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1

Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Crushable Energy Absorber for a Passive Earth Entry Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual study was performed to investigate the impact response of a crushable energy absorber for a passive Earth entry vehicle. The spherical energy-absorbing concept consisted of a foam-filled composite cellular structure capable of omni-directional impact-load attenuation as well as penetration resistance. Five composite cellular samples of hemispherical geometry were fabricated and tested dynamically with impact speeds varying from 30 to 42 meters per second. Theoretical crush load predictions were obtained with the aid of a generalized theory which accounts for the energy dissipated during the folding deformation of the cell-walls. Excellent correlation was obtained between theoretical predictions and experimental tests on characteristic cell-web intersections. Good correlation of theory with experiment was also found to exist for the more complex spherical cellular structures. All preliminary design requirements were met by the cellular structure concept, which exhibited a near-ideal sustained crush-load and approximately 90% crush stroke.

Kellas, Sotiris; Corliss, James M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

2

Computational Design of Solar Energy Harvesting Materials Made of Earth-Abundant Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very large-scale deployment of photovoltaic (PV) technology based on both the first and second generation solar cells posts serious questions on the materials supply as they rely on either high-purity and high-quality silicon crystals or rare elements such as indium and tellurium. ``Ancient'' PV materials made of earth-abundant elements, such as oxides and sulfides of copper and iron, have attracted resurgent interests. There is also intensive research devoted to the search for ``modern'' earth-abundant PV materials, with a recent promising example being Cu2ZnSnSe4. Computational approaches play a key role in this endeavor by guiding the screening and optimization of the materials toward high device performance. In this paper, I will focus on two aspects of computational design of earth-abundant PV materials. First, I will discuss the methods for accurately predicting band gaps of semiconductor materials. The emphasis will be on the performance of hybrid functional method on different classes of materials. Based on these understandings, I will discuss how to tune the band gap of a material to match the solar spectrum. For example, one could reduce of the band gap of anatase to 1.5 eV by the chemical codoping approach. Second, I will discuss the methods for accurate computation of defect properties, which is important as the defectiveness is intrinsic to the low-cost synthesized materials. I will introduce a method for calculation of defect formation energies by minimizing the error due to the ``band-gap problem'' of the density functional theory. I will also discuss approaches to mitigating the effects of defects, e.g., by passivation.

Sun, Yiyang

2012-02-01

3

Energy for Planet Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined is the world society's ability to meet energy needs without destroying the earth. Supply and demand issues are examined. International per capita energy use is compared. Historical trends are described. (CW)

Davis, Ged R.

1990-01-01

4

Earth's Energy Budget Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster includes an energy budget diagram on the front depicting our best understanding of energy flows into and away from the Earth. It is based on the work of many scientists over more than 100 years, with the most recent measurements from NASA'S Clouds and the Earthâs Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument, which provide high accuracy data of Earth's reflected solar and emitted infrared radiation fluxes.

5

Earth observation system: Spacecraft design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) was a study funded by NASA Langley Research Center. The study was a system investigation of the total spacecraft integration with its major subsystems and sensors. Mission optimization and ranking using various sensors was also an objective of the contract. Integrating the spacecraft and major subsystems with the large microwave radiometer was done, essentially making the radiometer a free-flyer without an external spacecraft. Another program objective was to provide design and analysis data on microwave radiometer satellites augmented with additional Earth, ocean, and atmospheric sensors. A top-down systems approach resulted in a detailed design integrating subsystems and sensors into the microwave support structure. An important objective of the program was to identify technology needs for Earth observation satellites. The definition and understanding of these design drivers are critical in order to set priorities for future EOS work.

Herbert, J. J.; Schartel, W. A.

1983-01-01

6

Intelligent Design and Earth History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.

Elders, W. A.

2001-05-01

7

The design and application of high energy rare earth permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a designer specifies the use of a permanent magnet, he certainly hopes that its magnetization will indeed remain permanent, or at least a close approximation to this. Specifically, he requires the magnet's demagnetization curve, the second quadrant of the B vs. H characteristic, to remain unchanged under normal operating conditions. Unfortunately, this is never the case, so it is

P. Campbell

1995-01-01

8

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instrument design status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design configuration of Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are presented. The ERBE scanners and nonscanners are discussed in terms of hardware and optical development, operational parameters, and calibration plans for ground and flight systems. The various instrument designs are given and described in detail. It is emphasized that the design goal is to approach state-of-the-art laboratory radiometric accuracies

L. P. Kopia; M. R. Luther

1981-01-01

9

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. We update our analysis of Earth's observed energy imbalance through 2011 and compare this with climate simulations. Observed global surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing, implying existence of a large negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We discuss implications of the trend of observed sea level rise in recent years, and its consistency with reported ice melt rates and ocean thermal expansion.

Hansen, J.; von Schuckmann, K.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.

2012-04-01

10

Earth Orbit Raise Design for the ARTEMIS Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ARTEMIS is a mission to send two spacecraft from Earth orbit to libration orbits around the Moon Lagrange points and then into lunar orbit. Lunar flybys were used early in the mission to send the spacecraft into low-energy lunar transfers which were designed libration orbits for minimal deltaV. ARTEMIS began by raising the Earth orbits of each spacecraft to achieve the planned lunar flybys. Spacecraft conguration and operation constraints made the Earth orbit raise phase of the mission a signicant mission design challenge by itself. This paper describes the process used to and trajectories that achieved mission goals and the resulting series of Earth orbits that culminated in successful lunar flybys.

Whiffen, Gregory J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

2012-01-01

11

Approach to rapid mission design and planning. [earth orbit missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and techniques are described for implementation in automated computer systems to assess parametric data, capabilities, requirements and constraints for planning earth orbit missions. Mission planning and design procedures are defined using two types of typical missions as examples. These missions were the high energy Astronomical Observatory Satellite missions, and Small Applications Technology Satellite missions.

Green, W. G.; Matthys, V. J.

1973-01-01

12

Industrial design of an earth overflow dam  

SciTech Connect

As a result of theoretical and experimental investigations of earth overflow dams of various types and purpose conducted by the author in the past ten years, methods of calculating the stability of protective structures of riprap, reinforcement meshes, gabions, and in situ and precast reinforced concrete were substantiated; the limits of economic applicability of various types of revetments and structures were determined; and new efficient designs of dams and revetments allowing the overflow of water with large discharge intensities were proposed. An earth overflow dam with the downstream slope protected by a precast reinforced-concrete revetment was determined to be the most effective design-technological solution. Both the entire dam or a part of it can be made overflow. The design has been realized on a number of experimental water-management objects which are reviewed.

Pravdivets, Yu.P.

1988-06-01

13

Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation

L. Stowe; P. Ardanuy; R. Hucek; P. Abel; H. Jacobowitz

1993-01-01

14

Earth's energy imbalance and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 ± 0.15 W m-2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 ± 0.3 W m-2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade. Humanity is potentially vulnerable to global temperature change, as discussed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001, 2007) reports and by innumerable authors. Although climate change is driven by many climate forcing agents and the climate system also exhibits unforced (chaotic) variability, it is now widely agreed that the strong global warming trend of recent decades is caused predominantly by human-made changes of atmospheric composition (IPCC, 2007). The basic physics underlying this global warming, the greenhouse effect, is simple. An increase of gases such as CO2 makes the atmosphere more opaque at infrared wavelengths. This added opacity causes the planet's heat radiation to space to arise from higher, colder levels in the atmosphere, thus reducing emission of heat energy to space. The temporary imbalance between the energy absorbed from the sun and heat emission to space, causes the planet to warm until planetary energy balance is restored. The planetary energy imbalance caused by a change of atmospheric composition defines a climate forcing. Climate sensitivity, the eventual global temperature change per unit forcing, is known with good accuracy from Earth's paleoclimate history. However, two fundamental uncertainties limit our ability to predict global temperature change on decadal time scales. First, although climate forcing by human-made greenhouse gases (GHGs) is known accurately, climate forcing caused by changing human-made aerosols is practically unmeasured. Aerosols are fine particles suspended in the air, such as dust, sulfates, and black soot (Ramanathan et al., 2001). Aerosol climate forcing is complex, because aerosols both reflect solar radiation to space (a cooling effect) and absorb solar radiation (a warming effect). In addition, atmospheric aerosols can alter cloud cover and cloud properties. Therefore, precise composition-specific measurements of aerosols and their effects on clouds are needed to assess the aerosol role in climate change. Second, the rate at which Earth's surface temperature approaches a new equilibrium in response to a climate forcing depends on how efficiently heat perturbations are mixed into the deeper ocean. Ocean mixing is complex and not necessarily simulated well by climate models. Empirical data on ocean heat uptake are improving rapidly, but still suffer limitations. We summarize current understanding of this basic physics of global warming and note observations needed to narrow uncertainties. Appropriate measurements can quantify the major factors driving climate change, reveal how much additional global warming is already in the pipeline, and help define the reduction of climate forcing needed to stabilize climate.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; von Schuckmann, K.

2011-09-01

15

Designing sustainable soils in Earth's critical zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demographic drivers of increasing human population and wealth are creating tremendous environmental pressures from growing intensity of land use, resulting in soil and land degradation worldwide. Environmental services are provided through multiple soil functions that include biomass production, water storage and transmission, nutrient transformations, contaminant attenuation, carbon and nitrogen storage, providing habitat and maintaining the genetic diversity of the land environment. One of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is to identify key risks to soil, and to design mitigation strategies to manage these risks and to enhance soil functions that can last into the future. The scientific study of Earth's Critical Zone (CZ), the thin surface layer that extends vertically from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of aquifers, provides an essential integrating scientific framework to study, protect and enhance soil functions. The research hypothesis is that soil structure, the geometric architecture of solids, pores and biomass, is a critical indicator and essential factor of productive soil functions. The experimental design selects a network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) as advanced field research sites along a gradient of land use intensity in order to quantify soil structure and soil processes that dictate the flows and transformations of material and energy as soil functions. The CZOs focus multidisciplinary expertise on soil processes, field observation and data interpretation, management science and ecological economics. Computational simulation of biophysical processes provides a quantitative method of integration for the range of theory and observations that are required to quantify the linkages between changes in soil structure and soil functions. Key results demonstrate that changes in soil structure can be quantified through the inputs of organic carbon and nitrogen from plant productivity and microbial activity, coupled with particle aggregation dynamics and organic matter mineralization. Simulation results show that soil structure is highly dynamic and is sensitive to organic matter production and minearlisation rates as influenced by vegetation, tillage and organic carbon amendments. These results point to a step-change in the capability to design soil management and land use through computational simulation. This approach of "sustainability by design" describes the mechanistic process linkages that exist between the above-ground inputs to the CZ and the internal processes that produce soil functions. This approach provides a rational, scientific approach to selecting points of intervention with the CZ in order to design methods to mitigate soil threats and to enhance and sustain vital soil functions. Furthermore, this approach provides a successful pilot study to the use of international networks of CZOs as a planetary-scale laboratory to test the response of CZ process rates along gradients of global environmental change - and to test adaptation strategies to manage the risks arising from the CZ impacts. Acknowledgements. The authors acknowledge the substantial contributions of the entire team of investigators and funding of the SoilTrEC project (EC FP7, agreement no. 244118; www.soiltrec.eu).

