trace element solution behavior fail to remove the compositional dependence of REE two-liquid partition coefficients due to the assumption that all network-forming and network-modifying cations mix ideally with one another. As a result, it is probably incorrect to derive physical interpretations from the results of the application of two-lattice models. The results are applied to the origins of the LREE-enriched phenocryst-matrix partition coefficients seen for some ferromagnesian minerals in high-silica rhyolites. Since liquids with extremely high concentrations of T-O-T linkages do not strongly discriminate between the REE on the basis of their ionic radii, the anomalous REE crystal-matrix partition coefficient patterns are best explained as the result of contamination of these minerals by LREE accessory phases.

  5. Geochemistry of the rare earth elements in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A, northern equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, S.E.; Piper, D.Z.; Baedecker, P.A.

    1987-09-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A has been determined by instrumental neutron activation methods. The concentrations of the REE vary markedly. Low concentrations characterize samples from a depression (the valley), in which Quaternary sediments are thin or absent; high concentrations are found in samples from the surrounding abyssal hills (the highlands) where the Quaternary sediment section is relatively thick. Moreover, the valley nodules are strongly depleted in the light trivalent REE (LREE) and Ce compared with nodules from the highlands, some of the former showing negative Ce anomalies. The REE abundances in the nodules are strongly influenced by the REE abundances in coexisting bottom water. Some controls on the REE chemistry of bottom waters include: a) the more effective removal of the LREE relative to the HREE from sea water because of the greater degree of complexation of the latter elements with sea water ligands, b) the very efficient oxidative scavenging of Ce on particle surfaces in sea water, and c) the strong depletion of both Ce and the LREE in, or a larger benthic flux of the HREE into, the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) which flows through the valley. The distinctive REE chemistry of valley nodules in a function of their growth from geochemically evolved AABW. In contrast, the REE chemistry of highland nodules indicates growth from a local, less evolved sea water source.

  6. Effects of exogenous rare earth elements on phosphorus adsorption and desorption in different types of soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important biogeochemical element and the environmental fate of P receives increasing attention. Through batch equilibration experiments, the adsorption and desorption of P in the absence and presence of exogeneous rare earth elements (REEs) were investigated in five types of agricultural soil samples collected from China. The results showed that the addition of different doses of REEs had influences on P adsorption processes in the soils, and there were differences in different soil types and different P concentrations of the P solutions. The amount of P adsorption tended to decline when the five types of soils were amended with low concentrations of REEs. The characteristics of P adsorption were more complicated when high concentrations of REEs were added to the different soils. Affected by the high concentrations of REEs, when the P concentration of the P solution added to soils was less than 20 mg L(-1), the rate of P adsorption tended to increase in all the five types of soils. However, when the P concentration of the P solution added to soil was greater than 30 mg L(-1), the rate of P adsorption tended to decrease. The Langmuir equation fitted P adsorption in all the five types of soils well. Compared with the control, when soil samples were amended with REEs, the P desorption rates of the five types of soils increased. PMID:24342358

  7. Geochemistry of the rare earth elements in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A, northern equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, S.E.; Piper, D.Z.; Baedecker, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A has been determined by instrumental neutron activation methods. The concentrations of the REE vary markedly. Low concentrations characterize samples from a depression (the valley), in which Quaternary sediments are thin or absent; high concentrations are found in samples from the surrounding abyssal hills (the highlands) where the Quaternary sediment section is relatively thick. Moreover, the valley nodules are strongly depleted in the light trivalent REE (LREE) and Ce compared with nodules from the highlands, some of the former showing negative Ce anomalies. The REE abundances in the nodules are strongly influenced by the REE abundances in coexisting bottom water. Some controls on the REE chemistry of bottom waters include: a) the more effective removal of the LREE relative to the HREE from seawater because of the greater degree of complexation of the latter elements with seawater ligands, b) the very efficient oxidative scavenging of Ce on particle surfaces in seawater, and c) the strong depletion of both Ce and the LREE in, or a larger benthic flux of the HREE into, the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) which flows through the valley. The distinctive REE chemistry of valley nodules is a function of their growth from geochemically evolved AABW. In contrast, the REE chemistry of highland nodules indicates growth from a local, less evolved seawater source. ?? 1987.

  8. The properties of Sn9Zn lead-free solder alloys doped with trace rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. L. Wu; D. Q. Yu; C. M. T. Law; L. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The Sn-Zn alloys have been considered as lead-free solders. It is well known that their poor properties of wetting and oxidation\\u000a resistance are the main problems to prevent them from becoming commercially viable solders. In this paper, trace rare earth\\u000a (RE) elements of mainly Ce and La have been used as alloying elements into the Sn-9Zn alloy. The results indicated

  9. Determination of rare earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled argon plasma\\/atomic emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Crock; F. E. Lichte

    1982-01-01

    Inductively coupled argon plasma\\/optical emission spectrometry (ICAP\\/OES) is useful as a simultaneous, multielement analytical technique for the determination of trace elements in geological materials. A method for the determination of trace-level rare earth elements (REE) in geological materials using an ICAP 63-channel emission spectrometer is described. Separation and preconcentration of the REE and yttrium from a sample digest are achieved

