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1

Sun\\/earth: alternative energy design for architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of architecture and its relation to the natural environment is presented. A holistic design approach is presented for use in design and construction that reduces inflation, creates a more healthful and vitalizing environment, deploys capital more effectively, increases savings in residential and commercial architecture and construction, and increases cash flow by reducing money spent on utilities. Holistic design

Crowther

1983-01-01

2

Design and calibration features of the clouds and the earth's radiant energy system (CERES) instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clouds and the earth's radiant energy system (CERES) instrument has been developed based on the earth radiation budget experiment (ERBE). The CERES instrument will be flown on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission and on the first two Earth Observation System platforms. The techniques which were used to calibrate the ERBE instruments on the ground and to maintain calibration in orbit to 1% precision are being refined and applied to the design and calibration of the CERES instrument. The same types of on-board calibration devices will be used for CERES as were used on ERBE to determine any changes in the sensors' responses. The TRW Radiometric Calibration Facility which was used for ERBE calibration has been upgraded for CERES by incorporation of a radiometrically characterized black body as a reference and a cryogenic active cavity radiometer as a calibration transfer device for the shortwave calibration system.

Smith, G. L.; Lee, Robert B.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, Roland W.

1995-12-01

3

Intelligent Design and Earth History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships

W. A. Elders

2001-01-01

4

Whole Earth Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this interdisciplinary instructional design is three-fold. At its basic level it serves as an activity-based program guide for developing in students and instructors, grades 4-12, the ability to observe, assimilate and interpret the world around them. On another level it provides the "hands-on" experiences that open the bounds of…

Indiana State Board of Health, Indianapolis.

5

Intelligent Design and Earth History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.

Elders, W. A.

2001-05-01

6

Earth's Energy Cycle: Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners experiment and observe how the color of materials that cover the Earth affects the amounts of sunlight our planet absorbs. Use this activity to begin discussions on global warming and climate change. This lesson guide includes background information and handouts. Note: cost of materials does not include cost of thermometers or desk lamp/light bulbs.

Research, National C.

2005-01-01

7

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. We update our analysis of Earth's observed energy imbalance through 2011 and compare this with climate simulations. Observed global surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing, implying existence of a large negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We discuss implications of the trend of observed sea level rise in recent years, and its consistency with reported ice melt rates and ocean thermal expansion.

Hansen, J.; von Schuckmann, K.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.

2012-04-01

8

An earth station design for rural telecommunications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design for an earth station intended specifically for rural telephony applications is described with a discussion of overall system and satellite parameters. It is noted that higher satellite transfer gain and reduced receiver noise figure allow the use of more economical combinations of antenna size and HPA power in the rural terminal. Small-aperture earth terminals employing 3-meter antennas, 0.2 Watt transmitters, and 100-K low-noise amplifiers, designed using the integrated common equipment SCPC approach, provide substantial cost and power consumption savings over conventional designs. Specific objectives for a prototype development program are established. The integration of a satellite DAMA control system with a telephone exchange specifically designed for a small number of subscribers in a rural environment provides additional cost reduction.

Tustison, G. F.

9

Radiometric calibration plan for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program continues the long term monitoring of the Earth's energy budget begun by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometer instruments. The radiometic ground calibration sources employed for ERBE were designed to cover the very large (all Earth) field of view of the non-scanning radiometers. The ERBE radiometer ground and

P. J. Jarecke; M. A. Folkman; L. A. Darnton

1991-01-01

10

Earth's energy imbalance and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 ± 0.15 W m-2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 ± 0.3 W m-2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade. Humanity is potentially vulnerable to global temperature change, as discussed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001, 2007) reports and by innumerable authors. Although climate change is driven by many climate forcing agents and the climate system also exhibits unforced (chaotic) variability, it is now widely agreed that the strong global warming trend of recent decades is caused predominantly by human-made changes of atmospheric composition (IPCC, 2007). The basic physics underlying this global warming, the greenhouse effect, is simple. An increase of gases such as CO2 makes the atmosphere more opaque at infrared wavelengths. This added opacity causes the planet's heat radiation to space to arise from higher, colder levels in the atmosphere, thus reducing emission of heat energy to space. The temporary imbalance between the energy absorbed from the sun and heat emission to space, causes the planet to warm until planetary energy balance is restored. The planetary energy imbalance caused by a change of atmospheric composition defines a climate forcing. Climate sensitivity, the eventual global temperature change per unit forcing, is known with good accuracy from Earth's paleoclimate history. However, two fundamental uncertainties limit our ability to predict global temperature change on decadal time scales. First, although climate forcing by human-made greenhouse gases (GHGs) is known accurately, climate forcing caused by changing human-made aerosols is practically unmeasured. Aerosols are fine particles suspended in the air, such as dust, sulfates, and black soot (Ramanathan et al., 2001). Aerosol climate forcing is complex, because aerosols both reflect solar radiation to space (a cooling effect) and absorb solar radiation (a warming effect). In addition, atmospheric aerosols can alter cloud cover and cloud properties. Therefore, precise composition-specific measurements of aerosols and their effects on clouds are needed to assess the aerosol role in climate change. Second, the rate at which Earth's surface temperature approaches a new equilibrium in response to a climate forcing depends on how efficiently heat perturbations are mixed into the deeper ocean. Ocean mixing is complex and not necessarily simulated well by climate models. Empirical data on ocean heat uptake are improving rapidly, but still suffer limitations. We summarize current understanding of this basic physics of global warming and note observations needed to narrow uncertainties. Appropriate measurements can quantify the major factors driving climate change, reveal how much additional global warming is already in the pipeline, and help define the reduction of climate forcing needed to stabilize climate.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; von Schuckmann, K.

2011-09-01

11

Transforming Instructional Designs in Earth Science (TIDES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An enduring challenge in Earth system science education has been to prepare teachers to teach for deep understanding of subject matter. Standards and trade textbooks are often too broad to allow for in-depth treatment of specific topics, and many teachers have had limited exposure to how to plan instruction for the core concepts of Earth system science they are expected to teach. High-quality curriculum materials do exist that provide young people with opportunities to explore concepts in depth and to experience the inquiry process. At the same time, few programs provide teachers with the necessary skills and knowledge to enact and adapt those materials to the unique circumstances of their classrooms and schools. Our interdisciplinary team of curriculum and staff developers, researchers, and district personnel developed a program focused on preparing teachers to use a principled approach to curriculum adaptation in Earth system science. In this program, teachers learned how to use the Understanding by Design (UbD) approach developed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe to organize and adapt materials from an expert-designed curriculum. As part of the program, teachers learn to select or modify materials from the curriculum based on how likely the materials are to develop so-called "enduring understandings" of concepts in the district standards. Teachers also learn how to apply the approach in incorporating materials from other sources besides the expert-designed curriculum, which can include their textbook and materials they design on their own or with colleagues. Third, teachers learn how to collect and interpret evidence of student understanding by designing or adapting performance tasks that call for students to apply knowledge acquired during the unit to solve a problem or complete a project. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial indicates the program we created is effective in improving the quality of teacher assignments and in improving student achievement. From the point of view of district staff, the program is effective because it prepares teachers to become critical consumers of curriculum materials. In this presentation, we present the impacts of our program on teacher instructional planning, curriculum enactment, and student achievement.

McWilliams, H.; McAuliffe, C.; Penuel, W.

2008-12-01

12

Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

McCallum, R. William

2012-02-01

13

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment, Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument, and calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clouds and the earth's radiant energy system (CERES) experiment will provide consistent data bases of radiation and cloud fields. The CERES instrument consists of a scanning thermistor bolometer package with built-in flight calibration systems. Two bolometer packages will be launched on the earth observing system (EOS) platforms to measure the Earth/atmosphere-reflected solar shortwave and Earth/atmosphere-emitted long wave radiances with measurement accuracy goals approaching 1.0% and 0.5%, respectively. In each package, there are three different bolometers. All bolometers will be calibrated in a unique TRW vacuum facility equipped with blackbodies, a cryogenically cooled active-cavity radiometer, shortwave sources, and other specialized calibration devices. The blackbodies are tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS'90). Using math models, the calibration measurements will define the instrument filtered gains and offsets. This paper outlines the CERES instrument design and radiometric calibrations.

Lee, Robert B.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Carman, Stephen L.; Cooper, John E.; Folkman, Mark A.; Jarecke, Peter J.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

1993-08-01

14

Clouds and the Earth`s radiant energy system (CERES): An Earth observing system experiment  

SciTech Connect

Clouds and the Earth`s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation to examine the role of cloud/radiation feedback on the Earth`s climate system. The CERES broadband scanning radiometers are an improved version of the Earth`s Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers. The CERES instruments will fly on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites starting in 1998 and extending over at least 15 years. The CERES science investigations will provide data to extend the ERBE climate record of top-of-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes. CERES will also combine simultaneous cloud property data derived using EOS narrowband imagers to provide a consistent set of cloud/radiation data, including SW and LW radiative fluxes at the surface and at several selected levels within the atmosphere. CERES data are expected to provide top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with a factor of 2 to 3 less error than the ERBE data. Estimates of radiative fluxes at the surface and especially within the atmosphere will be a much greater challenge but should also show significant improvements over current capabilities. 62 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Wielicki, B.A.; Barkstrom, B.R.; Harrison, E.F. [NASA/Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

1996-05-01

15

Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth Science departments can blend the physical ``bricks and mortar'' facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science

M. A. Chan

2009-01-01

16

Observing and Modeling Earth's Energy Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews, from the authors' perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within ±2 W m-2. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute importantly to this adjustment and thus contribute both to uncertainty in estimates of radiative forcing and to uncertainty in the response. Models are indispensable to calculation of the adjustment of the system to a compositional change but are known to be flawed in their representation of clouds. Advances in tracking Earth's energy flows and compositional changes on daily through decadal timescales are shown to provide both a critical and constructive framework for advancing model development and evaluation.

Stevens, Bjorn; Schwartz, Stephen E.

2012-07-01

17

Earth's energy and mineral resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one papers examine the questions of world resources as they relate to the energy problem. The idea of resource limitations is gaining credence as people become aware of local depletion and the idea that substitution can only delay the depletion of global supplies. The papers examine the political security, economic, and environmental dangers of the major energy resources. They analyze

1980-01-01

18

The Surface Temperature Characteristics of Earth's Active Lavas: Implications for the Design of Earth Observation Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed surface temperature distribution of an active lava body is an important boundary condition for estimating flow cooling and hence changes in rheology through time. These data can be difficult to acquire in-situ due to the temporally dynamic nature of the active lava bodies, their extreme thermal heterogeneity, and their propensity to occur in inaccessible areas and often over large spatial scales. This presentation describes results obtained from the analysis of 60 hyperspectral satellite images of active lava flows, domes, and lakes, acquired by NASA's Earth Observing-1 Hyperion sensor, which have been analyzed using sub-pixel mixture modeling techniques to constrain the temperature and radiant characteristics of real terrestrial lava bodies. The data reveal significant differences between the surface temperature distributions of lava flows (aa and pahoehoe), lava domes and lava lakes which relate primarily to a) eruption temperature, and b) the extent to which emplacement processes govern the rate at which lava flow surfaces are thermally renewed. The temperature data presented have wider implications. Volcanologists currently use many remote sensing instruments to quantify volcanic activity, and the fidelity of the imaging process (i.e. how accurately scene content is recorded in the image data), varies from instrument to instrument. Active lavas radiate prodigious amounts of energy in the infrared, often in excess of the maximum signal recordable by Earth observation satellites (Lmax), the dynamic ranges of which are optimized to observe surfaces at much lower temperatures. Such saturation is a significant problem for satellite volcanologists. The temperature data derived from Hyperion are used to simulate the response of some commonly used satellite remote sensing instruments to real lava flows to quantify the impact that saturation has on the measurements process. These results indicate the range of Lmax required to provide unsaturated data for Earth's active volcanoes, as well as quantifying the expected incidence of saturation using currently operational spacecraft. By defining target characteristics, the results are of relevance to the design of future Earth observation missions which have a strong volcanological science component, including NASA's proposed HyspIRI mission.

Wright, R.

2010-12-01

19

Rare-earth-doped fiber designs for superluminescent sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of rare-earth-doped fiber section working in amplified spontaneous emission regime for different emission wavelengths is analyzed theoretically. From simulation results, the design of all-fiber superluminescent sources employing different rare earths as dopants for new optical windows and different applications is proposed. Results on different pump and signal powers in forward and backward propagation direction with respect to fiber length are presented.

Pérez-Sánchez, Grethell G.; Bertoldi-Martins, Indayara; Gallion, Philippe; Alvarez-Chávez, Jose A.

2013-08-01

20

Earth Science by Design: Teaching the Big Ideas in Earth System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developed by TERC and the American Geological Institute with funding from the National Science Foundation, Earth Science by Design (ESBD) is a year-long program of professional development for middle or high school teachers based on the Understanding by Design approach pioneered by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. ESBD is designed to help teachers: · Teach for deep and enduring understanding of the "big ideas" in Earth system science. · Use "backward design" to create curriculum units and lessons that are engaging, rigorous, and aligned with national, state, and local standards. · Design effective classroom assessments and rubrics. · Incorporate powerful web-based Earth science visualizations and satellite imagery into an Earth system science approach. ESBD has developed a complete professional development package for staff developers and geoscience educators, including: · The ESBD Handbook, which provides everything you need to offer the program, including detailed workshop lesson plans. · The ESBD Web Site, where teachers can develop curriculum units online (www.esbd.org). · Online resources for Earth Science teaching and learning. · PowerPoint presentations for workshops and courses. · DVD of teacher reflections on their implementation experiences. In this session we will review the resources which ESBD makes available for geoscience educators: ·sample Earth science units produced by teachers in the program, ·field test results, ·the effect of the program on teacher practice, ·and how geoscience educators can get involved with ESBD. ESBD has been field-tested by staff developers in eight sites nationwide and is being adapted by college and university geoscience educators for use with pre-service teachers. In this session we will report on the results of field testing and on an experimental study of ESBD and other professional development approaches funded by the US Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences.

McWilliams, H.; McAuliffe, C.

2007-12-01

21

Exemplary Learning Modules in the ESSE Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supported by NASA through the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the cooperative university- based Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program fosters the development of undergraduate curriculum and courses designed to understand Earth as a system. The ESSE community has produced the web-based Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education as a living synthesis of the program. One section of the Design Guide contains exemplary learning modules with demonstrated value in courses that include new perspectives and new audiences underrepresented in the sciences. Two highlights are applications of earth system science to the urban environment and the adaptation of course material for the K- 12 curriculum. These learning modules will be useful in existing courses and will provide ideas for future course development. Each module has a description that includes the rationale, the learning objectives, the target audience, types of activities supported, instructor's tips, evaluation procedures and other information to help faculty to make best use of the module. Vignettes of personal experiences with the learning modules and linkage to the Design Guide provide scientific, pedagogical and institutional context. The ESSE21 Evaluation Toolkit, packaged with the Design Guide, offers additional information about evaluation. The topics developed in the learning modules cover a broad range from the tropics to the poles to near-Earth space: urban land surface-atmosphere systems; carbon cycle; remote sensing; integrating earth system science and the urban environment; land use and land cover change; pollution protection of Earth systems; local energy balance at air/land and air/water interfaces; earth and space science; and polar remote sensing.

Aron, J. L.; Ruzek, M.

2006-12-01

22

Design Guide for Earth System Science Education: A Web-Based Resource for Teaching Earth System Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Design Guide for Earth System Science Education (ESSE) is a web-based resource for faculty from multiple disciplines who wish to develop Earth System Science courses or programs in their own institutional settings. This guide represents the lessons learned from 15 years of NASA-supported Earth system science education programs at 57 universities and colleges throughout the United States. The ESSE

C. P. Wake; M. Ruzek

2006-01-01

23

Development of an Earth Pressure Model for Design of Retaining Structures in Piedmont Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anecdotal evidence suggests that earth pressure in Piedmont residual soils is typically over estimated. Such estimates of earth pressure impact the design of earth retaining structures used on highway projects. Thus, the development of an appropriate mode...

J. B. Anderson V. O. Ogunro

2008-01-01

24

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): algorithm overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), CERES objectives include the following. (1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) record of radiative fluxes at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same techniques as the existing ERBE data. (2) Double the accuracy of

Bruce A. Wielicki; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Bryan A. Baum; Thomas P. Charlock; Richard N. Green; David P. Kratz; Robert B. Lee; Patrick Minnis; G. Louis Smith; Takmeng Wong; David F. Young; Robert D. Cess; James A. Coakley; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Leo Donner; Robert Kandel; Michael D. King; Alvin J. Miller; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; David A. Randall; Larry L. Stowe; Ronald M. Welch

1998-01-01

25

Energy design for architects  

SciTech Connect

This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

Shaw, A. (ed.)

1989-01-01

26

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science  

SciTech Connect

A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

Not Available

1980-01-01

27

Energy efficient building design  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

Not Available

1992-03-01

28

Energy-Conscious Design. Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Practical energy-design elements adaptable for schools include building orientation and shape, inclusion of an energy-storage system, window placement, double or triple window glazing, air-curtain windows, and the use of earth berms and trees as wind breaks. (MLF)|

Lawrence, Jerry

1984-01-01

29

Lab Activity: Earth's Energy Budget and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth's Energy Budget and the Greenhouse Effect" is a lab activity in which students use computers and scientific applications software to access, display, describe, analyze, and interpret global, climate-related data sets related to the earth's energy budget and the greenhouse effect.

Dempsey, Dave

30

An observationally based energy balance for the Earth since 1950  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the Earth's energy balance since 1950, identifying results that can be obtained without using global climate models. Important terms that can be constrained using only measurements and radiative transfer models are ocean heat content, radiative forcing by long-lived trace gases, and radiative forcing from volcanic eruptions. We explicitly consider the emission of energy by a warming Earth by

D. M. Murphy; S. Solomon; R. W. Portmann; K. H. Rosenlof; P. M. Forster; T. Wong

2009-01-01

31

Energy flux in the Earth's magnetosphere: Storm – substorm relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three ways of the energy transfer in the Earth's magnetosphere are studied. The solar wind MHD generator is an unique energy\\u000a source for all magnetospheric processes. Field-aligned currents directly transport the energy and momentum of the solar wind\\u000a plasma to the Earth's ionosphere. The magnetospheric lobe and plasma sheet convection generated by the solar wind is another\\u000a magnetospheric energy source.

Igor I. Alexeev

2003-01-01

32

Axial focusing of energy from a hypervelocity impact on earth  

SciTech Connect

We have performed computational simulations to determine how energy from a large hypervelocity impact on the Earth`s surface would couple to its interior. Because of the first-order axial symmetry of both the impact energy source and the stress-wave velocity structure of the Earth, a disproportionate amount of energy is dissipated along the axis defined by the impact point and its antipode (point opposite the impact). For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth model, all the impact energy that is radiated as seismic waves into the Earth at a given takeoff angle (ray parameter), independent of azimuthal direction, is refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Material on or near the axis of symmetry experiences more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere, and therefore experiences more irreversible heating. The focusing is most intense in the upper mantle, within the asthenosphere, where seismic energy is most effectively converted to heat. For a sufficiently energetic impact, this mechanism might generate enough local heating to create an isostatic instability leading to uplift, possibly resulting in rifting, volcanism, or other rearrangement of the interior dynamics of the planet. These simulations demonstrate how hypervelocity impact energy can be transported to the Earth`s interior, supporting the possibility of a causal link between large impacts on Earth and major internally-driven geophysical processes.

Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.

1994-12-01

33

Designing for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a description of the energy efficient designs for new schools in the Alief Independent School District of Houston, Texas. Exhibit A shows how four major school projects differ from conventional designs. Parameters and designs for heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and lighting are given. Twenty year projected energy costs and…

Estes, R. C.

34

The mini-prototype solar energy earth storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-tenth scale model of solar energy earth storage (SEES) system was tested under an artificial condition during the first winter season. The earth storage was heated by house hot water heaters and heat was then extracted with a high performance heat exchanger which was exposed to an open air environment under subfreezing temperatures. The results of these preliminary tests

S. W. Yuan; M. M. Majdi

1981-01-01

35

Radiometric calibration plan for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program continues the long term monitoring of the Earth's energy budget begun by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometer instruments. The radiometic ground calibration sources employed for ERBE were designed to cover the very large (all Earth) field of view of the non-scanning radiometers. The ERBE radiometer ground and flight calibration proved to be more accurate than the requirement. The ground calibration sources to be used for CERES will be optimally designed to calibrate the much more narrow field of view of the scanning radiometer to improve on the absolute calibration performance. In addition, the shortwave calibration will be made in narrow bands to eliminate uncertainty in the spectral shape of the shortwave calibration source. Each shortwave band will be absolutely calibrated by transfer to a blackbody using a cryogenic active cavity radiometer fitted with the same telescope optics as the CERES radiometers.

Jarecke, P. J.; Folkman, M. A.; Darnton, L. A.

1991-08-01

36

Research Development of Rare Earth Permanent Magnetism Energy-Conserved Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design optimizes, the oil-saving rate of the rare earth permanent magnetism energy conservation strengthened by the electric field is higher than domestic similar ones not adding the electric field and not to optimize the design magnetization. The gantry empirical datum indicated that on the condition that the power is under 42–52 horsepower condition, does not add electric field, saving

Shu-ming PAN; Wen-ke LI; Min LUO; Lei YUAN; Chang-e JI; Fu-biao LAN; Wei-xiong ZHAO

2006-01-01

37

Energy conservation in the earth's crust and climate change.  

PubMed

Among various matters which make up the earth's crust, the thermal conductivity of coal, oil, and oil-gas, which are formed over a long period of geological time, is extremely low. This is significant to prevent transferring the internal heat of the earth to the thermal insulation of the surface, cooling the surface of the earth, stimulating biological evolution, and maintaining natural ecological balance as well. Fossil energy is thermal insulating layer in the earth's crust. Just like the function of the thermal isolation of subcutaneous fatty tissue under the dermis of human skin, it keeps the internal heat within the organism so it won't be transferred to the skin's surface and be lost maintaining body temperature at low temperatures. Coal, oil, oil-gas, and fat belong to the same hydrocarbons, and the functions of their thermal insulation are exactly the same. That is to say, coal, oil, and oil-gas are just like the earth's "subcutaneous fatty tissue" and objectively formed the insulation protection on earth's surface. This paper argues that the human large-scale extraction of fossil energy leads to damage of the earth's crust heat-resistant sealing, increasing terrestrial heat flow, or the heat flow as it is called, transferring the internal heat of the earth to Earth's surface excessively, and causing geotemperature and sea temperature to rise, thus giving rise to global warming. The reason for climate warming is not due to the expansion of greenhouse gases but to the wide exploitation of fossil energy, which destroyed the heat insulation of the earth's crust, making more heat from the interior of the earth be released to the atmosphere. Based on the energy conservation principle, the measurement of the increase of the average global temperature that was caused by the increase of terrestrial heat flow since the Industrial Revolution is consistent with practical data. Implications: This paper illustrates "pathogenesis" of climate change using medical knowledge. The mathematical verification is based on the principle of energy conservation. The central idea or clou in this paper is that fossil energy is a thermal insulating layer in the earth's crust, the thermal insulating layer was destroyed after human large-scale mining of fossil energy, and the internal heat of the earth was excessively released to the surface so as to cause climate change. PMID:23472299

Mu, Yao; Mu, Xinzhi

2013-02-01

38

Optical and mechanical structure design of a high altitude orbits collimating infrared earth simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, with the development of space technology, the infrared earth simulator that can only provide an earth angle could not meet the requirements of the calibration tests for earth sensor on the ground, then the research on infrared earth simulator which can provide a variety of earth angles has become an inevitable trend. Based on the collimated infrared earth simulator's working principle and design requirements, aimed at these three orbit height 18000Km, 35786 Km and 42000 Km, a high altitude orbits collimating infrared earth simulator is developed by adopting the collimation and the earth diaphragm alterable project. Applied ZEMAX software to design a meniscus of germanium collimating lens, the simulation results show that the lens has a effective aperture of 240mm, provide the optimum position and diameter of the earth diaphragms correspond following three earth angles of 30.42°, 17.46° and 15.19°. Used ANSYS software to do finite element analysis for the key components of the mechanical structure. Finally, validate the deviation accuracy of flare angles and beam parallelism via theoretical analysis and practical calculation. The results indicate that the errors of three flare angles of the earth are all less than +/-0.05, can meet the accuracy requirements of infrared earth simulator for infrared earth sensor's calibration testing on the ground. Key words: Infrared earth sensor, Earth simulator, Variable angular, Germanium collimating lens

Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Guo-yu; Chen, Qi-meng; Sun, Xiang-yang; Gao, Yu-jun

2013-09-01

39

Earth observations informing energy management: a CEOS and GEOSS perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observations have played an increasing role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, spaceborne observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations for solar energy resource assessment. As one of the nine Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of policy and management decision making in the energy sector is receiving considerable attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). We describe current projects being conducted by CEOS member agencies to partner with end-user energy decision makers to enhance their decision support systems using space-based observations. These prototype projects have frequently been pursued through the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Energy Community of Practice and, more recently, in collaboration with the CEOS Energy societal benefit area (SBA). Several case studies exhibiting the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and optimize energy efficiency in the built environment are discussed.

Eckman, Richard S.; Killough, Brian D., Jr.; Hilsenrath, Ernest

2009-01-01

40

Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth Science departments can blend the physical “bricks and mortar” facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; “a river runs through it” (a pebble tile “stream” inside the entrance); “confluence” lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting what Earth Scientists do. This approach can transform our Earth Science buildings into destinations for visitors, to show evoke inquiry. The building becomes a centerpiece, not another blank box on campus. Administrators at the University of Utah now want other new building structures to emulate our geoscience example. Done right, “bricks and mortar” can build stronger departments, infuse Earth Science into the community, and enhance our educational missions. LEED-certified Earth Science building with Eocene fossil fish wall, river pebble pattern in floor tile, displays, and student gathering areas.

Chan, M. A.

2009-12-01

41

The energy balance of the earth' surface : a practical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to the energy balance of the earth's surface with a special emphasis on practical applications. A simple picture of the energy exchange processes that take place at the ground is the following. Per unit time and area an amount of radiant energy is supplied to the surface. This radiation originates partly from the sun, but an~

Bruin de H. A. R

1982-01-01

42

Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

SciTech Connect

A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument`s ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%.

Stowe, L.; Ardanuy, P.; Hucek, R.; Abel, P.; Jacobowitz, H. [NOAA/NESDIS, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Research and Data Systems, Greenbelt, MD (United States)]|[NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1993-12-01

43

The Role of Water Vapour in Earth's Energy Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapour modulates energy flows in Earth's climate system through transfer of latent heat by evaporation and condensation and by modifying the flows of radiative energy both in the longwave and shortwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This article summarizes the role of water vapour in Earth's energy flows with particular emphasis on (1) the powerful thermodynamic constraint of the Clausius Clapeyron equation, (2) dynamical controls on humidity above the boundary layer (or free-troposphere), (3) uncertainty in continuum absorption in the relatively transparent "window" regions of the radiative spectrum and (4) implications for changes in the atmospheric hydrological cycle.

Allan, Richard P.

2012-07-01

44

Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two dozen energy-related earth science lessons comprise this guide for secondary school teachers. Intended to provide information about energy issues that exist in Pennsylvania and throughout the world, the activities cover topics such as coal mining, radioactivity, and the distribution of oil and gas in Pennsylvania. Lessons include objectives,…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

45

Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1959, Miller and Urey (Science130, 245) published their classic compilation of energy sources for indigenous prebiotic organic synthesis on the early Earth. Much contemporary origins of life research continues to employ their original estimates for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges, 2 × 1019 J yr-1 and 6 × 1019 J yr-1, respectively. However, more recent work

Christopher Chyba; Carl Sagan

1991-01-01

46

Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

2007-02-01

47

Low energy neutral atoms in the earth`s magnetosphere: Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by the interaction of the Earth`s geocorona with ambient space plasma has been proposed as a technique to obtain global information about the magnetosphere. Recent instrumentation advances reported previously and in these proceedings provide an opportunity for detecting LENAs in the energy range of <1 keV to {approximately}50 keV. In this paper, we present results from a numerical model which calculates line of sight LENA fluxes expected at a remote orbiting spacecraft for various magnetospheric plasma regimes. This model uses measured charge exchange cross sections, either of two neural hydrogen geocorona models, and various empirical modes of the ring current and plasma sheet to calculate the contribution to the integrated directional flux from each point along the line of sight of the instrument. We discuss implications for LENA imaging of the magnetosphere based on these simulations. 22 refs.

Moore, K.R.; McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Thomsen, M.F.

1992-06-01

48

??????????????????????????????????????? State Of The Earth And Renewable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

???????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????? ???? ??????????, ???????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ???????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????? (Green house gases) ???? ???????????????? (CO2) ????????????????????????????????????? Abstract In the past many decades, humans have tried to find the stored fuel energy sources and brought them to utilize in many fields such as industrial and agriculture etc. Since stored fuel energy sources have continuously

Ammata Tusnapuckdi; Chatchai Plengsaard; Kiattisak Sakulphan

49

Energy flux in the Earth's magnetosphere: Storm substorm relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three ways of the energy transfer in the Earth's magnetosphere are studied. The solar wind MHD generator is an unique energy source for all magnetospheric processes. Field-aligned currents directly transport the energy and momentum of the solar wind plasma to the Earth's ionosphere. The magnetospheric lobe and plasma sheet convection generated by the solar wind is another magnetospheric energy source. Plasma sheet particles and cold ionospheric polar wind ions are accelerated by convection electric field. After energetic particle precipitation into the upper atmosphere the solar wind energy is transferred into the ionosphere and atmosphere. This way of the energy transfer can include the tail lobe magnetic field energy storage connected with the increase of the tail current during the southward IMF. After that the magnetospheric substorm occurs. The model calculations of the magnetospheric energy give possibility to determine the ground state of the magnetosphere, and to calculate relative contributions of the tail current, ring current and field-aligned currents to the magnetospheric energy. The magnetospheric substorms and storms manifest that the permanent solar wind energy transfer ways are not enough for the covering of the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere. Nonlinear explosive processes are necessary for the energy transmission into the ionosphere and atmosphere. For understanding a relation between substorm and storm it is necessary to take into account that they are the concurrent energy transferring ways.

Alexeev, Igor I.

2003-04-01

50

Study of high-energy electrons in Earth's radiation belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soviet projects directed towards the measurement of high energy electrons and electron streams in the Earth's radiation belt are described. In particular, the Yelena-F telescope aboard the Salyut-6 station and the "Elektron' instrument mounted on the Intercosmos-Bolgariya-1300 satellite are discussed.

Kirillov-Ugryumov, V.; Galper, A.

1983-08-01

51

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

52

How Does the Earth's Energy Budget Relate to Polar Ice?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sun heats the Earth, but the Earth also emits some of the heat back into space. The net amount of energy determines not only seasonal weather, but also climate trends. According to NOAA, monthly snow and ice amounts have declined over the past decade. By matching maps of snow and ice amounts with maps of net radiation flux for the same time frame, this lesson will give students the opportunity to explore how the net radiation flux has affected the snow and ice amounts in the Northern Hemisphere, as well as how the presence of snow can affect the net radiation flux due to surface reflection.

53

Energy-efficient Housing Design. A combined approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-efficient Housing Design explains how to combine passive solar, superinsulation, and earth-shelter techniques to create the most energy-efficient, cost-effective housing designs. It addresses the concerns of architects, planners, contractors, developers, and homeowners, providing layouts for suburban tract housing and construction plans and details, as well as cost and performance analyses. Contents: Current approaches to Energy-efficient Design. Superinsulation Methods. Combining Approaches.

1985-01-01

54

Energy-adjusted pseudopotentials for the rare earth elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonrelativistic and quasirelativistic energy-adjusted pseudopotentials and optimized (7s6p5d)\\/[5s4p3d]-GTO valence basis sets for use in molecular calculations for fixed f-subconfigurations of the rare earth elements, La through Lu, have been generated. Atomic excitation and ionization energies from numerical HF, as well as SCF pseudopotential calculations using the derived basis sets, differ by less than 0.1 eV from numerical HF all-electron results.

M. Dolg; H. Stoll; A. Savin; H. Preuss

1989-01-01

55

Gamma rays made on Earth have unexpectedly high energies  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are the source of the highest-energy nonanthropogenic photons produced on Earth. Associated with thunder-storms - and in fact, with individual lightning discharges - they are presumed to be the bremsstrahlung produced when relativistic electrons, accelerated by the storms' strong electric fields, collide with air molecules some 10-20 km above sea level. The TGFs last up to a few milliseconds and contain photons with energies on the order of MeV.

Miller, Johanna

2011-01-15

56

Earth sheltering runs deeper than energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation and reduced visual impact are the most commonly extalled virtues of underground buildings. But the decision of whether to build above or below the ground also includes such considerations as cost impact, end use, climatic environment, foundation conditions, and the nature of the surrounding area. The advantages and disadvantages of below-ground construction are discussed.

Melnick

1984-01-01

57

Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early Earth.  

PubMed

In 1959, Miller and Urey (Science 130, 245) published their classic compilation of energy sources for indigenous prebiotic organic synthesis on the early Earth. Much contemporary origins of life research continues to employ their original estimates for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges, 2 x 10(19) J yr-1 and 6 x 10(19) J yr-1, respectively. However, more recent work in terrestrial lightning and point discharge research suggests that these values are overestimates by factors of about 20 and 120, respectively. Calculated concentrations of amino acids (or other prebiotic organic products) in the early terrestrial oceans due to electrical discharge sources may therefore have been equally overestimated. A review of efficiencies for those experiments that provide good analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges suggests that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole J-1) are about one order of magnitude higher than those for coronal discharge. Therefore organic production by lightning may be expected to have dominated that due to coronae on early Earth. Limited data available for production of nitric oxide in clouds suggests that coronal emission within clouds, a source of energy heretofore too uncertain to be included in the total coronal energy inventory, is insufficient to change this conclusion. Our recommended values for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early Earth are, respectively, 1 x 10(18) J yr-1 and 5 x 10(17) J yr-1. PMID:11537539

Chyba, C; Sagan, C

1991-01-01

58

Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1959, Miller and Urey (Science 130, 245) published their classic compilation of energy sources for indigenous prebiotic organic synthesis on the early Earth. Much contemporary origins of life research continues to employ their original estimates for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges, 2 × 1019 J yr-1 and 6 × 1019 J yr-1, respectively. However, more recent work in terrestrial lightning and point discharge research suggests that these values are overestimates by factors of about 20 and 120, respectively. Calculated concentrations of amino acids (or other prebiotic organic products) in the early terrestrial oceans due to electrical discharge sources may therefore have been equally overestimated. A review of efficiencies for those experiments that provide good analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges suggests that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole J-1) are about one order of magnitude higher than those for coronal discharge. Therefore organic production by lightning may be expected to have dominated that due to coronae on early Earth. Limited data available for production of nitric oxide in clouds suggests that coronal emission within clouds, a source of energy heretofore too uncertain to be included in the total coronal energy inventory, is insufficient to change this conclusion. Our recommended valves for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early Earth are, respectively, 1 × 1018 J yr-1 and 5 × 1017 J yr-1.

Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

1991-01-01

59

Earth Science Contexts for Teaching Physics. Part 2: Contexts Relating to the Teaching of Energy, Earth and Beyond and Radioactivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how physics teaching can be more relevant for elementary and secondary students by integrating physics and earth science content that students can relate to and understand. Identifies and explains Earth contexts that can be appropriately implemented into the physics curriculum such as energy resources and radioactivity. (Author/YDS)|

King, Chris; Kennett, Peter

2002-01-01

60

Design Guide for Earth System Science Education: A Web-Based Resource for Teaching Earth System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Design Guide for Earth System Science Education (ESSE) is a web-based resource for faculty from multiple disciplines who wish to develop Earth System Science courses or programs in their own institutional settings. This guide represents the lessons learned from 15 years of NASA-supported Earth system science education programs at 57 universities and colleges throughout the United States. The ESSE Design Guide provides a comprehensive synthesis of the experience of faculty who have taught ESS courses at universities in the United States beginning in the early 1990s as part of the ESS program funded by NASA. If you consider each of the ESS courses that have been developed and taught as `experiments' both in pedagogy and institutional organization, then the design guide represents an analysis of the experiments and provides a summary of the main results. The design guide covers a range of topics including teaching, learning and evaluation, institutional change, community building, pathways to STEM education, and diversity. Information is also provided via key points, cross-cutting themes, frequently asked questions, and short stories from the field.

Wake, C. P.; Ruzek, M.

2006-12-01

61

Design and field testing of solar-assisted Earth coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nominal 1000-foot, 4-inch, PVC coil buried in a serpentine pattern is the heat source\\/sink for two commercial heat pump systems. This system is vented which allows the easy placement of thermocouples down its length to measure changes in temperature as well as changes in overall U values as a function of length. Integral to the earth coil is a

J. E. Bose

1981-01-01

62

Earth Resources Data Systems Design S192 Instrument Measurements and Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development, and characteristics of the S192 instrument for use with the earth resources data systems are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) multispectral scanner measurements, (2) measurement characteristics, (3) calibration and aligment,...

A. S. Goldstein

1972-01-01

63

Digital Simulation Analysis for Evaluating Earth Berm Design and Vehicle Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study deals with the evaluation and modification of the original North Carolina earth berm based on the generalized vehicle dynamic analysis and computer-aided design using digital simulation techniques. Simulation runs of vehicle-berm interaction we...

B. K. Huang K. H. Kim

1975-01-01

64

Orbital Debris Environment for Spacecraft Designed to Operate in Low Earth Orbit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The orbital debris environment model contained in this report is intended to be used by the spacecraft community for the design and operation of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. This environment, when combined with material dependent impact tests and spacec...

D. J. Kessler R. C. Reynolds P. D. Anz-Meador

1989-01-01

65

Materials and Energy Flows in the Earth Science Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Circular, "Materials and Energy Flows in the Earth Science Century -- A Summary of a Workshop Held by the USGS in November 1998," takes a "thorough and holistic view of the materials flow cycle, wherein materials are tracked throughout their life cycle from extraction, through manufacturing, consumer use, reuse, recycling, and disposition." The circular ends with selected references and appendixes including a list of speakers and participants and their contact information.

66

Directly driven rare-earth permanent-magnet electrical-machine prototype for wind energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents finite element design and analysis of two radial-flux high-energy rare-earth permanent magnet electrical machines with new topology. It allows for short endwindings, which contributes to higher efficiency, higher power to weight ratio and low active material cost. Locating the windings in flat slots has further reduced the cost of active material. The permanent magnets are sintered NdFeB

M. S. Widyan; R. E. Hanitsch

2007-01-01

67

Analysis of clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) lunar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The CERES instrument with the three scanning thermistor bolometers measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to >100 micrometer) and 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. The four CERES instruments (Flight Models 1 through 4) aboard Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua platforms were instrumental in conducting lunar radiance measurement on a regular basis. Moon-reflected solar radiances were measured with the shortwave sensor while both moon-reflected solar and moon-emitted longwave radiances were measured using the total sensor. The CERES sensors performed lunar measurements at various phase angles ranging from four to ten degrees before and after each full moon phase. Additional measurements were also conducted during the lunar eclipse events. The resulting filtered radiances were normalized to the mean sun-moon distance and the mean earth-moon distance. The lunar radiances measured by the sensors from all CERES instruments for a period of January 2001 to June 2007 were analyzed and compared. The CERES total sensor results showed a variation of about +/- 0.5 percent, while a +/- 2.0 percent variation was seen in shortwave sensor results.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Matthews, G. M.

2007-10-01

68

Designing and Creating Earth Science Lessons with Google Earth⢠ 

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide provides instructions on creating Earth science lessons using Google Earth⢠software. The guide, which focuses on using the free version of the software, covers how to plan a lesson (what the software can do, what can be included in a lesson) and how to create a lesson (creating folders, placemarks, map layers; sharing lessons). There are also links to useful tools for image processing, text editing, and image hosting, and an appendix with instructions for downloading, installing, and using the software. A sample "tour" is provided, and a downloadable, printable version of the guide is included.

Steve Kluge (Fox Lane High School, Bedford, New York, and SUNY Purchase); Drew Patrick (Fox Lane High School, Bedford, New York); Eric Fermann (Eastchester High School, Eastchester, New York)

69

Low energy trajectories for the Moon-to-Earth space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon-to-Earth low energy trajectories of ‘detour’ type are found and studied within the frame of the Moon-Earth-Sun-particle\\u000a system. These trajectories use a passive flight to the Earth from an initial elliptic selenocentric orbit with a high aposelenium.\\u000a The Earth perturbation increases the particle selenocentric energy from a negative value first to zero and then to a positive\\u000a one and

V. V. Ivashkin

2005-01-01

70

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fundamentals of Physical Geography. The Fundamentals of Physical Geography website is designed to be a free online textbook for University and College students studying introductory Physical Geography. Version 1.0 ...

71

Design and optimization of a trajectory for Moon departure Near Earth Asteroid exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lunar probe often has some remaining fuel on completing the predefined Moon exploration mission and may carry out some\\u000a additional tasks from the Moon orbit using the fuel. The possibility for the lunar probe to escape from the Moon and the Earth\\u000a is analyzed. Design and optimization of the trajectory from the Moon orbit to the Near Earth Asteroids

Yang Chen; Hexi Baoyin; Junfeng Li

2011-01-01

72

Tracking Earth's Energy: From El Niño to Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of knowledge and outstanding issues with respect to the global mean energy budget of planet Earth are described, along with the ability to track changes over time. Best estimates of the main energy components involved in radiative transfer and energy flows through the climate system do not satisfy physical constraints for conservation of energy without adjustments. The main issues relate to the downwelling longwave (LW) radiation and the hydrological cycle, and thus the surface evaporative cooling. It is argued that the discrepancy is 18% of the surface latent energy flux, but only 4% of the downwelling LW flux and, for various reasons, it is most likely that the latter is astray in some calculations, including many models, although there is also scope for precipitation estimates to be revised. Beginning in 2000, the top-of-atmosphere radiation measurements provide stable estimates of the net global radiative imbalance changes over a decade, but after 2004 there is "missing energy" as the observing system of the changes in ocean heat content, melting of land ice, and so on is unable to account for where it has gone. Based upon a number of climate model experiments for the twenty-first century where there are stases in global surface temperature and upper ocean heat content in spite of an identifiable global energy imbalance, we infer that the main sink of the missing energy is likely the deep ocean below 275 m depth.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

2012-07-01

73

Energy principles in architectural design  

SciTech Connect

A foundation of basic information pertaining to design and energy use in buildings is presented with emphasis on principles and concepts rather than applications of particular solution. Energy impacts of landforms and topography, vegetation, wind and ventilation, and sun on planning and designing the site are discused. General design considerations involving passive heating, cooling, and lighting systems are detailed. For the design of active building systems, heating, cooling, lighting, and HVAC systems are described. (MCW)

Dean, E.

1981-01-01

74

A 37.5kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low Earth orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem

M. A. Manzo; M. A. Hoberecht

1984-01-01

75

Temporal Interpolation Methods for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a NASA multisatellite measurement program for monitoring the radiation environment of the earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instrument was flown on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite in late 1997, and will be flown on the Earth Observing System morning satellite in 1998 and afternoon satellite in 2000. To minimize temporal

D. F. Young; P. Minnis; D. R. Doelling; G. G. Gibson; T. Wong

1998-01-01

76

Phonon Assisted Laser Transitions and Energy Transfer in Rare Earth Laser Crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extensive study of energy transfer and phonon interaction in rare earth doped LiYF4 has been conducted. The trivalent rare earth ions Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb were used as the optically active ions. Y2Ti2O7, also doped with rare earth ions, was ex...

H. P. Jenssen

1971-01-01

77

Low energy neutral atoms in the earth's magnetosphere: Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by the interaction of the Earth's geocorona with ambient space plasma has been proposed as a technique to obtain global information about the magnetosphere. Recent instrumentation advances reported previously and in these proceedings provide an opportunity for detecting LENAs in the energy range of <1 keV to {approximately}50 keV. In this paper, we present results from a numerical model which calculates line of sight LENA fluxes expected at a remote orbiting spacecraft for various magnetospheric plasma regimes. This model uses measured charge exchange cross sections, either of two neural hydrogen geocorona models, and various empirical modes of the ring current and plasma sheet to calculate the contribution to the integrated directional flux from each point along the line of sight of the instrument. We discuss implications for LENA imaging of the magnetosphere based on these simulations. 22 refs.

Moore, K.R.; McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Thomsen, M.F.

1992-01-01

78

Low energy neutral atoms in the Earth's magnetosphere - Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENA's) produced by the interaction of the Earth's geocorona with ambient space plasma has been proposed as a technique to obtain global information about the magnetosphere. Recent instrumentation advances reported previously and in these proceedings provide an opportunity for detecting LENA's in the energy range of less than 1 keV to approximately 50 keV. We present results from a numerical model which calculates line of sight LENA fluxes expected at a remote orbiting spacecraft for various magnetospheric plasma regimes. This model uses measured charge exchange cross sections, either of two neural hydrogen geocorona models, and various empirical modes of the ring current and plasma sheet to calculate the contribution to the integrated directional flux from each point along the line of sight of the instrument. We discuss implications for LENA imaging of the magnetosphere based on these simulations.

Moore, Kurt R.; McComas, David J.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Thomsen, Michelle F.

79

Ultrahigh energy tau neutrino flux regeneration while skimming the Earth  

SciTech Connect

The detection of Earth-skimming tau neutrinos has turned into a very promising strategy for the observation of ultra-high-energy cosmic neutrinos. The sensitivity of this channel crucially depends on the parameters of the propagation of the tau neutrinos through the terrestrial crust, which governs the flux of emerging tau leptons that can be detected. One of the characteristics of this propagation is the possibility of regeneration through multiple {nu}{sub {tau}}{r_reversible}{tau} conversions, which are often neglected in the standard picture. In this paper, we solve the transport equations governing the {nu}{sub {tau}} propagation and compare the flux of emerging tau leptons obtained allowing regeneration or not. We discuss the validity of the approximation of neglecting the {nu}{sub {tau}} regeneration using different scenarios for the neutrino-nucleon cross sections and the tau energy losses.

Bigas, Oscar Blanch [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Paris VI-VIIbb, Paris (France); Deligny, Olivier [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Payet, Kevin [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France); Van Elewyck, Veronique [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Orsay (France); AstroParticules et Cosmologie (UMR 7165) and Universite Paris 7, Paris (France)

2008-09-15

80

New High Energy Electron Component of Earth Radiation Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Radiation Belt (ERB) was discovered in the course of the first flights of Russian and American satellites with conventional instruments (gas discharge and scintillation counters), which made it possible to investigate many characteristics of trapped particles and simulate adequate radiation belt models. However, the experimental and theoretical evidence accumulated over recent time, needs more elaborate measurements for its interpretation. These measurements became feasible after the development of devices based on more perfect detectors (solid and gas-filled Cherenkov detectors, magnetic spectrometer, scintillation time-of-flight systems). The evidence requiring new direct measurements in the ERB was obtained in the late 1960s in the course of balloon flights carried out by Cosmophysics Laboratory of the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute. In these flights a correlation between the high energy electron flux in the upper atmosphere and perturbations ofthe Earth's magnetosphere was established. This phenomenon could be explained assuming there exist high energy electron fluxes in the ERB. High energy electron fluxes in the ERB were recorded for the first time in the direct experiments carried out on board orbital station 'Salyut-6' (orbit altitude - 350 km, inclination 51.6 deg). A scintillation-Cherenkov telescope 'Elena' controlled by cosmonauts was preset to different programmed positions. The measurements were made in the periphery of the ERB, namely, in the part which goes as low as several hundred km in the Brazil Anomaly Region (BRA). The flux of electrons with energies above 30 MeV was up to 104 (m2s sr)-1.

Dmitrenko, V. V.; Galper, A. M.; Gratchev, V. M.; Kirillov-Ugryumov, V. G.; Ulin, S. E.; Voronov, S. A.

81

Architecture Earth-Sheltered Buildings. Design Manual 1.4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design guidance is presented for use by experienced engineers and architects. The types of buildings within the scope of this manual include slab-on-grade, partially-buried (bermed) or fully-buried, and large (single-story or multistory) structures. New c...

1984-01-01

82

Energy Balance in the Sun-Earth System During the Solar Storm Events of April 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar Storm events of April 2002 offer a unique opportunity to observe and define the response of the Sun-Earth system to a large impulse of energy emanating from the Sun. An unprecedented series of observations allows us to trace the flow of energy from the Sun to the Earth and determine the balance of energy in the heliosphere, the

M. G. Mlynczak; L. Paxton; J. Kozyra; T. Woods; T. Zurbuchen; G. Lu; M. Lopez-Puertas; F. J. Martin-Torres; J. M. Russell; G. Crowley; R. Picard

2002-01-01

83

Design and refinement of rare earth doped multicore fiber lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel multicore ytterbium doped fiber laser is designed, with the target of maximizing both the effective mode area and the beam quality, by means of a complete home-made computer code. It can be employed to construct high power and Quasi-Gaussian beam lasers. The novel laser configuration exploits a single mode multicore fiber and does not need Talbot cavity or other in-phase mode selection mechanisms. This is an innovative solution, because to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we have designed a truly single-mode multicore fiber laser. For comparison we have optimized two other laser configurations which are well known in literature, both employing a multimode multicore fiber and a Talbot cavity as a feedback for the in-phase supermode selection. All three multicore fibers, constituted by the same glass, are doped with the same ytterbium ion concentration and pumped with the same input power. Multimodal fiber lasers exhibit lower beam quality, i.e. a higher beam quality factor M2, with respect to the single mode one, even if suitable Talbot cavities are designed, but they are very competitive when a more compact laser cavity is required for the same output power. The novel single mode nineteen core laser exhibits a simulated effective mode area Aeff = 703 ?m2 and a beam quality factor M2 = 1.05, showing better characteristics than the other two lasers.

Prudenzano, F.; Mescia, L.; Di Tommaso, A.; Surico, M.; De Sario, M.

2013-09-01

84

Energy-efficient Housing Design. A combined approach  

SciTech Connect

Energy-efficient Housing Design explains how to combine passive solar, superinsulation, and earth-shelter techniques to create the most energy-efficient, cost-effective housing designs. It addresses the concerns of architects, planners, contractors, developers, and homeowners, providing layouts for suburban tract housing and construction plans and details, as well as cost and performance analyses. Contents: Current approaches to Energy-efficient Design. Superinsulation Methods. Combining Approaches. Design Characteristics with the Combined Approach. Materials and Construction Methods. Wall and Roof Design. Windows and Window Protection. Passive Solar Storage Methods. Winter Heating Performance. The Passive Solar Storage System. Designing for Summer Cooling. Analyzing Cost-effectiveness. Construction Cost with Energy-efficient Design. The Balance Sheet. Site Planning. Landscaping the Lot. Subdivision-planning Methods. Streetscape and Landscape. Appendices.

Lane, J.

1985-01-01

85

Design and field testing of solar-assisted earth coils. Final report, August 1, 1978-January 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Two types of earth coils were designed, constructed, and are operational on the Oklahoma State University campus. A nominal 1000-foot, 4-inch, PVC coil buried in a serpentine pattern is the heat source/sink for two commercial heat pump systems. This system is vented which allows the easy placement of thermocouples down its length to measure changes in temperature as well as changes in overall U values as a function of length. Integral to the earth coil is a 1000-gallon uninsulated water storage tank in which solar energy from 210 ft/sup 2/ of solar collectors (single-glazed, metal absorber) can be added directly to the heat pump, circulated through the 1000-foot earth coil system, or added to an insulated storage tank for direct transfer. Temperature ranges for this type of system at the four-foot level are from a nominal range of 78/sup 0/F in mid-September to a low of 42/sup 0/F in mid-February in the absence of heat rejection or absorption. The second type of earth coil under study was a vertical coil approximately 240 feet in length. Placement of the coil is with a conventional water well drilling machine. The vertical heat exchanger consists of a 5-inch PVC pipe which is capped at both ends and pressurized at approximately 15 PSIG. This sealed and pressurized heat exchanger allows a low power pump to circulate water through both the heat pump and vertical heat exchanger system.

Bose, J E

1981-01-01

86

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

87

Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

2013-10-01

88

Excited neutrino production by ultrahigh energy neutrinos traversing the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus on the production of excited neutrinos by ultra high energy (UHE, E?>104GeV) neutrinos traversing the Earth. The surviving neutrino fluxes are calculated using the complete system of transport equations for ordinary neutrinos and their excited states, and we compare these results with the obtained using only Standard Model (SM) interactions. We extend the analysis by including the neutral current (NC) and decay regeneration effects, and computing the surviving flux for different values of f/?, where ? is the compositeness scale and f a coupling factor representing non-perturbative physics. Finally, we analyze the possibilities of detecting such fluxes in a neutrino telescope such as IceCube showing the allowed regions in the (m*,f/?) plane for two possible initial fluxes. We have considered the IC80 configuration of IceCube for an operation time of ten years.

Reynoso, Matías M.; Romero, Ismael; Sampayo, Oscar A.

2012-12-01

89

Design of the high resolution optical instrument for the PLEIADES HR Earth observation satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of its contribution to Earth observation from space, ALCATEL SPACE designed, built and tested the High Resolution cameras for the European intelligence satellites HELIOS I and II. Coming after the SPOT program, it was decided to go ahead with the PLEIADES HR program. PLEIADES HR is the optical high resolution component of a larger optical and radar multi-sensors

Jean-Luc Lamard; Catherine Gaudin-Delrieu; David Valentini; Christophe Renard; Thierry Tournier; Jean-Marc Laherrere

2004-01-01

90

Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect…

Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

2009-01-01

91

Determination of wavelength-dependent spectral darkening occurring on a broadband Earth observing radiometer: application to clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth's climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) needs to remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. This stability is beyond the specification of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband

Grant Matthews; Kory Priestley; Norman G. Loeb; Konstantin Loukachine; Susan Thomas; Dale Walikainen; Bruce A. Wielicki

2006-01-01

92

Energy for planet Earth: Readings from Scientific American Magazine  

SciTech Connect

A different challenge confronts the citizens of the diverse emerging democracies that stretch from the Bradenberg Gate to the coast of China. There the production and consumption of energy have been carried out by planners oblivious to the environmental consequences. The challenge is to undo the damage in the context of economic, political and legal systems that are currently in a state of flux. How can we best supply energy for all of planet Earth The problem is not a technological one; it is political and moral. We must match solutions to their various cultural and social contexts. It must be universally recognized that the relationship befound transformation. Our resources are no longer infinite, and neither is the capacity of the environment to absorb the consequences of exploitation. Our ability to meet the challenges posed by these circumstances is immense, and the timing is critical. As East-West tensions wane, regional conflicts suppressed by the superpower agendas have flared to life. But what could more powerfully unify our species than global cooperation to produce an energy economy in the context of a sustainable environment that benefits all nations

Not Available

1991-01-01

93

The satellite solar power station - An option for energy production on earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The option for using satellite solar power stations for large-scale power generation on earth, collecting and converting solar energy into microwave energy, transmitting it to the earth's surface, and transforming it into electricity, is reviewed. The current state of technology and the necessary developments for accomplishing these functions are discussed, and the results of recent microwave transmission and rectification demonstration

P. E. Glaser

1975-01-01

94

Low-energy Earth–Moon transfers involving manifolds through isomorphic mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis and design of low-energy transfers to the Moon has been a subject of great interest for decades. Exterior and interior transfers, based on the transit through the regions where the collinear libration points are located, have been studied for a long time and some space missions have already taken advantage of the results of these studies. This paper is concerned with a geometrical approach for low-energy Earth-to-Moon mission analysis, based on isomorphic mapping. The isomorphic mapping of trajectories allows a visual, intuitive representation of periodic orbits and of the related invariant manifolds, which correspond to tubes that emanate from the curve associated with the periodic orbit. Two types of Earth-to-Moon missions are considered. The first mission is composed of the following arcs: (i) transfer trajectory from a circular low Earth orbit to the stable invariant manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1 (corresponding to a specified energy level) and (ii) transfer trajectory along the unstable manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1, with final injection in a periodic orbit around the Moon. The second mission is composed of the following arcs: (i) transfer trajectory from a circular low Earth orbit to the stable invariant manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1 (corresponding to a specified energy level) and (ii) transfer trajectory along the unstable manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1, with final injection in a capture (non-periodic) orbit around the Moon. In both cases three velocity impulses are needed to perform the transfer: the first at an unknown initial point along the low Earth orbit, the second at injection on the stable manifold, the third at injection in the final (periodic or capture) orbit. The final goal is in finding the optimization parameters, which are represented by the locations, directions, and magnitudes of the velocity impulses such that the overall delta-v of the transfer is minimized. This work proves how isomorphic mapping (in two distinct forms) can be profitably employed to optimize such transfers, by determining in a geometrical fashion the desired optimization parameters that minimize the delta-v budget required to perform the transfer.

Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo

2013-10-01

95

Education, energy, toilets, and Earth: The Operators' Manual  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid science shows the unsustainability of relying on fossil fuels for long-term future energy supply, with increasingly strong evidence that a measured shift to renewable sources will be economically beneficial while improving employment and national security, providing insurance against catastrophes, and more. Yet despite notable advances in renewable energy and related issues, the transition does not appear to be occurring at the economically optimal rate. Analogy may be useful. In biological evolution and business, successful innovation is met by competitors, but also by predators, parasites, and diseases. Trees must handle the competition, but also termites, bark beetles, fungal diseases, strangling vines, and more, while new software meets competitors plus viruses, worms, Trojan horses and other malware. By analogy, the emergence of a "denialsphere" as well as competitors may be a predictable response to the threat posed to business-as-usual by the success of the National Academies and the IPCC in defining the climate-energy problem with the best science, and the growing success of inventors and policy-makers in developing advantageous and increasingly cost-effective solutions. Real questions exist about the best way forward, but the discussion of the important issues is sometimes confused by arguments that are not especially forward-going. Success of beneficial innovations against such problems is not guaranteed but surely has occurred, with transitions as large as that to a low-carbon energy system-we did switch from chamber pots and night-soil haulers to modern sanitation and clean water, for example. Analogy suggests that education and outreach are integral in such a transition, not a job to be completed but a process to be continued. Our attempt to contribute to this large effort, the NSF-supported Earth: The Operators' Manual, emphasizes diverse, interlocking approaches to show the large benefits that are ultimately available, relying on assessed science and not recommending particular policies.

Alley, R. B.; Haines-stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

2011-12-01

96

Evaluation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanner Pointing Accuracy Using a Coastline Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiomete...

C. Currey L. Smith B. Neely

2004-01-01

97

Design Guidelines for Energy Conserving Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report establishes design guidelines and design limitations for the selection, evaluation and design of solar energy systems, total energy and selective energy systems, continuous duty standby systems, engine driven chiller/heat pump systems, continu...

A. S. Qureshi G. L. Moeller E. Gore

1977-01-01

98

10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

2013-01-01

99

An efficient lightning energy source on the early earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miller and Urey suggested in 1959 that lightning and corona on the early Earth could have been the most favorable sources of prebiotic synthesis. In 1991 Chyba and Sagan reviewed the presently prevailing data on electrical discharges on Earth and they raised questions as to whether the electrical sources of prebiotic synthesis were as favorable as was claimed. The proposal

R. D. Hill

1992-01-01

100

Universal Space Vehicle Design Concept to Defend the Earth against Asteroidal-Cometary Danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and experimental estimations are given on the structure of a universal space interceptor designed on the modular principle. The interceptor comprising one command-impact module and a variable number of separable impact modules, each with propulsion and guidance systems, can be injected into a trajectory towards an Earth approaching space object by launch vehicles MOLNIYA, PROTON, TITAN-4, ARIANE-5, N-2, and

V. A. Volkov; V. A. Danilkin; V. G. Degtyar; G. G. Sytyi

101

External Resource: How Volcanoes Work: The Earth's Internal Heat Energy and Interior Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web page with background information about how volcanoes work. The Earth's internal heat source provides the energy for our dynamic planet, supplying it with the driving force for plate-tectonic motion, and for on-going catastrophic events such as earth

1900-01-01

102

A Theoretical Model of Energy Transfer between Rare Earth Ions in Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limitation of the random walk theory of energy transfer between rare earth ions in crystals published in literatures is pointed out in this paper. A modified model, which can be used in any level of rare earth ion concentration when the interaction between donor and acceptor is different from that between donors, is introduced. This model has been applied

LIN Yan-Fu; LUO Zun-Du

103

Ground calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's radiant energy System (CERES) instrument for the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's radiation energy system (CERES), a key experiment in the Earth observing system (EOS), is designed to measure the reflected shortwave and the emitted longwave radiances from Earth and its atmosphere. The CERES instrument consists of a scanning thermistor bolometer package with built in flight calibration systems. The first CERES instrument is scheduled for launch in 1997 aboard the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA) tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The laboratory calibrations of the instrument were conducted in the TRW vacuum facilities which are equipped with blackbodies, a cryogenically cooled transfer active-cavity radiometer, shortwave reference source, solar simulator and a constant radiance reference source. This paper describes the calibration facility and the calibration procedures for the CERES instrument.

Thomas, Susan; Lee, Robert B.; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Wilson, Robert S.; Bush, Kathryn A.; Paden, Jack; Lee, K. P.; Bolden, William C.

1996-11-01

104

10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND...RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy...

2009-01-01

105

10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND...RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy...

2010-01-01

106

Passive Solar Heating and Natural Cooling of an Earth-Integrated Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is being designed with innovative features that will greatly reduce its energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting. A reference design has been studied and the effects of extending the overhang during ...

P. R. Barnes H. B. Shapira

1980-01-01

107

Designating Earth's Moon as a United Nations World Heritage Site - Permanently Protected from Commercial or Military Uses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes that Earth's Moon, in its entirety, be designated a United Nations World Heritage Site (WHS), permanently protected from any and all commercial or military utilization and reserved exclusively for scientific and aesthetic purposes. The paper discusses: 1) the extraordinary importance of the Moon for science, culture, and religion - past, present and future; 2) the history of proposals to exploit the Moon for commercial and military purposes and the shortcomings of this colonial, exploitation paradigm; and 3) the necessity, policy mechanisms, and political dynamics of designating the Moon as a World Heritage Site, permanently protected from commercial and/or military uses. The first part of the paper discusses the extraordinary importance of the Moon as it exists today - as a scientific laboratory, a source of beauty and inspiration throughout human evolution, a source for artistic expression, and as an object that is considered sacred by many cultures. Next, the paper traces the history of specific proposals for the exploitation of the Moon for commercial and/or military purposes - including plans by the U.S. Air Force in 1959 to detonate a nuclear explosion on the Moon, proposals to strip-mine the lunar regolith for helium-3 and rocket-fuel hydrogen; construction of solar power plants to transmit energy to Earth, and proposals to use the lunar surface as a billboard upon which to project commercial advertisements visible from Earth. The profound ethical, legal, and scientific shortcomings of this exploitation paradigm are described as an emerging Extraterrestrial Manifest Destiny that we have a collective obligation to challenge and constrain. The paper proposes that space exploration be infused with an ethical commitment to compassion, reverence, conservation, and non-interference to abiotic and biotic systems alike; as opposed to the expansion and extraterrestrial imposition of the colonization, exploitation, domination, and despoliation paradigm that has characterized 19th and 20th century western civilization on Earth. The World Heritage process, and how Earth's Moon clearly satisfies necessary criteria, is described, as are the political challenges this proposal presents, including the 'national sovereignty' issue. The 1972 United Nations World Heritage Convention (signed by 167 countries), provides for the protection of cultural and natural properties deemed to be of "outstanding universal value", including value "from the point of view of science, conservation, or natural beauty" and places them under "a collective responsibility." The Moon clearly meets several criteria for WHS designation, as follow: a. "be outstanding examples representing major stages of Earth's history...significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features"; b. "contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance"; and c. the Moon qualifies within the Convention as an "associative cultural landscape" which designates areas "by virtue of their powerful religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element." To facilitate WHS site designation for the Moon, it is proposed that the 1979 "Moon Treaty" (Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, entered into force 7/11/84) be amended and broadly ratified internationally. Specifically, Article 11 - which presently provides for 'the establishment of an international regime to govern the exploitation of the natural resources of the moon, encourage the development of the natural resources of the moon, the management and expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources' - should be amended to provide a clear and unequivocal declaration of the extraordinary, irreplaceable cultural and natural value of the Moon, and designation of the Moon in its entirety as an inviolate World Heritage Site reserved exclusively for scient

Steiner, R. G.

2002-01-01

108

Fifty Percent Advanced Energy Design Guides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the...

B. Liu E. Bonnema M. Leach S. Pless W. Wang

2012-01-01

109

Design Guide for Earth System Science Education: Common Student Learning Objectives and Special Pedagogical Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NASA-supported undergraduate Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program, fifty-seven institutions have developed and implemented a wide range of Earth system science (ESS) courses, pedagogies, and evaluation tools. The Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation section of USRA's online ESSE Design Guide showcases these ESS learning environments. This Design Guide section also provides resources for faculty who wish to develop ESS courses. It addresses important course design issues including prior student knowledge and interests, student learning objectives, learning resources, pedagogical approaches, and assessments tied to student learning objectives. The ESSE Design Guide provides links to over 130 ESS course syllabi at introductory, senior, and graduate levels. ESS courses over the past 15 years exhibit common student learning objectives and unique pedagogical approaches. From analysis of ESS course syllabi, seven common student learning objectives emerged: 1) demonstrate systems thinking, 2) develop an ESS knowledge base, 3) apply ESS to the human dimension, 4) expand and apply analytical skills, 5) improve critical thinking skills, 6) build professional/career skills, and 7) acquire an enjoyment and appreciation for science. To meet these objectives, ESSE often requires different ways of teaching than in traditional scientific disciplines. This presentation will highlight some especially successful pedagogical approaches for creating positive and engaging ESS learning environments.

Baker, D.

2006-12-01

110

Evidence-based robust design of deflection actions for near Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel approach to the robust design of deflection actions for near Earth objects (NEO). In particular, the case of deflection by means of solar-pumped laser ablation is studied here in detail. The basic idea behind laser ablation is that of inducing a sublimation of the NEO surface, which produces a low thrust thereby slowly deviating the asteroid from its initial Earth threatening trajectory. This work investigates the integrated design of the space-based laser system and the deflection action generated by laser ablation under uncertainty. The integrated design is formulated as a multi-objective optimisation problem in which the deviation is maximised and the total system mass is minimised. Both the model for the estimation of the thrust produced by surface laser ablation and the spacecraft system model are assumed to be affected by epistemic uncertainties (partial or complete lack of knowledge). Evidence Theory is used to quantify these uncertainties and introduce them in the optimisation process. The propagation of the trajectory of the NEO under the laser-ablation action is performed with a novel approach based on an approximated analytical solution of Gauss' variational equations. An example of design of the deflection of asteroid Apophis with a swarm of spacecraft is presented.

Zuiani, Federico; Vasile, Massimiliano; Gibbings, Alison

2012-10-01

111

Axial focusing of impact energy in the earth`s interior: A possible link to flood basalts and hotspots  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of shock physics and seismological computational simulations that show how energy from a large impact can be coupled to the interior of the Earth. The radially-diverging shock wave generated by the impact decays to linearly elastic seismic waves. These waves reconverge (minus attenuation) along the axis of symmetry between the impact and its antipode. The locations that experience the most strain cycles with the largest amplitudes will dissipate the most energy and have the largest increases in temperature (for a given attenuation efficiency). We have shown that the locus of maximum energy deposition in the mantle lies along the impact axis. Moreover, the most intense focusing is within the asthenosphere at the antipode, within the range of depths where mechanical energy is most readily converted to heat. We propose that if large impacts on the Earth leave geological evidence anywhere other than the impact site itself, it will be at the antipode. We suggest that the most likely result of the focusing for a sufficiently large impact, consistent with features observed in the geological record, would be a flood basalt eruption at the antipode followed by hotspot volcanism. A direct prediction of this model would be the existence of undiscovered impact structures whose reconstructed locations would be antipodal to flood basalt provinces. One such structure would be in the Indian Ocean, associated with the Columbia River Basalts and Yellowstone; another would be a second K/T impact structure in the Pacific Ocean, associated with the Deccan Traps and Reunion.

Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.; Campbell, D.L.

1994-12-01

112

Plastics for solar-energy collectors. I - General aspects, hot-water collectors, design variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics and the amount of solar energy available on earth are examined and the investigations conducted in various countries concerning the utilization of this energy are briefly considered. A description of solar-energy collectors for hot-water supply systems and space heating applications is presented, taking into account solar radiation conditions in Germany, aspects of collector design, suitable materials for the

G. Schenkel

1976-01-01

113

Earth Shelter Buildings Coupled with the Sun: Opportunities and Constraints in Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Civil/Mineral Engineering Building on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus is a demonstration design in energy conservation and innovation in active and passive solar energy applications. Its antecedents at the university represent contributory steps in the identification of issues and the development of design principles. (MLW)

Bennett, David J.

1982-01-01

114

Earth Shelter Buildings Coupled with the Sun: Opportunities and Constraints in Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The new Civil/Mineral Engineering Building on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus is a demonstration design in energy conservation and innovation in active and passive solar energy applications. Its antecedents at the university represent contributory steps in the identification of issues and the development of design principles. (MLW)|

Bennett, David J.

1982-01-01

115

An efficient lightning energy source on the early earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miller and Urey suggested in 1959 that lightning and corona on the early Earth could have been the most favorable sources of prebiotic synthesis. In 1991 Chyba and Sagan reviewed the presently prevailing data on electrical discharges on Earth and they raised questions as to whether the electrical sources of prebiotic synthesis were as favorable as was claimed. The proposal of the present paper is that localized lightning sources associated with Archaean volcanoes could have possessed considerable advantages for prebiotic synthesis over the previously suggested global sources.

Hill, R. D.

1992-09-01

116

An efficient lightning energy source on the early Earth.  

PubMed

Miller and Urey suggested in 1959 that lightning and corona on the early Earth could have been the most favorable sources of prebiotic synthesis. In 1991 Chyba and Sagan reviewed the presently prevailing data on electrical discharges on Earth and they raised questions as to whether the electrical sources of prebiotic synthesis were as favorable as was claimed. The proposal of the present paper is that localized lightning sources associated with Archaean volcanoes could have possessed considerable advantages for prebiotic synthesis over the previously suggested global sources. PMID:11536519

Hill, R D

1992-01-01

117

Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential  

SciTech Connect

The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

Wendt, R.L.

1982-04-01

118

Path of the solar wind energy into the Earth s magnetosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar wind MHD generator is an unique energy source for all magnetospheric processes. The field-aligned currents directly transport the energy and momentum of the solar wind plasma to the Earth's ionosphere. The magnetospheric lobe and plasma sheet convection generated by the solar wind is another magnetospheric energy source. Plasma sheet particles and cold ionospheric polar wind ions are accelerated

I. Alexeev

2002-01-01

119

Energy position of 4f levels in rare-earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy position of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels relative to the Fermi energy is studied for the rare-earth metals. This is done by treating the excited state as an impurity in an otherwise perfect crystal. This picture is first considered in the complete screening approximation. In this approximation thermochemical data can be used directly to give energy values

Börje Johansson

1979-01-01

120

Design of the crest of earth-and-rock dams in the northern construction-climatic zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth-and-rock dams with a core or facing of loam or loamy sand soils constructed in the northern constructionclimatic permafrost zone are distinguished by a diversity of designs of the dam crests. The conditions that determine the design of dam crests are quite stringent, and it is not easy to find a successful design corresponding to diverse, often contradictory requirements. Dam

V. A. Pekhtin; A. A. Serov; V. A. Susloparov

1998-01-01

121

Rare earth permanent magnets and energy conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally in magnetoelectric devices the stator has been the massive and static part of the device and the dynamic element has been a moving coil. With improvements in the volumetric efficiency of permanent magnets it is possible to rearrange magnetic circuit elements and invert devices. Rare earth permanent magnets exhibit a high magnetic moment per unit volume and have extreme

R. J. Parker

1977-01-01

122

Searching for high energy cosmic ray electrons using the Earth's magnetic field.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope (CREST) instrument is a balloon payload designed to measure the flux of primary cosmic ray electrons at energies greater than 2 TeV. Because electrons at these energies lose energy rapidly during propagation through the interstellar medium, their detection would indicate the existence of sources which are within a few kiloparsecs. In order to obtain the needed large exposure time and aperture of the detector, we use an approach that depends on the detection of synchrotron photons emitted when the electrons travel through the earth's magnetic field. Such photons have energies in the x-ray and gamma-ray region, hence CREST incorporates an array of inorganic scintillators. Since the primary electrons do not need to pass through the detector, the effective detection area is much larger than the actual detector array size. To verify the technique and to determine background count rates, a prototype array of BGO and BaF2 crystals was flown on high altitude balloon from Ft. Sumner, N.M. in autumn 2005. The full detector system is currently under construction. It will consist of a 1600 crystal array, and will be carried on Long-Duration Balloons on circumpolar trajectory.

Nutter, S.; Bower, C.; Coutu, S.; Duvernois, M.; Martell, A.; Muller, D.; Musser, J.; Schubnell, M.; Tarle, G.; Yagi, A.

2006-04-01

123

Note to Energy Source of Tsunami Earthquake on the Planet Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Note to Energy Source of Tsunami Earthquake on the Planet Earth Shigehisa Nakamura Kyoto University, Japan This note concerns to an energyy source of tsunami earthquake. In the case of the earthquake on 11 March 2011, a satellite monitoring by the Geographic Survey Institute informed some spcific pattern of the earth surface displacements just around tothe epicenter of the interested earthquake. The monitoring pattern shows that the pattern of the earth surface displacements must be understood well when the earth surface as a part of the spherical earth crusts with a physical property of a visco-plastic material rather than with a solid plate consisted by rigid material made by the products of the magma in the planet earth. This means that the pattern was appared in a short time of only several minutes, say, two or three munutes after the seismic shock was happened. The pattern of the displacement shows as if it was for a pattern of a visco-plastic fluid flowing to the pit hole force for the at the epicenter out of a conduit of the magma in order to return to the mother magma flow under the spherical crust of the planet earth. This pattern is raising us to find an updateddd model after an advanced reserarch as soon as possible in order to realize what should be a reasonable energy source to see the tsunami earthquake.

Nakamura, S.

2012-04-01

124

Calorimetric Determination of Energy Levels in Rare-Earth and Yttrium-Iron Garnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that low-temperature calorimetry can be a sensitive method for determining the lowest excited energy levels in the rare-earth iron garnets. From Pauthenet's magnetization data one expects the lowest excited levels of several rare-earth ions to become populated at temperatures well below 20°K and to contribute a large specific heat. This property offers the possibility of testing the

A. Brooks Harris; Horst Meyer

1962-01-01

125

Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and NREL are developing target energy budgets and design guides to achieve 30% energy savings. This paper focuses the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing.

Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

2008-08-01

126

ESPAS, the near-Earth space data infrastructure for e-Science: design and development phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space physics models with good predictive capabilities may be used to forecast accurately the state of the near-Earth space environment and to enable end user communities to mitigate the effects of adverse space weather on humans and technological systems. The results obtained from model runs, and also the validation of their performance accuracy, depend to a large extent on the availability of data from as many as possible regions of the near-Earth geospace. Despite the abundance and variety of related observational data, their exploitation is still challenging as they come from different sensors, in different formats and time resolution, and are provided from various organizations worldwide with different distribution procedures and policies. The primary objective of ESPAS is to provide the e-Infrastructure necessary to support the access to observations, extending from the Earth's atmosphere up to the outer radiation belts, including ionosondes, incoherent scatter radars, magnetometers, GNSS receivers and a large number of space sensors and radars. The development of the ESPAS common interface will allow users to uniformly find, access, and use resources of near-Earth space environment observations from ground-based and space-borne instruments and data from distributed data repositories, based on semantically web services (www.espas-fp7.eu). The first phase that will lead to the release of a first prototype includes the design and development of the data model that will support location of all available data from ground based experiments and satellite missions, available at certain spatial coordinates and time interval. For the first release only the basic data sources will be registered (i.e. Cluster, IMAGE/RPI, DEMETER, DIAS, EISCAT ISRs and SWACI). In a second phase, when all databases and enhanced databases will be registered, the ESPAS infrastructure must be extensively tested through the application of several use cases, designed to serve the needs of the wide interdisciplinary users and producers communities, such as the ionospheric, thermospheric, magnetospheric, space weather and space climate communities, the geophysics community, the space communications engineering, HF users, satellite operators, navigation and surveillance systems, and space agencies.

Hapgood, M.; Belehaki, A.; Zolesi, B.

2012-04-01

127

Compensation for spectral darkening of short wave optics occurring on the cloud's and the Earth's radiant energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation into the role of clouds and radiation in the Earth's climate system. Four CERES scanning thermistor bolometer instruments are currently in orbit. Flight model 1 (FM1) and 2 (FM2) are aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite and FM3 and FM4 are aboard the EOS Aqua satellite. Each

Grant Matthews; Kory Priestley; Peter Spence; Denise Cooper; Dale Walikainen

2005-01-01

128

Solar energy system using seasonal earth thermal storage (SETS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation had several directions: 1) computer modeling of building performance using a solar energy system with a conventional short-term water energy storage, and using seasonal energy storage was carried out. A computer program for building energy analysis, DOE 2.1 made by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, was used for this purpose. The analysis predicted that a solar energy system using seasonal

Brancic

1984-01-01

129

Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

2011-12-01

130

Earth-covered buildings: An exploratory analysis for hazard and energy performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of earth covered buildings is examined regarding storms, nuclear detonations, earthquakes, fire, nuclear radiation, energy consumption, compatibility with solar energy systems, peak load effects, soil and groundwater effects, air and climate effects, occupant evaluation, and resource management. Potential longterm benefits are assessed, including the areas of economic benefits, community benefits and security benefits.

Moreland, F. L.

1981-11-01

131

Integrating energy consciousness in the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design process for an intelligent, energy conscious building which was built, along with the design tools that were applied, is presented. The building, situated in the hot–humid climate of Rehovot, Israel, houses the laboratories and offices of the Weizmann Institute's Environmental Science and Energy Research Department. Alternative bio-climatic design options were proposed and evaluated throughout the detailed design stage.

Edna Shaviv

1999-01-01

132

Ground calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) tropical rainfall measuring mission spacecraft thermistor bolometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave and longwave spectral regions as well as in the 8-12 micrometers water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Missions (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral response for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

Lee, Robert B.; Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Thornhill, K. L.; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

1997-09-01

133

Design of actuators based on biased magnetostrictive rare earth-iron alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to design biased magnetostrictive devices is presented. The method employs a chaining between several CAD software systems, which makes it possible to handle different design aspects (bias system, excitation, 3D electromechanical behavior) with the same preprocessor. It is argued that a good bias excitation system should use a permanent magnet bias which does not store dynamic magnetic energy.

Nicolas Lhermet; Frank Claeyssen; Philippe Wendling; Gilles Grosso

1993-01-01

134

The Design of Mars on Earth, a Biospheric Closed System Testing Facility for Long-Term Space Habitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design for a prototype Mars base simulating an inhabited Mars mission on Earth to determine the feasibility of maintaining humans in a self-sustaining system providing food, air and water regeneration. The system will be initially designed for a team of four, but the biosphere modules will be constructed so that they can be replicated and the

A. Allen; A. Alling

2002-01-01

135

Integrating energy expertise into building design  

SciTech Connect

Most commercial buildings designed to today will use more energy to operate, and cost more to design and construct than necessary. Significant energy savings cold be achieved with little or not increase in first cost if energy-efficient design technologies were used. Research into integration of building systems indicates that by considering energy performance early in the design process, energy savings between 30% and 50% of current energy consumption rates are technically and economically feasible. However, most building design teams do not adequately consider the energy impacts of design decisions to achieve these savings. The US Department of Energy has initiated a project, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to develop advanced computer-based technologies that will help designers take advantage of these large potential energy savings. The objective of this work is to develop automated, intelligent, energy design assistance that can be integrated into computer aided design systems of the future. This paper examines the need for this technology by identifying the impediments to energy-efficient design, identifies essential and desirable features of such systems, presents the concept under development in this effort, illustrates how energy expertise might be incorporated into design, and discusses the importance of an integrated approach. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bailey, M.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (USA). Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

1990-08-01

136

High Earth orbit design for lunar assisted small Explorer class missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small Expendable launch vehicles are capable of injecting modest payloads into high Earth orbits having apogee near the lunar distance. However, lunar and solar perturbations can quickly lower perigee and cause premature reentry. Costly perigee raising maneuvers by the spacecraft are required to maintain the orbit. In addition, the range of inclinations achievable is limited to those of launch sites unless costly spacecraft maneuvers are performed. This study investigates the use of a lunar swingby in a near-Hohmann transfer trajectory to raise perigee into the 8 to 25 solar radius range and reach a wide variety of inclinations without spacecraft maneuvers. It is found that extremely stable orbits can be obtained if the postencounter spacecraft orbital period is one-half of a lunar sidereal revolution and the Earth-vehicle-Moon geometry is within a specified range. Criteria for achieving stable orbits with various perigee heights and ecliptic inclinations are developed, and the sensitivity of the resulting mission orbits to transfer trajectory injection (TTI) errors is examined. It is shown that carefully designed orbits yield lifetimes of several years, with excellent ground station coverage characteristics and minimal eclipses. A phasing loop error correction strategy is considered with the spacecraft propulsion system delta V demand for TTI error correction and a postlunar encounter apogee trim maneuver typically in the 30 to 120 meters per second range.

Mathews, M.; Hametz, M.; Cooley, J.; Skillman, D.

1994-05-01

137

Design of the high resolution optical instrument for the PLEIADES HR Earth observation satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of its contribution to Earth observation from space, ALCATEL SPACE designed, built and tested the High Resolution cameras for the European intelligence satellites HELIOS I and II. Coming after the SPOT program, it was decided to go ahead with the PLEIADES HR program. PLEIADES HR is the optical high resolution component of a larger optical and radar multi-sensors system : ORFEO. The first optical satellite of the PLEIADES HR constellation will be launched in mid-2008, the second will follow in 2009. To minimize the development costs, a mini satellite approach has been selected, leading to a compact concept for the camera design. The paper describes the design and performance budgets of this novel high resolution and large field of view optical instrument with emphasis on the technological features. This new generation of camera represents a breakthrough in comparison with the previous SPOT cameras owing to a significant step in on-ground resolution, which approaches the capabilities of aerial photography. Recent advances in detector technology, optical fabrication and electronics make it possible for the PLEIADES HR camera to achieve their image quality performance goals while staying within weight and size This camera design delivers superior performance using an innovative low power, low mass, scalable architecture, which provides a versatile approach for a variety of imaging requirements and allows for a wide number of possibilities of accommodation with a mini-satellite class platform.

Lamard, Jean-Luc; Gaudin-Delrieu, Catherine; Valentini, David; Renard, Christophe; Tournier, Thierry; Laherrere, Jean-Marc

2004-06-01

138

An unpublished lecture by Heinrich Hertz: ``On the energy balance of the Earth''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a recently discovered and newly translated manuscript of a lecture by Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, long famous for his 1888 discovery of long-wavelength electromagnetic waves. Hertz delivered this address on 20 April 1885 as his inaugural lecture to the faculty at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe (now the Universität Karlsruhe), where he was to make his most important contributions to physics. Although written over 110 years ago, this historical document records both Hertz's insightful view of the Earth's energy situation at that time and his remarkably good order-of-magnitude estimates of the energy sources then known to be available to the Earth.

Mulligan, Joseph F.; Hertz, H. Gerhard

1997-01-01

139

Design Guide for Energy Efficient Laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy Efficient Design Applications are intended to assist facility owners, architects, engineers, designers, facility managers, and utility demand-side management specialists in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. This site is operated by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy. A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories is available for download from the site.

2007-04-17

140

Preliminary Downlink Design and Performance Assessment for Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth (ARISE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth (ARISE) is a space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission with a nominal launch date of 2008. It consists of an inflatable 25-m radio telescope circulating in a highly elliptical Earth orbit with a perigee of 5,000 km and an apogee of 40,000 km. The objective is to observe in conjunction with Earth-based telescopes to obtain high-resolution maps of quasars and active galactic nuclei for science investigations. ARISE requires an 8-Gb/s downlink of science data, which is a challenge using today's technology. In this article, 8-Gb/s systems using both traditional radio frequency (RF) and laser communication are proposed with the goal of minimizing both the cost and the risk of the design. Either option requires appropriate technology investments. The RF system requires the use of dual polarization, high-order modulations such as 32-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), and spectrally efficient square-root raised-cosine (SRRC) filters to meet the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectral allocation. If additional bandwidth is allocated by the FCC, constant-envelope modulations such as cross-correlated trellis-coded quadrature modulation (XTCQM) can be used in place of SRRC filters and QAM to reduce the power required on the spacecraft. The proposed laser communication system uses on-off keying (OOK) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The wavelength of 1550 nm has the advantage of lower background light subtended at the ground receiver for downlink communications. The critical components of the system are based on mature fiber-optic technologies. The downlink transceiver terminal will be a modified Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) that has been in development at JPL over the past 3 years. This article includes a road map on how the 8-Gb/s RF and laser communication systems can be developed with a series of demonstrations between now and the launch date. The demonstrations are needed to verify technologies and to raise the confidence level of the designs. With the completion of the demonstrations, both the RF system and the laser communication systems can be deployed with relatively low risk.

Yan, T.-Y.; Wang, C. C.; Gray, A.; Hemmati, H.; Mittskus, A.; Golshan, N.; Noca, M.

1998-10-01

141

Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth science industry through a student satellite development program is one of the best methods of developing the next generation of space and earth science engineers and scientists.

Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

2011-12-01

142

A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical quantum communication utilizing satellite platforms has the potential to extend the reach of quantum key distribution (QKD) from terrestrial limits of ˜200 km to global scales. We have developed a thorough numerical simulation using realistic simulated orbits and incorporating the effects of pointing error, diffraction, atmosphere and telescope design, to obtain estimates of the loss and background noise which a satellite-based system would experience. Combining with quantum optics simulations of sources and detection, we determine the length of secure key for QKD, as well as entanglement visibility and achievable distances for fundamental experiments. We analyse the performance of a low Earth orbit satellite for downlink and uplink scenarios of the quantum optical signals. We argue that the advantages of locating the quantum source on the ground justify a greater scientific interest in an uplink as compared to a downlink. An uplink with a ground transmitter of at least 25 cm diameter and a 30 cm receiver telescope on the satellite could be used to successfully perform QKD multiple times per week with either an entangled photon source or with a weak coherent pulse source, as well as perform long-distance Bell tests and quantum teleportation. Our model helps to resolve important design considerations such as operating wavelength, type and specifications of sources and detectors, telescope designs, specific orbits and ground station locations, in view of anticipated overall system performance.

Bourgoin, J.-P.; Meyer-Scott, E.; Higgins, B. L.; Helou, B.; Erven, C.; Hübel, H.; Kumar, B.; Hudson, D.; D'Souza, I.; Girard, R.; Laflamme, R.; Jennewein, T.

2013-02-01

143

The design of Prepayment Energy Meter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper design a Wireless Prepayment Energy Meter, which is used to measure single-phase energy with 50\\/60Hz rated frequency. It realizes the functions of prepayment management and load control that pay of energy first & use it afterwards. the data can be exchanged between Energy meters and Energy supplying department by RF cards. The information can be transmitted in a

Luo Yonggang

2011-01-01

144

Design a Net-Zero Energy Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students create a concept design of their very own net-zero energy classroom by pasting renewable energy and energy-efficiency items into and around a pretend classroom on a sheet of paper. They learn how these items (such as solar panels, efficient lights, computers, energy meters, etc.) interact to create a learning environment that produces as much energy as it uses.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

145

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a review: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers.A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available.A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-07-01

146

Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

147

Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

148

Design and analyse space radiation shielding for a Nanosatellite in low earth orbit (LEO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we design and analyze space radiation shielding for Nanosatellite with perigee 250 km and apogee 650 km, with endurance one month in solar max activity. At first step space radiation environment simulated. The proton spectrum energy in inner Van Allen belt varies from 0.01 MeV to 400 MeV. In second step radiation shield designed. The shield was

Masood Mayanbari; Yaser Kasesaz

2011-01-01

149

Design and optimization of trajectory to Near-Earth asteroid for sample return mission using gravity assists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of the potential candidates of the Asteroid Exploration Mission to be launched around 2010, the feasible mission scenario is investigated. The emphasis is put on the design and optimization of preliminary interplanetary transfer trajectory for the mission in this paper. According to the science goals and constraints of the mission, the 1943 Anteros was selected as the candidate. Gravity-assist technique was used for the rendezvous and sample return mission in order to reduce the total velocity increments and launch energy. Through analyzing the transfer trajectory with Earth gravity-assist, another two opportunities are found, which will fly by the 16490 asteroid and 11300 asteroid. Using the evolutionary algorithm combing the genetic algorithm with niching method, a new profile with multiple flybys is calculated and optimized. Some key parameters of the orbit are analyzed based on the optimized trajectory, which would have a direct impact on the design of other spacecraft subsystem, such as communication subsystem, power subsystem and thermal control subsystem.

Xu, Rui; Cui, Pingyuan; Qiao, Dong; Luan, Enjie

150

Effects of rare-earth co-doping on the local structure of rare-earth phosphate glasses using high and low energy X-ray diffraction.  

PubMed

Rare-earth co-doping in inorganic materials has a long-held tradition of facilitating highly desirable optoelectronic properties for their application to the laser industry. This study concentrates specifically on rare-earth phosphate glasses, (R2O3)x(R'2O3)y(P2O5)(1-(x+y)), where (R, R') denotes (Ce, Er) or (La, Nd) co-doping and the total rare-earth composition corresponds to a range between metaphosphate, RP3O9, and ultraphosphate, RP5O14. Thereupon, the effects of rare-earth co-doping on the local structure are assessed at the atomic level. Pair-distribution function analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data (Q(max) = 28 Å(-1)) is employed to make this assessment. Results reveal a stark structural invariance to rare-earth co-doping which bears testament to the open-framework and rigid nature of these glasses. A range of desirable attributes of these glasses unfold from this finding; in particular, a structural simplicity that will enable facile molecular engineering of rare-earth phosphate glasses with 'dial-up' lasing properties. When considered together with other factors, this finding also demonstrates additional prospects for these co-doped rare-earth phosphate glasses in nuclear waste storage applications. This study also reveals, for the first time, the ability to distinguish between P-O and P[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonding in these rare-earth phosphate glasses from X-ray diffraction data in a fully quantitative manner. Complementary analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data on single rare-earth phosphate glasses of similar rare-earth composition to the co-doped materials is also presented in this context. In a technical sense, all high-energy X-ray diffraction data on these glasses are compared with analogous low-energy diffraction data; their salient differences reveal distinct advantages of high-energy X-ray diffraction data for the study of amorphous materials. PMID:23518599

Cramer, Alisha J; Cole, Jacqueline M; FitzGerald, Vicky; Honkimaki, Veijo; Roberts, Mark A; Brennan, Tessa; Martin, Richard A; Saunders, George A; Newport, Robert J

2013-03-21

151

Energy use and thermal comfort in a rammed earth office building  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-storey rammed earth building was built on the Thurgoona Campus of Charles Sturt University in Albury-Wodonga, Australia, in 1999. The building is novel both in the use of materials and equipment for heating and cooling. The climate at Wodonga can be characterised as hot and dry, so the challenge of providing comfortable working conditions with minimal energy consumption is

P. Taylor; R. J. Fuller; M. B. Luther

2008-01-01

152

Climate-induced tree mortality: earth system consequences for carbon, energy, and water exchanges  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere that could present hazards to current earth system function. Terrestrial ecosystems, and in particular forests, exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets. Widespread, rapid, drought- and infestation-triggered

H. D. Adams; A. Macalady; D. D. Breshears; C. D. Allen; C. Luce; P. D. Royer; T. E. Huxman

2010-01-01

153

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S.-Japan mission, is presented. The structure and functions of the CERES instrument, which is a three-channel radiometer l...

S. L. Carman L. P. Kopia

1993-01-01

154

Window Design Strategies to Conserve Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multitude of design strategies are available to achieve energy-efficient windows. Opportunities for improving window performance fall into six groups: site, exterior appendages, frame, glazing, interior accessories, and building interior. Design strateg...

S. R. Hastings R. W. Crenshaw

1977-01-01

155

Energy Management Techniques for SOC Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the biggest problems in complicated and high-performance SoC design is management of energy and\\/or power consumption.\\u000a In this chapter, we present energy management techniques in system design including HW and SW, SoC architecture and logic\\u000a design. Dynamic power consumption is the major factor of energy consumption in the current CMOS digital circuits. The dynamic\\u000a power consumption is affected

Hiroto Yasuura; Tohru Ishihara; Masanori Muroyama

156

Thermonuclear Processes as a Principal Source of the Earth's Internal Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cosmological model of the formation of the Solar System is presented. It is shown that the main source of the Earth's energy is delivered from the thermonuclear processes in the inner Earth's core consisting of metallic hydrides. Several theoretical studies showed that under low temperature (T<104 K) and sufficiently high density of plasma, the characteristics of nuclear synthesis could be explained only with some adjustments to a thermonuclear synthesis theory. By building a diagram of the mass luminosity for the giant planets and the Earth, Wang Hong-Zhang (1990) illustrated that this diagram was similar to the one corresponding to stars. This could have only one explanation-the energy is due to the thermonuclear reactions and the energy rate is increasing exponentially with temperature and pressure. In the local areas where thermonuclear reactions occur in the Earth core, one should expect a sharp increase in temperature which causes of the dissolution of hydrides, e.g. release of hydrogen from the hydride-ionic form to the proton gas in large quantities (Larin, 2005). The pressure in this zone would sharply rise, and this would cause expulsion of the streams of the hydrogen plasma outside of the Earth's core. As a result of the Earth rotation and existence of the Coriolis' acceleration, the hydrogen plumes (more exactly, the proton gas) characterized by a high electrical conductivity twirl in spirals in the outer core of the Earth. These spirals form solenoid and, as a result, create the dipole magnetic field of the Earth. The suggest hypothesis of the thermonuclear nature of the Earth's energy flux is a main reason for the endogenic geodynamic and tectonic processes in the Earth's history. This hypothesis is supported by known experimental facts, and it opens new ways to study not only our planet but other planets of the Solar System. One should note that according to accepted concepts, the dipole magnetic field could exist in planets with a sufficient rotation and a possibility of thermonuclear reactions in their core. Accordingly, these planets don't have dipole magnetic fields. The quantities of hydrogen (in the form of hydrides) in the Earth's core are also not limitless. When they are exhausted, then naturally, the thermonuclear reactions cease along with all tectonic activity and magnetic field. This study gives a theoretical justification of a possible non-organic origin of hydrocarbons. Surely, if there is degassing of hydrogen from deep areas of the planet, hydrogen once present in the carbon rich areas would result in the hydrogenising reactions potentially forming layers rich with hydrocarbons. Respectively, hydrocarbons (non-organic) could be formed now and will be formed until the source of hydrogen would cease in the Earth's core. Moreover, the pure hydrogen (coming from the Earth's core) could find its way to the surface during some rare and catastrophic evens. However, this is another problem of new methods of how to detect, explore and even produce hydrocarbons including pure hydrogen. Full paper: www.springerlink.com/content/jn2576q7727q0034

Terez, E. I.; Terez, I. E.

2011-12-01

157

Far-IR spectral response measurements of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensors using a Fourier transform spectrometer and pyro-electric reference detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) program continues the long term monitoring of the Earth's radiant energy budget begun by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometer instruments. The CERES instrument contains three thermal detector based radiometers with broadband spectral responses. The relative spectral responses must be characterized at far infrared wavelengths out to 200 micrometers in support of absolute radiometric calibration. This will be accomplished with a Fourier transform spectrometer as a spectral source, relay optics and a vacuum chamber containing the sensors. This facility currently under development for the CERES program will measure end-to-end sensor spectral response relative to a spectrally flat well characterized reference detector also located in the vacuum chamber. Facility design and controls on the measurement process to assure spectral accuracy are discussed.

Frink, Mark E.; Jarecke, Peter J.; Folkman, Mark A.; Wright, Robert E.

1993-08-01

158

Energy-Conscious Design: Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many design features that can be used to achieve an energy-efficient building. Described are task lighting, unoccupied space shutoff, onsite well with heat pump, wide-band thermostats, and solar energy. (MLF)

Lawrence, Jerry

1984-01-01

159

Energy Information System for Atrium Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a paper presented at the World Renewable Energy Conference in Reading, September 1990. The paper describes a computer based energy information system for atrium design. The development of the system is a part of the Norwegian contribut...

I. Bryn

1990-01-01

160

Designating Earth's Moon as a United Nations World Heritage Site - Permanently Protected from Commercial or Military Uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes that Earth's Moon, in its entirety, be designated a United Nations World Heritage Site (WHS), permanently protected from any and all commercial or military utilization and reserved exclusively for scientific and aesthetic purposes. The paper discusses: 1) the extraordinary importance of the Moon for science, culture, and religion - past, present and future; 2) the history of

R. G. Steiner

2002-01-01

161

Design and field testing of solar-assisted earth coils. Final report, August 1, 1978January 31, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of earth coils were designed, constructed, and are operational on the Oklahoma State University campus. A nominal 1000-foot, 4-inch, PVC coil buried in a serpentine pattern is the heat source\\/sink for two commercial heat pump systems. This system is vented which allows the easy placement of thermocouples down its length to measure changes in temperature as well as

Bose

1981-01-01

162

Activation energy for alkaline-earth ion transport in low alkali aluminoborosilicate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activation energies (Ea) for ionic conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glasses due to alkaline-earth (Ba, Ca) and alkali (Na) ion transport have been estimated using thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) and AC impedance spectroscopy techniques. The TSDC plot showed distinct relaxation peaks which shifted to higher temperatures with increasing ramp rates, and the dielectric dispersion plot showed individual low frequency relaxation peaks indicating space charge polarization due to transport of cations with different Ea (0.93, 1.83, and 3.5 eV for Na, Ba, and Ca, respectively). The higher value of Ea for Ca transport is attributed to mixed alkaline earth effect.

Dash, Priyanka; Furman, Eugene; Pantano, Carlo G.; Lanagan, Michael T.

2013-02-01

163

Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy

Knapp, Henry H., III

164

An update on Earth's energy balance in light of the latest global observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is governed by changes to the global energy balance. At the top of the atmosphere, this balance is monitored globally by satellite sensors that provide measurements of energy flowing to and from Earth. By contrast, observations at the surface are limited mostly to land areas. As a result, the global balance of energy fluxes within the atmosphere or at Earth's surface cannot be derived directly from measured fluxes, and is therefore uncertain. This lack of precise knowledge of surface energy fluxes profoundly affects our ability to understand how Earth's climate responds to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. In light of compilations of up-to-date surface and satellite data, the surface energy balance needs to be revised. Specifically, the longwave radiation received at the surface is estimated to be significantly larger, by between 10 and 17 Wm-2, than earlier model-based estimates. Moreover, the latest satellite observations of global precipitation indicate that more precipitation is generated than previously thought. This additional precipitation is sustained by more energy leaving the surface by evaporation -- that is, in the form of latent heat flux -- and thereby offsets much of the increase in longwave flux to the surface.

Stephens, Graeme L.; Li, Juilin; Wild, Martin; Clayson, Carol Anne; Loeb, Norman; Kato, Seiji; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Lebsock, Matthew; Andrews, Timothy

2012-10-01

165

Melting of iron under Earth's core conditions from diffusion Monte Carlo free energy calculations.  

PubMed

The temperature of Earth's core is a parameter of critical importance to model the thermal structure of Earth. Since the core is mainly made of iron, with a solid liquid boundary (the inner core boundary) at 1220 km from the center of the Earth, the melting temperature of iron at the pressure of the ICB provides constraints on the temperature of the core. These constraints are based either on extrapolations to ICB pressure of experimental measurements, or on theoretical calculations which employed various flavors of quantum mechanics, most notably density functional theory. Significant disagreement between estimates obtained with different methods calls for calculations based on more accurate techniques. Here we used quantum Monte Carlo techniques to compute the free energies of solid and liquid iron at ICB conditions. We obtained an iron melting temperature at 330 GPa of 6900+/-400 K. PMID:19792692

Sola, Ester; Alfè, Dario

2009-08-14

166

An innovative design guide for energy conscious environmental designer  

SciTech Connect

The energy concious designer is always concerned with methodology for evolving a physical solution befitting the environmental norms. Shading and shadow patterns in urban areas modify the microclimate a great deal and thus extend an opportunity to be considered as an important design strategy. Application of such a methodology can influence economics of a project substantially. help optimize energy consumption without an extra capital outlay. This can be assured by using the guide at an early stage of decision making. The guide is based upon study of commonly used urban design parameters and is summarized in simple graphical form.

Siddigi, A.A.

1985-01-01

167

Computational efficiences for calculating rare earth f^n energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RecentlyootnotetextD. R. Beck and E. J. Domeier, Can. J. Phys. Walter Johnson issue, Jan. 2009., we have used new computational strategies to obtain wavefunctions and energies for Gd IV 4f^7 and 4f^65d levels. Here we extend one of these techniques to allow efficent inclusion of 4f^2 pair correlation effects using radial pair energies obtained from much simpler calculationsootnotetexte.g. K. Jankowski et al., Int. J. Quant. Chem. XXVII, 665 (1985). and angular factors which can be simply computedootnotetextD. R. Beck and C. A. Nicolaides, Excited States in Quantum Chemistry, C. A. Nicolaides and D. R. Beck (editors), D. Reidel (1978), p. 105ff.. This is a re-vitalization of an older ideaootnotetextI. Oksuz and O. Sinanoglu, Phys. Rev. 181, 54 (1969).. We display relationships between angular factors involving the exchange of holes and electrons (e.g. f^6 vs f^8, f^13d vs fd^9). We apply the results to Tb IV and Gd IV, whose spectra is largely unknown, but which may play a role in MRI medicine as endohedral metallofullerenes (e.g. Gd3N-C80ootnotetextM. C. Qian and S. N. Khanna, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 09E105 (2007).). Pr III results are in good agreement (910 cm-1) with experiment. Pu I 5f^2 radial pair energies are also presented.