Banwart, Steven Allan; de Souza, Danielle Maia; Menon, Manoj; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Panagos, Panos; Vala Ragnardsdottir, Kristin; Rousseva, Svelta; van Gaans, Pauline

2014-05-01

16

Earth Integrated Design: Office Dormitory Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The generation process of the design of the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is described. Architectural and energy considerations are discussed. The facility will contain living quarters for guest scientists who come to Oak Ridge to conduct short e...

H. B. Shapira P. R. Barnes

1980-01-01

17

Transforming Instructional Designs in Earth Science (TIDES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An enduring challenge in Earth system science education has been to prepare teachers to teach for deep understanding of subject matter. Standards and trade textbooks are often too broad to allow for in-depth treatment of specific topics, and many teachers have had limited exposure to how to plan instruction for the core concepts of Earth system science they are expected to teach. High-quality curriculum materials do exist that provide young people with opportunities to explore concepts in depth and to experience the inquiry process. At the same time, few programs provide teachers with the necessary skills and knowledge to enact and adapt those materials to the unique circumstances of their classrooms and schools. Our interdisciplinary team of curriculum and staff developers, researchers, and district personnel developed a program focused on preparing teachers to use a principled approach to curriculum adaptation in Earth system science. In this program, teachers learned how to use the Understanding by Design (UbD) approach developed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe to organize and adapt materials from an expert-designed curriculum. As part of the program, teachers learn to select or modify materials from the curriculum based on how likely the materials are to develop so-called "enduring understandings" of concepts in the district standards. Teachers also learn how to apply the approach in incorporating materials from other sources besides the expert-designed curriculum, which can include their textbook and materials they design on their own or with colleagues. Third, teachers learn how to collect and interpret evidence of student understanding by designing or adapting performance tasks that call for students to apply knowledge acquired during the unit to solve a problem or complete a project. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial indicates the program we created is effective in improving the quality of teacher assignments and in improving student achievement. From the point of view of district staff, the program is effective because it prepares teachers to become critical consumers of curriculum materials. In this presentation, we present the impacts of our program on teacher instructional planning, curriculum enactment, and student achievement.

McWilliams, H.; McAuliffe, C.; Penuel, W.

2008-12-01

18

Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

McCallum, R. William

2012-02-01

19

Earth Science Week 2010 - Infrared Energy  

NASA Video Gallery

This video explores what infrared energy is and how NASA detects it to study our Earth's systems more completely. Satellite measurements over time allow scientists to study seasonal changes in loca...

20

Objectives and instrument design of EarthCARE FTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EarthCARE(Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer) project is a candidate of the ESA (European Space Agency) Earth Explorer Core Missions. EarthCARE is the joint proposal between ESA, National Space Development Agency of JAPAN (NASDA) and Communications Research Laboratory (CRL). THe Phase-A study is started in NOvember 2001. The EarthCARE satellite has five sensors, CLoud Profiling Radar (CPR), ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID), Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI), Broad Band Radiometer (BBR) and Fourier Transform Spectromter (FTS). Main objective of EarthCARE FTS is to provide spectrally resolved outgoing radiance. Another objecitve of EarthCARE FTS is to retrieve temperature and water vapor profiles in clear air and above the clouds. NASDA is carrying out the Phase A study of EarthCARE. Preliminary Concept Review (PCR) was held at March 2003. We describe the objectives and instrument design concept of EarthCARE FTS in this paper.

Kondo, Kayoko; Imasu, Ryoichi; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Tanii, Jun; Nakajima, Teruyuki

2003-11-01

21

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Ocean Heat Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth's energy imbalance, i.e., the difference between solar energy absorbed and thermal energy emitted by the planet, is fundamental to global climate change, as it measures the net forcing acting on the climate system. The imbalance is now positive on decadal time scales, due to dominance of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, and, with canonical climate sensitivity, it yields

J. Hansen; J. Willis; E. Leuliette; R. Bleck; K. Lo; R. Ruedy; M. Sato; S. Sun

2006-01-01

22

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument is one of five instruments that will be flown aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observatory. Data from the CERES instrument will be used to study the energy exchanged between the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, surface and clouds, and space. This webpage describes the TRMM mission, the CERES insrument, and how Earth's daily weather and climate are controlled by the balance between the amount of solar energy received by the Earth (both by its surface and its atmosphere and clouds) and the amount of energy emitted by Earth into space. School children worldwide will be involved in the CERES program, enabling them to be part of a scientific project. As a CERES instrument passes over, students will make local observations to determine the types of clouds over their school, the clouds' altitudes and how much of the sky they cover. Via the Internet, the students will then place their data in the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center where the data will be stored for further analysis by the CERES science team.

23

Earth's energy and mineral resources  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one papers examine the questions of world resources as they relate to the energy problem. The idea of resource limitations is gaining credence as people become aware of local depletion and the idea that substitution can only delay the depletion of global supplies. The papers examine the political security, economic, and environmental dangers of the major energy resources. They analyze the technological as well as the sociological problems of each. The papers are grouped under five major headings: The Energy Problem; Fossil and Synthetic Fuels; Nuclear Power; Solar and Other Energy Sources; and Mineral Resources. 504 references, 79 figures, 44 tables. (DCK)

Skinner, B.J. (ed.)

1980-01-01

24

Observing and modeling Earths energy flows  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews, from the authors perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within {+-}2 W m{sup -2}. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute importantly to this adjustment and thus contribute both to uncertainty in estimates of radiative forcing and to uncertainty in the response. Models are indispensable to calculation of the adjustment of the system to a compositional change but are known to be flawed in their representation of clouds. Advances in tracking Earth's energy flows and compositional changes on daily through decadal timescales are shown to provide both a critical and constructive framework for advancing model development and evaluation.

Stevens B.; Schwartz S.

2012-05-11

25

Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

26

Design definition study of the Earth radiation budget satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instruments for measuring the radiation budget components are discussed, and the conceptual design of instruments for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System (ERBSS) are reported. Scanning and nonscanning assemblies are described. The ERBSS test program is also described.

Vonderhaar, T. H.; Wallschlaeger, W. H.

1978-01-01

27

The Earth's Magnetic Field is Still Losing Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper closes a loophole in the case for a young earth based on the loss of energy from various parts of the earth's magnetic field. Using ambiguous 1967 data, evolutionists had claimed that energy gains in minor (\\

D. Russell Humphreys

2002-01-01

28

Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our climate model, driven mainly by increasing human-made greenhouse gases and aerosols, among other forcings, calculates that Earth is now absorbing 0.85 +\\/- 0.15 watts per square meter more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space. This imbalance is confirmed by precise measurements of increasing ocean heat content over the past 10 years. Implications include (i) the

James Hansen; Larissa Nazarenko; Reto Ruedy; Makiko Sato; Josh Willis; Anthony Del Genio; Dorothy Koch; Andrew Lacis; Ken Lo; Surabi Menon; Tica Novakov; Judith Perlwitz; Gary Russell; Gavin A. Schmidt; Nicholas Tausnev

2005-01-01

29

Energy design for architects  

SciTech Connect

This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

Shaw, A. (ed.)

1989-01-01

30

Galileo 1989 VEEGA trajectory design. [Venus-Earth-Earth-Gravity-Assist  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new baseline for the Galileo Mission is a 1989 Venus-earth-earth gravity-assist (VEEGA) trajectory, which utilizes three gravity-assist planetary flybys in order to reduce launch energy requirements significantly compared to other earth-Jupiter transfer modes. The launch period occurs during October-November 1989. The total flight time is about 6 years, with November 1995 as the most likely choice for arrival at Jupiter. Optimal 1989 VEEGA trajectories have been generated for a wide range of earth launch dates and Jupiter arrival dates. Launch/arrival space contour plots are presented for various trajectory parameters, including propellant margin, which is used to measure mission performance. The accessible region of the launch/arrival space is defined by propellant margin and launch energy constraints; the available launch period is approximately 1.5 months long.

D'Amario, Louis A.; Byrnes, Dennis V.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Nolan, Brian G.

1989-01-01

31

Energy efficient building design  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

Not Available

1992-03-01

32

Formation design and relative navigation in high Earth orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation focuses on three key elements of precision satellite formation flying: formation design; relative navigation; and sensor and measurement modeling. Formation flying in high Earth orbit (HEO) is complicated by the difficulty of accurately modeling relative dynamics in highly eccentric orbits and the sparse nature of tracking data at high altitudes. This research develops a formation design tool and

2007-01-01

33

Discover Earth: Earth's Energy Budget or Can You Spare a Sun?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction, and provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park.

Gates, Tom; Peters, Dale E.; Steeley, Jeanne

1999-01-01

34

Designing for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a description of the energy efficient designs for new schools in the Alief Independent School District of Houston, Texas. Exhibit A shows how four major school projects differ from conventional designs. Parameters and designs for heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and lighting are given. Twenty year projected energy costs and…

Estes, R. C.

35

Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions.  

PubMed

It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations. PMID:24591604

Byrnes, Steven J; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

2014-03-18

36

Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

1991-01-01

37

Energy Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

1986-01-01

38

Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Energy Absorbing Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical element of a passive EEV performance is the energy absorbing system required to attenuate the dynamic landing loads. Two design approaches are described and the pros and cons based on particular mission requirements are discussed.

Kellas, S.; Maddock, R. W.

2014-06-01

39

Energy-Conscious Design. Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical energy-design elements adaptable for schools include building orientation and shape, inclusion of an energy-storage system, window placement, double or triple window glazing, air-curtain windows, and the use of earth berms and trees as wind breaks. (MLF)

Lawrence, Jerry

1984-01-01

40

Design of Landing PODS for Near Earth Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boeing has been developing design for a set of small landing PODS that could be deployed from a spacecraft bus orbiting a NEA to address the set of SKGs for investigation prior to crewed missions to Near Earth Asteroids or the moons of Mars.

Frampton, R. V.; Ball, J. M.; Pellz, L.

2014-06-01

41

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

42

Exemplary Learning Modules in the ESSE Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supported by NASA through the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the cooperative university- based Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program fosters the development of undergraduate curriculum and courses designed to understand Earth as a system. The ESSE community has produced the web-based Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education as a living synthesis of the program. One section of the Design Guide contains exemplary learning modules with demonstrated value in courses that include new perspectives and new audiences underrepresented in the sciences. Two highlights are applications of earth system science to the urban environment and the adaptation of course material for the K- 12 curriculum. These learning modules will be useful in existing courses and will provide ideas for future course development. Each module has a description that includes the rationale, the learning objectives, the target audience, types of activities supported, instructor's tips, evaluation procedures and other information to help faculty to make best use of the module. Vignettes of personal experiences with the learning modules and linkage to the Design Guide provide scientific, pedagogical and institutional context. The ESSE21 Evaluation Toolkit, packaged with the Design Guide, offers additional information about evaluation. The topics developed in the learning modules cover a broad range from the tropics to the poles to near-Earth space: urban land surface-atmosphere systems; carbon cycle; remote sensing; integrating earth system science and the urban environment; land use and land cover change; pollution protection of Earth systems; local energy balance at air/land and air/water interfaces; earth and space science; and polar remote sensing.