  10. Mobility of rare earth elements in the system soils–plants–groundwaters: a case study of an arid area (Oman)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khadija Semhi; Osman A. E. Abdalla; Salah Al Khirbash; Tabisam Khan; Salim Asaidi; Sardar Farooq

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater samples from six wells and various species of plants from soils developed on ophiolites were collected from an\\u000a arid area (AlKhod area, Oman) and analyzed for trace elements including rare earth elements (REEs). The distribution patterns\\u000a of REEs in plants indicated an enrichment in middle REEs (MREEs?=?Sm to Dy) and heavy REEs (HREEs?=?Ho to Lu), when they are\\u000a normalized

  11. Using rare earth elements for the identification of the geographic origin of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Bandoniene, D.; Joebstl, D.

    2009-04-01

    The European Union defined regimes within the Protected Geographical Status (PGS) framework to protect names of regional food specialities. Thus only food produced in a specific geographical area with a specific way of production or quality can be protected by a protected geographical indication (PGI) label. As such Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil has been approved with this label, but as with many other high priced regional specialities, fraud cannot be excluded or nor identified. Thus the aim of this work is, to develop an analytical method for the control of the geographic origin of pumpkin seed oil and also to test the method for other protected products. The development of such a method is not only of interest for scientists, but also of importance for the consumer wanting to know the origin of the food products and the assurance of the purity and quality. The group of rare earth elements (REE) in plants also have a characteristic distribution pattern similar to upper crustal REE distributions. Since the REE concentrations are extremely low in pumpkin seed oil (ppt to low ppb), ICP-MS was the only sensitive tool able to produce validated results. The carrier of the REE are most likely small particles distributed within the pumpkin seed oil. Unlike, e.g., olive oil, pumpkin seed oil is bottled and sold unfiltered, which makes this Styrian speciality an interesting sampling target. As pumpkin seed oils from different geographic origin show variable trace element and rare earth distribution patterns, is should possible to trace the origin of these oils. In the current project pumpkin seeds from different regions in Austria and from abroad were sampled. The trace element patterns in the extracted oil of these seeds were determined and a preliminary classification with discriminate analysis was successfully done on a statistical basis. In addition to the study of the geographic origin it was demonstrated that REE distribution patterns can also be used for the identification of adulteration of high priced pumpkin seed oil with cheap neutral tasting refined oils. Interestingly enough, the variations of the REE patterns between oils from different regions are much more pronounced than their host soils. Thus we assume that microbiological processes in the rhizosphere are in control of the REE uptake into the plant. Regional variations of the microbiological composition of the soils and probably not only a priori the bulk soil composition of the minerals in the soil are the cause of the regional variations making it possible to identify the geographic origin of pumpkin seeds and as a consequence the pumpkin seed oil.

  12. Trace elements and REE fractionation in subsoils developed on sedimentary and volcanic rocks: case study of the Mt. Vulture area, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna; Sinisi, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) within soils, primarily as these elements can be used to identify pedogenetic processes and because soils may be future sources for REE extraction, despite much attention should be paid to the protection and preservation of present soils. Here, we evaluate the processes that control the distribution of REEs in subsoil horizons developed over differing lithologies in an area of low anthropogenic contamination, allowing estimates of the importance of source rocks and weathering. Specifically, this study presents new data on the distribution of REEs and other trace elements, including transition and high-field-strength elements, in subsoils developed on both Quaternary silica-undersaturated volcanic rocks and Pliocene siliciclastic sedimentary rocks within the Mt. Vulture area of the southern Apennines in Italy. The subsoils in the Mt. Vulture area formed during moderate weathering (as classified using the chemical index of alteration) and contain an assemblage of secondary minerals that is dominated by trioctahedral illite with minor vermiculite. The REEs, high-field-strength elements, and transition metals have higher abundances in subsoils that developed from volcanic rocks, and pedogenesis caused the Mt. Vulture subsoils to have REE concentrations that are an order of magnitude higher than typical values for the upper continental crust. This result indicates that the distribution of REEs in soils is a valuable tool for mineral exploration. A statistical analysis of inter-elemental relationships indicates that REEs are concentrated in clay-rich fractions that also contain significant amounts of low-solubility elements such as Zr and Th, regardless of the parent rock. This suggests that low-solubility refractory minerals, such as zircon, play a significant role in controlling the distribution of REEs in soils. The values of (La/Yb)N and (Gd/Yb)N fractionation indices are dependent on the intensity of pedogenesis; soils in the study area have values that are higher than typical upper continental crust ratios, suggesting that soils, especially those that formed during interaction with near neutral to acidic organic-rich surface waters, may represent an important source of both light REEs and medium REEs (MREEs). In comparison, MREE/heavy REE fractionation in soils that form during moderate weathering may be affected by variations in parent rock lithologies, primarily as MREE-hosting minerals, such as pyroxenes, may control (La/Sm)N index values. Eu anomalies are thought to be the most effective provenance index for sediments, although the anomalies within the soils studied here are not related to the alteration of primary minerals, including feldspars, to clay phases. In some cases, Eu/Eu* values may have a weak correlation with elements hosted by heavy minerals, such as Zr; this indicates that the influence of mechanical sorting of clastic particles during sedimentary transport on the Eu/Eu* values of siliciclastic sediments needs to be considered carefully.