Beck, Donald R.

2009-05-01

168

Designing Delta-DOR acquisition strategies to determine highly elliptical earth orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delta-DOR acquisition strategies are designed for use in determining highly elliptical earth orbits. The requirements for a possible flight demonstration are evaluated for the Charged Composition Explorer spacecraft of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers. The best-performing strategy uses data spanning the view periods of two orthogonal baselines near the same orbit periapse. The rapidly changing viewing geometry yields both angular position and velocity information, but each observation may require a different reference quasar. The Delta-DOR data noise is highly dependent on acquisition geometry, varying several orders of magnitude across the baseline view periods. Strategies are selected to minimize the measurement noise predicted by a theoretical model. Although the CCE transponder is limited by S-band and a small bandwidth, the addition of Delta-DOR to coherent Doppler and range improves the one-sigma apogee position accuracy by more than an order of magnitude. Additional Delta-DOR accuracy improvements possible using dual-frequency (S/X) calibration, increased spanned bandwidth, and water-vapor radiometry are presented for comparison. With these benefits, the residual Delta-DOR data noise is primarily due to quasar position uncertainties.

Frauenholz, R. B.

1986-08-01

169

Developments in design for energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Processors Association, Design Technical Subcommittee A, has just completed an energy conservation checklist for gas plants. During the preparation of this checklist, several new systems designed for improved energy conservation were observed in the areas of compression drivers, fractionation, heat exchange, and flaring. This paper presents a brief description of these systems. 5 refs.

Guffey, C.G.

1981-01-01

170

Energy-Efficient Buildings Through Design Automation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the mid-1970s, the Department of Defense (DOD) has pursued a strategy of increasing the energy efficiency of its buildings, both in new designs and existing facilities. Designers have effectively produced more energy-efficient buildings, but are als...

K. D. McGraw L. K. Lawrie

2001-01-01

171

Energy conservation in new-plant design  

Microsoft Academic Search

New plant designs will now include new energy-conservation design ; features, more-stringent safety features, and environmental-protection devices. ; U. S. process plants have been designed for low capital cost, but with higher ; operating costs. Nine methods described that engineers are now using to cope ; with the higher energy costs of the 1975-1980 period are furnace efficiency; ; power-recovery

J. B. Fleming; J. R. Lambrix; M. R. Smith

1974-01-01

172

Non-pinched, minimum energy distillation designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-pinched, minimum energy solutions are important class of distillation designs that offer the potential advantage of a better trade-off between capital investment and operating costs. In this paper, two important tasks associated with non-pinched distillation designs are studied. Thus the novel contributions of this work to the literature are(1)A comprehensive methodology for finding non-pinched minimum energy designs.(2)Understanding of the reasons

Amit S. Amale; Angelo Lucia

2008-01-01

173

Dark Energy Survey Instrument Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of approximately 5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic cam...

B. Flaugher

2006-01-01

174

Energy manager design for microgrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site energy production, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as bill savings and predictability, improved system efficiency, improved reliability, control over power quality, and in many cases, greener electricity. Additionally, DER systems can benefit electric utilities by reducing congestion on the grid, reducing the need for new generation and transmission capacity, and offering ancillary services

Ryan Firestone; Chris Marnay

2005-01-01

175

National Energy Information System: Detailed conceptual design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of the National Enrgy Information System (NEIS) is presented. The existing energy data situation is reviewed and the basic approach to the design of NEIS is explained. The NEIS goals are analyzed and the NEIS user requirements in terms of information content, system functions, and operational requirements are defined. Alternative design strategies are analyzed as a means

M. Fiorello; M. Lutz; S. Morris; M. Shaw

1978-01-01

176

50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box retail buildings, (4) Large hospital buildings.

Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Liu, B.; Wang, W.; Thornton, B.; Williams, J.

2012-07-01

177

50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI\\/ASHRAE\\/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box

E. Bonnema; M. Leach; S. Pless; B. Liu; W. Wang; B. Thornton; J. Williams

2012-01-01

178

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument level 1 science data validation plan for geolocated radiances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From spacecraft platforms, the clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers are designed to measure broadband Earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3 - 5.0 micrometer) and Earth-emitted long wave (5.0 - greater than 100 micrometer) radiances as well as emitted longwave radiances in the 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. In ground vacuum facilities, the thermistor bolometers and in-flight blackbody and tungsten lamp calibration systems are being calibrated using radiometric sources tied to the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS'90). Using the in-flight calibration systems, the bolometers will be calibrated periodically before and after spacecraft launch to verify the stability of the bolometers responses and to determine response drifts/shifts if they occur. The in-flight systems calibration analyses along with validation analyses will be used to determine the flight data reduction coefficients (instrument gains and offsets) which will be used to convert the bolometer measurements into calibrated radiances at the top-of-the-atmosphere (approximately 30 km). If a bolometer response shifts or drifts more than 0.5% in the longwave region or more than 1.0% in the shortwave region, and if the validation studies verify the bolometer response change, the flight data reduction coefficients will be corrected. A coastline detection method, using strong contrasting longwave ocean-land scenes, will be used to assess error limits on the geographical locations of the radiances. The detection method was successfully used to assess upper limits (6 km) on the geolocation errors for the Earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) bolometric measurements of longwave radiances. For CERES, the detection method may be extended to shortwave radiances. In this paper, elements of the CERES instrument level 1 validation plan radiometric strategies are presented as well as the geolocation validation approaches.

Lee, Robert B.; Childers, Brooks A.; Smith, G. L.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Thomas, Susan

1996-11-01

179

Enhancing Decision Making in the Energy Sector Using Space-Based Earth Observations: A GEO and CEOS Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observations from space are playing an increasing role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, spaceborne observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations to improve solar energy resource assessment globally. As one of the nine Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of policy and management decision making in the energy sector employing Earth observations and related models is being conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS supports the space-based activities of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), contributing directly to GEO work plan tasks supporting the energy societal benefit area. We describe several projects being conducted by CEOS member agencies, including NASA, to engage and partner with end-user energy decision makers to enhance their decision support systems using space-based observations. These prototype projects have been pursued through the GEO Energy Community of Practice and, more recently, in collaboration with the CEOS Energy societal benefit area. Several case studies exhibiting the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment, improve the forecast of space-weather impacts on the power grid, and augment integrated assessment modeling studies for energy technology scenario evaluation are discussed. In addition, ongoing activities to engage stakeholders in other Federal agencies, industry, and academia are described.

Eckman, R. S.; Stackhouse, P. W.

2009-12-01

180

On-orbit solar calibration methods using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3-<100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-<12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Recently, (October 2011) the sixth instrument was launched on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (Suomi NPP) Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of the total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx (SIO2 for PFM). Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration contrasting procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the eleven years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than a fixed azimuth rotating elevation scan will be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra, Aqua, and Suomi NPP CERES instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2012-09-01

181

Photovoltaic power system for satellite Earth stations in remote areas: Project status and design description  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photovoltaic power system which will be installed at a remote location in Indonesia to provide power for a satellite Earth station and a classroom for video and audio teleconferences are described. The Earth station may also provide telephone service to a nearby village. The use of satellite communications for development assistance applications and the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic engine generator power system for remote satellite Earth stations are demonstrated. The Indonesian rural satellite project is discussed and the photovoltaic power system is described.

Delombard, R.

182

Anomalous orbital-energy changes observed during spacecraft flybys of earth.  

PubMed

We report and characterize anomalous orbital-energy changes observed during six Earth flybys by the Galileo, NEAR, Cassini, Rosetta, and MESSENGER spacecraft. These anomalous energy changes are consistent with an empirical prediction formula which is proportional to the total orbital energy per unit mass and which involves the incoming and outgoing geocentric latitudes of the asymptotic spacecraft velocity vectors. We use this formula to predict a potentially detectable flyby velocity increase of less than 1 mm/s for a second Rosetta flyby on November 13, 2007. PMID:18352689

Anderson, John D; Campbell, James K; Ekelund, John E; Ellis, Jordan; Jordan, James F

2008-03-03

183

Fluoride technology for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth metals  

SciTech Connect

Unique specific properties of rare-earth metals (REMs) are to a large extent responsible for the technical progress in many branches of industry, science, and technology. A new fluoride procedure for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth and transition metals has been proposed.

Buinovskii, A.S.; Sofronov, V.L.; Chizhikov, V.S.; Shtefan, Yu.P. [and others

1995-10-20

184

Design of a Slab Waveguide Multiaperture Fourier Spectrometer for Water Vapor Measurements in Earth's Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concept, theory and design of a new type of waveguide device, a multiaperture Fourier-transform planar waveguide spectrometer[1], implemented as a prototype instrument is pre-sented. The spectrometer's objective is to demonstrate the ability of the new slab waveguide technology for application in remote sensing instruments[2]. The spectrometer will use a limb viewing configuration to detect the 1.36um waveband allowing concentrations of water vapor in earth's atmosphere to be measured[3]. The most challenging aspects of the design, assembly and calibration are presented. Focus will be given to the effects of packaging the spectrometer and interfacing to the detector array. Stress-induced birefringence will affect the performance of the waveguides, therefore the design of a stress-free mounting over a range of temperatures is important. Spectral retrieval algo-rithms will have to correct for expected fabrication errors in the waveguides. Data processing algorithms will also be developed to correct for non-uniformities of input brightness through the array, making use of MMI output couplers to capture both the in-phase and anti-phase interferometer outputs. A performance assessment of an existing breadboard spectrometer will demonstrate the capability of the instrument. REFERENCES 1. M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Multiaper-n ture planar waveguide spectrometer formed by arrayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Expr. 15(26), 18176-18189 (2007). 2. M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. n Lapointe, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Slab waveguiode spatial heterodyne spectrom-eters for remote sensing from space," Optical sensors 2009. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7356 (2009)., pp. 73560V-73560V-7 (2009). 3. A. Scott, M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, n B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Micro-interferometer with high throughput for remote sensing." MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems VIII. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7208 (2009)., pp. 72080G-72080G-7 (2009).

Sinclair, Kenneth; Florja?czyk, Miros?aw; Solheim, Brian; Scott, Alan; Quine, Ben; Cheben, Pavel

185

Path of the solar wind energy into the Earth s magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar wind MHD generator is an unique energy source for all magnetospheric processes. The field-aligned currents directly transport the energy and momentum of the solar wind plasma to the Earth's ionosphere. The magnetospheric lobe and plasma sheet convection generated by the solar wind is another magnetospheric energy source. Plasma sheet particles and cold ionospheric polar wind ions are accelerated by convection electric field in the nightside magnetosphere. After energetic particle precipitation into upper atmosphere the premier solar wind energy transfer into ionosphere and atmosphere. This way of energy transfer can include the tail lobe magnetic field energy storage connected with the increasing of the tail current during southward IMF. After that the magnetospheric substorm occurs. The model calculations of the magnetospheric energy give possibility to determine the ground state of the magnetosphere, and to calculate relative contributions of tail currents, ring currents and field--aligned currents to the magnetospheric energy as well as the contributions to onground magnetic disturbances. The magnetospheric substorms and storms manifest that the permanent solar wind energy transfer ways are not enough for covering of solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere. Nonlinear explosive processes are necessary for energy transmission into ionosphere and atmosphere. Main conclusion tell us that the field--aligned currents are important contributors to magnetospheric energy transformations. For understanding a relation between substorms and storm it is necessary to take into account that both of them are the concurrent energy transferring ways. To test of the model' results a magnetospheric response to the CME-driven shocks that impinged on the Earth's magnetopause on 10 January 1997 and 28 September 1998 are studied.

Alexeev, I.

186

The variations of geomagnetic energy and solar irradiance and their impacts on Earth's upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to understand and estimate the energy inputs to the upper atmosphere, in order to provide accurate calculation and prediction of the thermospheric neutral density, which is important for satellite orbital determination. The primary energy sources of Earth's upper atmosphere are the solar irradiance and geomagnetic energy including Joule heating and particle precipitation. Various data (OMNI2, CHAMP, DMSP) and models (SOLAR2000, FISM, Weimer05, AMIE, NCAR TIE-GCM) are utilized to investigate the variations of energy inputs and their influences on the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere system, with focus on the wavelength dependence of solar irradiance enhancement during are events, the geomagnetic energy associated with high-speed solar wind streams, the altitudinal distribution of Joule heating in different solar conditions, and the variation of solar irradiance and geomagnetic energy inputs during last solar cycle.

Huang, Yanshi

2012-10-01

187

Evaluating the design of an earth radiation budget instrument with system simulations. Part 2: Minimization of instantaneous sampling errors for CERES-I  

SciTech Connect

Much of the new record of broadband earth radiation budget satellite measurements to be obtained during the late 1990s and early twenty-first century will come from the dual-radiometer Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-I) flown aboard sun-synchronous polar orbiters. Simulation studies conducted in this work for an early afternoon satellite orbit indicate that spatial root-mean-square (rms) sampling errors of instantaneous CERES-I shortwave flux estimates will range from about 8.5 to 14.0 W/m on a 2.5 deg latitude and longitude grid resolution. Rms errors in longwave flux estimates are only about 20% as large and range from 1.5 to 3.5 W/sq m. These results are based on an optimal cross-track scanner design that includes 50% footprint overlap to eliminate gaps in the top-of-the-atmosphere coverage, and a `smallest` footprint size to increase the ratio in the number of observations lying within to the number of observations lying on grid area boundaries. Total instantaneous measurement error also depends on the variability of anisotropic reflectance and emission patterns and on retrieval methods used to generate target area fluxes. Three retrieval procedures from both CERES-I scanners (cross-track and rotating azimuth plane) are used.

Stowe, L.; Hucek, R.; Ardanuy, P.; Joyce, R. [NOAA, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Research and Data Systems Corporation, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1994-10-01

188

Performance of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to provide accurate measurements for the long-term monitoring of Earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Model 5, the sixth of the CERES instrument was launched aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011 and it has started the Earth-viewing measurements on January 26, 2012. The CERES instrument with the three scanning sensors measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to <100 microns with Total sensor and 8 to 12 micron region with Window sensor. The pre-launch accuracy goal for the CERES instrument measurements is to have the emitted longwave radiances within 0.5% and the shortwave radiances within 1.0%. An accurate determination of the radiometric gains and spectral responsivity of CERES FM5 sensors was accomplished through rigorous calibrations using the primary sources. Post-launch evaluation of the sensor performance consists of sensor calibrations with the on-board sources and the solar diffuser called Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The calibration results using onboard sources are also compared to pre-launch values which serve as a traceability standard to carry the ground determined sensor radiometric gains to orbit. Several validation studies utilising targets such as tropical ocean and deep convective clouds are performed as part of the Cal/Val protocol. The scan elevation offset in the sensor measurement will be determined from the spacecraft pitch manuveur activity viewing the deep space. This paper covers the early-orbit checkout activities and the overall performance of the CERES-FM5 instrument. The postlaunch calibration and the validation results from the instrument are presented.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Hess, Phillip C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Smith, Nathaniel P.; Timcoe, Mark G.; Shankar, Mohan; Walikainen, Dale R.

2012-09-01

189

A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

190

Coupled experiment\\/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an approach to design radiation-hardened rare earth -doped fibers and amplifiers. This methodology combines testing experiments on these devices with particle swarm optimization (PSO) calculations. The composition of Er\\/Yb-doped phosphosilicate fibers was improved by introducing Cerium inside their cores. Such composition strongly reduces the amplifier radiation sensitivity, limiting its degradation: we observed a gain decreasing from 19 dB

S. Girard; L. Mescia; M. Vivona; A. Laurent; Y. Ouerdane; C. Marcandella; F. Prudenzano; A. Boukenter; T. Robin; P. Paillet; V. Goiffon; B. Cadier; M. Cannas; R. Boscaino

2011-01-01

191

Jeffrey Energy Center: design features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kansas Power and Light Company's plans for the Jeffrey Energy Center are discussed. The JEC project is planned to include four duplicate units of 700,000 kW each to go into service, one in each spring of 1978, 1980, 1982, and 1984. The Center is located on a 12,500-acre tract that will include a reservoir for cooling tower makeup water,

D. M. Miller; W. H. Jr. Tuppeny; J. S. Joyce

1976-01-01

192

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), Magsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) and Seasat land and ocean observation systems is being thoroughly tested, and some of these systems are now approaching operational use. Landsat multispectral images provide views of large areas of the Earth under uniform lighting conditions and can be obtained at a variety of scales and formats. Not only do the Landsat data provide highly useful images showing surficial materials and structures such as folds and faults, but also measurements and computer-derived ratios of the brightness of different rock types, alteration zones, and mineral associations. These data have led to the finding of a variety of new ore deposits. In addition, the combination of Landsat digital data and aeromagnetic data has extended the use of Landsat as an exploration tool which can be used to readily relate surface features to subsurface anomalies. Magsat data, now being collected, are helping refine information on major crustal anomalies that were first recognized during the analysis of POGO data. The more nearly circular orbit, lower altitude, and increased sophistication of its vector magnetometer enable Magsat to provide more precise information than POGO. Information of this type is required to develop crustal models. Although Magsat is designed to operate for only 4-8 months, the number of orbits that it should be able to make will be sufficient to accomplish its mission and to record a major magnetic storm expected in 1980. HCMM is a two-band visible to near-IR (0.55-1.1 ?m) and thermal infrared (10.2-12.5 ?m) system designed to measure reflected solar energy, determine the heat capacity of rocks and to monitor soil moisture, thermal effluents, plant canopy temperatures and snow cover. Launched in April 1978, it is in sun-synchronous, circular orbit at an altitude of 620 km. It is a relatively low-resolution system with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 500-600 m and a swath width of 716 km. However, the system is designed to detect objects in the range of 260°-340° K with a sensitivity (NE?T) of 0.4°K at 280°. Recording the thermal radiation of urban heat islands and high thermal inertia of quartzite strata in the Appalachian region are two examples of its land applications. Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

Carter, W. D.

193

Strategic design and refinement of Lewis acid-base catalysis by rare-earth-metal-containing polyoxometalates.  

PubMed

Efficient polyoxometalate (POM)-based Lewis acid-base catalysts of the rare-earth-metal-containing POMs (TBA(6)RE-POM, RE = Y(3+), Nd(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Tb(3+), or Dy(3+)) were designed and synthesized by reactions of TBA(4)H(4)[?-SiW(10)O(36)] (TBA = tetra-n-butylammonium) with RE(acac)(3) (acac = acetylacetonato). TBA(6)RE-POM consisted of two silicotungstate units pillared by two rare-earth-metal cations. Nucleophilic oxygen-enriched surfaces of negatively charged POMs and the incorporated rare-earth-metal cations could work as Lewis bases and Lewis acids, respectively. Consequently, cyanosilylation of carbonyl compounds with trimethylsilyl cyanide ((TMS)CN) was efficiently promoted in the presence of the rare-earth-metal-containing POMs via the simultaneous activation of coupling partners on the same POM molecules. POMs with larger metal cations showed higher catalytic activities for cyanosilylation because of the higher activation ability of C?O bonds (higher Lewis acidities) and sterically less hindered Lewis acid sites. Among the POM catalysts examined, the neodymium-containing POM showed remarkable catalytic performance for cyanosilylation of various kinds of structurally diverse ketones and aldehydes, giving the corresponding cyanohydrin trimethylsilyl ethers in high yields (13 substrates, 94-99%). In particular, the turnover frequency (714,000 h(-1)) and the turnover number (23,800) for the cyanosilylation of n-hexanal were of the highest level among those of previously reported catalysts. PMID:22672013

Suzuki, Kosuke; Sugawa, Midori; Kikukawa, Yuji; Kamata, Keigo; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

2012-06-06

194

Mechanisms of Earth activity forsed by external celestial bodies:energy budjet and nature of cyclicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In given report we discuss tidal and non-tidal mechanisms of forced tectonic (endogenous) activity of the Earth caused by gravitational attraction of the Moon, Sun and the planets. On the base of the classical solution of the problem of elasticity for model of the Earth with concentric mass distribution the evaluations of the tidal energy and power of Earth lunar-solar deformations, including their joint effect, were obtained. Important role of the joint energetic effect of rotational deformation of the Earth with lunar and solar tides was illustrated. Gravitational interaction of the Moon and Sun with non-spherical, non-homogeneous shells of the Earth generates big additional mechanical forces and moments of the interaction of the neighboring shells (rigid core, liquid core, mantle, lithosphere and separate plates). Acting of these forces and moments in the different time scales on the corresponding sells generates cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative translational displacements and small relative rotational oscillations of the shells. In geological period of time it leads to a fundamental tectonic reconstruction of the Earth. These additional forces and moments of the cyclic celestial-mechanical nature produce cyclic deformations of the all layers of the body and organize and control practically all natural processes. The additional force between mantle and core is cyclic and characterized by the wide basis of frequencies typical for orbital motions (of the Sun, Moon and planets), for rotational motion of the Earth, Moon and Sun and for many from observed natural processes. The problem about small relative translatory-rotary motion of the two shells separated by the thin viscous-elastic layer is studied. The differential equations of motion were obtained and have been studied in particular cases (plane motion of system; case of two axisymmetrical interacting shells and oth.) by approximate methods of small parameter and methods of averaging. Some regimes of the relative translatory-rotary motions of the shells were described in analytical form. Wide set observed geodynamical and geophysical phenomena can be illustrated as results or as reflections of the small and slow relative displacements of the shells in corresponding time-scales. Barkin's work was accepted and financed by RFBR grant 02-05-64176 and by grant SAB2000-0235 of Ministry of Education of Spain (Secretaria de Estado de Educacion y Universidades).

Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

2003-04-01

195

Energy Conscious Design in Schools of Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major findings are summarized of an investigation of energy design teaching in schools of architecture, which led to recommendations described in this article addressed to theoretical and inspirational models of design teaching, rather than to technical courses. Available from: ACSA, 1735 New York Ave., Washington, D.C. 20006. (Author/LBH)

Villecco, Marguerite

1977-01-01

196

National Energy Information System: Detailed Conceptual Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual design of the National Enrgy Information System (NEIS) is presented. The existing energy data situation is reviewed and the basic approach to the design of NEIS is explained. The NEIS goals are analyzed and the NEIS user requirements in ter...

M. Fiorello M. Lutz S. Morris M. Shaw

1978-01-01

197

Energy information system for atrium design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main topic of this thesis is a presentation and discussion of ISOLDE'S ATRIUM, a computer tool for the design of the energy aspect of atrium buildings. Important issues that are presented are representation of knowledge about the energy aspect of atri...

I. H. Bryn

1992-01-01

198

Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)|

Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

1988-01-01

199

Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the slope stability and landslide propensity of several hydroelectric plant earth dams throughout the Soviet Union from the standpoint of slide theory and compares the research of several Soviet institutions into this problem with existing standards and recommendations on dam stability and reliability. The comparisons are made for earth dams having a soft ground foundation under static loading conditions. Applicable properties are discussed for a wide range of soils and rocks including clays, loams, sands, alluvials, and soft and hard gravels. Seismic effects are not discussed.

Krasil'nikov, N.A.

1987-11-01

200

Breaking the low phonon energy barrier for laser cooling in rare-earth doped hosts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to cool rare earth doped solids with optical super-radiance (SR) is presented. SR is the coherent, sharply directed spontaneous emission of photons by a system excited with a pulsed laser. We consider an Yb3+ doped ZBLAN sample pumped at the wavelength 1015nm with a rectangular pulsed source with a power of ~700W and duration of 20ns. The intensity of the SR is proportional to the square of the number of excited ions. This unique feature of SR permits an increase in the rate of the cooling process in comparison with the traditional laser cooling of the rare earth doped solids with anti-Stokes spontaneous incoherent radiation (fluorescence). This scheme overcomes the limitation of using only low phonon energy glasses for laser cooling.

Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

2011-02-01

201

Monitoring the Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sky Using Earth Occultation with GLAST GBM  

SciTech Connect

Long term all-sky monitoring of the 20 keV - 2 MeV gamma-ray sky using the Earth occultation technique was demonstrated by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The principles and techniques used for the development of an end-to-end earth occultation data analysis system for BATSE can be extended to the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), resulting in multiband light curves and time-resolved spectra in the energy range 8 keV to above 1 MeV for known gamma-ray sources and transient outbursts, as well as the discovery of new sources of gamma-ray emission. In this paper we describe the application of the technique to the GBM. We also present the expected sensitivity for the GBM.

Case, G. L. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States); Wilson-Hodge, C. A. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Cherry, M. L. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Kippen, R. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ling, J. C.; Radocinski, R. G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wheaton, W. A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2007-07-12

202

GeoWall: Stereo Projection Systems Designed for Earth Science Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past year, advances in projection technology and consumer-grade computer game technology have reduced the cost of stereo projection systems to a level that allows this technology to be used in the classroom. Stereo projection systems have remarkable potential for any educational discipline that deals with complex spatial relationships (engineering, physics, astronomy, etc.), but the implications for earth science

P. Morin; K. C. Kirkby; P. Van Keken; J. Leigh; S. J. Reynolds; B. Davis; R. Burdick; L. Schumann

2001-01-01

203

A design research for hybrid excitation rare earth permanent magnet synchronous generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new type of generator, the hybrid excitation rare earth permanent magnet synchronous generator (HESG), which can regulate the PM generator's output voltage, is presented. This hybrid excited generator is composed of two parts: the main is the same as the PM generator; the other is just like the electrical magnetic generator. Both parts share one armature

Dou Yiping; Chen Haizhen

2001-01-01

204

Trajectory design for a lunar mapping and near-Earth-asteroid flyby mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August, 1994, the unusual asteroid (1620) Geographos will pass very close to the Earth. This provides one of the best opportunities for a low-cost asteroid flyby mission that can be achieved with the help of a gravity assist from the Moon during the years 1994 and 1995. A Geographos flyby mission, including a lunar orbiting phase, was recommended to the Startegic Defense Initiative (SDI) Office when they were searching for ideas for a deep-space mission to test small imaging systems and other lightweight technologies. The goals for this mission, called Clementine, were defined to consist of a comprehensive lunar mapping phase before leaving the Earth-Moon system to encounter Geographos. This paper describes how the authors calculated a trajectory that met the mission goals within a reasonable total Delta-V budget. The paper also describes some refinements of the initially computed trajectory and alternative trajectories were investigated. The paper concludes with a list of trajectories to fly by other near-Earth asteroids during the two years following the Geographos opportunity. Some of these could be used if the Geographos schedule can not be met. If the 140 deg phase angle of the Geographos encounter turns out to be too risky, a flyby of (2120) Tantalus in January, 1995, has a much more favorable approach illumination. Tantalus apparently can be reached from the same lunar orbit needed to get to Geographos. However, both the flyby speed and distance from the Earth are much larger for Tantalus than for Geographos.

Dunham, David W.; Farquhar, Robert W.

205

Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

2010-01-01

206

Pyroelectric Detector Designs for a Fabry-Perot Type Earth Infra-Red Horizon Sensor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibilities of using pyroelectric arrays in Fabry-Perot type IR earth sensors were investigated. Digital sensors, in which the elements of a linear array are interrogated in turn, and analog-digital sensors, in which further signal processing is use...

D. E. Charlton

1975-01-01

207

Electronically excited alkaline earth oxides: Chemical production and collisional energy transfer processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collaborative experimental and theoretical study both of the reactions of electronically excited alkaline earth atoms with molecular oxidants and of inelastic and reactive processes involving open-shell atoms and molecules has been carried out. The branching ratios for formation of ground and excited state products from the reactions of both ground state (1S) and metastable electronically excited (3Po, 1D, or 3D) Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba were determined by chemiluminescence and laser fluorescence measurements. These results were compared wtih adiabatic correlation predictions. It was also possible to set bounds on the CaO and MgO dissociation energies. A semi-empirical representation was developed for the description of the ion-pair (M(+)O2(-)) potential energy surfaces for both alkali and alkaline earth atoms. A semi classical dipolar model was developed for the calculation of collisional interelectronic energy transfer rates between the low-lying X1sigma(+), a 3Pi, and A 1Pi states of CaO and used to interpret the observed pressure dependence of the Ca (3Po) + N2O chemiluminescence spectrum. This model was also extended to energy transfer in MgO.

Dagdigian, P. J.; Alexander, M. H.

1985-02-01

208

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols over the Tropical Oceans from the Clouds and the Earth?s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Satellite Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine months of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)\\/Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) broadband fluxes combined with the TRMM visible infrared scanner (VIRS) high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the Tropics of 4.6

Norman G. Loeb; Seiji Kato

2002-01-01

209

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design  

SciTech Connect

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

Monty Lehmann

2011-07-01

210

Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires federal facilities to be built to achieve 30% energy savings over the 2004 International Energy Code or American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004, as appropriate. The Engineer Research and Development Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing target energy budgets and design guides with a prescriptive path to achieve 30% energy savings over a baseline built to the minimum requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This project covers eight building types in 15 U.S. climate zones. The building types include barracks, administrative buildings, a maintenance facility, a dining facility, a child development center, and an Army reserve center. All the design guides will be completed by the end of 2008. This paper focuses on the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing (UEPH). The UEPH buildings are similar to apartment buildings with double occupancy units. For each building type, a baseline was established following typical Army construction and ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix G modeling rules. Improvements in energy performance were achieved for the envelope using the NREL optimization platform for commercial buildings and previous ASHRAE design guides. Credit was also taken for tightening the building envelope by using proposed envelope leakage rates from ASHRAE and the Army. Two HVAC systems, including a dedicated outdoor air system, were considered. The final results achieved 29% site energy savings in two climates and greater than 30% site energy savings in all other climates. Results of this study were implemented in the Army's standard RFP process for new UEPH barracks construction in late 2007. New UEPH design/construction begun in 2008 and beyond will require the contractor to design and construct a UEPH facility that meets the target energy budget developed in this study using either a custom design or the design guide's prescriptive path developed as part of this study.

Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

2008-01-01

211

Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the Earth and Jupiter.  

PubMed

The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source--the Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (> or = 100 keV) and proton (> or = 1 MeV) populations--the dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4th largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are -0.1 krad(Si) d(-1) at the geosynchronous orbit and -30 krad(Si) d((-1) at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield--a factor of -300 between the two planets. PMID:16604595

Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B

2005-01-01

212

Comparison of Earth Science Achievement Between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area\\u000a of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students’\\u000a achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of this study were fourfold\\u000a as follows: (1) to examine

Huang-Ching Wu; Chun-Yen Chang; Chia-Li D. Chen; Ting-Kuang Yeh; Cheng-Chueh Liu

2010-01-01

213

Analytic design of satellite constellations for zonal earth coverage using inclined circular orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of identifying the minimum number of satellites in circular, inclined orbit constellations at the same altitude which provide continuous, single, and redundant coverage for global, polar cap, equatorial, and zonal areas of the earth's surface is solved analytically in closed form using street-of-coverage techniques with arbitrary interorbit plane phasing of satellites. The results are compared with optimal polar constellations and optimal inclined constellations as defined by Walker (1977) for single, double, triple, and quadruple coverage requirements.

Rider, L.

1986-03-01

214

Energy-Efficient System-Level Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of current and futureintegrated systems requires a paradigm shift towards component-based design technologies\\u000a that enable the integration of large computational cores, memory hierarchies and communication channels as well as system\\u000a and application software onto a single chip. Moving from a set of case studies, we give an overview of energy-efficient system-\\u000a level design, emphasizing a component-based approach.

Luca Benini; Giovanni De Micheli

215

Low-energy neutrino factory design  

SciTech Connect

The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

Ankenbrandt, C.; /Fermilab /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Bogacz, S.A.; /Jefferson Lab; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

2009-07-01

216

Energy recovery transport design for PKU FEL  

SciTech Connect

A free-electron laser based on superconducting linac is under construction in Peking University(PKU). To increase FEL output power, energy recovery is chosen as one of the most potential and popular way. The design of beam transport system for energy recovery is presented, which is suitable for Peking University construction area. Especially, a chicane structure is chosen to change path length at +/-18 degree and R56 in the arc is adjusted for fully bunch compression.

Guimei Wang; Yu-Chiu Chao; KUI Zhao; Xiangyang Lu; Jiejia Zhuang; Chuyu Liu; Zhenchao Liu; Jiaer Chen

2007-06-25

217

Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span,…

Penuel, William R.; McWilliams, Harold; McAuliffe, Carla; Benbow, Ann E.; Mably, Colin; Hayden, Margaret M.

2009-01-01

218

Performance assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard Terra and Aqua spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometer sensors on CERES measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to <100 micrometer) and in 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. Of the five CERES instruments that are currently in operation, four of the CERES instruments (Flight Models1 through 4) fly aboard Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua platforms with two instruments aboard each spacecraft, in 705 KM sun-synchronous orbits of 10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equatorial crossing time. A rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol comprising of various studies was developed to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the CERES instruments. The in-flight calibration of CERES sensors are carried out using the internal calibration module (ICM) comprising of blackbody sources and quartzhalogen tungsten lamp, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration results are instrumental in determining the changes in CERES sensors' gains after launch from the prelaunch determined values and the on-orbit gain variations. In addition to the broadband response changes derived from the on-board blackbody and the tungsten lamp, the shortwave and the total sensors show a spectrally dependent drop in responsivity in the shorter wavelegth region below one micron that were brought to light through validation studies. The spectrally dependent changes were attributed to the instrument operational modes and the corrections were derived using the sensor radiance comparisons. This paper covers the on-orbit behavior of CERES sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the determination of the sensor response changes utilising the in-flight calibration and the radiance measurement comparisons viewing various targets. The corrections for the sensor response changes were incorporated in the radiance calculations of CERES Edition3 data products.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Shankar, M.; Smith, N. M.; Loeb, N. G.; Walikainen, D. R.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, R. S.; Smith, N. P.