Aron, J. L.; Ruzek, M.

2006-12-01

43

Interplanetary Mission Design Handbook: Earth-to-Mars Mission Opportunities 2026 to 2045  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this Mission Design Handbook is to provide trajectory designers and mission planners with graphical information about Earth to Mars ballistic trajectory opportunities for the years of 2026 through 2045. The plots, displayed on a departure date/arrival date mission space, show departure energy, right ascension and declination of the launch asymptote, and target planet hyperbolic arrival excess speed, V(sub infinity), for each launch opportunity. Provided in this study are two sets of contour plots for each launch opportunity. The first set of plots shows Earth to Mars ballistic trajectories without the addition of any deep space maneuvers. The second set of plots shows Earth to Mars transfer trajectories with the addition of deep space maneuvers, which further optimize the determined trajectories. The accompanying texts explains the trajectory characteristics, transfers using deep space maneuvers, mission assumptions and a summary of the minimum departure energy for each opportunity.

Burke, Laura M.; Falck, Robert D.; McGuire, Melissa L.

2010-01-01

44

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Ocean Heat Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's energy imbalance, i.e., the difference between solar energy absorbed and thermal energy emitted by the planet, is fundamental to global climate change, as it measures the net forcing acting on the climate system. The imbalance is now positive on decadal time scales, due to dominance of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, and, with canonical climate sensitivity, it yields an estimate of the amount of global warming that remains "in the pipeline" due to GHGs already in the atmosphere. The ocean is the largest sink for excess incoming energy. Inference of information from the energy imbalance is affected by a trade-off between decreasing accuracy of earlier data and the added information from longer time scales. We use two atmosphere-ocean models, with ocean heat and sea level measurements, to study the roles of different climate forcings, unforced climate variability including ocean- cloud interactions, and limitations of data sampling. We find that observed decrease in ocean heat content in the upper 750m in 2004-2005 does not significantly alter the estimate of ~0.5C global warming still "in the pipeline". Continuation and refinement of measurements of ocean heat, sea level, and ice sheet mass balance have the potential to greatly refine understanding of global warming, its practical implications, and important climate processes, but to be most useful they need to be supplemented by better measurements of deep ocean heat content changes and precise measurements of changing climate forcings such as tropospheric aerosols.

Hansen, J.; Willis, J.; Leuliette, E.; Bleck, R.; Lo, K.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Sun, S.

2006-12-01

45

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): algorithm overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), CERES objectives include the following. (1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) record of radiative fluxes at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same techniques as the existing ERBE data. (2) Double the accuracy of

Bruce A. Wielicki; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Bryan A. Baum; Thomas P. Charlock; Richard N. Green; David P. Kratz; Robert B. Lee; Patrick Minnis; G. Louis Smith; Takmeng Wong; David F. Young; Robert D. Cess; James A. Coakley; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Leo Donner; Robert Kandel; Michael D. King; Alvin J. Miller; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; David A. Randall; Larry L. Stowe; Ronald M. Welch

1998-01-01

46

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science  

SciTech Connect

A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

Not Available

1980-01-01

47

Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our climate model, driven mainly by increasing human-made greenhouse gases and aerosols, among other forcings, calculates that Earth is now absorbing 0.85 +/- 0.15 watts per square meter more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space. This imbalance is confirmed by precise measurements of increasing ocean heat content over the past 10 years. Implications include (i) the expectation of additional global warming of about 0.6°C without further change of atmospheric composition; (ii) the confirmation of the climate system's lag in responding to forcings, implying the need for anticipatory actions to avoid any specified level of climate change; and (iii) the likelihood of acceleration of ice sheet disintegration and sea level rise.

Hansen, James; Nazarenko, Larissa; Ruedy, Reto; Sato, Makiko; Willis, Josh; Del Genio, Anthony; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Lo, Ken; Menon, Surabi; Novakov, Tica; Perlwitz, Judith; Russell, Gary; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Tausnev, Nicholas

2005-06-01

48

Energy Budget: Earth's Most Important and Least Appreciated Planetary Attribute  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy budget involves more than one kind of energy. People can sense this energy in different ways, depending on what type of energy it is. We see visible light using our eyes. We feel infrared energy using our skin (such as around a campfire). We know some species of animals can see ultraviolet light and portions of the infrared spectrum. NASA satellites use instruments that can "see" different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to observe various processes in the Earth system, including the energy budget. The Sun is a very hot ball of plasma emitting large amounts of energy. By the time it reaches Earth, this energy amounts to about 340 Watts for every square meter of Earth on average. That's almost 6 60-Watt light bulbs for every square meter of Earth! With all of that energy shining down on the Earth, how does our planet maintain a comfortable balance that allows a complex ecosystem, including humans, to thrive? The key thing to remember is the Sun - hot though it is - is a tiny part of Earth's environment. Earth's energy budget is a critical but little understood aspect of our planetary home. NASA is actively studying this important Earth system feature, and sharing data and knowledge about it with the education community.

Chambers, Lin; Bethea, Katie

2013-01-01

49

Optimal Low Energy Earth-Moon Transfers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimality of a low-energy Earth-Moon transfer is examined for the first time using primer vector theory. An optimal control problem is formed with the following free variables: the location, time, and magnitude of the transfer insertion burn, and the transfer time. A constraint is placed on the initial state of the spacecraft to bind it to a given initial orbit around a first body, and on the final state of the spacecraft to limit its Keplerian energy with respect to a second body. Optimal transfers in the system are shown to meet certain conditions placed on the primer vector and its time derivative. A two point boundary value problem containing these necessary conditions is created for use in targeting optimal transfers. The two point boundary value problem is then applied to the ballistic lunar capture problem, and an optimal trajectory is shown. Additionally, the ballistic lunar capture trajectory is examined to determine whether one or more additional impulses may improve on the cost of the transfer.

Griesemer, Paul Ricord; Ocampo, Cesar; Cooley, D. S.

2010-01-01

50

Energy scalable system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the notion of energy-scalable system- design. The principal idea is to maximize computational quality for a given energy constraint at all levels of the system hierarchy. The desirable energy-quality (E-Q) characteristics of systems are dis- cussed. E-Q behavior of algorithms is considered and transforms that significantly improve scalability are analyzed using three dis- tinct categories of commonly used

Amit Sinha; Alice Wang; Anantha Chandrakasan

2002-01-01

51

Axial focusing of energy from a hypervelocity impact on earth  

SciTech Connect

We have performed computational simulations to determine how energy from a large hypervelocity impact on the Earth`s surface would couple to its interior. Because of the first-order axial symmetry of both the impact energy source and the stress-wave velocity structure of the Earth, a disproportionate amount of energy is dissipated along the axis defined by the impact point and its antipode (point opposite the impact). For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth model, all the impact energy that is radiated as seismic waves into the Earth at a given takeoff angle (ray parameter), independent of azimuthal direction, is refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Material on or near the axis of symmetry experiences more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere, and therefore experiences more irreversible heating. The focusing is most intense in the upper mantle, within the asthenosphere, where seismic energy is most effectively converted to heat. For a sufficiently energetic impact, this mechanism might generate enough local heating to create an isostatic instability leading to uplift, possibly resulting in rifting, volcanism, or other rearrangement of the interior dynamics of the planet. These simulations demonstrate how hypervelocity impact energy can be transported to the Earth`s interior, supporting the possibility of a causal link between large impacts on Earth and major internally-driven geophysical processes.

Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.

1994-12-01

52

Earth's Energy Budget: Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine CERES radiation data to understand how the Earth's tilt causes seasonal differences in incoming solar energy, and to explore how clouds, deserts and ice modulate the reflection of energy from the Sun. The investigation is conducted using the My NASA Data Live Access Server. This resource is part of the poster, Earth's Energy Budget, which describes the role of incoming solar radiation and the gases in the atmosphere and clouds in maintaining the Earth's temperature. The role of atmospheric becomes CO² in climate change and the environments of nearby planets are compared. along with career profiles of energy budget "detectives." A student crossword and matching game test vocabulary understanding.

53

Designing Medical Support for a Near-Earth Asteroid Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This panel will discuss the design of medical support for a mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) from a variety of perspectives. The panelists will discuss the proposed parameters for a NEA mission, the NEA medical condition list, recommendations from the NASA telemedicine workshop, an overview of the Exploration Medical System Demonstration planned for the International Space Station, use of predictive models for mission planning, and mission-related concerns for behavioral health and performance. This panel is intended to make the audience aware of the multitude of factors influencing medical support during a NEA mission.

Watkins, S. D.; Charles, J. B.; Kundrot, C. E.; Barr, Y. R.; Barsten, K. N.; Chin, D. A.; Kerstman, E. L.; Otto, C.

2011-01-01

54

EarthCARE/CPR design and verification status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth, Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission is joint mission between Europe and Japan for the launch year of 2015. Mission objective is to improve scientific understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation interactions that is one of the biggest uncertain factors for numerical climate and weather predictions. The EarthCARE spacecraft equips four instruments such as an ultra violet lidar (ATLID), a cloud profiling radar (CPR), a broadband radiometer (BBR), and a multi-spectral imager (MSI) to observe aerosols, clouds and their interactions simultaneously from the orbit. Japan aerospace exploration agency (JAXA) is responsible for development of the CPR that will be the first space-borne W-band Doppler radar. The CPR is defined with minimum radar sensitivity of -35dBz, radiometric accuracy of 2.7 dB, and Doppler velocity measurement accuracy of 1m/s. These specifications require highly accurate pointing technique in orbit and high power source with large antenna dish. JAXA and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) have been jointly developed this CPR to meet these requirements. In addition, new ground calibration technique is also being progressed for the launch of EarthCARE/CPR. This evaluation method will also be the first use for spacecraft as well as Doppler cloud radar. This paper shows the summary of the CPR design and verification status, and activity status of development of ground calibration method with a few results of experiment using current space-borne cloud radar (CloudSat, NASA).

Okada, K.; Kimura, T.; Nakatsuka, H.; Seki, Y.; Kadosaki, G.; Yamaguchi, J.; Takahashi, N.; Ohno, Y.; Horie, H.; Sato, K.

2012-09-01

55

Design of a 35-kilowatt bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery for low Earth orbit application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The needs of multikilowatt storage for low Earth orbit applications are featured. The modular concept, with projected energy densities of 20-24 W-hr/lb and 700-900 W-hr/ft3, has significant improvements over state of the art capabilities. Other design features are; active cooling, a new scheme for H2-O2 recombination, and pore size engineering of all cell components.

Cataldo, R. L.; Smithrick, J. J.