  13. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. PMID:23978671

  14. Copper and trace element fractionation in electrokinetically treated methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Virkutyte, Jurate; van Hullebusch, Eric; Sillanpää, Mika; Lens, Piet

    2005-12-01

    The effect of electrokinetic treatment (0.15 mA cm(-2)) on the metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludge artificially contaminated with copper (initial copper concentration 1000 mg kg(-1) wet sludge) was studied. Acidification of the sludge (final pH 4.2 in the sludge bed) with the intention to desorb the copper species bound to the organic/sulfides and residual fractions did not result in an increased mobility, despite the fact that a higher quantity of copper was measured in the more mobile (i.e. exchangeable/carbonate) fractions at final pH 4.2 compared to circum-neutral pH conditions. Also addition of the chelating agent EDTA (Cu2+:EDTA4- ratio 1.2:1) did not enhance the mobility of copper from the organic/sulfides and residual fractions, despite the fact that it induced a reduction of the total copper content of the sludge. The presence of sulfide precipitates likely influences the copper mobilisation from these less mobile fractions, and thus makes EDTA addition ineffective to solubilise copper from the granules. PMID:15990208

  15. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

  16. 33. BASALTS FROM DEEP SEA DRILLING PROJECT HOLES 417A AND 417D, FRACTIONATED MELTS OF A LIGHT RARE-EARTH DEPLETED SOURCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rice; C. H. Langmuir; J. F. Bender; G. N. Hanson; A. E. Bence

    Tholeiitic basalts from DSDP Holes 417A and 417D consist of two textural types: phyric and subophitic. Their major element and transition metal spectra are a consequence of the low-pressure fractionation of olivine prior to emplacement, and plagioclase accumulation during or after emplacement. Reverse, normal, and oscillatory zoning of the plagioclase phenocrysts within the same sample suggests magma mixing. Incompatible element

  17. Dissolved rare earth elements in a seasonally snow-covered, alpine/subalpine watershed, Loch Vale, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiller, Alan M.

    2010-04-01

    Dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in a four-year time series at the outlet of Loch Vale. The Loch Vale watershed is a seasonally snow-covered alpine/subalpine basin in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA. The time series was mainly distinguished by an annual early spring peak in the concentrations of all REEs. REE concentrations at this time were as much as 8-fold greater than at other times of the year. This annual peak was coincident with an early spring peak in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which results from flushing of soils at the beginning of spring snow melting. The REE/DOC peak occurs as discharge starts to increase from wintertime lows but well before the spring peak in discharge. Speciation considerations suggest complexation of the REEs by DOC. The Ce anomaly also increases (i.e., is less fractionated) during the spring flush indicating that the most reducing (or least oxidizing) REE sources in the system are comparatively more important at that time. Mn data and the La/Yb ratio also support this. The behavior of REEs in the Loch Vale system has additionally been compared with metal and DOC behavior in other systems. Hydrologic and climatic differences can be important especially with regard to timing and duration of the spring flush peak. Damping of hydrologic events in the lower floodplain of major rivers may also partially result in the differences observed between Loch Vale and the lower Mississippi River. However, comparison with the Amazon River system additionally suggests that seasonal flooding of wetlands may be an important regulator of REE concentrations. Chemical differences are also important for these systems. This includes pH and suspended matter concentrations which affect the balance between adsorption and complexation. Additionally, the relative complexing ability of DOC in different systems is a factor needing further consideration.

  18. Performance and Blood Characteristics of Pre-pubertal Rabbits Fed Varied Levels of Dietary Rare Earth Element (REE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A. Adu; M. K. Ladipo; O. A. Adebiyi; A Akinfemi; F. A. Igbasan

    4 Abstract: In a feeding trial that lasted 20 weeks, 35 weanling female rabbit of an average weight of 510g were used to assess the effect of inclusion of different levels of Rare Earth Element (REE) 0, 100, 200,300 and 400ppm inclusion levels) on the growth rate, feed intake, blood and serum parameters of the animals. The animals were randomly

  19. The rare earth elements in rivers, estuaries, and coastal seas and their significance to the composition of ocean waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Elderfield; R. Upstill-Goddard; E. R. Sholkovitz

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REEs) in samples from 15 rivers, from 6 estuarine transects, and of 5 coastal seawaters are reported and have been used with literature data to examine the continuity in average REE pattern between average continental crust and the dissolved input of REE to the oceans via estuaries. Concentrations in river waters span a

  20. Ultra-low rare earth element content in accreted ice from sub-glacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    ; available online 28 May 2009 Abstract This paper reports the first rare earth element (REE) concentrations in accreted ice refrozen from sub-glacial Lake Vostok (East Antarctica). REE were determined in various (undisturbed, disturbed and glacial flour ice). REE concentrations ranged between 0.8­56 pg gÀ1 for Ce and 0