2013-09-01

219

Climate-induced tree mortality: earth system consequences for carbon, energy, and water exchanges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere that could present hazards to current earth system function. Terrestrial ecosystems, and in particular forests, exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets. Widespread, rapid, drought- and infestation-triggered tree mortality is now emerging as a phenomenon affecting forests globally and may be linked to increasing temperatures and drought frequency and severity. We demonstrate the link between climate-sensitive tree mortality and risks of altered earth system function though carbon, water, and energy exchange. Tree mortality causes a loss of carbon stocks from an ecosystem and a reduction sequestration capacity. Recent research has shown that the 2000s pinyon pine die-off in the southwest US caused the loss of 4.6 Tg of aboveground carbon stocks from the region in 5 years, far exceeding carbon loss from other disturbances. Widespread tree mortality in British Columbia resulted in the loss of 270 Tg of carbon, shifting affected forestland from a carbon sink to a source, and influenced Canadian forest policy on carbon stocks. Tree mortality, as an immediate loss of live tree cover, directly alters albedo, near-ground solar radiation, and the relative contributions of evaporation and transpiration to total evapotranspiration. Near-ground solar radiation, an important ecosystem trait affecting soil heating and water availability, increased regionally following the pinyon pine die-off. Conversely, forest canopy loss with tree mortality, is expected to increase regional albedo, especially for forests which experience winter snow cover, potentially offsetting the climate forcing of terrestrial carbon releases to the atmosphere. Initial hydrological response to die-off is likely a reduction in evapotranspiration, which can increase subsurface flow, runoff, groundwater recharge, and streamflow. Under some circumstances there may also be increased flood risks. We hypothesized thresholds of mean annual precipitation and canopy cover reduction identified from the forest harvesting literature as minima that must be exceeded for die-off to noticeably affect hydrologic processes. We note exceptions to these thresholds when snowmelt dominates the watershed hydrology and when mortality affects a single species with a unique hydrologic role. Management options for mitigating die-off effects on ecosystem and earth system processes and implementing post-die-off restoration will likely be limited and costly, requiring ecological and societal adaptation in many areas. As such, climate-induced tree mortality poses a significant risk to the current earth system function through altered exchanges of carbon, energy, and water between the land surface and atmosphere.

Adams, H. D.; Macalady, A.; Breshears, D. D.; Allen, C. D.; Luce, C.; Royer, P. D.; Huxman, T. E.

2010-12-01

220

Energy conservation in housing design using solar energy, mechanical system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the first experimental full-scale house built by the Solar Energy Research Center of Baghdad to be heated and cooled by solar energy. The various architectural and environmental considerations which entered into the design process are discussed, as well as the range of passive techniques examined for their compatibility with the local climate and their ability to optimize the energy efficiency of the house. The mechanical systems which were ultimately implemented are described.

Bakir, N.M.W.

1985-01-01

221

Design of Energy-Friendly Glass Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incumbent fiberglass compositions rely on decades of commercial experience. From a compositional point of view, many of these melts require more energy than needed in their production, or emit toxic effluents into the environment. This chapter reviews the design of energy- and/or environmentally friendly E-glass, HT-glass, ECR-glass, A-glass, and C-glass compositions, which have lower viscosities or fiber-forming temperatures and therefore require less energy in a commercial furnace than the respective incumbent compositions and/or do not contain ingredients which are of environmental concern.

Wallenberger, Frederick T.

222

Correction of drifts in the measurements of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System scanning thermistor bolometer instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation into the role of clouds and radiation in the Earth's climate system. Four CERES scanning thermistor bolometer instruments are currently in orbit. Flight model 1 (FM1) and 2 (FM2) are aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite and FM3 and FM4 are aboard the EOS Aqua satellite.

Peter L. Spence; Kory J. Priestley; Edward A. Kizer; Susan Thomas; Denise L. Cooper; Dale R. Walikainen

2004-01-01

223

The radiation and energy budgets of the earth using both ground-based and satellite-derived values of total cloud cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation and energy budgets of the earth are calculated for two models of the cloud cover, one based on observations made at the earth's surface and one deduced from satellite observations. The albedo, outgoing terrestrial radiation, global solar radiation at the earth's surface, evaporation, and precipitation are among the many parameters calculated.

D. V. Hoyt

1976-01-01

224

Design of Energy-Responsive Commercial Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book is specifically written to show the benefits and liabilities of existing energy-related alternatives on a whole-building level. Many case studies and examples are presented to summarize the abilities and impact on design of existing alternative ...

S. Ternoey L. Bickle C. Robbins R. Busch K. McCord

1984-01-01

225

Violation of energy bounds in designer gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We continue our study of the stability of designer gravity theories, where one considers anti-de Sitter gravity coupled to certain tachyonic scalars with boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. It has recently been argued that there is a lower bound on the conserved energy in terms of the global minimum of W, if the scalar potential arises from

Thomas Hertog

2007-01-01

226

Rare earth-cobalt hard magnetic nanoparticles and nanoflakes by high-energy milling.  

PubMed

High-energy ball milling has been shown to be a promising method for large-scale fabrication of rare earth-transition metal nanoparticles. In this work, we report crystallographically anisotropic SmCo(5), PrCo(5) and Sm(2)(Co, Fe)(17) nanoparticles (particle size smaller than 10 nm) obtained by surfactant-assisted ball milling and study their size and properties as a function of the milling conditions. By milling nanocrystalline precursor alloys, we obtained SmCo(5) platelets (flakes) approximately 100 nm thick with an aspect ratio as high as 10(2)-10(3). The unusual shape evolution of this brittle material is attributed to its increased plasticity in the nanocrystalline state. The nanoflakes are susceptible to re-crystallization annealing and exhibit a room-temperature coercivity of up to 19 kOe. The successful fabrication of rare earth-cobalt nanoparticles and ultra-thin flakes provides hope for the development of nanocomposite permanent magnets with an enhanced energy product. PMID:21386419

Gabay, A M; Akdogan, N G; Marinescu, M; Liu, J F; Hadjipanayis, G C

2010-03-30

227

Rare earth-cobalt hard magnetic nanoparticles and nanoflakes by high-energy milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy ball milling has been shown to be a promising method for large-scale fabrication of rare earth-transition metal nanoparticles. In this work, we report crystallographically anisotropic SmCo5, PrCo5 and Sm2(Co, Fe)17 nanoparticles (particle size smaller than 10 nm) obtained by surfactant-assisted ball milling and study their size and properties as a function of the milling conditions. By milling nanocrystalline precursor alloys, we obtained SmCo5 platelets (flakes) approximately 100 nm thick with an aspect ratio as high as 102-103. The unusual shape evolution of this brittle material is attributed to its increased plasticity in the nanocrystalline state. The nanoflakes are susceptible to re-crystallization annealing and exhibit a room-temperature coercivity of up to 19 kOe. The successful fabrication of rare earth-cobalt nanoparticles and ultra-thin flakes provides hope for the development of nanocomposite permanent magnets with an enhanced energy product.

Gabay, A. M.; Akdogan, N. G.; Marinescu, M.; Liu, J. F.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

2010-04-01

228

Experimental study of earth batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report successful design, construction and operation of an earth battery as an alternate energy source for low power electric supply applications. Different combinations of metallic and non-metallic solid, liquid and gas electrodes were investigated for maximum potential difference. In view of robust and cost effective use of this natural power technology by unskilled village consumers most suitable combinations of

N. Khan; Z. Saleem; N. Abas

2008-01-01

229

Design and Performance Analysis of GPS Based Precise Relative Navigation for Rendezvous and Formation Flying Missions in Low Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise relative GPS navigation is essential technology for rendezvous and formation flying of spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit. Key design issues of precise relative GPS navigation software are studied and a novel formulation is proposed for the mission which requires high accuracy when the separation distance is up to several km. The navigation filter estimates float navigation solutions by extended Kalman filter with elaborate dynamics models, and resolves ambiguities of integer carrier phase biases to achieve high accuracy fix navigation solutions. A relative navigation software with the proposed formulation is implemented and evaluated in two different ways. One is a test using spacebourne GPS receivers and a GPS signal simulator to evaluate the performance and sensitivity of the software against variation of parameters. The other is a test using actual telemetry data from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to demonstrate the software performance. The design, implementation, and results of the evaluation are presented and discussed on this paper.

Yamamoto, Toru

230

Spaceship Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

Science Netlinks;

2002-09-10

231

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), A Review: Past, Present and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmo-sphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward surface shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes, the radiation fluxes 500 mb and 250 mb altitude. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. Another application of the CERES scanning radiometers is special operations in which the azimuth of the scan plane of a CERES instrument is programmed in order to line up with ground stations or other spacecraft instruments. This capability has been used to compare radiances with those of other spacecraft instruments and with ground stations. One use of this ability has been to rotate a CERES instrument so as to scan in the same plane as a second instrument, as was done with a CERES instrument on both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft in order to compare radiance measurements. These compar-isons are needed in order to assure that any changes in the radiation budget record due to the change of instruments is understood and quantified and not attributed to a climate shift. The CEREinstrumentsaboardtheT erraandAquaspacecraf thaveservedwellpasstheirdesignlif etimes.ACERE onmissions.

Smith, G. Louis

232

Energy design for protein-protein interactions  

PubMed Central

Proteins bind to other proteins efficiently and specifically to carry on many cell functions such as signaling, activation, transport, enzymatic reactions, and more. To determine the geometry and strength of binding of a protein pair, an energy function is required. An algorithm to design an optimal energy function, based on empirical data of protein complexes, is proposed and applied. Emphasis is made on negative design in which incorrect geometries are presented to the algorithm that learns to avoid them. For the docking problem the search for plausible geometries can be performed exhaustively. The possible geometries of the complex are generated on a grid with the help of a fast Fourier transform algorithm. A novel formulation of negative design makes it possible to investigate iteratively hundreds of millions of negative examples while monotonically improving the quality of the potential. Experimental structures for 640 protein complexes are used to generate positive and negative examples for learning parameters. The algorithm designed in this work finds the correct binding structure as the lowest energy minimum in 318 cases of the 640 examples. Further benchmarks on independent sets confirm the significant capacity of the scoring function to recognize correct modes of interactions.

Ravikant, D. V. S.; Elber, Ron

2011-01-01

233

Hydrogeologic Controls on the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere - Chemolithotrophic Energy for Subsurface Life on Earth and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As exploration for gold, diamonds and base metals expand mine workings to depths of almost 3 km below the Earth's surface, the mines of the Canadian Shield provide a window into the deep biosphere as diverse, but to date less well-explored than the South African Gold Mines. To date investigations of the deep biosphere have, in most cases, focused on the marine subsurface, including deep sea sediments, hydrothermal vents, off-axis spreading centers and cold seeps. Yet the deep terrestrial subsurface hosted in the fracture waters of Archean Shield rocks provides an important analog and counterpoint to studies of the deep marine biosphere. Depending on the particular geologic and hydrogeologic setting, sites vary from those dominated by paleometeoric waters and microbial hydrocarbon production, to those in which H2 and hydrocarbon gases have been suggested to be a function of long-term accumulation of the products of water-rock interaction in the deepest, most saline fracture waters with residence times on the order of tens of millions of years. The hydrogeologically isolated fracture-controlled ground water system periodically generates steep redox gradients and chemical disequilibrium due to fracture opening, and episodic release of mM levels of H2 that support a redox driven microbial community of H2-utilizing sulfate reducers and methanogens. Exploration of these systems may provide information about the limits of the deep terrestrial biosphere, controls on the distribution of deep subsurface life, and the diversity of geochemical reactions that produce substrates on which microbiological communities at great depths survive. The geologically stable Precambrian cratons of Earth are arguably the closest analogs available to single-plate planets such as Mars. Studies of these Earth analogs imply that the habitability of the Martian crust might similarly not be restricted to sites of localized hydrothermal activity. While the presence of the Martian cryosphere and potential clathrates will affect the porosity and permeability, and net flux of gases from the Martian crust, the underlying principles of fracture-controlled energy sequestration and episodic release remain. Furthermore understanding the origin and distribution of biogenic and geologic sources of CH4 at these analog Earth sites will inform models and strategies for deciphering the origin of CH4 recently reported in the Martian atmosphere.

Sherwood Lollar, B.; Moran, J.; Tille, S.; Voglesonger, K.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Onstott, T.; Pratt, L.; Slater, G.

2009-05-01

234

Optimization methods for alternative energy system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study reports both new experimental data from the case studies and the benefits of using modified linear programming methods to account for the real nature of alternative energy design problems.

Reinhardt, Michael Henry

235

MS PHD'S PDP: Vision, Design, Implementation, and Outcomes of a Minority-Focused Earth System Sciences Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As minorities are predicted to comprise at least 33% of the US population by the year 2010, their representation in the STEM fields, including the ocean sciences, is still poorly established. In order to advance the goal of better decision making, the Ocean Sciences community must achieve greater levels of diversity in membership. To achieve this objective of greater diversity in the sciences, the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science® Professional Development Program (MS PHD'S PDP), which was launched in 2003, is supported via grants from NASA's Office of Earth Science, and NSF's Directorate for Geosciences. The MS PHD'S PDP is designed to provide professional and mentoring experiences that facilitate the advancement of minorities committed to achieving outstanding Earth System Science careers. The MS PHD'S PDP is structured in three phases, connected by engagement in a virtual community, continuous peer and mentor to mentee interactions, and the professional support necessary for ensuring the educational success of the student participants. Since the pilot program in 2003, the MSPHD'S PDP, housed at the University of South Florida's College of Marine Science, has produced 4 cohorts of students. Seventy-five have completed the program; of those 6 have earned their doctoral degrees. Of the 45 current participants 10 are graduate students in Marine Science and 15 are still undergraduates, the remaining 10 participants are graduate students in other STEM fields. Since the implementation of the MSPHD'S PDP a total of 87 students and 33 scientist mentors have become part of the MSPHD'S virtual community, helping to improve the learning environment for current and future participants as well as build a community of minority students that encourages each other to pursue their academic degrees.

Habtes, S. Y.; Mayo, M.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Williamson Whitney, V.

2007-05-01

236

The Pseudo Radiation Energy Amplifier (PREA) and the mean earth s ground temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the radiation balance diagram illustrating the IPCC reports one can estimate the power received by Earth from the sun at Pin = 342 W\\/m2 and the power consumed, remitted and reflected by the earth and its atmosphere at Pout = 599 kW\\/m2. It seems that the earth emits more power than it receives. The earth s ground mean temperature

Ahmed Boucenna

2008-01-01

237

Wavelength-stable rare earth-free green light-emitting diodes for energy efficiency.  

PubMed

Solid state lighting seeks to replace both, incandescent and fluorescent lighting by energy efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Just like compact fluorescent tubes, current white LEDs employ costly rare earth-based phosphors, a drawback we propose to overcome with direct emitting LEDs of all colors. We show the benefits of homoepitaxial LEDs on bulk GaN substrate for wavelength-stable green spectrum LEDs. By use of non-polar growth orientation we avoid big color shifts with drive current and demonstrate polarized light emitters that prove ideal for pairing with liquid crystal display modulators in back light units of television monitors. We further offer a comparison of the prospects of non-polar a- and m-plane growth over conventional c-plane growth. PMID:21747568

Wetzel, Christian; Detchprohm, Theeradetch

2011-07-01

238

Energy Conscious Design: Educational Facilities. [Brief No.] 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An energy task group of the American Institute of Architects discusses design features and options that educational facility designers can use to create an energy efficient school building. Design elements cover the building envelope, energy storage system, hydronic heating/cooling systems, solar energy collection, building orientation and shape,…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

239

Energy Conscious Design: Educational Facilities. [Brief No.] 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An energy task group of the American Institute of Architects discusses design features and options that educational facility designers can use to create an energy efficient school building. Design elements cover the building envelope, energy storage system, hydronic heating/cooling systems, solar energy collection, building orientation and shape,…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

240

CubeSat design for LEO-based Earth science missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2001 University of Washington Space Design class designed and developed a CubeSat platform to accomplish science objectives related to ionospheric modeling. Small satellites (between 1 and 15 kg) show great promise as a low-cost option to perform limited LEO science missions. This paper describes a CubeSat bus that supports two mission architectures based on two instrument packages. Both architectures

Stephen Waydo; Daniel Henry; Mark Campbell

2002-01-01

241

Performance stability of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument sensors on board the Aqua and Terra spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments measure the earth-reflected shortwave energy as well as the earth-emitted thermal energy, which are two components of the earth's energy budget. These measurements are made through four instruments on two spacecraft as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission - Flight Models 1 and 2 onboard the Terra spacecraft, and Flight Models 3 and 4 onboard the Aqua spacecraft. Each instrument comprises of three sensors that measure the radiances in different spectral regions- a shortwave channel that measures energy in the 0.3 to 5 micron wavelength band, a total channel that measures all the incident energy (0.3- <100 microns) and a window channel that measures the water-vapor window region of 8 to 12 microns. The required accuracy of the CERES sensors is achieved through pre-launch ground-based calibrations as well as on-orbit calibration activities. Onorbit calibration is carried out using the Internal Calibration Module (ICM) that consists of a quartz-halogen tungsten lamp, blackbodies, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration provides information about the change in the CERES sensors' broadband radiometric gains on-orbit from the pre-launch values. Several validation studies are conducted in order to monitor the behavior of the instruments in various spectral bands. The CERES Edition-3 data products incorporate the latest upgrades to the calibration techniques. In this paper, we present the on-orbit performance stability as well as some validation studies using the CERES Edition-3 data products from all four instruments.

Shankar, Mohan; Priestley, Kory; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip; Walikainen, Dale

2012-09-01

242

Design, microstructure, and high-temperature behavior of silicon nitride sintered with rate-earth oxides  

SciTech Connect

The processing-microstructure-property relations of silicon nitride ceramics sintered with rare-earth oxide additives have been investigated with the aim of improving their high-temperature behavior. The additions of the oxides of Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, or Yb were compositionally controlled to tailor the intergranular phase. The resulting microstructure consisted of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and a crystalline secondary phase of RE{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with a thin residual amorphous phase present at grain boundaries. The lanthanide oxides were found to be as effective as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in densifying Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, resulting in identical microstructures. The crystallization behavior of all six disilicates was similar, characterized by a limited nucleation and rapid growth mechanism resulting in large single crystals. Complete crystallization of the intergranular phase was obtained with the exception of a residual amorphous, observed at interfaces and believed to be rich in impurities, the cause of incomplete devitrification. The low resistance to oxidation of these materials was attributed to the minimization of amorphous phases via devitrification to disilicates, compatible with SiO{sub 2}, the oxidation product of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The strength retention of these materials at 1300{degrees}C was found to be between 80% and 91% of room-temperature strength, due to crystallization of the secondary phase and a residual but refractory amorphous grain-boundary phase. The creep behavior was found to be strongly dependent on residual amorphous phase viscosity as well as on the oxidation behavior, as evidenced by the nonsteady-state creep rates of all materials. 122 refs., 51 figs., 12 tabs.

Ciniculk, M.K. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

1991-08-01

243

MATLAB® and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

2012-04-01

244

High energy-intensity atomic oxygen beam source for low earth orbit materials degradation studies  

SciTech Connect

A high intensity (10/sup 19/O-atoms/s-sr) high energy (5 eV) source of oxygen atoms has been developed that produces a total fluence of 10/sup 22/ O-atoms/cm/sup 2/ in less than 100 hours of continuous operation at a distance of 15 cm from the source. The source employs a CW CO/sub 2/ laser sustained discharge to form a high temperature (15,000 K) plasma in the throat of a 0.3-mm diameter nozzle using 3--8 atmospheres of rare gas/O/sub 2/ mixtures. Visible and infrared photon flux levels of 1 watt/cm/sup 2/ have been measured 15 cm downstream of the source while vacuum UV (VUV) fluxes are comparable to that measured in low earth orbit. The reactions of atomic oxygen with kapton, Teflon, silver, and various coatings have been studied. The oxidation of kapton (reaction efficiency = 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/24/ cm /+-/ 50%) has an activation energy of 0.8 Kcal/mole over the temperature range of 25/degree/C to 100/degree/C at a beam energy of 1.5 eV and produces low molecular weight gas phase reaction products (H/sub 2/O, NO, CO/sub 2/). Teflon reacts with approx.0.1--0.2 efficiency to that of kapton at 25/degree/C and both surfaces show a rug-like texture after exposure to the O-atom beam. Angular scattering distribution measurements of O-atoms show a near cosine distribution from reactive surfaces indicating complete accommodation of the translational energy with the surface while a nonreactive surface (nickel oxide) shows specular-like scattering with 50% accommodation of the translational energy with the surface. A technique for simple on orbit chemical experiments using resistance measurements of coated silver strips is described. 9 figs.

Cross, J.B.; Blais, N.C.

1988-01-01

245

The World's Largest Experiment Manipulating Solar Energy Input To Earth Resumed In 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small amounts of solar-ultraviolet-energy absorbing gases such as ozone, SO2, and NO2 play an unusually large role warming the atmosphere. A mere 3 to 8 ppmv ozone at elevations of 15 to 50 km and associated exothermic chemical reactions warm the atmosphere >50oC, forming the stratosphere. All three molecules have an asymmetric top shape that, unlike linear molecules of CO2, forms a permanent electromagnetic dipole enhancing interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Planck’s postulate (Energy = a constant times frequency) implies that solar ultraviolet energy strongly absorbed by SO2 is 43 times greater than infrared energy radiated by earth and strongly absorbed by CO2. Solar energy in the blue visible spectrum and ultraviolet causes electronic transitions and an absorption spectrum that is a continuum, absorbing far more energy per unit gas than spectral line absorption of infrared energy caused by rotational and vibrational transitions. Absorption of electromagnetic energy by atmospheric gases increases rapidly with increasing frequency, an observation not accounted for by the use of specific heat in atmospheric models to link energy flux with temperature. While SO2 in the stratosphere is oxidized to a sulfuric acid aerosol that reflects sunlight, cooling the earth, SO2 in the troposphere is oxidized much more slowly than commonly assumed. Well-documented concentrations of tens of ppbv SO2 emitted by humans burning fossil fuels, especially coal, in northern mid-latitudes are contemporaneous, with suitable time delays for warming the ocean, with increased global warming during the 20th century, greatest by nearly a factor of two in the northern hemisphere. A decrease by 18% of anthropogenic SO2 emissions between 1979 and 2000 aimed at reducing acid rain had the unintended effect of reducing the global mean rate of temperature increase to zero by 1998. By 2003, global SO2 emissions began to rise sharply due to the rapid increase in number of new coal-burning power plants in Asia. The 20th century rate of increase in tropospheric methane also approached zero by 1998 but began to increase in 2007 as explained by SO2 reducing the oxidizing capacity and thus the troposphere’s ability to remove methane. SO2 does not last long in the atmosphere, but a continual and increasing flux causes increased concentrations. SO2 from China is traceable across the Pacific Ocean even to eastern America, perhaps playing a major role in the unusually high air temperatures in 2010. Atmospheric circulation in the northern hemisphere moves SO2 towards the pole where it is the primary cause of Arctic Haze. In polar regions, solar radiation travels longer path lengths through the atmosphere during longer summer days than in equatorial regions, contributing to the well-documented excessive global warming in the Arctic. The resumed increase in SO2 emissions since 2003 provides the world’s largest geoengineering experiment and an excellent chance to measure, especially in China and India, the effects of SO2 and NO2 on global warming. Technology exists to reduce SO2 emissions economically. The time has come to control this large geoengineering experiment in the hopes that we can minimize continued global warming.

Ward, P. L.

2010-12-01

246

Low-energy injector design for SSC  

SciTech Connect

An injector is being designed for SSC that will deliver 30 mA of H{sup {minus}} at 35 keV, matched to the RFQ input. The H{sup {minus}} ions are produced by a new rf-driven multicusp source that uses no cesium. The ions are extracted by a high-perveance accelerator designed to handle the large electron content of this type of source. The low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) uses electrostatic focusing; gas-neutralized magnetic focusing is ruled out because pulse lengths (7--35 {mu}s) are shorter than plasma buildup times and because pulse intervals are longer than plasma decay times. Plasma buildup is prevented by the LEBT electric fields, so the system is noise free and stable. The advantages of electrostatic LEBTs were demonstrated by a previous design tested at LBL, which showed negligible emittance growth, confirming the results of computer modeling. The object of our new LEBT design is to preserve the emittance of the rf-driven source, which is less than 0.01 {pi} mrad cm (normalized rms), and thereby produce a beam well within the SSC RFQ acceptance of 0.018 {pi} mrad cm.

Anderson, O.A.; Chan, C.F.; Leung, K.N.; Soroka, L.; Wells, R.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1992-04-01

247

A Design Based Research of an Earth Systems Based Environmental Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a model for the development of an environmentally oriented unit designed to be implemented as an integral part of the science core curriculum. The program's main goal is encouraging students at the junior high-school level to develop systems-thinking and environmental insight as a basis for environmental literacy. A…

Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir

2009-01-01

248

A Design Based Research of an Earth Systems Based Environmental Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a model for the development of an environmentally oriented unit designed to be implemented as an integral part of the science core curriculum. The program's main goal is encouraging students at the junior high-school level to develop systems-thinking and environmental insight as a basis for environmental literacy. A…

Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir

2009-01-01

249

Sustainable design in its simplest form : Lessons from the living villages of Fujian rammed earth houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aims of the study are to analyze the features of a socially self-contained society; to analyze the features of an environmentally sustainable society; and to generate a discussion on an indigenous approach towards the sustainable design of communities, particularly through the study of the round village for its unique form and performance in terms of sustainable construction.

Stephen Siu-Yiu Lau; Renato Garcia; Ying-Qing Ou; Man-Mo Kwok; Ying Zhang; Shao Jie Shen; Hitomi Namba

2005-01-01

250

The Dark Energy Survey CCD imager design  

SciTech Connect

The Dark Energy Survey is planning to use a 3 sq. deg. camera that houses a {approx} 0.5m diameter focal plane of 62 2kx4k CCDs. The camera vessel including the optical window cell, focal plate, focal plate mounts, cooling system and thermal controls is described. As part of the development of the mechanical and cooling design, a full scale prototype camera vessel has been constructed and is now being used for multi-CCD readout tests. Results from this prototype camera are described.

Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Guarino, V.; Kuk, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schultz, K.; Schmitt, R.L.; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U. /Argonne

2008-06-01

251

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Revised Eros Orbit Phase Trajectory Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trajectory design of the orbit phase of the NEAR mission involves a new process that departs significantly from those procedures used in previous missions. In most cases, a precise spacecraft ephemeris is designed well in advance of arrival at the target body. For NEAR, the uncertainty in the dynamic environment around Eros does not allow the luxury of a precise spacecraft trajectory to be defined in advance. The principal cause of this uncertainty is the limited knowledge oi' the gravity field a,-id rotational state of Eros. As a result, the concept for the NEAR trajectory design is to define a number of rules for satisfying spacecraft, mission, and science constraints, and then apply these rules to various assumptions for the model of Eros. Nominal, high, and low Eros mass models are used for testing the trajectory design strategy and to bracket the ranges of parameter variations that are expected upon arrival at the asteroid. The final design is completed after arrival at Eros and determination of the actual gravity field and rotational state. As a result of the unplanned termination of the deep space rendezvous maneuver on December 20, 1998, the NEAR spacecraft passed within 3830 km of Eros on December 23, 1998. This flyby provided a brief glimpse of Eros, and allowed for a more accurate model of the rotational parameters and gravity field uncertainty. Furthermore, after the termination of the deep space rendezvous burn, contact with the spacecraft was lost and the NEAR spacecraft lost attitude control. During the subsequent gyrations of the spacecraft, hydrazine thruster firings were used to regain attitude control. This unplanned thruster activity used Much of the fuel margin allocated for the orbit phase. Consequently, minimizing fuel consumption is now even more important.

Helfrich, J; Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. G.; Carranza, E.; Williams, B. G.; Dunham, D. W.; Farquhar, R. W.; McAdams, J. V.

1999-01-01

252

Design of fast earth-return trajectories from a lunar base  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Apollo Lunar Program utilized efficient transearth trajectories which employed parking orbits in order to minimize energy requirements. This thesis concentrates on a different type of transearth trajectory. These are direct-ascent, hyperbolic trajectories which omit the parking orbits in order to achieve short flight times to and from a future lunar base. The object of the thesis is the development

Walter Anhorn

1991-01-01

253

Application of CERES Energy Budget Data to Improve Understanding of the Dynamic Role of Clouds in the Earth's Planetary Albedo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud fraction has a large influence on the top of the atmosphere global energy balance through its control of the Earth's planetary albedo. Radiative-dynamic interaction of clouds occur at scales unresolved by GCMs so mechanistic models are needed for what controls the global response of cloud fraction to external forcings from changes in insolation. There is a periodic oscillation of globally averaged solar insolation due to the elliptical orbit of the earth of 11 Watts per meter squared or ~3.5% of its mean value of 340 Watts per meter squared. What is interesting is that analysis of CERES data shows that the northern hemisphere winter increase in global solar insolation is concurrent with an increase in the Earth's planetary albedo of ~0.01, which is also ~3.5% of the mean value of 0.29. However, the albedo declines from its maximum value approximately one month earlier than the solar maximum, concurrent with a decline in net energy deposition in the Earth's atmosphere, defined as the difference of the albedo-adjusted solar input and the outgoing longwave TOA flux. In prior work, we have shown that the radiative temperature difference between cloud base and the surface and below cloud air controls the potential energy that is available to be supplied to the cloud for driving dynamic motions and the extent of cloud cover spreading. We propose a speculative mechanism for the observed relationships between solar insolation and the Earth's planetary albedo. When there is net positive energy deposition in the Earth's atmosphere, this drives atmospheric convection and cloud spreading, which increases planetary albedo. A higher albedo acts as a negative feedback on increasing energy deposition from the Earth being closer to the sun, diminishing the solar input. This in turn acts as a negative feedback on cloud cover. Thus, the impact of solar eccentricity on net energy deposition is regulated by the response and control of cloud cover on planetary albedo. This interplay between cloud cover and solar eccentricity acts as a shortwave global-scale "iris".

Schmidt, C. T.; Garrett, T. J.

2011-12-01

254

The design of energy-responsive commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

This book is a practical guide for building designers who want to reduce the nonrenewable energy needs of commercial and institutional buildings. The book presents, compares, and interprets the most current information on the principles, advantages, and disadvantages of many energy-related design alternatives. Topics considered include reviewing and interpreting our collective learning experience, the range of possible solutions, energy-responsive climate-rejecting buildings, energy-responsive climate-adapted buildings, the range of possible design approaches, a framework for design, a recommended design approach, applying the recommended design approach: examples, the financial value of energy-responsive design, building energy analysis during early design stages, and component energy analysis during early design stages.

Ternoey, S.; Bickle, L.; Robbins, C.; Busch, R.; Mc Cord, K.

1985-01-01

255

Optimal design and tolerancing of occulters for finding Earth-like planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One proposed design for directly detecting extrasolar planets is a occulter, a spacecraft that would fly between a telescope and a target star, blocking the light from the star. Diffraction effects require the occulter to be shaped to prevent the formation of Poisson's spot; these shapes can be adjusted to create a dark shadow at the telescope, effectively removing virtually all of the starlight. This shadow is wavelength-dependent and sensitive to errors in shape and alignment. Recently, we developed shapes that allow the planet to be seen, even at small angular separation. We present a method of optimization to find designs that give desired performance over a spectral band, and discuss the interrelationship with tolerancing in control and manufacturing.

Cady, E.; Vanderbei, R.; Kasdin, N. J.

2007-06-01

256

Energy efficient building design. A transfer guide for local governments  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

Not Available

1992-03-01

257

Design Strategies of Dwelling Thermal Performance in Rather Cold Climate Regions of Japan Investigation of Indoor Temperature and Energy Consumption in Houses of Tohoku City Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

For comfortable dwelling design, it is important to consider the indoor environment which includes the temperature, humidity, air quality, acoustics and lighting, as well as the room size, interior plan, decoration and so on. And also, the energy conservation in houses should be considered because of the low impact design for the earth from the viewpoint of the global warming.

Yoshimi ISHIKAWA; Ken-ichi HASEGAWA; Hiroshi YOSHINO; Tatsuya HISAMITSU

258

Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the sea-level and energy budgets together from 1961, using recent and updated estimates of all terms. From 1972 to 2008, the observed sea-level rise (1.8 ± 0.2 mm yr-1 from tide gauges alone and 2.1 ± 0.2 mm yr-1 from a combination of tide gauges and altimeter observations) agrees well with the sum of contributions (1.8 ± 0.4 mm yr-1) in magnitude and with both having similar increases in the rate of rise during the period. The largest contributions come from ocean thermal expansion (0.8 mm yr-1) and the melting of glaciers and ice caps (0.7 mm yr-1), with Greenland and Antarctica contributing about 0.4 mm yr-1. The cryospheric contributions increase through the period (particularly in the 1990s) but the thermosteric contribution increases less rapidly. We include an improved estimate of aquifer depletion (0.3 mm yr-1), partially offsetting the retention of water in dams and giving a total terrestrial storage contribution of -0.1 mm yr-1. Ocean warming (90% of the total of the Earth's energy increase) continues through to the end of the record, in agreement with continued greenhouse gas forcing. The aerosol forcing, inferred as a residual in the atmospheric energy balance, is estimated as -0.8 ± 0.4 W m-2 for the 1980s and early 1990s. It increases in the late 1990s, as is required for consistency with little surface warming over the last decade. This increase is likely at least partially related to substantial increases in aerosol emissions from developing nations and moderate volcanic activity.

Church, John A.; White, Neil J.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Domingues, Catia M.; Cogley, J. Graham; Rignot, Eric; Gregory, Jonathan M.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Velicogna, Isabella

2011-09-01

259

Prototyping circuit design for Dielectric Electroactive Polymers energy harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric Electroactive Polymer (DEAP) is an emerging material for energy harvesting, which can converter mechanical energy to electrical energy. A DEAP energy harvesting system architecture has been designed and simulated in our previous work. In this paper, we designed and implemented a prototyping circuit which includes a 4-order active low pass filter and a storage circuit. Experimental results show that,

Peiwen He; Wei Wang; Ken Choi; JongHyun Lee; SooHyun Kim

2011-01-01

260

Rational design of long-wave infrared band for application of the earth surface temperature observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For argumentation of feasibility of LST (Land Surface Temperature) retrieval using 8-10 ?m infrared band, this paper focuses on design of long-wave infrared band based on theory research. Basis of thermal infrared radiative transfer and atmospheric simulation, the paper analyses atmospheric effect on different long-wave infrared and obtain a preliminary selection of potential spectral channels. Several configurations of long-wave infrared spectral band were selected to perform in Split-Window algorithm and the relation of LST retrieval precision with error source was analyzed. Results indicate the scheme of LST retrieval using 8.0-9.0?m long-wave infrared is feasibility for needed retrieval precision.