1982-01-01

56

Formation design and relative navigation in high Earth orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on three key elements of precision satellite formation flying: formation design; relative navigation; and sensor and measurement modeling. Formation flying in high Earth orbit (HEO) is complicated by the difficulty of accurately modeling relative dynamics in highly eccentric orbits and the sparse nature of tracking data at high altitudes. This research develops a formation design tool and extended Kalman filter that mitigate these factors by representing the relative motion in Keplerian element space rather than conventional rectangular position and velocity coordinates and presents the measurement models and preliminary data generation techniques necessary for processing reflected GPS and reflected crosslink observations in a relative navigation filter. Geometrical methods for formation design based on simple relative motion models originally intended for rendezvous in low Earth orbit (LEO) have been previously developed and used to specify desired relative motions in near circular orbits. A comparable set of geometrical relationships for formations in eccentric orbits are developed here. This approach offers valuable insight into the relative motion and allows for the rapid design of satellite configurations to achieve mission specific requirements, such as vehicle separation at perigee or apogee, minimum separations, or a particular geometric shape. The expressions formulate the relative motion in terms of a constant set of Keplerian element differences and are valid for arbitrary eccentricities. The use of these relationships to investigate formation designs and their evolution in time is demonstrated. In addition, the long-term effects of unmodeled perturbations on the desired formation geometry are shown in several examples. Formation flying in HEO relies on accurate relative navigation information for precise formation control and accurate interpretation of science data. An extended Kalman filter for relative navigation in HEO is developed that enhances the linearity of the dynamic model by framing the state in Keplerian elements. The filter design includes the ability to process reflected GPS and reflected satellite-to-satellite crosslink measurements. The performance of the filter is presented for a set of formation flying scenarios in medium-to-high Earth orbits with limited visibility of the GPS constellation. The effect of higher order gravity terms, solar radiation pressure, third-body effects of the Sun and Moon, and atmospheric drag on estimation accuracy is considered. Relative semimajor axis accuracy of 0.070 m and relative position and velocity accuracy of 0.93 m and 0.070 mm/s, respectively, are obtained for vehicles separated by 10--170 km using GPS measurements only. This represents an order of magnitude improvement over previously reported relative navigation performance in HEO.

Lane, Christopher Morgan

57

Interplanetary Mission Design Handbook: Earth-to-Mars Mission Opportunities and Mars-to-Earth Return Opportunities 2009-2024.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides information for trajectory designers and mission planners to determine Earth-Mars and Mars-Earth mission opportunities for the years 2009-2024. These studies were performed in support of a human Mars mission scenario that will consist ...

L. E. George L. D. Kos

1998-01-01

58

Exemplary Learning Modules in the ESSE Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported by NASA through the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the cooperative university- based Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program fosters the development of undergraduate curriculum and courses designed to understand Earth as a system. The ESSE community has produced the web-based Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education as a living synthesis of the program. One section of

J. L. Aron; M. Ruzek

2006-01-01

59

Energy Efficient Cryogenics on Earth and in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for energy-efficient cryogenics on Earth and in space.

Fesmire, James E.

2012-01-01

60

Near-Earth object intercept trajectory design for planetary defense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking the orbit of asteroids and planning for asteroid missions have ceased to be a simple exercise, and become more of a necessity, as the number of identified potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroids increases. Several software tools such as Mystic, MALTO, Copernicus, SNAP, OTIS, and GMAT have been developed by NASA for spacecraft trajectory optimization and mission design. However, this paper further expands upon the development and validation of an Asteroid Mission Design Software Tool (AMiDST), through the use of approach and post-encounter orbital variations and analytic keyhole theory. Combining these new capabilities with that of a high-precision orbit propagator, this paper describes fictional mission trajectory design examples of using AMiDST as applied to a fictitious asteroid 2013 PDC-E. During the 2013 IAA Planetary Defense Conference, the asteroid 2013 PDC-E was used for an exercise where participants simulated the decision-making process for developing deflection and civil defense responses to a hypothetical asteroid threat.

Vardaxis, George; Wie, Bong

2014-08-01

61

Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

SciTech Connect

A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument`s ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%.

Stowe, L.; Ardanuy, P.; Hucek, R.; Abel, P.; Jacobowitz, H. [NOAA/NESDIS, Washington, DC (United States)] [NOAA/NESDIS, Washington, DC (United States); [Research and Data Systems, Greenbelt, MD (United States); [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1993-12-01

62

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, Part 5: Mars-to-Earth ballistic mission opportunities, 1992-2007  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions returning from Mars. Contours of Mars-departure energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Earth-arrival parameters are presented in arrival-date/launch-date space for all departure opportunities from 1992 through 2007. In addition, an extensive companion document (Part 2) is available; it contains Earth-Mars graphical data and explains mission design methods, using the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters. This is one of a planned series of mission design handbooks.

Sergeyevsky, Andrey; Cunniff, Ross

1987-01-01

63

Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two dozen energy-related earth science lessons comprise this guide for secondary school teachers. Intended to provide information about energy issues that exist in Pennsylvania and throughout the world, the activities cover topics such as coal mining, radioactivity, and the distribution of oil and gas in Pennsylvania. Lessons include objectives,…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

64

Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

2007-02-01

65

Space colonies and energy supply to the earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that a space manufacturing facility may be economically more effective than alternative industries on the earth for the construction of products which are to be used in geosynchronous or higher orbits. The suggestion is made to construct solar power stations at a space colony and relocate them in geosynchronous orbit to supply energy to the earth. Attention is given to energy problems and approaches for solving them, taking into account environmental effects and economic factors. Economic aspects of space manufacturing are discussed in some detail.

Oneill, G. K.

1975-01-01

66

The Earth System's Missing Energy and Land Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy content of the Earth system is determined by the balance or imbalance between the incoming energy from solar radiation and the outgoing energy of terrestrial long wavelength radiation. Change in the Earth system energy budget is the ultimate cause of global climate change. Satellite data show that there is a small yet persistent radiation imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere such that Earth has been steadily accumulating energy, consistent with the theory of greenhouse effect. It is commonly believed [IPCC, 2001; 2007] that up to 94% of the energy trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is absorbed by the upper several hundred meter thick layer of global oceans, with the remaining to accomplish ice melting, atmosphere heating, and land warming, etc. However, the recent measurements from ocean monitoring system indicated that the rate of oceanic heat uptake has not kept pace with the greenhouse heat trapping rate over the past years [Trenberth and Fasullo, Science, 328: 316-317, 2010]. An increasing amount of energy added to the earth system has become unaccounted for, or is missing. A recent study [Loeb et al., Nature Geoscience, 5:110-113, 2012] suggests that the missing energy may be located in the deep ocean down to 1,800 m. Here we show that at least part of the missing energy can be alternatively explained by the land mass warming. We argue that the global continents alone should have a share greater than 10% of the global warming energy. Although the global lands reflect solar energy at a higher rate, they use less energy for evaporation than do the oceans. Taken into accounts the terrestrial/oceanic differences in albedo (34% vs. 28%) and latent heat (27% vs. 58% of net solar radiation at the surface), the radiative energy available per unit surface area for storage or other internal processes is more abundant on land than on ocean. Despite that the lands cover only about 29% of the globe, the portion of global warming energy stored in the lands is much greater than previously thought. The earth system is consisted of well-connected and interdependent atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. The lack of knowledge about or misrepresentation of the role of the heat capacity of the continental land masses will inevitably affect our ability to understand Earth's climate response to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Huang, S.; Wang, H.; Duan, W.

2013-05-01

67

Gibbs energies of formation of rare earth oxysulfides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard Gibbs energy change accompanying the conversion of rare earth oxides to oxysulfides by reaction of rare earth oxides with diatomic sulfur gas has been measured in the temperature range 870 to 1300 K using the solid state cell: Pt/Cu+Cu2S/R2O2S+R2O3?(CaO)ZrO2?Ni+NiO, Pt where R=La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy. The partial pressure of diatomic sulfur over a mixture of rare earth oxide (R2O3) and oxysulfide (R2O2S) is fixed by the dissociation of Cu2S to Cu in a closed system. The buffer mixture of Cu+Cu2S is physically separated from the rare earth oxide and oxysulfide to avoid complications arising from interaction between them. The corresponding equilibrium oxygen partial pressure is measured with an oxide solid electrolyte cell. Gibbs energy change for the conversion of oxide to the corresponding oxysulfide increases monotonically with atomic number of the rare earth element. Second law enthalpy of formation also shows a similar trend. Based on this empirical trend Gibbs energies of formation of oxysulfides of Pr, Eu, Ho, and Er are estimated as a function of temperature.

Akila, R.; Jacob, K. T.; Shukla, A. K.

1987-03-01

68

Geoneutrinos and the energy budget of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total energy loss of the Earth is well constrained by heat flux measurements on land, the plate cooling model for the oceans, and the buoyancy flux of hotspots. It amounts to 46 ± 2 TW. The main sources that balance the total energy loss are the radioactivity of the Earth's crust and mantle, the secular cooling of the Earth's mantle, and the energy loss from the core. Only the crustal radioactivity is well constrained. The uncertainty on each of the other components is larger than the uncertainty of the total heat loss. The mantle energy budget cannot be balanced by adding the best estimates of mantle radioactivity, secular cooling of the mantle, and heat flux from the core. Neutrino observatories in deep underground mines can detect antineutrinos emitted by the radioactivity of U and Th. Provided that the crustal contribution to the geoneutrino flux can be very precisely calculated, it will be possible to put robust constraints on mantle radioactivity and its contribution to the Earth's energy budget. Equally strong constraints could be obtained from a deep ocean observatory without the need of crustal correction. In the future, it may become possible to obtain directional information on the geoneutrino flux and to resolve radial variations in concentration of heat producing elements in the mantle.

Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jaupart, Claude; Phaneuf, Catherine; Perry, Claire

2012-03-01

69

Gravitational potential energy of the earth - A spherical harmonic approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic expansion agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the crust and mantle of -2.77 x 10 to the 29th ergs, an order of magnitude below McKenzie's (1966) estimate. McKenzie's result stems from mathematical error. Our figure is almost identical with Kaula's (1963) estimate of the minimum shear strain energy in the mantle, a not unexpected result on the basis of the virial theorem. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 20th P is found by assuming that the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation of energy. This number is almost six orders of magnitude below MacDonald's (1966) estimate of the viscosity and removes his objection to convection. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at 1% efficiency, then the viscosity is 10 to the 22nd P, a number preferred by Cathles (1975) and Peltier and Andrew (1976) as the viscosity of the mantle.

Rubincam, D. P.

1979-01-01

70

ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Enhancing opportunities for learning using an Earth systems science framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.

Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.

2012-12-01

71

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants

C. A. Engelmann; W. I. Rose; J. E. Huntoon; M. F. Klawiter; K. Hungwe

2010-01-01

72

Earth Science Week 2010 - Hurricane Energy  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA hurricane scientist Dr. Jeff Halverson explains how hurricanes draw energy from the ocean surface. The video also provides an example of a classroom activity that allows students to map the ch...

73

Low energy neutral atoms in the earth`s magnetosphere: Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by the interaction of the Earth`s geocorona with ambient space plasma has been proposed as a technique to obtain global information about the magnetosphere. Recent instrumentation advances reported previously and in these proceedings provide an opportunity for detecting LENAs in the energy range of <1 keV to {approximately}50 keV. In this paper, we present results from a numerical model which calculates line of sight LENA fluxes expected at a remote orbiting spacecraft for various magnetospheric plasma regimes. This model uses measured charge exchange cross sections, either of two neural hydrogen geocorona models, and various empirical modes of the ring current and plasma sheet to calculate the contribution to the integrated directional flux from each point along the line of sight of the instrument. We discuss implications for LENA imaging of the magnetosphere based on these simulations. 22 refs.