Bao, Yunfei; He, Hongyan; Zhou, Feng

2012-12-01

261

Interplanetary Mission Design Handbook. Volume 1, Part 4: Earth to Saturn Ballistic Mission Opportunities, 1985-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Saturn are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements as well as many other launch and Saturn arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all la...

A. B. Sergeyevsky G. C. Snyder

1981-01-01

262

Earth cratering record and impact energy flux in the last 150 Ma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Earth's cratering record is subject to strong bias (i.e. unknown craters yet to be discovered or oblíterated by geological processes, geochronologic uncertainties of impact events) a compilation of the 33 best dated large impact craters on Earth with diameters larger than 5 km, and younger than 150 Ma, their diameters, geochronologic ages, and the corresponding unceertainties can be

A. Montanari; A. Campo Bagatin; P. Farinella

1998-01-01

263

Prelaunch calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System morning (EOS-AM1) spacecraft thermistor bolometer sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometer sensors measure Earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 ?m) and total (0.3->100 ?m) spectral bands as well as in the 8-12-?m water vapor window spectral band. On November 27, 1997, the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft placed the first set of

Robert B. Lee; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Herbert C. Bitting; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Jack Paden; Dhirendra K. Pandey; Kory J. Priestley; G. Louis Smith; Susan Thomas; K. Lee Thornhill; Robert S. Wilson

1998-01-01

264

Design and applications of a versatile HF radar calibration target in low Earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High frequency (HF) radars are used to detect ionospheric irregularities, meteor trails, and moving targets. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) is a simple radar target in space to help determine the operational parameters of ground HF radars. PERCS will have a known radar cross section that is independent of observation direction within 0.5 dB. The PERCS satellite can be launched in a stowed configuration that has about 1 m in diameter. After launch, the PERCS will expand to a diameter of almost 10 m. Upon expansion, a stable wire frame is formed to act as a radar scatter target in the form of a polyhedral sphere. The simplest version of the sphere has 60 vertices (V60) that are joined to 90 rigid segments. Each segment is hinged so that the PERCS can be folded into a compact package for launch. Analysis of the V60 wire frame with a 10 m diameter shows that the radar cross section (RCS) is nearly independent of viewing angle up to 30 MHz. Another design with 240 vertices produces even better performance. Radar systems will be calibrated using the radar echo data and the precise knowledge of the target RCS, position, and velocity. The PERCS can reflect radar signals from natural targets such as field aligned and current driven irregularities not presently accessible from ground-based radars. The wire frame structure has several advantages over a metalized spheroid "balloon" with (1) much less drag, (2) larger radar cross section, and (3) lower fabrication cost.

Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Thomason, Joe F.; Rodriquez, Serafin P.; Nicholas, Andrew C.; Koss, Steven M.; Nurnberger, Mike; Hoberman, Chuck; Davis, Matthew; Hysell, David L.; Kelley, Michael C.

2008-02-01

265

FPGA design for constrained energy minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM) has been widely used for hyperspectral detection and classification. The feasibility of implementing the CEM as a real-time processing algorithm in systolic arrays has been also demonstrated. The main challenge of realizing the CEM in hardware architecture in the computation of the inverse of the data correlation matrix performed in the CEM, which requires a complete set of data samples. In order to cope with this problem, the data correlation matrix must be calculated in a causal manner which only needs data samples up to the sample at the time it is processed. This paper presents a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) design of such a causal CEM. The main feature of the proposed FPGA design is to use the Coordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm that can convert a Givens rotation of a vector to a set of shift-add operations. As a result, the CORDIC algorithm can be easily implemented in hardware architecture, therefore in FPGA. Since the computation of the inverse of the data correlction involves a series of Givens rotations, the utility of the CORDIC algorithm allows the causal CEM to perform real-time processing in FPGA. In this paper, an FPGA implementation of the causal CEM will be studied and its detailed architecture will be also described.

Wang, Jianwei; Chang, Chein-I.; Cao, Mang

266

Energy from the Earth: Geothermal Energy Program. Five year research plan, 1988-1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consistent with national energy policy guidance, the plan concentrates on research and development (R and D) and limits system experiments to only those necessary to stimulate industrial confidence in the validity of research findings. A key strategy element is the continuation of the government/industry partnership which is critical to successful development of geothermal technology. The primary near-term research emphasis is the extension of hydrothermal technology options for reservoir identification, reservoir analysis, hard rock penetration, and flash and binary electric plants. The advanced geothermal resources--geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma--are longer-term and higher-risk focal points, and research in these areas centers on establishing a technology base that will allow industry to make prudent and timely investment decisions with respect to the use of these resources.

1988-10-01

267

Earth Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Earth Institute at Columbia University is to help the world achieve sustainability by expanding understanding of the Earth as one integrated system. Through research, education, and the practical application of research to real-world challenges, the Institute addresses nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, and hazards and urbanization. The Institute's site offers a collection of videotaped events, including the biannual "State of the Planet" conferences, 2002-08, a Distinguished Lecture series, and the Sustainable Development seminar series, as well as e-seminars and e-briefings, information about funding opportunities, and information about educational opportunities at Columbia.

268

Global Equity and Sustainable Earth Resource Consumption Requires SuperEfficient Extraction-Conservation-Recycling and Ubiquitous, Inexpensive Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 3.5 billion years, the Earth's biosphere maintained a dynamic equilibrium with solar energy and natural materials derived from the near-surface lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, however, settled agriculture allowed the division of labor, rise of civilizations, and utilization of terrestrial resources at rates greater than those of replenishment. Demographic estimates put our numbers

W. G. Ernst

2002-01-01

269

On the Earth's surface energy exchange determination from ERS satellite ATSR data: Part 2. Short-wave radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second in a series of papers which discusses determination of the Earth's surface energy exchange from ERS satellite Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) data. The paper concentrates on short-wave radiation on sea and land surfaces. In this paper, three methods were used to determine solar irradiance by using ERS ATSR-2 data. We referred to them as 'D scheme',

Yong Xue; D. T. Llewellyn-Jones; S. P. Lawrence; C. T. Mutlow

2000-01-01

270

Development of Medium Energy Ion Mass Spectrometer for Future Missions in the Inner Magnetosphere of the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that intense fluxes of energetic particles are seen in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth during magnetic storms and substorms; ring current ions and radiation belt electrons with energies of several hundred keV up to more than a few MeV are generated and\\/or transported. However, their acceleration mechanisms and sources have not been well understood, partly

S. Kasahara; K. Asamura; Y. Saito; M. Hirahara; T. Mukai; T. Takashima; N. Fujikawa

2005-01-01

271

On-orbit solar calibration methods using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system: lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted long-wave radiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Recently, (October 2011) the sixth instrument was launched on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (Suomi NPP) Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define on-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. It followed a similar design as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanners with improvements from lessons learned. The shortwave and shortwave part of the total-wave sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, over-coated with SIOx (SIO2 for PFM). Thermistors are located within each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. The Terra FM1 and FM2 shortwave channels and the FM1 and FM2 total channels MAM calibration systems showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 6 percent, respectively within the first year. The Aqua FM3, and FM4 shortwave channels and the FM3 and FM4 total channels MAM calibration systems showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.0, 1.2, 2.1 and .8 percent, respectively within the first year. A possible explanation has attributed the MAM reflectance change to on-orbit solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen/out-gassing induced chemical changes to the SIOx coated MAM assembly during ram and solar exposure. There is also changes to the sensor telescope shortwave filters as well as the Total channel mirrors and/or sensors. The Soumi NPP FM5 is still after 2.5 years displaying a stability of less than .5 percent. In this presentation, lessons learned from the ERBE MAM and application of knowledge of how the space environment affected the CERES FM1-4 solar calibrations will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the thirteen years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip; Shankar, Mohan; Smith, Nathaniel; Szewczyk, Peter

2013-09-01

272

The Earth Simulator Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Simulator Center, funded by the Japanese government, is the birth place of the Earth Simulator, a super computer designed to provide a "holistic simulation of the entire earth system" that "may enable accurate prediction of the future by modelling present conditions based on data about the past." The Journal of the Earth Simulator, which is available online from this website as of June 2004, provides updates on the Earth Simulator and related research. Visitors to this website will also find background information on the Earth Simulator and websites for the four research groups: the Atmosphere & Ocean Simulation Group, the Solid Earth Simulation Group, the Multiscale Simulation Research Group, and the Advanced Perception Research Group. Each website provides an overview of the research and publications. Several collaboration projects are also identified along with images of the Simulator. Other publications include the annual report and newsletters, some of which are available only in Japanese.

2007-12-24

273

Community Design for Optimal Energy and Resource Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a study which investigated the energy and resource dynamics of a semi-autonomous domestic system for 30 people. The investigation is organized on three levels: (1) developing a preliminary design and design parameters; (2) development and quantification of the energy and resource dynamics; and (3) designing a model to extrapolate…

Bilenky, Stephen; And Others

274

Community Design for Optimal Energy and Resource Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is a study which investigated the energy and resource dynamics of a semi-autonomous domestic system for 30 people. The investigation is organized on three levels: (1) developing a preliminary design and design parameters; (2) development and quantification of the energy and resource dynamics; and (3) designing a model to extrapolate…

Bilenky, Stephen; And Others

275

An exploration of energy-saving green products design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the growing problem of global warming, resource depletion, air pollution and other environmental problems, by analyzing the excessive use of fossil fuels, and the drawbacks of product design without considering energy consumption, this paper points out the importance of green energy-saving products design and explores the types of energy-saving green products.

Xiaodan Yang; Wenhuan Liao

2010-01-01

276

Energy product and coercivity of a rare-earth-free multilayer FeCo/FePt exchange spring magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method, we have explored the energy product and the coercivity field of rare-earth-free FeCo/FePt(001) multilayered exchange spring magnet systems. We have considered 5 and 7 monolayers (ML) of a FePt hard layer and 3, 5, 7, and 9 ML of a FeCo soft layer. The FeCo soft layers are found to show close to half metallic features, while the FePt hard layers manifest conventional metallic behavior. A giant perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (EMCA) is observed. For instance, an EMCA of 27.24 meV/cell is found in FeCo(9 ML)/FePt(7 ML) multilayer structure. The energy product almost linearly increases with increasing FeCo thickness, while the coercivity filed shows the opposite behavior. Interestingly, we have obtained that the multilayer structures display very large energy product and coercivity field. For example, FeCo(9 ML)/FePt(5 ML) multilayer has an energy product of about 82 MGOe and a coercivity field of about 130 KOe. Moreover, we find that the multilayer system may show enhanced coercivity field compared with that found in FeCo/FePt bilayer film structures, while the energy product is comparable to that observed in bilayer films. Therefore, our results may imply that the FeCo/FePt multilayer can be employed as a potential rare- earth-free permanent magnet material.

Kim, Dongyoo; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

2013-03-01

277

Engineering for the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young students are introduced to the complex systems of the Earth through numerous lessons on its natural resources, processes, weather, climate and landforms. Key earth science topics include rocks, soils and minerals, water and natural resources, weather patterns and climatic regions, wind, erosion, landforms, and the harvesting of fossil fuels â all presented from an engineering point-of-view. (See the Unit Overview section for a list of topics by lesson.) Through many hands-on activities, students build and test sand castles for construction strength, measure snow melt as a potential water source, use colored ice cubes and salt water to learn about ocean currents, make 3-D water catchment basins, make surface tension/surfactant-powered paper boats, build and use wind vanes, build and test model wind turbines, model and observe five types of erosion, model acid rain using chalk and kitchen supplies, build transportation systems across their own 3-D model landscapes, take core samples from a clay model of the Earth's crust, read and create graphs and charts as they learn about international oil production and consumption, act as engineers by specifying the power plants to build for communities, given scenarios with budgets, energy needs and environmental impacts. They learn the steps of the engineering design process as they hypothesize ways engineers might obtain water for communities facing water crises.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

278

CNSR Rosetta: Earth Return Capsule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CNSR (Comet Nucleus Sample Return) Rosetta mission will bring back to Earth comet nucleus samples. During the system definition study, a preliminary design of the Earth return capsule Thermal Protection Subsystem (TPS) was performed. Due to high heat ...

D. Desnoyer J. M. Larrieu C. Buck

1991-01-01

279

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities. Passive solar design  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities using passive solar designs are presented. More than one million residences and 1, 700 commercial buildings across the U.S. now employ passive solar designs.

NONE

1996-05-01

280

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

281

Earth Gauge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Gauge is a free environmental information service for broadcast meteorologists in major U.S. media markets, based on the 3-5 day forecast. The service is designed to make it easy to talk about the links between weather and the environment on-air with simple "factoids" and viewer action tips. Teachers or students can browse an index of weather conditions, environmental impacts, and viewer action tips for many locations, organized by city, weather type, or environmental topic. There are also links to additional resources, including fact sheets and special features, imagery, video clips, and others.

282

Sustainable Design Policy and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Certification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2007 Air Force Sustainable Development and Design Policy mandates the use of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) criteria for military construction projects. Additionally, the policy authorizes adding two percent of the original build...

D. M. Nyikos

2008-01-01

283

Overview of PJM energy market design, operation and experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This panel paper outlines the PJM energy market design, operation and experience. The PJM energy market consists of two markets, a day-ahead market and a real-time balancing market. The LMP is used to calculate charges or credits for delivering PJM market services including the spot market energy, the transmission congestion, etc. The fundamental features of the PJM energy market are

Jianzhong Tong

2004-01-01

284

A participatory process for designing cooking energy programmes with women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women in rural areas of India play an important role in household energy management. Programmes designed to help them administer these needs more effectively by providing alternative, sustainable energy solutions, however, have met with limited success. Women's roles and energy needs are rarely a main focus of rural energy programmes and there are few mechanisms for creating a more meaningful

Preeti Malhotra; R. Cynthia Neudoerffer; Soma Dutta

2004-01-01

285

Design considerations for energy storage power electronics interfaces for high penetration of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses design considerations of power electronics interfaces between renewable energy sources and energy storage. When renewable energy sources—including photovoltaic modules, wind generators, and fuel cells—are used to generate power, there are certain electrical properties of each source that need to be considered for the design of energy storage power electronics interface. In addition, energy storage's charging and discharging

Junseok Song; Ruichen Zhao; Alexis Kwasinski

2011-01-01

286

Earth System Science Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

2004-01-01

287

Earth Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this homepage can learn about the Earth Island Institute and its mission, origins, and purpose. Materials include summaries of projects designed to promote conservation, preservation, and restoration of the Earth, a biography of the organization's founder, news articles, and information for people who wish to become involved in conservation or outreach efforts.

288

Softdesk energy: A case study in early design tool integration  

SciTech Connect

Softdesk Energy is a design tool that integrates building energy analysis capability into a highly automated production drafting environment (AutoCAD and Softdesk AutoArchitect). This tool provides users of computer aided software the opportunity to evaluate the aided design/drafting (CAD) energy impact of design decisions much earlier in the design process than previously possible with energy analysis software. The authors review the technical challenges of integrating analytic methods into design tools, the opportunities such integrated tools create for building designers, and a usage scenario from the perspective of a current user of Softdesk Energy. A comparison between the simplified calculations in Softdesk Energy and detailed simulations using DOE-2 energy analysis is made to evaluate the applicability of the Softdesk Energy approach. As a unique example of integrating decision and drafting, Softdesk Energy provides an opportunity to study the strengths and weaknesses of integrated design tools and gives some insight into the future direction of the CAD software towards meeting the needs of diverse design disciplines.

Gowri, K.; Chassin, D.P.; Friedrich, M.

1998-04-01

289

Design, Development, and Evaluation of an Integrated Mathematics and Science Course to Teach Earth System Science to Preservice Middle School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-service middle school teachers receive a mixed representation of science during their university education. Science disciplines and mathematics are taught with little attention to integration. Earth system science is seldom presented. Fort Hays State University (FHSU) has addressed this issue through the development of an Integrated Mathematics and Science Course (development partially supported through National Science Foundation's CCLI Program under DUE#0088818 and DUE#0311042). The course was designed by an interdisciplinary team using a "cycles-of-nature" theme to integrate across earth and space science, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics. Several of the themes were earth system science based (e.g. Climate Cycles, Seasonal Cycles, Geophysical Cycles). The course also incorporated statistical analysis of data, estimations, and reading scientific literature. To promote pre-service teachers abilities to do authentic science, six to eight weeks of the fifteen week course were utilized for the preservice teachers to design, conduct, and present a self-designed research project based on the content of the course. Evaluation data from the course indicated that it was successful in a) changing university faculty perceptions of teaching science, b) illustrating novel approaches to preservice teachers, c) improving an understanding of the nature of science in preservice teachers, and d) increasing the preservice teachers understanding of the integrated nature of science.

Adams, P.; Heinrichs, J.

2007-12-01

290

Photosynthetically active radiation from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method that retrieves surface photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and its direct and diffuse components from the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) product of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The shortwave spectrum in the SARB Edition 2 is calculated in 15 bands, 4 of which are used to develop the PAR, in conjunction with the look-up tables described in this paper. We apply these look-up tables to existing CERES Terra Edition 2 products. The new retrieved surface PAR is validated with LI-COR PAR measurements at seven Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) sites using data from March 2000 to June 2005. The relative bias of retrieved all-sky PAR at the SURFRAD sites is 4.6% (positive sign indicating retrieval exceeds measurement), and 54% of the all-sky samples are within the ±10% uncertainty of the LI-COR PAR measurements. The satellite field-of-view (FOV) is more representative of the ground instrument FOV under clear conditions, so 89% of clear-sky retrievals are within the uncertainty of the LI-COR PAR measurements at SURFRAD sites with positive biases at most sites. The retrieved PAR is also validated at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains Central Facility (CF) site using data from October 2003 to June 2004 for those FOVs having both LI-COR and Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) ground measurements; for this small domain, all-sky relative biases are again positive (1.9%) for LI-COR but negative (-4.2%) for RSS. The direct-to-diffuse ratio derived from CERES is smaller than that from RSS for both clear and cloudy conditions. CERES also retrieves the broadband shortwave insolation, and the relative biases for the broadband retrievals are much less than those for PAR at the above sites. It appears that some of the ground-based measurements of PAR do not have the fidelity of those for broadband shortwave insolation.

Su, Wenying; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David

2007-06-01

291

Earth-air heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

Optimizing the thermal environment of a livestock building is beneficial to the growth and production of the animal. Minimizing temperature extremes of inlet ventilation air to the livestock building by passing the air through underground ducts would accomplish this goal. Providing this optimum environment by reducing heating and cooling loads would reduce energy costs and increase profits for the producer. The heat transfer in an earth-air heat exchanger was studied in two phases to develop design criteria for these systems. The experimental phase consisted of an earth-air exchanger installation from which data were collected during hot weather (cooling effect), cold weather (heating effect), and mild weather performances. The analytical phase developed a finite element program for simulating the earth-air heat exchanger and studying the effects of important parameters on the heat transfer rate and the air temperature. Results of the first phase were used to verify the computer model. Design criteria for the earth-air heat exchanger were determined based on the information obtained in the two phases of this study.

Kammel, D.W.

1985-01-01

292

The Earth's Dynamic Magnetotail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomagnetic field lines that are stretched on the nightside of the Earth due to reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field constitute the Earth's magnetotail. The magnetotail is a dynamic entity where energy imparted from the solar wind is stored and then released to generate disturbance phenomena such as substorms. This paper gives an updated overview on the physics of the

A. Nishida

2000-01-01

293

Application of numerical methods for predicting energy transport in earth contact systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for analysing conductive heat flow with applications to underground earth contact systems are reviewed. A discussion and comparison of both the finite difference and finite element methods are presented. The effect of domain discretisation on accuracy for both methods is presented. One- and two-dimensional models are derived and used to solve selected problems. The results for various discretisation domains

J. Ward MacArthur; George D. Meixel; Lester S. Shen

1983-01-01

294

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical

W. D. Carter

1981-01-01

295

Landscape Design and Nursery Operation for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Landforms, vegetation, water bodies, climate and solar radiation can be analyzed and used to design an energy-conserving landscape and horticulture operation. Accordingly, this course instructor's manual covers the use of the elements of the environment to make landscaping and nursery design and operation more energy-efficient. Five sections…

Bell, Richard C.; Glazener, Dennis

296

Design of a Fuel Cell Moisture and Energy Recovery System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to design and develop a prototype energy and moisture recovery system for air base fuel cell system. The primary tasks in the project were the design, development, and preliminary testing of the prototype energy and moist...

S. M. Jeter S. I. Abdel-Khalik

2002-01-01

297

Energy Bounds for Fault-Tolerant Nanoscale Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of determining lower bounds for the energy cost of a given nanoscale design is addressed via a complexity theory-based approach. This paper provides a theoretical framework that is able to assess the trade-offs existing in nanoscale designs between the amount of redundancy needed for a given level of resilience to errors and the associated energy cost. Circuit size,

Diana Marculescu

2005-01-01

298

Developing an energy design tool: Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the planning phase of a proposed four-phase project for creating computer software to provide energy expertise in a manageable form to architects and engineers - thereby decreasing energy use in new buildings. The government sponsored software would be integrated with commercially developed software for use in the design of buildings. The result would be an integrated software package to aid the designer in the building design process and to provide expert insight into the energy related implications of a proposed design.

Heidell, J.A.; Deringer, J.D.

1987-02-01

299

A regional energy information system for Minnesota: a preliminary design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state's (Minnesota$s) energy system, with its socio-economic plans that take energy constraints into consideration, is reviewed for policy makers. Four types of data - (1) energy supply\\/distribution\\/consumption data, (2) demographic data, (3) economic data, and (4) engineering data - are found to be needed to support the short-run energy allocation problems and long-run energy planning problems. Preliminary design of

N. L. Chervany; J. D. Naumann; R. Krishnan; D. Quillin; J. Schmitt

1975-01-01

300

Influences of energy economy on steam turbine design  

SciTech Connect

The pulp and paper industry uses condensing, backpressure, and automatic extraction types of steam turbines. Small drive turbines have better efficiency with multiple stages. The author presents a summary of some alternate steam turbine designs and shows the impact on operating energy costs. There is a summary of operating parameters for various cogeneration design options with illustration of the relative energy cost of each of the various designs.

Garner, J.W. (BE and K Engineering, Morrisville, NC (United States))

1993-11-01

301

Design options in solar total energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar total energy system consists of a collector field which converts solar radiation to thermal energy in a working fluid which in turn drives a heat engine. Shaft power from this engine drives a mechanical electrical generator while exhaust from the heat engine is used for such applications as space heating, domestic hot water, and process heat. Cooling can

A. A. J. Hoffman; D. Rapp

1977-01-01

302

The design of energy-responsive commercial buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a practical guide for building designers who want to reduce the nonrenewable energy needs of commercial and institutional buildings. The book presents, compares, and interprets the most current information on the principles, advantages, and disadvantages of many energy-related design alternatives. Topics considered include reviewing and interpreting our collective learning experience, the range of possible solutions, energy-responsive climate-rejecting

S. Ternoey; L. Bickle; C. Robbins; R. Busch; K. Mc Cord

1985-01-01

303

The outer boundary of the earth's electron radiation belt: Dependence upon L, energy, and equatorial pitch angle  

SciTech Connect

The authors present measurements of electrons made with high energy and pitch angle resolution, made at the equator, looking over a range of L shells in the neighborhood of the nightside trapping boundary. They define the trapping boundary to be the position where the trapped fluxes are equivalent to the background level. The transition region is studied in detail. Fine scale experimental measurements are of use in bringing together theoretical models which attempt to explain precipitating electrons from the outer boundary of the earth's electron radiation belt, with the broad range of measurements which are presently available. They took advantage of the measurement capabilities of the CRRES and SCATHA satellites for this work.

Imhof, W.L.; Robinson, R.M.; Nightingale, R.W.; Gaines, E.E.; Vondrak, R.R. (Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (United States))

1993-04-01

304

Electrical design, safety, and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a practical, easy-to-use guide for electrical engineers, plant and project engineers, safety engineers, and those who desire to improve communications within the design team. Emphasis is placed on both the technical and managerial aspects of electrical design. Scores of checklists, handy working aids, and examples of practical problems encountered in the field are included, with step-by-step analyses

Thumann

1978-01-01

305

Optimum design of substation grounding in a two layer earth structure: Part II?Comparison between theoretical and experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper [1] the authors have presented the theoretical basis of their computer program which calculates grounding electrode performance. This paper compares experimental results obtained in a scaled down two layer earth model [2] with the analytical results for different forms of usual ground electrodes, it compares also the authors method with the conventional methods used currently in

Farid Dawalibi; Dinkar Mukhedkar

1975-01-01

306

Design provision for the reliability and longevity of reinforced-concrete bracings of earth embankments at water-development works  

Microsoft Academic Search

works with lies of the order of 2-4.5, which are located in zones of landlocked water bodies, are examined from the widespread problem of the protecting earth slopes from water erosion. In zones of landlocked bodies of water, bracings on slopes of comparatively steep lie, which approaches the natural repose of granular and cohesive soils in the saturated state, perform

V. S. Shaitan; D. V. Morozova; K. V. Shaitan

1998-01-01

307

Design and power management of energy harvesting embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting energy from the environment is a desirable and increas- ingly important capability in several emerging applications of em- bedded systems such as sensor networks, biomedical implants, etc. While energy harvesting has the potential to enable near-perpetual system operation, designing an efficient energy harvesting system that actually realizes this potential requires an in-depth understand- ing of several complex tradeoffs. These

Vijay Raghunathan; Pai H. Chou

2006-01-01

308

Design and characterization of an electromagnetic energy harvester for vehicle suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the everyday usage of an automobile, only 10-16% of the fuel energy is used to drive the car—to overcome the resistance from road friction and air drag. One important loss is the dissipation of vibration energy by shock absorbers in the vehicle suspension under the excitation of road irregularity and vehicle acceleration or deceleration. In this paper we design, characterize and test a retrofit regenerative shock absorber which can efficiently recover the vibration energy in a compact space. Rare-earth permanent magnets and high permeable magnetic loops are used to configure a four-phase linear generator with increased efficiency and reduced weight. The finite element method is used to analyze the magnetic field and guide the design optimization. A theoretical model is created to analytically characterize the waveforms and regenerated power of the harvester at various vibration amplitudes, frequencies, equilibrium positions and design parameters. It was found that the waveform and RMS voltage of the individual coils will depend on the equilibrium position but the total energy will not. Experimental studies of a 1:2 scale prototype are conducted and the results agree very well with the theoretical predictions. Such a regenerative shock absorber will be able to harvest 16-64 W power at 0.25-0.5 m s - 1 RMS suspension velocity.

Zuo, Lei; Scully, Brian; Shestani, Jurgen; Zhou, Yu

2010-04-01

309

Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

Martin, Doug

2008-01-01

310

Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

Martin, Doug

2008-01-01

311

An Earth-Moon Transfer Trajectory Design and Analysis Considering Spacecraft's Visibility from Daejeon Ground Station at TLI and LOI Maneuvers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal Earth-Moon transfer trajectory considering spacecraft's visibility from the Daejeon ground station visibility at both the trans lunar injection (TLI) and lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuvers is designed. Both the TLI and LOI maneuvers are assumed to be impulsive thrust. As the successful execution of the TLI and LOI maneuvers are crucial factors among the various lunar mission parameters, it is necessary to design an optimal lunar transfer trajectory which guarantees the visibility from a specified ground station while executing these maneuvers. The optimal Earth-Moon transfer trajectory is simulated by modifying the Korean Lunar Mission Design Software using Impulsive high Thrust Engine (KLMDS-ITE) which is developed in previous studies. Four different mission scenarios are established and simulated to analyze the effects of the spacecraft's visibility considerations at the TLI and LOI maneuvers. As a result, it is found that the optimal Earth-Moon transfer trajectory, guaranteeing the spacecraft's visibility from Daejeon ground station at both the TLI and LOI maneuvers, can be designed with slight changes in total amount of delta-Vs. About 1% difference is observed with the optimal trajectory when none of the visibility condition is guaranteed, and about 0.04% with the visibility condition is only guaranteed at the time of TLI maneuver. The spacecraft's mass which can delivered to the Moon, when both visibility conditions are secured is shown to be about 534 kg with assumptions of KSLV-2's on-orbit mass about 2.6 tons. To minimize total mission delta-Vs, it is strongly recommended that visibility conditions at both the TLI and LOI maneuvers should be simultaneously implemented to the trajectory optimization algorithm.

Woo, Jin; Song, Young-Joo; Park, Sang-Young; Kim, Hae-Dong; Sim, Eun-Sup

2010-09-01

312

Stand-alone power systems for the future: Optimal design, operation and control of solar-hydrogen energy systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis gives a systematic review of the fundamentals of energy systems, the governing physical and chemical laws related to energy, inherent characteristics of energy system, and the availability of the earth's energy. It shows clearly why solar-hydr...

O. Ulleberg

1998-01-01

313

Earth's Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer animation on the reason for the seasons. Voice-over describes the motion of Earth around the sun to show how the sun's light impacts the tilted Earth at different times of the year, causing seasonal changes.

Rochester Museum And Science Center, Strasenburgh P.

314

Rare earth gas laser  

DOEpatents

A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

Krupke, W.F.

1975-10-31

315

Edible Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a model of the solid Earth's layers that's good enough to eat! Learners use tasty foodstuffs to simulate Earth's inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The recipe includes ingredients for one edible Earth, but can be doubled or tripled to accommodate groups of learners. This activity requires adult supervision.

History, American M.

2011-08-20

316

Earth Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation with accompanying audio exhibits the different stages involved in the formation of an earth flow. A step-like scarp forms along with a flowage zone at the toe of the earth flow. The sequence concludes with the stabilization of the earth flow with vegetation. Expect long loading times.

Wiley

317

Earth Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handout lists major events in Earth history with approximate ages (in millions of years before present). The calendar date is determined by setting midnight, January 1, to correspond with the formation of the Earth, and setting the following midnight, December 31, to correspond to the present. Thus, the entire history of the Earth is displayed as a single calendar year.

Barker, Jeffrey

318

Snowball Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Audio program from the University of Wisconsin's Earthwatch Radio discusses the notion of the entire planet covered with ice. Doug Macdougall is an earth scientist at the University of California-San Diego and author of a new book called "Frozen Earth." He says the planet-wide freeze is known as "Snowball Earth."

319

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in a global view of the weather, Planet Earth is a "real-time 3-D model of the Earth with continuously updating night shadows and clouds." Cloud images are provided by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Planet Earth is shareware with a fee of $29.95.

320

The role of heavy ions in the energy content of the ring-current plasma of the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probe measurements are compared in an effort to develop a ring-current model. It is noted that stationary ring currents of the magnetospheres of the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn are formed by ions with energies of the order of 100 keV. These ions comprise the main part of the density of the plasma ion component, commensurable with the local energy density

V. V. Temnyi

1986-01-01

321

Energy Recovery Transport Design for PKU FEL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A SRF linac based free electron laser user facility is under developed at Peking University. Energy recovery Linac technology was chosen for increase of average electron beam current, hence, increase of the free electron laser power. In this paper we pres...

C. Liu G. Wang J. Chen J. Zhuang K. Zhao X. Lu Y. Chao Z. Liu

2007-01-01

322

Optimized design of low energy buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1996 the Danish government presented their plan (Energi21 1996) formulating how Denmark could fulfill the demands for CO(sub 2)-reduction recommended by United Nations. The major issues in the plan, regarding new and existing buildings, is that heat de...

C. Rudbeck P. Kjaer Esbensen S. Svendsen

1999-01-01

323

Microcontroller design for the Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico-Explorer (MEROPE) Cubesat-class satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montana State University's Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) under support from the Montana NASA Space Grant Consortium is engaged in an Earth orbiting satellite student project that will carry a reproduction, using current-day technology, of the scientific payload flown on Explorer-1 in 1958 into a 650 km sun-synchronous polar orbit. On-board operations will be commanded by a Motorola MC68HC812A4

Brian A. Larsen; David M. Klumpar; Micheal Wood; George Hunyadi; Steven Jepsen; Michael Obland

2002-01-01

324

Power subsystem design for the Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico-Explorer (MEROPE) CubeSat-class satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montana State University's Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) under support from the Montana NASA Space Grant Consortium is engaged in an Earth orbiting satellite student project that will carry a reproduction, using current-day technology, of the scientific payload flown on Explorer-1 in 1958 into a 650 km sun-synchronous polar orbit. The off-the-shelf emphasis of the MEROPE component selections has

Michael Obland; David M. Klumpar; Sean Kirn; George Hunyadi; Steve Jepsen; Brian Larsen

2002-01-01

325

Earth's Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This guide focuses on the oceans as a part of the Earth system: the link between oceans and climate; tsunamis; life science concepts such as ocean ecosystems, food webs, and biodiversity; real data â both sources of and projects that use real data; and related careers. There is also a section on the misconceptions commonly surrounding ocean concepts and finally the National Science Education Standards that these resource connect to. So even though you might not teach a unit called oceans, the oceans can be used as a context within an existing unit, such as ecosystems, energy transfer, systems thinking, or methods in science.

Lightle, Kimberly; Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-10-01

326

Dynamics modeing and maneuverability analysis of a near-space earth observation platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-space autonomous airship represents a unique and promising platform for earth observation and surveillance that involve a long duration airborne presence. In this paper, a six-degrees-of-freedom dynamics model and maneuverability of a near-space earth observation platform are presented. First, the near-space earth observation platform is introduced, including the concept design, configuration, energy sources, propeller and payload. Second, reference frames and

Yueneng Yang; Jie Wu; Yu Xie; Wei Zheng

2011-01-01

327

Optical design of the CERES telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to make measurements of solar radiance reflected from the Earth (0.2 to 0.5 microns) and radiance emitted from the Earch (5.0 to 50+ microns) with 1% accuracies. The CERES design evolved from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instrument which had similar objectives. The CERES also had a channel to

G. Louis Smith; Gary L. Peterson; Robert B. Lee; Bruce R. Barkstrom

2002-01-01

328

Sun-perturbed earth-to-moon transfers with low energy and moderate flight time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a spacecraft transfer with low cost and moderate flight time from the Earth to the Moon. The motion of the spacecraft is modeled by the planar circular restricted three-body problem including a perturbation due to the solar gravitation. Our approach is to reduce computation of optimal transfers to a non-linear boundary value problem. Using a computer software called AUTO, we solve it and continue its solutions numerically to obtain the optimal transfers. Our result also shows that the use of the solar gravitation can further lower the transfer cost drastically.

Yagasaki, Kazuyuki

2004-11-01

329

Design New Buildings To Save Energy -- and Money  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Buildings should be designed so that energy systems function with maximum efficiency. Re-evaluation of standards for ventilation and lighting is recommended. Heat recovery techniques and topography can reduce heating loads. (MF)

Rittelmann, Richard

1974-01-01

330

Optimized Design of Total Energy Systems: The Rete Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design to optimize the utilization of primary energy sources, providing both electricity and heat, is described. A project plant will be located at Reggio Emilia (Italy). Several computer analyses were performed to provide climatic data, electric and he...

P. Alia F. Dallavalle C. Denard F. Sanson S. Veneziani

1980-01-01

331

Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design  

SciTech Connect

A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

1980-06-01

332

Earth flyby anomalies  

SciTech Connect

In the planet-centric system, a spacecraft should have the same initial and final energies, even though its energy and angular momentum will change in the barycenter of the solar system. However, without explanation, a number of earth flybys have yielded small energy changes.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LAB.

2009-01-01

333

Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools - 50% Energy Savings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-K12) (ASHRAE et al. 2011a) was written to help owners and designers of elementary, middle, and high schools achieve 50% whole-...

E. Bonnema M. Leach P. Torcellini S. Pless

2013-01-01

334

Multipoint observations of ions in the 30-160 keV energy range upstream of the Earth's bow shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use multipoint observation data by Cluster during time periods when the interspacecraft separation distance was between 1 and 1.5 Earth radii in order to study the physical processes related to diffuse ions at <200 keV/e. For our analysis we use data from the Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors (RAPID) experiment onboard Cluster SC1 and SC3. We determine spatial ion density gradients by using proton intensities in the 27.7-159.7 keV energy range and helium intensities in the 137.8-235.1 keV energy range as a function of distance from the bow shock along the magnetic field. Our results show that the diffuse ions are subject to diffusive transport and the ion partial densities decrease exponentially with increasing distance from the bow shock. By complementing RAPID data with Cluster Ion Spectrometry measurements at lower energies (from 10 to 32 keV) from the same upstream ion event we find that the e-folding distance of energetic ion density increases almost linearly with energy. This effect is also seen in the hardening of the particle spectra with increasing distance from the bow shock. We determine the spatial diffusion mean free path and the diffusion coefficient as a function of ion energy by assuming that upstream diffusion is balanced by downstream convection.

Kronberg, E. A.; Kis, A.; Klecker, B.; Daly, P. W.; Lucek, E. A.

2009-03-01

335

In-space inertial energy storage design  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a need for in-space electric power way stations to support the Shuttle 1990 and beyond program. Because of the very high power demands for the Shuttle Orbiter and Shuttle experiment operations, a means must be found to rapidly transfer stored power from free flying power storage devices. A 2.5 KWH module mechanical energy storage device that shows great promise of meeting these requirements is described. Sample calculations sizing the module are given along with target system (input-output) efficiency. 12 refs.

Studer, P.A.; Evans, H.E.

1981-01-01

336

A design guide for energy-efficient research laboratories  

SciTech Connect

This document--A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories--provides a detailed and holistic framework to assist designers and energy managers in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide fills an important void in the general literature and compliments existing in-depth technical manuals. Considerable information is available pertaining to overall laboratory design issues, but no single document focuses comprehensively on energy issues in these highly specialized environments. Furthermore, practitioners may utilize many antiquated rules of thumb, which often inadvertently cause energy inefficiency. The Guide helps its user to: introduce energy decision-making into the earliest phases of the design process, access the literature of pertinent issues, and become aware of debates and issues on related topics. The Guide does focus on individual technologies, as well as control systems, and important operational factors such as building commissioning. However, most importantly, the Guide is intended to foster a systems perspective (e.g. right sizing) and to present current leading-edge, energy-efficient design practices and principles.

Wishner, N.; Chen, A.; Cook, L. [eds.; Bell, G.C.; Mills, E.; Sartor, D.; Avery, D.; Siminovitch, M.; Piette, M.A.

1996-09-24

337

Design tools for daylighting illumination and energy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems and potentials for using daylighting to provide illumination in building interiors are reviewed. It describes some of the design tools now or soon to be available for incorporating daylighting into the building design process. It also describes state-of-the-art methods for analyzing the impacts daylighting can have on selection of lighting controls, lighting energy consumption, heating and cooling loads,

Selkowitz

1982-01-01

338

Design of the BPA superconducting 30 MJ energy storage coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage coil is presented. The purpose of this coil is to stabilize low frequency power oscillations in long high voltage ac power lines. The practical application for this specific coil will be the installation in the Pacific intertie between Washington State and Los Angeles, California. The guiding principles of the design are performance, fabrication economy and reliability.

Hoffmann, E.; Alcorn, J.; Chen, W.; Hsu, Y.-H.; Purcell, J.; Schermer, R.

1981-01-01

339

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF SERIAL-HYBRID VEHICLE ENERGY GAUGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This paper describes a usability study of serial-hybrid vehicle energy gauge designs. Eight gauges that were modified by design format (bars, dials), color (one color, two colors) and the type of information present (range information, no range information) were tested in a driving simulator under urban\\/suburban traffic conditions. Participants answered questions about the state of the battery and fuel

Janet Creaser; John Lenneman; Joseph Szczerba

340

Deformation-based interactive texture design using energy optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel interactive texture design scheme based on deformation and energy optimization. Given a small sample texture, the design process starts with applying a set of deform- ation operations to the sample texture to obtain a set of deformed textures. Then local changes to those deformed textures are further made by replacing their local regions

Jianbing Shen; Xiaogang Jin; Xiaoyang Mao; Jieqing Feng

2007-01-01

341

Influences of energy economy on steam turbine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulp and paper industry uses condensing, backpressure, and automatic extraction types of steam turbines. Small drive turbines have better efficiency with multiple stages. The author presents a summary of some alternate steam turbine designs and shows the impact on operating energy costs. There is a summary of operating parameters for various cogeneration design options with illustration of the relative

Garner

1993-01-01

342

The Dark Energy Survey instrument design  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx}5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R&D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009.

Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

343

Teenagers talking about energy: using narrative methods to inform design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores teenagers' attitudes towards energy consumption. The research is part of a wider project with the goal of designing, developing and evaluating mobile solutions to change teenagers' attitudes and behaviour towards energy. Diaries, stories, written scenarios and focus groups provided initial insight into teenagers' attitudes. The use of multiple methods engaged teenagers in the project and resulted in

Nicola Toth; Linda Little; Janet Read; Yukang Guo; Daniel Fitton; Matthew Horton

2012-01-01

344

Modeling and design of energy efficient variable stiffness actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide a port-based mathematical framework for analyzing and modeling variable stiffness actuators. The framework provides important insights in the energy requirements and, therefore, it is an important tool for the design of energy efficient variable stiffness actuators. Based on new insights gained from this approach, a novel conceptual actuator is presented. Simulations show that the apparent

Ludo C. Visser; Raffaella Carloni; Ramazan Unal; Stefano Stramigioli

2010-01-01

345

Challenge Students to Design an Energy-Efficient Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an activity that gives students a practical understanding of how much energy the average home consumes and wastes, and shows how the construction technologies used in home design affect overall energy usage. In this activity, students will outline the cost of a home's electrical system, give a breakdown of how much power the…

Griffith, Jack

2008-01-01

346

Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

2005-01-01

347

Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable

J F Latkowski; R P Abbott; S Aceves; T Anklam; D Badders; A W Cook; J DeMuth; L Divol; B El-Dasher; J C Farmer; D Flowers; M Fratoni; R G ONeil; T Heltemes; J Kane; K J Kramer; R Kramer; A Lafuente; G A Loosmore; K R Morris; G A Moses; B Olson; C Pantano; S Reyes; M Rhodes; K Roe; R Sawicki; H Scott; M Spaeth; M Tabak; S Wilks

2010-01-01

348

Design Considerations of Distorted Field Cylindrical Mirror Electron Energy Analyzers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA) is one of the most widely used electron energy analyzers in Auger electron spectroscopy and surface science because of its remarkable focusing properties at relatively large acceptance solid angles, that is, high signal intensity, reasonable energy resolution, and ease of construction and operation. In this presentation the design considerations and parameters of cylindrical mirror analyzers

O. Sise; B. Paripas; M. Dogan

2007-01-01

349

Procuring low-energy design and consulting services  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information which aids in the design of low energy building elements. The proven strategies can dramatically reduce a building`s energy consumption for little or no added cost while improving it`s comfort, economy, and environmental performance.

NONE

1997-07-01

350

Preliminary design specification for Department of Energy standardized spent nuclear fuel canisters. Volume 1: Design specification  

SciTech Connect

This document (Volume 1) is the preliminary design specification for the canisters to be used during the handling, storage, transportation, and repository disposal of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This document contains no procurement information, such as the number of canisters to be fabricated, explicit timeframes for deliverables, etc. A companion document (Volume 2) provides background information and design philosophy in order to help engineers better understand the established design requirements for these DOE SNF canisters.

NONE

1998-08-19

351

Controlled timing-error acceptance for low energy IDCT design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In embedded digital signal processing (DSP) sys- tems, quality is set by a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) floor. Con- ventional digital design strategies guarantee timing correctness of all operations, which leaves large quality margins in practical systems and sacrifices energy efficiency. This paper presents techniques to significantly improve energy efficiency by shaping the quality-energy tradeoff achievable via VDD scaling. In an

Ku He; Andreas Gerstlauer; Michael Orshansky

2011-01-01

352

Wind, Water, Fire, and Earth. Energy Lessons for the Physical Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current energy situation in the United States is a web of complicated and related elements. This document attempts to address some of these variables in presenting interdisciplinary energy lessons taken from instructional packets previously developed by the Project for an Energy-Enriched Curriculum (PEEC). The 19 physical science lessons…

Watt, Shirley L., Ed.; And Others

353

Calculation of lattice energies and enthalpies of formation of rare-earth pyrosilicates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lattice energies of ionic crystals were calculated from a computer summation of the Coulombic interaction energies. The present technique was first applied to simple crystal symmetries, including rock salts, fluorites, and silicates, to establish the reliability of the method. Calculated values for these systems were found to be within 3 to 8% of the accepted values. The lattice energies

Michael H. O'Brien; Mufit Akinc

1990-01-01

354

Conceptual design and engineering studies of adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) with thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adiabatic CAES system using water compensated hard rock caverns for compressed air storage was designed. The conceptual plant design features underground containment for thermal energy storage and water compensated hard rock caverns for high pressure air storage. Other design constraints include the selection of turbomachinery designs that require little development and therefore are available for near term plant construction

M. J. Hobson

1981-01-01

355

Conceptual design and engineering studies of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (CAES) with thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to perform a conceptual engineering design and evaluation study and to develop a design for an adiabatic CAES system using water-compensated hard rock caverns for compressed air storage. The conceptual plant design was to feature underground containment for thermal energy storage and water-compensated hard rock caverns for high pressure air storage. Other design constraints

Hobson

2011-01-01

356

Computation of low energy Earth-to-Moon transfers with moderate flight time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a problem of constructing a spacecraft transfer trajectory with low cost and moderate flight time from the Earth to the Moon. We adopt the planar circular restricted three-body problem (PCR3BP) as the spacecraft model, and reduce computation of optimal transfers to a nonlinear boundary value problem (BVP). Using a computer software called AUTO, we numerically solve the nonlinear BVP and continue its solutions to obtain optimal transfers. Especially, we find a transfer trajectory having the same cost but 22% shorter flight time or having 7.5% lower cost, compared to the traditional Hohmann type transfer. Moreover, we show that these transfers are unstable in an appropriate meaning and closely relate to chaotic dynamics of the PCR3BP.

Yagasaki, Kazuyuki

2004-10-01

357

Pitch angle distributions of low-energy ions in the near-earth magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energetic ion composition data acquired by satellite have been used to study the characteristics of ion pitch angle distributions in the near-earth magnetosphere. Both H(+) and O(+) ions below 1 keV were most frequently observed to have bidirectional field-aligned or conical pitch angle distributions inside L of about 6, with the exception of highly trapped H(+) very near the magnetic equator. The occurrence probability distributions of counterstreaming ions (CSI) and bidirectional conics in magnetic local time and L shell space suggest that the observed CSI were formed near the postmidnight sector and subsequently drifted eastward, and that ions close to the field-aligned direction were probably lost due to charge exchange with atmospheric hydrogen in the course of their eastward drift. In the prenoon sector, conical distributions dominated. Bidirectional ions were vary rarely observed in the afternoon sector, presumably because their drift paths crossed the magnetopause into the dayside magnetosheath.

Sagawa, E.; Yau, A. W.; Whalen, B. A.; Peterson, W. K.

1987-11-01

358

Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses was explored. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most approprite mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

Steinitz, A.

1980-06-01

359

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Investigating Renewable Energy Data from Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Panels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using renewable sources of energy benefits the environment and contributes to more sustainable energy use. The burning of fossil fuels generates air pollution and increased CO2 in the atmosphere. CO2 is the major greenhouse gas warming our planet. Using more renewable sources of energy not only reduces pollution, but also conserves the current limited supply of fossil fuels. This chapter looks at how much solar energy is generated using photovoltaic panels on rooftops or exposed ground locations at installations around the U.S. The focus is on three different websites that monitor and report solar energy production from panels at a few hundred locations.

360

Energy transfer kinetics in oxy-fluoride glass and glass-ceramics doped with rare-earth ions  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of donor-acceptor energy transfer kinetics in dual rare earths doped precursor oxy-fluoride glass and its glass-ceramics containing NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals is reported here, using three different donor-acceptor ion combinations such as Nd-Yb, Yb-Dy, and Nd-Dy. The precipitation of NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals in host glass matrix under controlled post heat treatment of precursor oxy-fluoride glasses has been confirmed from XRD, FESEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Further, the incorporation of dopant ions inside fluoride nano-crystals has been established through optical absorption and TEM-EDX analysis. The noticed decreasing trend in donor to acceptor energy transfer efficiency from precursor glass to glass-ceramics in all three combinations have been explained based on the structural rearrangements that occurred during the heat treatment process. The reduced coupling phonon energy for the dopant ions due to fluoride environment and its influence on the overall phonon assisted contribution in energy transfer process has been illustrated. Additionally, realization of a correlated distribution of dopant ions causing clustering inside nano-crystals has also been reported.

Sontakke, Atul D.; Annapurna, K. [Glass Science and Technology Section, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)

2012-07-01

361

Energy transfer kinetics in oxy-fluoride glass and glass-ceramics doped with rare-earth ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of donor-acceptor energy transfer kinetics in dual rare earths doped precursor oxy-fluoride glass and its glass-ceramics containing NaYF4 nano-crystals is reported here, using three different donor-acceptor ion combinations such as Nd-Yb, Yb-Dy, and Nd-Dy. The precipitation of NaYF4 nano-crystals in host glass matrix under controlled post heat treatment of precursor oxy-fluoride glasses has been confirmed from XRD, FESEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Further, the incorporation of dopant ions inside fluoride nano-crystals has been established through optical absorption and TEM-EDX analysis. The noticed decreasing trend in donor to acceptor energy transfer efficiency from precursor glass to glass-ceramics in all three combinations have been explained based on the structural rearrangements that occurred during the heat treatment process. The reduced coupling phonon energy for the dopant ions due to fluoride environment and its influence on the overall phonon assisted contribution in energy transfer process has been illustrated. Additionally, realization of a correlated distribution of dopant ions causing clustering inside nano-crystals has also been reported.

Sontakke, Atul D.; Annapurna, K.

2012-07-01

362

Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

Givoni, B.

1989-01-01

363

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth consists of four sections and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. Simply follow the instructions on the screen to learn about the layers that make up the earth; how the continents arrived at their current locations; the constant movement of the tectonic plates; and the volcanoes, earthquakes, and other events that result from the movements of the plates. Students will view animations, read explanations, and use their mouse to drag and drop the earth's continents in their correct places, highlight features on a map, and cause earth's tectonic plates to move. At various points, students will check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned about the Dynamic Earth. Students should read section introductions carefully, as they give a basic overview of concepts, and use the Glossary to look up definitions to unfamiliar terms.

Quinn, Ashlinn

2007-01-01

364

Design of a grid-independent energy efficient building: Sustainable Energy Research Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes architectural and engineering design features of the “Sustainable Energy Research Facility (SERF)” to be constructed on Frostburg State University campus located in Western Maryland, USA. SERF will be an off-grid, energy efficient, residential size building supplied by clean renewable energy sources. When completed, SERF will be used by the FSU Renewable Energy Center to offer research, education,

O. Soysal; H. Soysal; J. Spears; D. Posson; K. O'Hearn; B. Charles; B. Harwick

2010-01-01

365

Electron acoustic soliton energy of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation in the Earth's magnetotail region at critical ion density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear properties of small amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves (EAWs) in a homogeneous system of unmagnetized collisionless plasma consisted of a cold electron fluid and isothermal ions with two different temperatures obeying Boltzmann type distributions have been investigated. A reductive perturbation method was employed to obtain the Kadomstev-Petviashvili (KP) equation. At the critical ion density, the KP equation is not appropriate for describing the system. Hence, a new set of stretched coordinates is considered to derive the modified KP equation. Moreover, the solitary solution, soliton energy and the associated electric field at the critical ion density were computed. The present investigation can be of relevance to the electrostatic solitary structures observed in various space plasma environments, such as Earth's magnetotail region.

Elwakil, S. A.; El-hanbaly, A. M.; El-Shewy, E. K.; El-Kamash, I. S.

2013-10-01

366

Design for Manufacturing for Energy Absorption Systems  

SciTech Connect

In the typical scenario of a helicopter crash, impact with the ground is preceded by a substantially vertical drop, with the result that a seated occupant of a helicopter experiences high spinal loads and pelvic deceleration during such crash due to the sudden arresting of vertical downward motion. It has long been recognized that spinal injuries to occupants of helicopters in such crash scenario can be minimized by seat arrangements which limit the deceleration to which the seated occupant is subjected, relative to the helicopter, to a predetermined maximum, by allowing downward movement of the seated occupant relative to the helicopter, at the time of impact with the ground, under a restraining force which, over a limited range of such movement, is limited to a predetermined maximum. In practice, significant benefits, in the way of reduced injuries and reduced seriousness of injuries, can be afforded in this way in such crash situations even where the extent of such controlled vertical movement permitted by the crashworthy seat arrangement is quite limited. Important increase of accident safety is reached with the installation of crashworthy shock absorbers on the main landing gear, but this solution is mostly feasible on military helicopters with long fixed landing gear. Seats can then give high contribution to survivability. Commonly, an energy absorber is a constant load device, if one excludes an initial elastic part of the load-stroke curve. On helicopter seats, this behavior is obtained by plastic deformation of a metal component or scraping of material. In the present work the authors have studied three absorption systems, which differ in relation to their shape, their working conditions and their constructive materials. All the combinations have been analyzed for applications in VIP helicopter seats.

Del Prete, A.; Primo, T.; Papadia, G.; Manisi, B. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Arnesano, Building 'O', Lecce (Italy)

2011-05-04

367

Project Earth Science: Physical Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Immerse your students in Earth's most abundant resource--water. Embark on a voyage of discovery as you steer your students through activities designed to teach them about currents, waves, and tides. From an understanding of the properties that make water unique, your students will get a global view of the marine environment, including the impact of human activities on the oceans. This book is one of four in NSTA's popular Project Earth Science series. The other books are Project Earth Science:Geology, Project Earth Science:Astronomy, and Project Earth Science:Meteorology .

Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. S.

2000-01-01

368

Earth Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Viewer was written primarily for elementary school students, and shows the daytime and nighttime portions of the Earth for any day of the year. Two views of the Earth are possible: a globe shows the planet as it would appear from space, and a map shows a flat view of the entire surface. The image can be animated or still, and set to any desired latitude and longitude.

Carlisle, Paul

369

Earth Lecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lecture is about the Earth, the planet which we know the most about, due to our ability to explore its interior as well as exterior. The lecture will compare values and processes on other planets to those on the Earth. It covers topics such as the interior, surface features and observations. It also includes a discussion of the Earth's crust, atmosphere, evolution and magnetic field. There is a quiz at the end of the lecture.

Schombert, Jim

2008-12-15

370

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from

Norman G. Loeb; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Seiji Kato; Walter F. Miller; Shashi K. Gupta; Patrick Minnis; Bruce A. Wielicki

2003-01-01

371

Exploration of new cymbal design in energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harvesting wasted energy and converting it into electrical energy to use as needed is an emerging technology area. In this work, a new design of a cymbal energy harvester is developed and tested to validate analytical energy generating performance. Cymbal transducers have been demonstrated to be beneficial as energy harvesters for vibrating systems under modest load and frequency. In this paper a new design is adopted using a unimorph circular piezoelectric disc between the metal end caps to deal with higher loads. Simple analysis for the new cymbal design to predict voltage output was first conducted. The new cymbal design, 25.4 mm diameter and 8.2 mm thickness, was then fabricated and tested on the load frame with up to 324 lb load and 1 Hz frequency to measure output voltages. This device could be used in numerous applications for potentially self sustaining sensors or other electronic devices. By changing the structure between the metal end caps of cymbal harvesters the new design could be extended in higher load applications.

Arnold, Daniel; Kinsel, William; Clark, William W.; Mo, Changki

2011-03-01

372

Satellite Collectors of Solar Energy for Earth and Colonized Planet Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An array of 55,000 40-foot antennas can generate from the rays of the Sun enough electrical power to replace 50 The economic potential is huge. There are new industries that will only grow and there are different ways to collect solar energy, including wind power. The energy sources we rely on for the most part are finite - fossil

Richard Kusiolek

2008-01-01

373

Heat to light energy conversion by emitters doped with rare-earth metal ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermodynamical consideration of a selective wavelength emitter for thermophotovoltaic energy generation is presented to express emitter emission properties through spectroscopic parameters of dopant atoms. It is found the heat-light conversion can produce nonequilibrium conditions in the emitter material due to radiative cooling of the atomic excited states. A possible influence of inter- and intra-atomic energy transitions to emitter parameters

V. V. Golovlev; C. H. Winston Chen; W. R. Garrett

1996-01-01

374

Lattice Energies and Other Properties of Crystals of Alkaline Earth Chalcogenides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lattice energies of the 20 binary compounds composed of Be++, Mg++, Ca++, Sr++, Ba++, O-, S-, Se- and Te- have been computed by previously well-tested procedures. Because of lack of sufficiently reliable compressibility data, the computations have been made with two different assumptions regarding the magnitude of the constant a in the exponent of the repulsion energy term. These

Maurice L. Huggins; Yosio Sakamoto

1957-01-01

375

To cool a sweltering earth: Does energy efficiency improvement offset the climate impacts of lifestyle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As technical efficiency improvement in energy use remains a touchstone measure to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is substantial concern about whether this approach can offset the large and expanding impacts of human actions. Critics contend that without adjustments to the prevailing consumptive lifestyle, energy efficiency improvement will generate only token reductions in GHG emissions. I address this concern

Lazarus Adua

2010-01-01

376

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 22, 2005, people around the world will celebrate the 35th anniversary of Earth Day. This Topic in Depth focuses on the past and present of this significant day. From the Wisconsin Historical Society, the first two sites contain historical documents pertaining to Earth Day. The first (1) document features a May 1970 issue of The Gaylord Nelson Newsletter reporting on the first Earth Day. The second (2) document is a speech by Nelson entitled "An Environmental Agenda for the 70's." Housed in the archives of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, the next two sites also contain historical documents. The first (3) site contains an article written by Nelson for the EPA Journal in April of 1980, entitled "Earth Day '70: What It Meant." The second (4) site contains an article written by John C. Whitaker (former Interior undersecretary in the Nixon administration) for the EPA Journal in the summer of 1998. The article is entitled "Earth Day Recollections: What It Was Like When the Movement Took Off." The (5) Earth Day Network (first mentioned in the April 4, 2003, Scout Report for Life Sciences) works "to broaden the environmental movement worldwide and to educate and mobilize people, governments, and corporations to take responsibility for a clean and healthy environment." In addition to information sections about Ongoing Programs, Current Campaigns, and News, the Earth Day Network website contains Earth Day 2005 Materials for organizers. From EarthDay.gov, Take Action In Your Classroom (6) offers links to a variety of environmental education resources. The next website, from the U.S. Army Environmental Center, presents (7) Army Earth Day; and links to information about the Army's environmental activities. The final (8) site is an Earth Day-inspired educational website (first reported on in the April 14, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) from the Wilderness Society. The site offers a collection of environmental education resources for teachers and students. [NL

377

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Highway Lodging Buildings: Development of 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in roadside motels (highway lodging) above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This 50% solution represents a further step toward realization of the U.S. Department of Energy’s net-zero energy building goal, and go beyond the 30% savings in the Advanced Energy Design Guide series (upon which this work was built). This work can serve as the technical feasibility study for the development of a 50% saving Advanced Energy Design Guide for highway lodging, and thus should greatly expedite the development process. The purpose of this design package is to provide user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers, and owners of highway lodging properties. It is intended to encourage energy-efficient design by providing prescriptive energy-efficiency recommendations for each climate zone that attains the 50% the energy savings target. This paper describes the steps that were taken to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving a 50% reduction in whole-building energy use with practical and commercially available technologies. The energy analysis results are presented, indicating the recommended energy-efficient measures achieved a national-weighted average energy savings of 55%, relative to Standard 90.1-2004. The cost-effectiveness of the recommended technology package is evaluated and the result shows an average simple payback of 11.3 years.

Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Thornton, Brian A.; Liu, Bing

2010-06-30

378

Commercial building design and energy conservation: A preliminary assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the research was to determine the degree of change in commercial building design practice relating to energy conservation since the enactment of the Energy Conservation Standard for New Buildings Act of 1976. Data on current design practices consisted of information from 400 buildings advertised for bids or under construction in 1979 to 1980 on glass in windows and doors, exterior wall systems, roof system, heating plants, and lighting systems. In addition to these building design components, energy conservation measures used included: natural lighting; deadband thermostat; greenhouse-effect atrium collector, heat recovery from the top of the atrium, greenhouse passive heating panels; natural ventilation; insulating shutters, closable skylights, thermal shutters, Trombe wall, corridor trombe; attic ventilation; wind shielding, concrete wall; titled windows; night flushing cycle; and cooling coils using cooling tower water. A brief explanation of these measures is given.

Nieves, A. L.; Rosoff, D.

1982-02-01

379

Evolution of solar wind energy densities during solar minimum 2007-2009, and features of its effects on the Earth's magnetopause and magnetosheath  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantify the distribution of magnetic and kinetic energies densities of the solar wind at 1 AU as the deep solar activity minimum 2007-2009 progressed. For this we use near -Earth spacecraft Wind and the STEREO-A and B probes, the latter giving us a more comprehensive description by extending the longitudinal coverage. We relate general trends in interplanetary data to

Charles Farrugia; B. Harris; Mag. Martin Leitner; Christian Moestl; Kristin Simunac; Antoinette Galvin; Astrid Veronig; Manuela Temmer; Janet G. Luhmann; Adam Szabo; Helfried K. Biernat; Elizabeth A. Lucek

2010-01-01

380

Broadband measurements of lunar radiances using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft\\/Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

12 Currently, the moon is being used as a radiometric target to determine on-orbit relative shifts or shifts in the responses of certain spacecraft shortwave sensors. Along these lines, the 1998 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft\\/Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) thermistor bolometer sensor observations of lunar radiances were analyzed to evaluate the feasibility using the lunar

Robert B. Lee; G. Louis Smith; Peter L. Spence; Dale R. Walikainen; Zbigniew P. Szewczyk; Jack Paden; Kory J. Priestley

2001-01-01

381

Energy Design Plugin: An EnergyPlus Plugin for SketchUp; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Energy Design Plugin, a new software plugin that aims to integrate simulation as a tool during the earliest phases of the design process. The plugin couples the EnergyPlus whole-building simulation engine to the Google SketchUp drawing program.

Ellis, P. G.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D. B.

2008-08-01

382

Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Analysis Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (Water-cooled, Water-moderated Energy Reactor). The principle objective of this undertaking is to provide a basis to better understand the safety related features of the Soviet designed VVERs to be better prepared to respond domestically in the event of an accident at such a unit. The USDOE Team's analyses are presented together with supporting and background information. The report is structured to allow the reader to develop an understanding of safety related features of Soviet designed VVERs (as well as the probable behavior of these units under a variety of off normal conditions), to understand the USDOE Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs, and to formulate informed opinions.

Not Available

1989-09-01

383

Rainbow Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation; getting…

Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

384

Earth tides  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

Harrison, J.C.

1984-01-01

385

Earth Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an enhanced image and animation of Earth from above that shows daytime and nighttime on 1/2 of the Earth at a time. The representation's viewing angle and date can be manipulated by the viewer, and the representation can be toggled between globe and map views.

Carlisle, Paul

386

Tribological design constraints of marine renewable energy systems.  

PubMed

Against the backdrop of increasing energy demands, the threat of climate change and dwindling fuel reserves, finding reliable, diverse, sustainable/renewable, affordable energy resources has become a priority for many countries. Marine energy conversion systems are at the forefront of providing such a resource. Most marine renewable energy conversion systems require tribological components to convert wind or tidal streams to rotational motion for generating electricity while wave machines typically use oscillating hinge or piston within cylinder geometries to promote reciprocating linear motion. This paper looks at the tribology of three green marine energy systems, offshore wind, tidal and wave machines. Areas covered include lubrication and contamination, bearing and gearbox issues, biofouling, cavitation erosion, tribocorrosion, condition monitoring as well as design trends and loading conditions associated with tribological components. Current research thrusts are highlighted along with areas needing research as well as addressing present-day issues related to the tribology of offshore energy conversion technologies. PMID:20855321

Wood, Robert J K; Bahaj, AbuBakr S; Turnock, Stephen R; Wang, Ling; Evans, Martin

2010-10-28

387

Optimized design of total energy systems: The RETE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RETE (Reggio Emilia Total Energy) project is discussed. The total energy system (TES) was developed to achieve the maximum quality matching on the thermal energy side between plant and user and perform an open scheme on the electrical energy side by connection with the Italian electrical network. The most significant qualitative considerations at the basis of the plant economic energy optimization and the selection of the operating criterion most fitting the user consumption characteristics and the external system constraints are reported. The design methodology described results in a TES that: in energy terms achieves a total efficiency evaluated on a yearly basis to be equal to about 78 percent and a fuel saving of about 28 percent and in economic terms allows a recovery of the investment required as to conventional solutions, in about seven years.

Alia, P.; Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.; Sanson, F.; Veneziani, S.; Spagni, G.

1980-05-01

388

Solar Wind Energy Transfer to the Earth Magnetosphere Due to the Magnetic Junction in the Magnetopause.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expression for the energy transfer due to magnetopause reconnection, as well as related expressions for the convection and parallel electric fields, are presented. These expressions are derived from a reconnection model centered at the magnetopause nos...

A. L. C. Gonzalez W. D. Gonzalez-Alarcon M. V. A. Jardim

1983-01-01

389

Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities (AEDG-SHC) was recently completed. It is the sixth document in a series of guides designed to achieve 30% savings over the minimum code requirements of ANSI\\/ASHRAE\\/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999. The guide [1] is available for print purchase or as a free download from http:\\/\\/www.ashrae.org\\/aedg and provides user-friendly assistance and recommendations

Eric Bonnema; Shanti Pless; Ian Doebber

2010-01-01

390

Modeling and design of energy concentrating laser weld joints  

SciTech Connect

The application of lasers for welding and joining has increased steadily over the past decade with the advent of high powered industrial laser systems. Attributes such as high energy density and precise focusing allow high speed processing of precision assemblies. Other characteristics of the process such as poor coupling of energy due to highly reflective materials and instabilities associated with deep penetration keyhole mode welding remain as process limitations and challenges to be overcome. Reflective loss of laser energy impinging on metal surfaces can in some cases exceed ninety five percent, thus making the process extremely inefficient. Enhanced coupling of the laser beam can occur when high energy densities approach the vaporization point of the materials and form a keyhole feature which can trap laser energy and enhance melting and process efficiency. The extreme temperature, pressure and fluid flow dynamics of the keyhole make control of the process difficult in this melting regime. The authors design and model weld joints which through reflective propagation and concentration of the laser beam energy significantly enhance the melting process and weld morphology. A three dimensional computer based geometric optical model is used to describe the key laser parameters and joint geometry. Ray tracing is used to compute the location and intensity of energy absorption within the weld joint. Comparison with experimentation shows good correlation of energy concentration within the model to actual weld profiles. The effect of energy concentration within various joint geometry is described. This method for extending the design of the laser system to include the weld joint allows the evaluation and selection of laser parameters such as lens and focal position for process optimization. The design of narrow gap joints which function as energy concentrators is described. The enhanced laser welding of aluminum without keyhole formation has been demonstrated.

Milewski, J.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sklar, E. [OptiCad Corp., Santa Fe, NM (United States)

1997-04-01

391

Iowa's ideal homes: innovative designs for energy affordable living  

SciTech Connect

New home buyers in Iowa are looking for energy performance because of rising natural gas costs. The ideal home now requires thermal comfort at affordable prices as well as location and size criteria. The four key design elements are superinsulation, air tight construction, air-to-air exchangers, and passive solar orientation. The book includes design and construction details, cost estimates and comparisons, and a collection of available floor plans. The Iowa Energy Policy Council will provide information for both new homes and modifications of existing home plans. 25 figures, 2 tables.