Moore, K.R.; McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Thomsen, M.F.

1992-06-01

74

CERES: Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure gives a brief description of the science research that is being done with data from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying onboard NASA's Terra satellite. It also contains information about some of the data products and technical specifications.

1999-04-01

75

Deep earth energy resource generation: feasibility and caveats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental requirement for life's sustenance in an environment is the generation of an energy resource, the extent of which defines the habitability. Abiotic organic synthesis from purely inorganic means within the realm of deep subsurface of earth is considered a good starting point for defining boundary conditions for life and organics. Abiotic synthesis of organic compounds from the reduction

A. Sharma

2006-01-01

76

Procedures for Design of Earth Slopes Using LRFD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a proposed procedure and process for implementation of LFRD for slope stability analysis applications, including evaluation of overall stability of earth retaining structures. Two sets of load and resistance factors are present. The ...

J. E. Loehr C. A. Finley D. Huaco

2005-01-01

77

Gamma rays made on Earth have unexpectedly high energies  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are the source of the highest-energy nonanthropogenic photons produced on Earth. Associated with thunder-storms - and in fact, with individual lightning discharges - they are presumed to be the bremsstrahlung produced when relativistic electrons, accelerated by the storms' strong electric fields, collide with air molecules some 10-20 km above sea level. The TGFs last up to a few milliseconds and contain photons with energies on the order of MeV.

Miller, Johanna

2011-01-15

78

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

79

Energy principles in architectural design  

SciTech Connect

A foundation of basic information pertaining to design and energy use in buildings is presented with emphasis on principles and concepts rather than applications of particular solution. Energy impacts of landforms and topography, vegetation, wind and ventilation, and sun on planning and designing the site are discused. General design considerations involving passive heating, cooling, and lighting systems are detailed. For the design of active building systems, heating, cooling, lighting, and HVAC systems are described. (MCW)

Dean, E.

1981-01-01

80

Design strategies for human & earth systems modeling to meet emerging multi-scale decision support needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of coupled human and earth systems models promises immense potential and grand challenges as they transition toward new roles as core tools for defining and living within planetary boundaries. New frontiers in community model development include not only computational, organizational, and geophysical process questions, but also the twin objectives of more meaningfully integrating the human dimension and extending applicability to informing policy decisions on a range of new and interconnected issues. We approach these challenges by posing key policy questions that require more comprehensive coupled human and geophysical models, identify necessary model and organizational processes and outputs, and work backwards to determine design criteria in response to these needs. We find that modular community earth system model design must: * seamlessly scale in space (global to urban) and time (nowcasting to paleo-studies) and fully coupled on all component systems * automatically differentiate to provide complete coupled forward and adjoint models for sensitivity studies, optimization applications, and 4DVAR assimilation across Earth and human observing systems * incorporate diagnostic tools to quantify uncertainty in couplings, and in how human activity affects them * integrate accessible community development and application with JIT-compilation, cloud computing, game-oriented interfaces, and crowd-sourced problem-solving We outline accessible near-term objectives toward these goals, and describe attempts to incorporate these design objectives in recent pilot activities using atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere-human models (WRF-Chem, IBIS, UrbanSim) at urban and regional scales for policy applications in climate, energy, and air quality.

Spak, S.; Pooley, M.

2012-12-01

81

EarthCARE-Earth clouds, aerosol and radiation explorer: its objectives and Japanese sensor designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IPCC third report says that we have still a lot of uncertainties to predict global warming even using latest GCMs. Regarding atmospheric radiation, uncertainty of the radiative forcing is still large, which is mainly caused by aerosols, clouds, and water vapor interacting among them. National Space Development Agency of JAPAN (NASDA) and Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) started Phase-A study with European Space Agency (ESA) in the EarthCARE project. The objectives of EarthCARE project are to observe vertical and horizontal distributions and physical characteristics of aerosols and clouds from a satellite, and also to measure the precise Earth radiation budget simultaneously. Finally we will be able to evaluate physical processes of clouds and aerosols regarding the radiative budget and forcing. The EarthCARE satellite carries 5 sensors, namely Cloud Profiling RADAR (CPR), Atmospheric LIDAR (ATLID), Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI), Broad Band Radiometer (BBR) and Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The result of the pre-Phase A study shows the synergy observation benefits using some compensative combinations of sensors, such as CPR/ATLID for clouds, ATLID/MSI for aerosols, BBR/FTS for the radiation budget. NASDA and CRL are studying FTS and CPR, respectively. CPR is a 94GHz RADAR using 2.5m diameter reflector with Doppler measurement mode. The sensitivity is -38dBZ. The vertical and horizontal resolution is 100 m, 1 km, respectively. FTS is a Michelson interferometer of which spectral measurement range is from 5.7 ?m to 25 ?m with 0.5 cm-1 unapodized spectral resolution. FOV is 10 km by 10 km. EarthCARE is planned to be launched in 2008 for 2 years mission. Phase-A study will continue until the end of 2003.

Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Kondo, Kayoko; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kuroiwa, Hiroshi; Ishida, Chu; Oki, Riko; Kuze, Akihiko; Suzuki, Makoto; Okamoto, Hajime; Imasu, Rouichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

2003-04-01

82

Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Baldwin, C. J. (principal investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

1972-01-01

83

Impact Test and Simulation of Energy Absorbing Concepts for Earth Entry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear dynamic finite element simulations have been performed to aid in the design of an energy absorbing concept for a highly reliable passive Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) that will directly impact the Earth without a parachute. EEV's are designed to return materials from asteroids, comets, or planets for laboratory analysis on Earth. The EEV concept uses an energy absorbing cellular structure designed to contain and limit the acceleration of space exploration samples during Earth impact. The spherical shaped cellular structure is composed of solid hexagonal and pentagonal foam-filled cells with hybrid graphite- epoxy/Kevlar cell walls. Space samples fit inside a smaller sphere at the center of the EEV's cellular structure. Comparisons of analytical predictions using MSC,Dytran with test results obtained from impact tests performed at NASA Langley Research Center were made for three impact velocities ranging from 32 to 40 m/s. Acceleration and deformation results compared well with the test results. These finite element models will be useful for parametric studies of off-nominal impact conditions.

Billings, Marcus D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Kellas, Sotiris

2001-01-01

84

75 FR 34515 - American Energy Services, Inc., Dynacore Patent Litigation Trust, Earth Sciences, Inc., Empiric...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Services, Inc., Dynacore Patent Litigation Trust, Earth Sciences, Inc., Empiric Energy, Inc., Future Carz, Inc...current and accurate information concerning the securities of Earth Sciences, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

2010-06-17

85

Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob

2012-01-01

86

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

87

Design concept for an optimized earth radiation budget sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth Radiation Budget Program has the objective to measure and model the terrestrial radiation budget and obtain a better understanding of the climate and its changes. A multisensor, multisatellite system with high and midinclination orbits will be needed for implementing this program. Various approaches for conducting sensing operations have been evaluated. The present investigation considers a method of sampling

S. L. Carman; M. Z. Hansen; A. Arking; J. W. Hoffman

1982-01-01

88

Earth Science Contexts for Teaching Physics. Part 2: Contexts Relating to the Teaching of Energy, Earth and Beyond and Radioactivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how physics teaching can be more relevant for elementary and secondary students by integrating physics and earth science content that students can relate to and understand. Identifies and explains Earth contexts that can be appropriately implemented into the physics curriculum such as energy resources and radioactivity. (Author/YDS)

King, Chris; Kennett, Peter

2002-01-01

89

Directly driven rare-earth permanent-magnet electrical-machine prototype for wind energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents finite element design and analysis of two radial-flux high-energy rare-earth permanent magnet electrical machines with new topology. It allows for short endwindings, which contributes to higher efficiency, higher power to weight ratio and low active material cost. Locating the windings in flat slots has further reduced the cost of active material. The permanent magnets are sintered NdFeB

M. S. Widyan; R. E. Hanitsch

2007-01-01

90

Minimum Energy Manipulator Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the optimum design of a manipulator has taken different directions. One of those was to define the kinematic or\\u000a dynamic parameters that determine the characteristics of the manipulator in order to justify the best design. In most of the\\u000a studies that are under way, the possible solutions are restricted to one feasible region in which all of the

A. Rojas Salgado; Y. Ledezma Rubio

91

Linking Humans to Data: Designing an Enterprise Architecture for EarthCube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Science Foundation (NSF)'s EarthCube is a strategic initiative towards a grand enterprise that holistically incorporates different geoscience research domains. The EarthCube as envisioned by NSF is a community-guided cyberinfrastructure (NSF 2011). The design of EarthCube enterprise architecture (EA) offers a vision to harmonize processes between the operations of EarthCube and its information technology foundation, the geospatial cyberinfrastructure. (Yang et al. 2010). We envision these processes as linking humans to data. We report here on fundamental ideas that would ultimately materialize as a conceptual design of EarthCube EA. EarthCube can be viewed as a meta-science that seeks to advance knowledge of the Earth through cross-disciplinary connections made using conventional domain-based earth science research. In order to build capacity that enables crossing disciplinary chasms, a key step would be to identify the cornerstones of the envisioned enterprise architecture. Human and data inputs are the two key factors to the success of EarthCube (NSF 2011), based upon which three hypotheses have been made: 1) cross disciplinary collaboration has to be achieved through data sharing; 2) disciplinary differences need to be articulated and captured in both computer and human understandable formats; 3) human intervention is crucial for crossing the disciplinary chasms. We have selected the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF, CIO Council 2013) as the baseline for the envisioned EarthCube EA, noting that the FEAF's deficiencies can be improved upon with inputs from three other popular EA frameworks. This presentation reports the latest on the conceptual design of an enterprise architecture in support of EarthCube.

Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Meyer, C. B.

2013-12-01

92

TPS design for aerobraking at Earth and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of using an aerobrake system for manned and unmanned missions to Mars, and to Earth from Mars and lunar orbits. A preliminary thermal protection system (TPS) was examined for five unmanned small nose radius, straight bi-conic vehicles and a scaled up Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle aerocapturing at Mars. Analyses were also conducted for the scaled up AFE and an unmanned Sample Return Cannister (SRC) returning from Mars and aerocapturing into Earth orbit. Also analyzed were three different classes of lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's): an expendable scaled up modified Apollo Command Module (CM), a raked cone (modified AFT), and three large nose radius domed cylinders. The LTV's would be used to transport personnel and supplies between Earth and the moon in order to establish a manned base on the lunar surface. The TPS for all vehicles analyzed is shown to have an advantage over an all-propulsive velocity reduction for orbit insertion. Results indicate that TPS weight penalties of less than 28 percent can be achieved using current material technology, and slightly less than the most favorable LTV using advanced material technology.

Williams, S. D.; Gietzel, M. M.; Rochelle, W. C.; Curry, D. M.

1991-01-01

93

Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument's ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%. A key issue is the amount of systematic ADM error (departures from the mean models) that is present at the 2.5 deg resolution of the ERBE target areas. If this error is less than 30%, then the CERES-I, ERBE, and CSR, in order of increasing error, provide the most accurate instantaneous flux estimates, within 2-3 W/sq m of each other in reflected shortwave flux. The magnitude of this error is near the 10 W/sq m accuracy requirement of the user community. Longwave flux errors have been found to have the same space and time characteristics as errors in shortwave radiation, but only about 25% as large.

Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

1993-01-01

94

The definition and specification of the near earth environmental criteria for spacecraft thermal design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variation of the earth's thermal and albedo radiation received by a near-earth orbiting space vehicle or space payload as a result of temporal variation of the earth atmosphere is discussed. A statistical study of current satellite data for determining probability distributions is proposed. With these distributions the thermal designer can define confidence levels on predicted temperature ranges which are compatible with engineering models for use in design, failure probabilities, and spacecraft cost estimates. Use of the distributions in environmental criteria guidelines is also considered.

Gary, G. A.; Craven, P. D.

1974-01-01

95

Design of Fast Earth-Return Trajectories from a Lunar Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Apollo Lunar Program utilized efficient, i.e., Earth-return, transearth trajectories which employed parking orbits in order to minimize energy requirements. The thesis concentrates on a different type of transearth trajectory. These are direct - ascen...

W. Anhorn

1991-01-01

96

Evaluating the Design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with System Simulations, Part 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accuracy estimates for the broadband CERES-1 (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument) measurements of daily average radiant exitance are presented. This is a continuation of the authors' earlier CERES sampling studies published as Parts I and...

R. Hucek L. Stowe R. Joyce

1996-01-01

97

Performance evaluation and energy conservation potential of earth–air–tunnel system coupled with non-air-conditioned building  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model to predict energy conservation potential of earth–air heat exchanger system and passive thermal performance of building has been developed. This model improves upon previous studies by incorporating effects of ground temperature gradient, surface conditions, moisture content and various design aspects of earth–air–tunnel (EAT). The model is based on simultaneously coupled heat and mass transfer in the EAT

Rakesh Kumar; S. Ramesh; S. C. Kaushik

2003-01-01

98

A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

1984-01-01

99

A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

1984-01-01

100

Designing and Creating Earth Science Lessons with Google Earth⢠ 

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide provides instructions on creating Earth science lessons using Google Earth⢠software. The guide, which focuses on using the free version of the software, covers how to plan a lesson (what the software can do, what can be included in a lesson) and how to create a lesson (creating folders, placemarks, map layers; sharing lessons). There are also links to useful tools for image processing, text editing, and image hosting, and an appendix with instructions for downloading, installing, and using the software. A sample "tour" is provided, and a downloadable, printable version of the guide is included.

Steve Kluge (Fox Lane High School, Bedford, New York, and SUNY Purchase); Drew Patrick (Fox Lane High School, Bedford, New York); Eric Fermann (Eastchester High School, Eastchester, New York)

101

Mission objectives and instrument design concept of EarthCARE FTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer) project is a candidate of the ESA (European Space Agency) Earth Explorer Core Missions. There are many uncertainties mainly caused by aerosols, clouds and their interaction with radiation in predictions of climate change using numerical models. EarthCARE will provide vertical and horizontal distributions and physical characteristics of clouds and aerosols, and also provide the Earth radiation budget. EarthCARE is the joint proposal between ESA, National Space Development Agency of JAPAN (NASDA) and Communications Research Laboratory (CRL). The Phase-A study is going on. The EarthCARE satellite has five sensors, Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID), Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI), Broad Band Radiometer (BBR) and Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). NASDA is studying FTS design. Main objective of EarthCARE FTS is to provide spectrally resolved outgoing radiance. This spectrum has many useful signatures from the surface/cloud/aerosol/water which can not get from spectrally integrated measurement. Another objective of EarthCARE FTS is a compact Michelson interferometer, which covers from 5.6 µm to 25 µm with 0.5 cm-1 spectral resolution. The FOV (Field Of View) is 10km so that the data can be used in conjunction with BBR.

Kondo, Kayoko; Imasu, Ryoichi; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Kuze, Akihiko; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Teruyuki

2003-06-01

102

Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

1975-01-01

103

Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conservative design approach was adopted by the International Space Station Program for specifying total ionizing radiation dose requirements for use in selecting and qualifying materials for construction of the International Space Station. The total ionizing dose design environment included in SSP 30512 Space Station Ionizing Radiation Design Environment is based on trapped proton and electron fluence derived from the solar maximum versions of the AE-8 and AP-8 models, respectively, specified for a circular orbit at 500 km altitude and 51.7 degree inclination. Since launch, the range of altitudes utilized for Space Station operations vary from a minimum of approximately 330 km to a maximum of approximately 405 km with a mean operational altitude less than 400 km. The design environment, therefore, overestimates the radiation environment because the particle flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly is the primary contributor to radiation dose in low Earth orbit and flux within the Anomaly is altitude dependent. In addition, a 2X multiplier is often applied to the design environment to cover effects from the contributions of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particle events, geomagnetic storms, and uncertainties in the trapped radiation models which are not explicitly included in the design environment. Application of this environment may give radiation dose overestimates on the order of 1OX to 30X for materials exposed to the space environment, suggesting that materials originally qualified for ten year exposures on orbit may be used for longer periods without replacement. In this paper we evaluate the "as flown" radiation environments derived from historical records of the ISS flight trajectory since launch and compare the results with the SSP 30512 design environment to document the magnitude of the radiation dose overestimate provided by the design environment. "As flown" environments are obtained from application of the AE-8/AP-8 trapped particle models along the ISS flight trajectory including variations in altitude due to decay of the vehicle orbit and periodic reboosts to higher altitudes. In addition, an estimate of the AE-8 model to predict low Earth orbit electron flux (because the radiation dose for thin materials is dominated by the electron component of the radiation environment) is presented based on comparisons of the AE-8 model to measurements of electron integral flux at approximately 850 km from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector on board the NOAA Polar Operational Environmental Satellite.

Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

2006-01-01

104

NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's Water and Energy Cycle Focus Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the Water and Energy cycles is critical towards improving our understanding of climate change, as well as the consequences of climate change. In addition, using results from water and energy cycle research can help improve water resource management, agricultural efficiency, disaster management, and public health. To address this, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) has an end-to-end Water and Energy Cycle Focus Area, which along with the ESE's other five focus areas will help NASA answer key Earth Science questions. In an effort to build upon the pre-existing discipline programs, which focus on precipitation, radiation sciences, and terrestrial hydrology, NASA has begun planning efforts to create an implementation plan for integrative research to improve our understanding of the water and energy cycles. The basics of this planning process and the core aspects of the implementation plan will be discussed. Roadmaps will also be used to show the future direction for the entire focus area. Included in the discussion, will be aspects of the end-to-end nature of the Focus Area that encompass current and potential actives to extend research results to operational agencies to enable improved performance of policy and management decision support systems.

Entin, J. K.

2004-05-01

105

Propagation of Extremely High Energy Leptons in the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been claimed that underground neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA and IceCub e have detection capability of not only PeV neutrinos but EeV-ZeV neutrinos which are possibly generated by the GZK mechanism associated with the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays. The accurate calculations on propagation of neutrinos and produced muons and taus in the Earth is inevitable for realistic evaluation of such Extremely High Energy (EHE) neutrino detection possibilities, however. The relevant interactions involving EHE neutrinos and charged leptons include charged-current interactions contributing to charged lepton disapp earance and the photo-nuclear interactions, both of which has not been considered or only evaluated by the cross sections without accounting newly available data of the photon-nucleon collisions. Here we present the results of the detailed numerical calculations concerning particle propagations at EHE energies (EeV or greater). We use the GZK neutrino flux as a benchmark and show the resultant energy spectra of EHE neutrinos after their propagation in the Earth as well as the generated secondary leptons. The expected event rate above 0.1 EeV by a km cub e detector is ˜ 1 event/year.

Yoshida, Shigeru

2003-07-01

106

Signal design for INMARSAT Standard C ship earth stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four modulation candidates are considered for the Standard C INMARSAT earth station: coherent binary phase shift keying (PSK), differentially coherent binary PSK (DPSK), noncoherent binary frequency shift keying (FSK), and noncoherent M-ary FSK (MFSK). Modulation performance is evaluated in terms of both detection sensitivity to synchronization errors and the lowest data rate at which reliable synchronization can be achieved with the low availble range of received carrier-to-noise ratio. Because of the need to obtain carrier phase synchronization, PSK was more sensitive than the other types of modulation to both oscillator phase noise and nonslow fading. The use of DPSK requires only frequency synchronization, and phase need only be quasi-constant over a symbol interval; hence, DPSK is less sensitive than PSK to oscillator noise. It is also found that FSK is the least sensitive to oscillator noise, and that MFSK is the next best.

Rhodes, S.; Hagmann, W.; Chang, P.; Fang, R.

107

Distributed aperture design for low profile Earth station antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to develop a distributed aperture antenna, which has the same performance as a single large aperture antenna, but has lower profile. The distributed aperture will have a simpler mechanical design, lower cost, lower power electronics, graceful performance degradation and overall higher reliability. This paper presents a design that forms an antenna aperture from distributed

A. I. Zaghloui; O. Kilic; L. Q. Sun; M. Lieberman

1999-01-01

108

Design of experiment for earth rotation and baseline parameter determination from very long baseline interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of recovering earth rotation and network geometry (baseline) parameters are emphasized. The numerical simulated experiments performed are set up in an environment where station coordinates vary with respect to inertial space according to a simulated earth rotation model similar to the actual but unknown rotation of the earth. The basic technique of VLBI and its mathematical model are presented. The parametrization of earth rotation chosen is described and the resulting model is linearized. A simple analysis of the geometry of the observations leads to some useful hints on achieving maximum sensitivity of the observations with respect to the parameters considered. The basic philosophy for the simulation of data and their analysis through standard least squares adjustment techniques is presented. A number of characteristic network designs based on present and candidate station locations are chosen. The results of the simulations for each design are presented together with a summary of the conclusions.

Dermanis, A.

1977-01-01

109

Low energy trajectories for the Moon-to-Earth space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon-to-Earth low energy trajectories of ‘detour’ type are found and studied within the frame of the Moon-Earth-Sun-particle\\u000a system. These trajectories use a passive flight to the Earth from an initial elliptic selenocentric orbit with a high aposelenium.\\u000a The Earth perturbation increases the particle selenocentric energy from a negative value first to zero and then to a positive\\u000a one and

V. V. Ivashkin

2005-01-01

110

Requirements and concept design for large earth survey telescope for SEOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efforts of a one year program of Requirements Analysis and Conceptual Design for the Large Earth Survey Telescope for the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite is summarized. A 1.4 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with 0.6 deg field of view is shown to do an excellent job in satisfying the observational requirements for a wide range of earth resources and meteorological applications. The telescope provides imagery or thermal mapping in ten spectral bands at one time in a field sharing grouping of linear detector arrays. Pushbroom scanning is accomplished by spacecraft slew.

Mailhot, P.; Bisbee, J.