Not Available

1986-01-01

392

SWRO Membrane Design with Isobaric Energy Recovery Devices Authors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great majority of medium and large seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants being designed and built today use isobaric energy recovery devices (ERDs) to minimize energy consumption. Isobaric ERDs transfer pressure from the high-pressure concentrate reject from the SWRO membranes to low-pressure seawater by placing the streams into contact in pressure-equilibrating chambers. This positive-displacement mechanism provides high hydraulic transfer

Richard L. Stover; Andreas Gorenflo

393

Thermochemical Energy Storage Systems: Modelling, Analysis and Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage (TES) is an advanced technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. Thermochemical TES is an emerging method with the potential for high energy density storage. Where space is limited, therefore, thermochemical TES has the highest potential to achieve the required compact TES. Principles of thermochemical TES are presented and thermochemical TES is critically assessed and compared with other TES types. The integration of TES systems with heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) applications is examined and reviewed accounting for various factors, and recent advances are discussed. Thermodynamics assessments are presented for general closed and open thermochemical TES systems. Exergy and energy analyses are applied to assess and compare the efficiencies of the overall thermochemical TES cycle and its charging, storing and discharging processes. Examples using experimental data are presented to illustrate the analyses. Some important factors related to design concepts of thermochemical TES systems are considered and preliminary design conditions for them are investigated. Parametric studies are carried out for the thermochemical storage systems to investigate the effects of selected parameters on the efficiency and behavior of thermochemical storage systems. Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage; Thermochemical Energy Storage; Energy Efficiency; Exergy Efficiency, First Law Efficiency; Second Law Efficiency; Exergy

Haji Abedin, Ali

394

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding the power of magnetism on Earth isnâÂÂt always easy, and students and teachers alike will be glad to find out about this handy guide to the subject. Created by experts at NASA, this 15-page teacherâÂÂs guide was designed in partnership with other educators at Berkeley and several other participating institutions. The guide contains problems which examine EarthâÂÂs changing magnetic field in time and space, and how these changes can impact navigation on EarthâÂÂs surface. In terms of specific activities, the guide includes exercises on navigating the earth with a compass, the declining magnetic field, and the reversal of magnetic polarity. Each of these activities is explained in detail, and they all include relevant illustrations, graphs, questions, and an answer key.

Odenwald, Sten F.; Peticolas, Laura; Craig, N. (Nahide)

2007-04-29

395

Exploring Magnetism on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding the power of magnetism on Earth isn't always easy, and students and teachers alike will be glad to find out about this handy guide to the subject. Created by experts at NASA, this 15-page teacher's guide was designed in partnership with other educators at Berkeley as well as several other participating institutions. The guide contains problems which examine Earth's changing magnetic field in time and space, and how these changes can impact navigation on Earth's surface. In terms of specific activities, the guide includes exercises on navigating the earth with a compass, the declining magnetic field, and the reversal of magnetic polarity. Each of these activities is explained in detail, and they all include relevant illustrations, graphs, questions, and an answer key.

Odenwald, Sten F.; Peticolas, Laura; Craig, N. (Nahide)

2005-01-01

396

Measurement of the deflection of cosmic-ray electrons in the energy range 75-250 GeV by the Earth's magnetic field with the PAMELA experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deflection of electrons in the Earth's magnetic field in the energy range 75-250 GeV (the so-called east-west effect) has been measured with the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment. The results are presented for various L-shells. The data obtained can be used to construct mathematical models that describe the structure of the Earth's magnetic field and to refine the already existing models. These data can also be directly applied to estimate the positron fraction in cosmic-ray electron fluxes both in the PAMELA experiment and in other satellite-borne experiments.

Karelin, A. V.; Voronov, S. A.; Galper, A. M.; Malakhov, V. V.; Mikhailov, V. V.

2013-07-01

397

Preliminary design of the energy system for the ZTH experiment  

SciTech Connect

A 4 MA reversed field pinch experiment, called ZTH, is being designed and built at Los Alamos. The first plasma discharges are scheduled to take place in FY 1991. Major electrical power equipment components, such as a pulsed generator, controlled power supplies, isolation and opening switches, current interrupters and capacitor banks are being designed and procured for this experiment. In this paper the requirements and the design philosophy of the components for the energy system are described, and a status report on the component acquisition is given. 7 figs.

Boenig, H.; Gribble, R.; Hammer, C.; Huddleston, S.; Kewish, R.; Konkel, H.; Melton, J.; Reass, W.; Rosev, B.; Thullen, P.

1987-10-01

398

Multi objective decision making in hybrid energy system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of grid-connected photovoltaic wind generator system supplying a farmstead in Nebraska has been undertaken in this dissertation. The design process took into account competing criteria that motivate the use of different sources of energy for electric generation. The criteria considered were 'Financial', 'Environmental', and 'User/System compatibility'. A distance based multi-objective decision making methodology was developed to rank design alternatives. The method is based upon a precedence order imposed upon the design objectives and a distance metric describing the performance of each alternative. This methodology advances previous work by combining ambiguous information about the alternatives with a decision-maker imposed precedence order in the objectives. Design alternatives, defined by the photovoltaic array and wind generator installed capacities, were analyzed using the multi-objective decision making approach. The performance of the design alternatives was determined by simulating the system using hourly data for an electric load for a farmstead and hourly averages of solar irradiation, temperature and wind speed from eight wind-solar energy monitoring sites in Nebraska. The spatial variability of the solar energy resource within the region was assessed by determining semivariogram models to krige hourly and daily solar radiation data. No significant difference was found in the predicted performance of the system when using kriged solar radiation data, with the models generated vs. using actual data. The spatial variability of the combined wind and solar energy resources was included in the design analysis by using fuzzy numbers and arithmetic. The best alternative was dependent upon the precedence order assumed for the main criteria. Alternatives with no PV array or wind generator dominated when the 'Financial' criteria preceded the others. In contrast, alternatives with a nil component of PV array but a high wind generator component, dominated when the 'Environment' objective or the 'User/System compatibility' objectives were more important than the 'Financial' objectives and they also dominated when the three criteria were considered equally important.

Merino, Gabriel Guillermo

399

Earth's Earliest Atmospheres  

PubMed Central

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases.

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2010-01-01

400

The importance of grouting to enhance the performance of earth energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of ground-source heat pumps (GSHP) can be seriously affected by the thermo-mechanical interaction between the collector pipes or coils and the surrounding ground. The design and installation of collector pipes or coils should aim for efficient heat exchange with the surrounding ground and free circulation of circulating liquid. In the case of vertical collector pipes, there is a

F. J. Lenarduzzi; C. B. H. Cragg; H. S. Radhakrishna

2000-01-01

401

Science Data Processing and Distribution of Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CERES project at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides critical cloud and Earth radiation budget climate data records (CDRs) to support global climate change research. CERES has produced over 30 Instrument years of data from TRMM, Terra, and Aqua, and is preparing to collect, calibrate, process and distribute data from CERES Flight Model 5 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). A complex system of algorithm development, data collection, processing, archive and distribution is being developed to manage science data from CERES on NPP. A new state-of-the-art data archival and distribution system called Archive - Next Generation (ANGe) has also been developed at the Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) and now supports efficient data ingest, archive, and distribution for CERES. The CERES data system integrates data from multiple sources to produce an extensive set of high quality climate data records. For NPP, CERES data will be fused with clouds and aerosol information obtained using VIIRS radiance and geolocation data, making accurate and stable calibration of VIIRS radiances critical to maintaining high quality CERES CDRs. New science processing algorithms will provide improved clouds and aerosol information that feed flux calculations and time and space averaging, and will be applied to processing CERES NPP data. A more robust ground calibration campaign has also been developed for the CERES sensors. The addition of CERES data from NPP will extend Earth radiation budget climate data records well into the next decade. This paper will describe the data flow, science data processing, and distribution of CERES data from NPP.

Closs, J. W.; Robbins, J. L.; Miller, W. F.

2009-12-01

402

Spatial variation of energy conversion at the Earth's magnetopause: Statistics from Cluster observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate magnetopause energy conversion in a large statistical data set utilizing Cluster spacecraft observations. We have compiled a database of about 4000 magnetopause crossings from Cluster spacecraft 1 (SC1) measurements during years 2001 - 2008. We have estimated the local energy conversion across the magnetopause for these crossings using Generic Residue Analysis (GRA) and analyzed the spatial distribution of load and generator regions during dayside and lobe reconnection as a function of the IMF magnitude and solar wind dynamic pressure. We found a scatter of the load and the generator regions on the magnetopause surface. Categorizing the crossings into equatorward or tailward of the cusp organizes the load and generators on the surface. During dayside reconnection, equatorward (tailward) of the cusp indicates more load (generator) than generator and is in agreement with theory. During lobe reconnection, we find that a load region dominates both equatorward and tailward of the cusp. We compare the statistics with GUMICS-4 global magnetohydrodynamic simulation results and find that there is a reasonable agreement, although disagreements are also found especially during lobe reconnection. We also investigate the influence of IMF magnitude on the load and generator locations and suggest that the spatial mixing of load and generators is due to rapid movement of the magnetopause surface which in turns moves the locations where load and generator processes appear. The solar wind dynamic pressure controls the magnitude of energy conversion across the magnetopause, and higher dynamic pressures lead to more energy conversion and vice versa.

Anekallu, Chandrasekhar R.; Palmroth, Minna; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Lucek, Elizabeth; Dandouras, Iannis

2013-04-01

403

A Survey Course: The Energy and Mass Budget at the Surface of the Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objectives of this geography course for liberal arts students include the following: 1) to demonstrate cooperative action among sciences, by showing that physical and chemical phenomena occur at biological surfaces that usually exist in economic and cultural frameworks; 2) to show that laboratory principles of mass and energy exchange and…

Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC. Commission on College Geography.

404

Design of the Energy Monitoring System for Motors Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper designs an energy monitoring system for a certain Motors Corporation in China based on not only the technology of combining industrial field bus with industrial Ethernet but also other technologies. System's main functions, hardware configuration, network structure, as well as the development of application software are all discussed in this article. Statistical data collected from that Motors Corporation

Wenfeng Wang; Wei Long; Zhi Zhang

2009-01-01

405

Design of mechanical band-pass filters for energy scavenging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the design of mechanical band-pass filters to be used in energy scavengers is studied. For such filters an ensemble of cantilever beams is proposed where at the tip of each beam a mass, known as the proof mass, is mounted. It is shown that such an ensemble can be made into a band-pass filter when dimensions of

S. M. Shahruz

2006-01-01

406

Principles of designing solar- and wind-energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems analysis approach is proposed for planning and designing solar- and wind-energy systems whose operation involves natural, engineering, and human factors. Such relatively complex systems are characterized by the presence of control, functional objectives, a hierarchical system structure, and a continuously changing state of subsystems and elements. Computer-aided solutions to the problems of optimizing the system structure, the system

R. B. Salieva

1976-01-01

407

Optimum design and control of anchored wave energy generators  

SciTech Connect

Discussed is the development of design data and strategies for optimizing the performance of wave energy generators. Rectangular buoys are considered for illustration. The buoy dimensions necessary for maximizing the conversion efficiency while minimizing its size for a particular ocean condition are evaluated. 12 refs.

Abuelnaga, A.; Seireg, A.

1982-03-01

408

Design for a High Energy Density Kelvin-Helmholtz Experiment  

SciTech Connect

While many high energy density physics (HEDP) Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments have been fielded as part of basic HEDP and astrophysics studies, not one HEDP Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) experiment has been successfully performed. Herein, a design for a novel HEDP x-ray driven KH experiment is presented along with supporting radiation-hydrodynamic simulation and theory.

Hurricane, O A

2007-10-29

409

Office campus design incorporates energy-efficiency inside and out  

SciTech Connect

Concern for energy conservation was extremely important in the design of McDonald's Corporation's new international office headquarters. In addition to the use of an electronic center to control heating and cooling, each of the buildings will feature improved insulation systems.

Not Available

1983-11-01

410

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ADAPTIVE ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (R-BAEMS) DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

The expected outcomes from Phase I included 1) a set of guidelines for implementing R-BAEMS in residential structures from both a retrofit and original design perspective and 2) a cost and energy analysis of R-BAEMS impact on the environment. The status of each of the outcomes...

411

Design challenges for energy-constrained ad hoc wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc wireless networks enable new and exciting applications, but also pose significant technical challenges. In this article we give a brief overview of ad hoc wireless networks and their applications with a particular emphasis on energy constraints. We then discuss advances in the link, multiple access, network, and application protocols for these networks. We show that cross-layer design of

ANDREA J. GOLDSMITH; STEPHEN B. WICKER

2002-01-01

412

Synthesis, design and operation optimization of a marine energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the global fuel markets imposed the need of increased fuel economy and cost effectiveness of sea-going vessels. Optimization of the ship's total energy system, as a whole, is now a demand of the marine industry sector in order to address the significant increase of installation and operational costs. This study is focused on the synthesis, design and

George G. Dimopoulos; Aristotelis V. Kougioufas; Christos A. Frangopoulos

2008-01-01

413

An open design approach for distributed energy management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management system (EMS) design has traditionally been a top-down process, in which a single vector provides the algorithms, software, and hardware to meet the utility's functional specifications. Trends in power systems, such as the move by utilities to open systems architectures, and the development of distributed computing systems indicate that this process must be changed to incorporate the new

Liam Murphy; Felix F. Wu

1993-01-01

414

A System Design Approach for Unattended Solar Energy Harvesting Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote devices, such as sensors and communications devices, require continuously available power. In many applications, conventional approaches are too expensive, too large, or unreliable. For short-term needs, primary batteries may be used. However, they do not scale up well for long-term installations. Instead, energy harvesting methods must be used. Here, a system design approach is introduced that results in a

Jonathan W. Kimball; Brian T. Kuhn; Robert S. Balog

2009-01-01

415

Design considerations for a Lithium-Ion Energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial applications for Lithium Ion Reserve Power Systems are emerging for niche applications that have traditionally utilized lead acid or nickel based systems. Lithium-ion systems are higher in energy density than traditional systems, but are hybrid in nature since they include both lithium-ion cells and electronic controls. The hybrid nature of the systems, require unique design, development, and testing considerations

Jon Anderson; Jay Frankhouser; Daniel Boyer

2010-01-01

416

Design and evaluation criteria for energy conservation in new buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a set of design and evaluation criteria for energy conservation in most types of new buildings. The National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards (NCSBCS) requested that the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) develop such a document with the intent that it could serve as a basis for a national standard developed through the voluntary

Heldenbrand

1976-01-01

417

Design of electron energy analyzers for electron impact studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and construction of an electron energy analyzer for the study of electron impact processes in atoms, molecules and solids is described. The analyzer incorporates a 180° hemispherical deflector and five-element entrance optics. Focusing characteristics and angular behavior of the analyzer have been investigated by using the electron-ray tracing simulation program, SIMION. The entrance lens system to the hemispherical

Mevlut Dogan; Omer Sise; Melike Ulu

2007-01-01

418

Efficiency versus cost — A fundamental design conflict in energy science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential design conflict in energy technology is the trade-off between efficiency and cost. The lecture introduces concepts that deal with this trade-off and discusses real world examples. Among the many definitions of efficiency, exergetic efficiency is the most rigorous and often the most adequate for analyzing the efficiency of a process. Exergy is the maximum work obtainable from a system as it comes into equilibrium with its environment. Exergetic efficiency is illustrated here with the heating of buildings. The right concept to analyze the trade-off between efficiency and the initial capital cost of equipment is the net present value analysis. We discuss two examples, overhead power lines and energy storage. Electrothermal energy storage is a new energy storage technology that builds on both concepts, optimization of exergetic efficiency and balancing of initial cost with that efficiency. Finally, non-technical barriers for energy efficiency are mentioned.

Ohler, C.

2013-06-01

419

Blowing up the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An occasional theme in science fiction involves blowing up a planet. In ``Star Wars,'' the Death Star blows up Alderan. In ``The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy,'' a Vorgon destructor fleet blows up Earth to make room for a cosmic bypass. So, as an exercise for upper division students, or the more advance first year calculus based physics students, the energy needed to disassemble Earth can be computed. Assuming that advanced scifi aliens get their energy from matter-antimatter interactions, students can then compute the amount of antimatter needed to accomplish the task.

Benge, Raymond

2006-10-01

420

Optimal design of piezoelectric materials and devices for energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs) have received considerable attention as an enabling technology for self-powered wireless sensor networks. However, the biggest challenge with PVEHs has been their insufficient power generation for practical applications, which necessitates creative and disruptive materials and structure design on various scales. In this work, a model-based design study is performed that includes structural, materials, and device-level power optimizations of PVEHs. The optimization results help in understanding the behavior of the device performance, such as voltage and power, when the devices are optimized under various operating conditions, including input operating frequencies and mechanical damping. Furthermore, the optimization provides both an optimal device design scheme for power improvement and a better understanding of the correlation between the material property and the energy-harvesting output performance.

Kim, Miso; Dugundji, John; Wardle, Brian L.

2013-06-01

421

Design of synthetic estimation filters using correlation energy minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic estimation filters (SEFs) have been found useful for the determination of distortion parameters such as angle of rotation of objects from their images. Previous SEFs, designed using matched and phase-only filters required a knowledge of the exact location of the object to produce reasonable estimation accuracy. To overcome the limitation, use of minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filters is proposed for the construction of SEFs. Because the MACE filters are designed to have their peaks at the origin of the correlation plane, the peak can be detected without a knowledge of the exact position of the object. Computer simulations are used to study the performance of MACE-SEFs. It is found that significant errors result at rotation angles that are not part of the training set. An improved linearity leading to an increase in accuracy was realized when the minimum noise correlation energy (MINACE) concept was used in place of the MACE concept for the design of the SEFs.

Rajan, P. Karivaratha; Raghavan, Embar S.

1994-06-01

422

Optimal design of thermal energy storage for space power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the problem of optimization of high-temperature thermal energy storage (TES) in space, using encapsulated phase-change material (PCM). The PCM considered is lithium hydride, with Li assumed to be the heat transport fluid. A total orbit time of 6000 sec is assumed with a sprint period of 600 sec. The goal of the optimization is to minimize the volume of the TES for a given operating condition. A one-dimensional model, based on the constant-temperature approach, is used to calculate the temperature distribution of the fluid and the PCM. This temperautre distribution (and, therefore, the total energy in the TES) is influenced by the particle size and relative dimensions of the TES. Optimal design variables can be chosen, depending on the design constraints, to maximize the energy density in the TES.

Torab, Hamid

423

Intercalibration of CERES and ScaRaB Earth radiation budget datasets using temporally and spatially collocated radiance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of radiance measurements from overlapping independent Earth and cloud radiation budget (ERB) missions are an important contribution to the validation process of these missions and are essential to the construction of a consistent long-term record of ERB observations. Measurements from two scanning radiometers of different design and calibration, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the

Martial Haeffelin; Bruce Wielicki; Jean Philippe Duvel; Kory Priestley; Michel Viollier

2001-01-01

424

High-energy cosmic-ray fluxes in the Earth atmosphere: Calculations vs experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new calculation of the atmospheric fluxes of cosmic-ray hadrons and muons in the energy range 10-105 GeV has been performed for the set of hadron production models, EPOS 1.6, QGSJET II-03, SIBYLL 2.1, and others that are of interest to cosmic-ray physicists. The fluxes of secondary cosmic rays at several levels in the atmosphere are computed using directly data of the ATIC-2, GAMMA experiments, and the model proposed recently by Zatsepin and Sokolskaya as well as the parameterization of the primary cosmic-ray spectrum by Gaisser and Honda. The calculated energy spectra of the hadrons and muon flux as a function of zenith angle are compared with measurements as well as other calculations. The effect of uncertainties both in the primary cosmic-ray flux and hadronic model predictions on the spectra of atmospheric hadrons and muons is considered.

Kochanov, A. A.; Sinegovskaya, T. S.; Sinegovsky, S. I.

2008-12-01

425

The World's Largest Experiment Manipulating Solar Energy Input To Earth Resumed In 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small amounts of solar-ultraviolet-energy absorbing gases such as ozone, SO2, and NO2 play an unusually large role warming the atmosphere. A mere 3 to 8 ppmv ozone at elevations of 15 to 50 km and associated exothermic chemical reactions warm the atmosphere >50oC, forming the stratosphere. All three molecules have an asymmetric top shape that, unlike linear molecules of CO2,

P. L. Ward

2010-01-01

426

Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market-type mechanisms, to be effective in the public sector context, the required cultural changes and appropriate implementing mechanisms must be provided for in the policy design.

Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

427

Dynamic Earth  

NASA Video Gallery

Watch this NASA animation as it shows a coronal mass ejection from the sun pelts Venus, and then zooms in for a close-up view of Earth's winds and ocean currents. > Related story > Download high-res video

gsfcvideo

2012-06-19

428

Earth Bulletin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Bulletin is a series of stories that explain the science behind current environmental and atmospheric events on our planet. Content changes periodically and older stories are put into the sites archive.

429

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

430

Preparing Teachers to Design Sequences of Instruction in Earth Systems Science: A Comparison of Three Professional Development Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study examined whether and how professional development can help teachers design sequences of instruction that lead to improved science learning. The efficacy of three professional development programs and a control condition was compared in a cluster randomized trial involving 53 middle school science teachers from a single school…

Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.; Moorthy, Savitha

2011-01-01

431

Two-Neutron Separation Energies Of Even-Even Rare-Earth Neutron-Rich Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The variation of the two-neutron separation energy (S2N), as a function of N, is studied using a microscopic model that includes the pairing effects rigorously within the Fixed-Sharp-BCS method. The model has been tested for ''ordinary'' nuclei and has correctly reproduced the experimental data. The study has then been extended to the neutron-rich nuclei and has shown a relatively important variation of S2N when N= 100 which may be attributed to the existence of a new magic number.

Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte de Physique USTHB, Algiers (Algeria); Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte de Physique USTHB, Algiers (Algeria); CRNA, 2Bd Frantz Fanon, BP399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria)

2007-04-23

432

76 FR 14437 - Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of Final Design Approval The U.S. Nuclear...issued a final design approval (FDA) to GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) for the economic simplified boiling...

2011-03-16

433

Design of ultrahigh energy laser amplifier system with high storage energy extraction.  

PubMed

A design concept of realizing high storage energy extraction efficiency is presented for an ultrahigh energy laser system, stressing the advantage of variable-diameter aperture structure for the multistage amplifier system over the constant-aperture design. Based on the established modeling, the conceptual schematic of an amplifier system with optimized high storage energy extraction is developed, which is expected to produce 15 kJ output energy from three stages, with an extremely high storage extraction efficiency of 50.3%. PMID:23338185

Gong, Mali; Sui, Zhan; Liu, Qiang; Fu, Xing

2013-01-20

434

Energy-quality system design for in-body communication.  

PubMed

With the explosive development of wireless communication technology, more and more implanted medical devices appear in everyday life. Because of the limited energy resource in implanted devices, the energy-quality wireless system design is the biggest challenge. In this paper, we update our former system level energy model and make it suitable for implantable medical communication system. In the new model, the impacts of human body tissue on the signal transmission are considered. The wireless system energy consumption is minimized by adjusting the digital base-band and RF parameters such as signal bandwidth, peak-to-average ratio (PAR), modulation levels, data rates etc. In the communication quality evaluation, we consider the effects of 1/f noise and the third-order harmonic distortion in addition to normal channel noise. PMID:19963632

Zhang, Yuwei; Li, Ye; Qiao, Dengyu; Zhang, Yuanting

2009-01-01

435

Earthing - grounding methods: a primer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grounding and its design is a complex subject encompassing personnel safety, lightning or static protection, electrical power system earthing and computer system grounding. One must define the purpose to be achieved, as each system may accomplish the objective by different means. The paper lists and defines the more common earthing-grounding terms. A brief history of early attempts at grounding electrical

D. W. Zipse

2002-01-01

436

Earth System Science Research Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Science Research Course is a unique class implemented by Frederick County Public Schools. The course (ESSR) was designed in conjunction with NASA Education Specialists and is supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Students in this course have the opportunity to use data from cutting edge earth science experiments while researching their own topics and answering

J. P. Leck

2005-01-01

437

Possible extraterrestrial strategy for earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothesis concerning the nature of extraterrestrial messages to the earth is proposed. The hypothesis is based on the following assumptions about (1) that they exist in abundance in the Galaxy; (2) that they are benevolent toward earth-based life forms, and (3) that the lack of any human detection of extraterrestrials is due to an embargo designed to prevent any

J. W. Deardorff

1986-01-01

438

3 CFR 13451 - Executive Order 13451 of November 19, 2007. Designating the ITER International Fusion Energy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Designating the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization as a Public International...Designating the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization as a Public International...participates in the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization under the...

2008-01-01

439

Copolymerization of CO 2 and propylene oxide under rare earth ternary catalyst: design of ligand in yttrium complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide was carried out employing (RC6H4COO)3Y\\/glycerin\\/ZnEt2 (R=–H, –CH3, –NO2, –OH) ternary catalyst systems. The feature of yttrium carboxylates (ligand, substituent and its position on the aromatic ring) is of great importance in the final copolymerization. Appropriate design of substituent and position of the ligand in benzoate-based yttrium complex can adjust the microstructure of aliphatic

Zhilong Quan; Xianhong Wang; Xiaojiang Zhao; Fosong Wang

2003-01-01

440

Non-Linear Simulation for the Disturbance of Electronic Systems in Low Earth Orbits by High Energy Electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Simulator is presented that models the disturbance of electrical circuits by high energy electrons trapped in earth's radiation belts; the model components are a module computing the electron fluence rate given the altitude, the time of the year, and the sunspot number, a module that models the interaction of the electrons with the materials of the electrical component, and a module that computes the charge and the magnitude of electrical field in the insulating materials as a function of time. The Adameic-Calderwood equation is used to model the relationship between the electrical conductivity of dielectric materials and the electric field intensity, making the charging/discharging equations highly non-linear. The non-linearity of the charging equations becomes especially pronounced in magnetic storms during intense solar flares. The results show that the electric field intensity can approach the dielectric breakdown strength in materials commonly used as dielectrics in space-based systems and that the fields can be sustained at high levels for as long as an hour. )

Atkinson, William

2010-02-01

441

Interpolation of energy performance data for building design decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years major advances have been made in the development of computational tools for architects to facilitate building performance evaluation. However, most tools require expert knowledge and remain accessible primarily to building engineers or specialized architects. This article presents a methodology of interpolating data for energy analysis to enable easier implementation of building simulation in the design process. Architects and other building project participants can visualize and analyze complex thermal performance of buildings for different design scenarios, requiring little specialized knowledge and without a burdensome computational cost.

Primikiri, Eleni; Kokkolaras, Michael; Papalambros, Panos Y.

2006-06-01

442

The mass, energy, space and time systemic theory-MEST change the orbit of earth and dark comet to avoid their impaction each other  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Things have their own system of mass, energy, space and time of themself. (The MEST for short there in after). The time is from the frequency of wave, the spac is from the amplitude square of wave. There is the transmutation (and interaction) between the space-time and mass-energy. There is the balance system between the space-time and mass-energy. Sun and its companion dark hole make up of MEST. Because there is the ``transmutation'' and the ``balance system'' between sun and its companion dark hole. So the ``pseudo'' dark mass-energy go into sun, control and ignite its nuclear fission-fusion (of sun of mass-energy); the ``pseudo'' light go into the dark hole, control and ignite its nuclear fission-fusion (of dark hole of space-time). The dark mass-energy make up of the negative proton and the negative neutron. And the dark atom of the dark comet make up of the dark photon, the dark neutrino and the dark muon. The companion dark hole will go near sun and take the dark comet to impact our earth. We need study their ``transmutation'' and their ``balance system,'' and need find a new energy both of the nuclear fission-fusion of sun and the ``nuclear fission-fusion'' of dark hole. We will use them to change the orbit of earth and dark comet, and will avoid the dark comet to impact our earth-a astronomic orbital engineering. Not only we need change the mass-energy to the space-time, but also we need change the space-time to the mass-energy.

Cao, Dayong

2010-10-01

443

Small transportable earth station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes design and performance of C band (6\\/4 GHz) and K band (30\\/20 GHz) small transportable earth station for domestic satellite communication. These stations consist of three units, an antenna and two containers. Transmitter and receiver equipments are mounted in one container. Terminal equipment and power generator are mounted in the other container, thus enabling transportation by truck

S. Egami; T. Nara; T. Kaitsuka; T. Okamoto

1980-01-01

444

Magnetic Rare Earth Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steady-state crystal growth system suitable for the growth of magnetic rare earth compounds has been designed, constructed, and successfully operated. A very stable solvent, consisting of BaO-B2O3-BaF2, has been developed. This solvent is nonvolatile an...

R. Hiskes R. A. Burmeister T. L. Felmlee

1970-01-01

445

Combining simulaton techniques and design expertise in a renewable energy system design package, RESSAD  

SciTech Connect

Computer simulation is an increasingly popular tool for determining the most suitable renewable energy system type, design and control for an isolated community or homestead. However for the user without any expertise in system design, the complicated process of system component and control selection using computer simulation takes on a trial and error approach. Our renewable energy system design package, RESSAD, has been developed to simulate a wide range of renewable power supply systems, and to go beyond system simulation, by combining design expertise with the simulation model. The knowledge of the system designer is incorporated into the package through a range of analysis tools that assist in the selection process, without removing or restricting individual choices. The system selection process is analysed from the early stages of renewable resource assessment to the final evaluation of the results from a simulation of the chosen system. The approach of the RESSAD package in this selection process is described and its use is illustrated by two case studies in Western Australia. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

Jennings, S.U.; Pryor, T.L.; Remmer, D.P. [Murdoch Univ. Energy Research Inst. (Australia)

1996-10-01

446

Newfoundland Greenhome: energy efficient design for a cold foggy climate  

SciTech Connect

St. John's Newfoundland has a cold, ocean moderated climate. During much of the September to May heating season cloud cover and fog reduce possible sunshine by 70%. This was important in determining design strategy. First priority was given to energy conservation, second to solar gain and third to thermal mass. The living space is super-insulated with a small area of south facing windows and other energy conserving features. Most solar gain takes place outside the living space in the large attached Greenhouse and solar attic. Solar heated air is transferred from the Attic to the cement and rock thermal storage under level 1 by a thermostatically controlled fan.

Evans, J.W.; Mellin, R.E.

1980-01-01

447

Design principles for a flywheel energy store for road vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a flywheel energy storage device capable of enhancing the fuel economy of a hybrid-type road vehicle. A number of possible drive types are considered and the permanent magnet machine drive is shown to provide the best solution. Reasons for selecting a device using an axial-field configuration with single-rotor and double-stator sections are described. Electrical, magnetic, and mechanical design data are presented for a full-scale prototype device with 240 KJ of usable energy storage and 25 kW of power transfer, operating at speeds up to 50,000 r/min, with a 10% duty cycle.

Acarnley, P.P.; Mecrow, B.C.; Burdess, J.S.; Fawcett, J.N.; Kelly, J.G.; Dickinson, P.G. [Univ. of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

1996-11-01

448

Designing maximum power output into piezoelectric energy harvesters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy harvesting from vibrational sources has been the focus of extensive research in the last decade, but fundamental questions remain concerning the design of these harvesters. We consider a piezoelectric bimorph energy harvester and seek to translate design requirements, such as mass and target natural frequency, into beam dimensions that maximize power output. Our method centers around optimizing the thickness of the piezoelectric layers of a beam relative to the total beam thickness, otherwise known as the thickness ratio. This method uses approximations for the fundamental frequency and mode shape. This allows for the development of algebraic expressions for the modal parameters required for the prediction of power output. The resulting expression for power is fully defined by the fixed system level requirements and the only unknown parameters, the piezoelectric thickness ratio and the damping ratio. We show in an example case that, for typical damping ratio values, the ideal thickness ratio is not significantly affected by changes in the damping ratio. As such, the method requires a simple sweep of the thickness ratio in order to determine the beam design which maximizes the power. We develop the design method for both systems where the piezoelectric material is continuous and where the thickness is selected from a discrete set of values. Because our method produces a single algebraic expression for the power, the resulting beam design can be developed extremely quickly from a set of design requirements, and thus does not require optimization algorithms. We also show that our design method achieves more power output and requires less piezoelectric material than an approach which maximizes the coupling coefficient.

Shafer, Michael W.; Bryant, Matthew; Garcia, Ephrahim

2012-08-01

449

Astrons - The earth's oldest scars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The astron type of graben ('astrobleme' + 'craton') formed by high-energy impact on the planet's (or moon's) surface is defined, cratering experiments with explosives and coring of debris and subjacent impacted layers are scrutinized, and a search for eroded astrons on the earth comparable with ancient lunar cratering is announced. Earth arcuate features possibly representative of primary astrons or of

J. Norman; N. Price; C.-I. Muo

1977-01-01

450

A statistical study of energy release and transport midway between the magnetic reconnection and initial dipolarization regions in the near-Earth magnetotail associated with substorm expansion onsets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous study showed that the energy release associated with substorm expansion onsets is the most significant midway between the magnetic reconnection and initial dipolarization regions (-12 > X > -18 RE in the premidnight sector) in the magnetotail. In the present paper, we have statistically studied the substorm-associated energy balance and transport in the magnetotail, focusing on the midway region as well as the near-Earth initial dipolarization region (X > ˜-12 RE). We find that a large amount of energy is released in the midway region, associated with onsets, but only a part of this energy is transported to the near-Earth initial dipolarization region mainly in the form of the thermal flux and the wave Poynting flux. It is possible that the energy carried by fast earthward flows and waves from the reconnection region is not sufficient for the thermal energy increase and the outward transported energy in the initial dipolarization region, although the magnetic flux may be sufficiently carried. A considerably large amount of the magnetic energy comes from the lobes in the form of the Poynting flux also in the initial dipolarization region.

Miyashita, Y.; Machida, S.; Nosé, M.; Liou, K.; Saito, Y.; Paterson, W. R.

2012-11-01

451

Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine  

SciTech Connect

The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

2010-11-30

452

Energy-based seismic design of structures with buckling-restrained braces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified seismic design procedure for steel structures with buckling-restrained braces (BRB) was proposed based on the energy balance concept and the equal energy assumption. The input seismic energy was estimated from a design spectrum, and the elastic and hysteretic energy were computed using energy balance concept. The size of braces was determined so that the hysteretic energy demand was

Jinkoo Kim; Hyunhoon Choi; Lan Chung

2004-01-01

453

Earth Science Symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Earth Science Symposium on Offshore Eastern Canada will be held in Camsell Hall, 588 Booth Street, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, on February 22 24, 1971. The topics will include Surficial Geology, Geochemistry, Repetitive-Source Seismic, Bedrock Geology and Tectonics, Seismic Reflection and Refraction, Gravity, Magnetics, Magnetotellurics, Crustal Seismic, Heat Flow, Continental Drift, and Offshore Drilling. Papers are

Anonymous

1970-01-01

454

Solar Energy: Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts: Student Material. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed for student use in "Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, bibliographies, and illustrations for seven course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the following topics:…

Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.