1975-01-01

111

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment nonscanner instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) nonscanner instruments are flying with companion scanner instruments to measure the earth's energy budget from low earth orbit. A third set of instruments will be launched in March 1986. This program is the first designed to make a comprehensive set of highly accurate measurements of the earth's energy budget on the spectral, spatial, and

M. R. Luther; J. E. Cooper; G. R. Taylor

1986-01-01

112

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Nonscanner Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) nonscanner instruments are flying with companion scanner instruments to measure the earth's energy budget from low earth orbit. A third set of instruments will be launched in March 1986. This program is the first designed to make a comprehensive set of highly accurate measurements of the earth's energy budget on the spectral, spatial, and

M. R. Luther; J. E. Cooper; G. R. Taylor

1986-01-01

113

Concept design, modeling and station-keeping attitude control of an earth observation platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratosphere airship provides a unique and promising platform for earth observation. Researches on the project design and control scheme for earth observation platforms are still rarely documented. Nonlinear dynamics, model uncertainties, and external disturbances contribute to the difficulty in maneuvering the stratosphere airship. A key technical challenge for the earth observation platform is station keeping, or the ability to remain fixed over a geo-location. This paper investigates the conceptual design, modeling and station-keeping attitude control of the near-space earth observation platform. A conceptual design of the earth observation platform is presented. The dynamics model of the platform is derived from the Newton-Euler formulation, and the station-keeping control system of the platform is formulated. The station-keeping attitude control approach for the platform is proposed. The multi-input multi-output nonlinear control system is decoupled into three single-input single-output linear subsystems via feedback linearization, the attitude controller design is carried out on the new linear systems using terminal sliding mode control, and the global stability of the closed-loop system is proven by using the Lyapunov theorem. The performance of the designed control system is simulated by using the variable step Runge-Kutta integrator. Simulation results show that the control system tracks the commanded attitude with an error of zero, which verify the effectiveness and robustness of the designed control system in the presence of parametric uncertainties. The near-space earth observation platform has several advantages over satellites, such as high resolution, fast to deploy, and convenient to retrieve, and the proposed control scheme provides an effective approach for station-keeping attitude control of the earth observation platform.

Yang, Yueneng; Wu, Jie; Zheng, Wei

2012-11-01

114

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fundamentals of Physical Geography. The Fundamentals of Physical Geography website is designed to be a free online textbook for University and College students studying introductory Physical Geography. Version 1.0 ...

115

MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan: Earth's Energy Budget-Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan uses Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiation data to understand seasonal variations in the pattern of net energy input to the Earth system. The net amount of energy received by different parts of the Earth at different times of year determines the type of weather and climate they will experience. The net radiative flux shows the combined effect of the Sun's location and the conditions in the Earth system. The two primary components of the Earth system that affect the net radiative flux are: 1) the type of surface and 2) clouds. This lesson will allow students to explore these variations.

2006-01-01

116

Imaging high-energy astrophysical sources using Earth occultation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIGH-ENERGY astrophysical sources can be difficult to image. Photons with energies above ~5 keV are hard to focus, so experiments usually employ coded masks1-4 or moving collimators5-9 to modulate the flux received by the detectors; the resulting signals are then deconvolved to form the images. Here we demonstrate a new approach which makes use of the large-area, non-collimated detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. As the spacecraft moves in its orbit, the Earth itself acts as a stable occulting disk. Changes in the measured signal during a single occultation correspond to the integrated intensity of sources positioned along the arc described by the Earth's edge (limb). The low-altitude, moderately inclined orbit of the spacecraft ensures that the angle at which the limb traverses a source region varies between occultations, and thus data from a series of occultations can be transformed into an image. This imaging process is conceptually and mathematically similar to those used in fan-beam aperture-synthesis radio-astronomy10 and medical computer-assisted tomography11, and holds great promise for all-sky imaging with relatively simple (and hence inexpensive) detectors.

Zhang, S. N.; Fishman, G. J.; Harmon, B. A.; Paciesas, W. S.

1993-11-01

117

Earth station design at 12/14 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a 12/14 GHz wideband two-way ground station compatible with the CTS, PSCS, and SYNCOM 4 satellites is described. Efforts to find a suitable site location in the vicinity of the Denver Network Coordinating Center are related.

1977-01-01

118

Low energy neutral atoms in the earth's magnetosphere: Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by the interaction of the Earth's geocorona with ambient space plasma has been proposed as a technique to obtain global information about the magnetosphere. Recent instrumentation advances reported previously and in these proceedings provide an opportunity for detecting LENAs in the energy range of <1 keV to {approximately}50 keV. In this paper, we present results from a numerical model which calculates line of sight LENA fluxes expected at a remote orbiting spacecraft for various magnetospheric plasma regimes. This model uses measured charge exchange cross sections, either of two neural hydrogen geocorona models, and various empirical modes of the ring current and plasma sheet to calculate the contribution to the integrated directional flux from each point along the line of sight of the instrument. We discuss implications for LENA imaging of the magnetosphere based on these simulations. 22 refs.

Moore, K.R.; McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Thomsen, M.F.

1992-01-01

119

Who Believes What? Clearing up confusion about Intelligent Design and Young-Earth Creationism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of what differentiates young-Earth creationism (YEC) from Intelligent Design (ID) has resulted in inaccurate and confusing terminology, and hinders both understanding and dialogue. Though both YEC and ID groups have drawn distinctions between themselves, previous attempts to classify design-based positions on origins have been unable to adequately resolve their relationships. The Nested Hierarchy of Design, a multiple-character classification

Marcus R. Ross

2005-01-01

120

Phonon Assisted Laser Transitions and Energy Transfer in Rare Earth Laser Crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extensive study of energy transfer and phonon interaction in rare earth doped LiYF4 has been conducted. The trivalent rare earth ions Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb were used as the optically active ions. Y2Ti2O7, also doped with rare earth ions, was ex...

H. P. Jenssen

1971-01-01

121

CEOS contributions to informing energy management and policy decision making using space-based Earth observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the

Richard S. Eckman; Paul W. Stackhouse

2012-01-01

122

Pulsed Energy Storage System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superconductive energy storage magnet which is connected to the three phase power system could be designed, constructed, and placed in operation at Fermilab which would essentially eliminate the large repetitive power pulses now required from the power system. In addition to the power pulses, voltage flicker is also caused due to the reactive power pulsation. Specifically, a one megawatt

G. Biallis; R. L. Cassel; W. Fowler; P. V. Livdahl; F. E. Mills; M. L. Palmer; P. J. Reardon; S. C. Snowden; B. P. Strauss; L. C. Teng; R. A. Winje

1974-01-01

123

Deep earth energy resource generation: feasibility and caveats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental requirement for life's sustenance in an environment is the generation of an energy resource, the extent of which defines the habitability. Abiotic organic synthesis from purely inorganic means within the realm of deep subsurface of earth is considered a good starting point for defining boundary conditions for life and organics. Abiotic synthesis of organic compounds from the reduction of CO2 in hydrothermal systems has been proposed as a source of organic compounds required for life (Shock, 1990). A number of geochemical observations point towards the likely presence of abiotic hydrocarbons in a variety of geologic environments, including gases from serpentinites and hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor, however, experimental demonstration has been difficult and is limited to very shallow (low pressure) conditions. Thermodynamic barriers for organic synthesis reactions at deep subsurface conditions (high temperature and pressure) are predictably lowered, such that, with a much larger reservoir of volatiles the deep subsurface (lower crust and upper mantle) is bound to contribute significantly to the overall organic resource. Although theoretically predicted (Gold, 1992), due to the lack of a clear constraints on the actual reaction pathways, an experimental confirmation of even the most basic hydrocarbon (methane) in deep geological setting has not been convincingly demonstrated. It is not surprising, therefore, that contributions from greater depths have largely been ignored in most geochemical models. In this presentation the author will present experimental results on organic synthesis under conditions simulating deep earth and also highlight caveats that preclude constraining reaction pathways.

Sharma, A.

2006-05-01

124

Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

2013-10-01

125

Excited neutrino production by ultrahigh energy neutrinos traversing the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus on the production of excited neutrinos by ultra high energy (UHE, E?>104GeV) neutrinos traversing the Earth. The surviving neutrino fluxes are calculated using the complete system of transport equations for ordinary neutrinos and their excited states, and we compare these results with the obtained using only Standard Model (SM) interactions. We extend the analysis by including the neutral current (NC) and decay regeneration effects, and computing the surviving flux for different values of f/?, where ? is the compositeness scale and f a coupling factor representing non-perturbative physics. Finally, we analyze the possibilities of detecting such fluxes in a neutrino telescope such as IceCube showing the allowed regions in the (m*,f/?) plane for two possible initial fluxes. We have considered the IC80 configuration of IceCube for an operation time of ten years.

Reynoso, Matías M.; Romero, Ismael; Sampayo, Oscar A.

2012-12-01

126

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

127

Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect to the conceptions

William R. Penuel; Lawrence P. Gallagher

2009-01-01

128

System design and specifications. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design summary of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The systems considered in the summary are: (1) the spacecraft structure, (2) electrical power modules, (3) communications and data handling module, (4) attitude determination module, (5) actuation module, and (6) solar array and drive module. The documents which provide the specifications for the systems and the equipment are identified.

1974-01-01

129

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 3: Design cost trade-off studies and recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the design and cost tradeoff aspects of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) development is presented. The design/cost factors that affect a series of mission/system level concepts are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) spacecraft subsystem cost tradeoffs, (2) ground system cost tradeoffs, and (3) program cost summary. Tables of data are provided to summarize the results of the analyses. Illustrations of the various spacecraft configurations are included.

1974-01-01

130

Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 2: Cryogenic design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed designs were made for three earth orbital propulsion systems; (1) the space shuttle (integrated) OMS/RCS, (2) the space shuttle (dedicated) OMS (LO2), and (3) the space tug. The preferred designs from the integrated OMS/RCS were used as the basis for the flight test article design. A plan was prepared that outlines the steps, cost, and schedule required to complete the development of the prototype DSL tank and feedline (LH2 and LO2) systems. Ground testing of a subscale model using LH2 verified the expulsion characteristics of the preferred DSL designs.

1973-01-01

131

Advanced Energy Conversion Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. There is a need to produce "proof-ofconcept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space surface sites. Space surface receiving sites of particular interest include the areas of permanent shadow near the moon s North and South poles, where WPT technologies could enable access to ice and other useful resources for human exploration. This paper discusses work addressing a promising approach to solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) applied to both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components (only the photovoltaic cells need to be different), economies of manufacturing and scale may be realized by using SLA on both ends of the laser power beaming system in a space solar power application. Near-term uses of this SLA-laser-SLA system may include terrestrial and space exploration in near Earth space. Later uses may include beamed power for bases or vehicles on Mars. Strategies for developing energy infrastructures in space which utilize this technology are presented. This dual use system produces electrical energy efficiently from either coherent light, such as from a highly coherent laser, or from conventional solar illumination. This allows, for example, supplementing solar energy with energy provided by highly coherent laser illumination during periods of low solar illumination or no illumination. This reduces the need for batteries and alternate sources of power. The capability of using laser illumination in a lowest order Gaussian laser mode provides means for transmitting power optically with maximum efficiency and precision over the long distances characteristic of space. A preliminary receiving system similar to that described here, has been produced and tested under solar and laser illumination. A summary of results is given.

Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Phillips, Dane J.; Laycock, Rustin L.; ONeill, Mark; Henley, Mark W.; Fork, Richard L.

2006-01-01

132

Low-energy neutral atom emission from the Earth's magnetosphere  

SciTech Connect

Imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere is possible through the detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral atoms of the Earth's geocorona. The authors present calculations of both hydrogen and oxygen line-of-sight LENA fluxes expected on orbit for various plasma regimes as predicted by the Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model. To decrease the required computation time, they are in the process of adapting their code for massively parallel computers. The speed gains achieved from parallel algorithms are substantial, and they present results from computational runs on the Connection Machine CM-2 data parallel supercomputer. They also estimate expected image count rates and image quality based on realistic instrument geometric factors, energy passbands, neutral atom scattering in the instrument, and image accumulation intervals. The results indicate that LENA imaging instruments will need a geometric factor (G) on the order of 0.1 cm[sup 2] sr eV/eV to be capable of imaging storm time ring currents, and a G of 1.0 cm[sup 2] sr eV/eV in order to image the quiet time ring current fluxes, ion injections from the tail, and subsequent ion drifts toward the dayside magnetopause.

Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Thomsen, M.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Space and Atmospheric Sciences Group)

1994-02-01

133

Earth assisted annual energy cycle home. Final progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project makes use of sub-basement earth as a massive heat sink and extracts natural ground heat from all tap water coming into the dwelling actually using or wasting water. Heat storage gain from the earth surrounding the four 1800 gallon concrete storage tanks was documented.

Chesen

1981-01-01

134

Navigation Design and Analysis for the Orion Earth-Moon Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details the design of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. The unmodeled accelerations and their characterization are detailed. It also presents the analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the delta-V performance.

DSouza, Christopher; Zanetti, Renato

2014-01-01

135

Translunar low-energy trajectories via Earth-Moon L1 Lyapunov orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with low-energy Earth- Moon transfer trajectory via Lyapunov orbit located on Earth- Moon libration point LI. The circular restricted three-body problem is used as the model for Earth-Moon system, and Birkhoff regularization is used to avoid singularities when the distance between spacecraft and primary is very short. Using both analytical and numerical methods, Lyapunov orbits near

Maodeng Li; Wuxing Jing

2007-01-01

136

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

1999-01-01

137

Design of transfer trajectories between resonant orbits in the Earth–Moon restricted problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of dynamical systems techniques to mission design has demonstrated that employing invariant manifolds and resonant flybys enables previously unknown trajectory options and potentially reduces the ?V requirements. In this investigation, planar and three-dimensional resonant orbits are analyzed and cataloged in the Earth–Moon system and the associated invariant manifold structures are computed and visualized with the aid of higher-dimensional Poincaré maps. The relationship between the manifold trajectories associated with multiple resonant orbits is explored through the maps with the objective of constructing resonant transfer arcs. As a result, planar and three-dimensional homoclinic- and heteroclinic-type trajectories between unstable periodic resonant orbits are identified in the Earth–Moon system. To further illustrate the applicability of 2D and 3D resonant orbits in preliminary trajectory design, planar transfers to the vicinity of L5 and an out-of-plane transfer to a 3D periodic orbit, one that tours the entire Earth–Moon system, are constructed. The design process exploits the invariant manifolds associated with orbits in resonance with the Moon as transfer mechanisms.

Vaquero, Mar; Howell, Kathleen C.

2014-01-01

138

External Resource: How Volcanoes Work: The Earth's Internal Heat Energy and Interior Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web page with background information about how volcanoes work. The Earth's internal heat source provides the energy for our dynamic planet, supplying it with the driving force for plate-tectonic motion, and for on-going catastrophic events such as earth

1900-01-01

139

Design of Round-trip Trajectories to Near-Earth Asteroids Utilizing a Lunar Flyby  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are currently over 7,700 known Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and more are being discovered on a continual basis. Current models predict that the actual order of magnitude of the NEA population may range from 10' to 10 6 . The close proximity of NEA orbits to Earth's orbit makes it possible to design short duration round-trip trajectories to NEAs under the proper conditions. In previous work, 59 potentially accessible NEAs were identified for missions that depart Earth between the years 2016 and 2050 and have round-trip flight times of a year or less. We now present a new method for designing round-trip trajectories to NEAs in which the Moon's gravity aids the outbound trajectory via a lunar flyby. In some cases this gravity assist can reduce the overall spacecraft propellant required for the mission, which in turn can allow NEAs to be reached which would otherwise be inaccessible to a given mission architecture. Results are presented for a specific case study on NEA 2003 LN6.

Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.

2011-01-01

140

Designating Earth's Moon as a United Nations World Heritage Site - Permanently Protected from Commercial or Military Uses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes that Earth's Moon, in its entirety, be designated a United Nations World Heritage Site (WHS), permanently protected from any and all commercial or military utilization and reserved exclusively for scientific and aesthetic purposes. The paper discusses: 1) the extraordinary importance of the Moon for science, culture, and religion - past, present and future; 2) the history of proposals to exploit the Moon for commercial and military purposes and the shortcomings of this colonial, exploitation paradigm; and 3) the necessity, policy mechanisms, and political dynamics of designating the Moon as a World Heritage Site, permanently protected from commercial and/or military uses. The first part of the paper discusses the extraordinary importance of the Moon as it exists today - as a scientific laboratory, a source of beauty and inspiration throughout human evolution, a source for artistic expression, and as an object that is considered sacred by many cultures. Next, the paper traces the history of specific proposals for the exploitation of the Moon for commercial and/or military purposes - including plans by the U.S. Air Force in 1959 to detonate a nuclear explosion on the Moon, proposals to strip-mine the lunar regolith for helium-3 and rocket-fuel hydrogen; construction of solar power plants to transmit energy to Earth, and proposals to use the lunar surface as a billboard upon which to project commercial advertisements visible from Earth. The profound ethical, legal, and scientific shortcomings of this exploitation paradigm are described as an emerging Extraterrestrial Manifest Destiny that we have a collective obligation to challenge and constrain. The paper proposes that space exploration be infused with an ethical commitment to compassion, reverence, conservation, and non-interference to abiotic and biotic systems alike; as opposed to the expansion and extraterrestrial imposition of the colonization, exploitation, domination, and despoliation paradigm that has characterized 19th and 20th century western civilization on Earth. The World Heritage process, and how Earth's Moon clearly satisfies necessary criteria, is described, as are the political challenges this proposal presents, including the 'national sovereignty' issue. The 1972 United Nations World Heritage Convention (signed by 167 countries), provides for the protection of cultural and natural properties deemed to be of "outstanding universal value", including value "from the point of view of science, conservation, or natural beauty" and places them under "a collective responsibility." The Moon clearly meets several criteria for WHS designation, as follow: a. "be outstanding examples representing major stages of Earth's history...significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features"; b. "contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance"; and c. the Moon qualifies within the Convention as an "associative cultural landscape" which designates areas "by virtue of their powerful religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element." To facilitate WHS site designation for the Moon, it is proposed that the 1979 "Moon Treaty" (Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, entered into force 7/11/84) be amended and broadly ratified internationally. Specifically, Article 11 - which presently provides for 'the establishment of an international regime to govern the exploitation of the natural resources of the moon, encourage the development of the natural resources of the moon, the management and expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources' - should be amended to provide a clear and unequivocal declaration of the extraordinary, irreplaceable cultural and natural value of the Moon, and designation of the Moon in its entirety as an inviolate World Heritage Site reserved exclusively for scient

Steiner, R. G.

2002-01-01

141

The EOS Aqua/Aura Experience: Lessons Learned on Design, Integration, and Test of Earth-Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and NOAA earth observing satellite programs are flying a number of sophisticated scientific instruments which collect data on many phenomena and parameters of the earth's environment. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Program originated the EOS Common Bus approach, which featured two spacecraft (Aqua and Aura) of virtually identical design but with completely different instruments. Significant savings were obtained by the Common Bus approach and these lessons learned are presented as information for future program requiring multiple busses for new diversified instruments with increased capabilities for acquiring earth environmental data volume, accuracy, and type.

Nosek, Thomas P.

2004-01-01

142

Design Guide for Energy Efficient Laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy Efficient Design Applications are intended to assist facility owners, architects, engineers, designers, facility managers, and utility demand-side management specialists in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. This site is operated by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy. A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories is available for download from the site.

2007-04-17

143

Guidelines for the Selection of Near-Earth Thermal Environment Parameters for Spacecraft Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal analysis and design of Earth orbiting systems requires specification of three environmental thermal parameters: the direct solar irradiance, Earth's local albedo, and outgoing longwave radiance (OLR). In the early 1990s data sets from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment were analyzed on behalf of the Space Station Program to provide an accurate description of these parameters as a function of averaging time along the orbital path. This information, documented in SSP 30425 and, in more generic form in NASA/TM-4527, enabled the specification of the proper thermal parameters for systems of various thermal response time constants. However, working with the engineering community and SSP-30425 and TM-4527 products over a number of years revealed difficulties in interpretation and application of this material. For this reason it was decided to develop this guidelines document to help resolve these issues of practical application. In the process, the data were extensively reprocessed and a new computer code, the Simple Thermal Environment Model (STEM) was developed to simplify the process of selecting the parameters for input into extreme hot and cold thermal analyses and design specifications. In the process, greatly improved values for the cold case OLR values for high inclination orbits were derived. Thermal parameters for satellites in low, medium, and high inclination low-Earth orbit and with various system thermal time constraints are recommended for analysis of extreme hot and cold conditions. Practical information as to the interpretation and application of the information and an introduction to the STEM are included. Complete documentation for STEM is found in the user's manual, in preparation.

Anderson, B. J.; Justus, C. G.; Batts, G. W.

2001-01-01

144

Statistical similarity between high energy charged particle fluxes in near-earth space and earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been noticed that rapid short-term variations of high energy charged particle fluxes in near-Earth space occur more frequently several hours before the main shock of earthquakes. Physicists wish that this observation supply a possible precursor of strong earthquakes. Based on DEMETER data, we investigate statistical behaviors of flux fluctuations for high energy charged particles in near-Earth space. Long-term clustering, scaling, and universality in the temporal occurrence are found. There is high degree statistical similarity between high energy charged particle fluxes in near-Earth space and earthquakes. Thus, the observations of the high energy particle fluxes in near-Earth space may supply a useful tool in the study of earthquakes.

Wang, P.; Chang, Z.; Wang, H.; Lu, H.

2014-05-01

145

An integrated environment for intelligent energy design  

SciTech Connect

The design of energy-efficient buildings can be aided by intelligent computer tools that can evaluate design solutions and make recommendations for improving the buildings` energy performance. Such tools can be very productive when they are integrated with existing computer-aided design technology. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Oregon, the California Polytechnic State University, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is developing such tools and integrating them into a computational environment that can be easily used by architects, engineers, and designers. This project, called the Advanced Energy Design and Operations Technologies (AEDOT) project, intends to demonstrate how building energy performance can be improved by combining expertise from a variety of domain perspectives during the design process. This paper describes the first prototype to emerge from the AEDOT work. AEDOT Prototype 1 consists of several design and energy tools that have been integrated using, the ICADS framework developed at California Polytechnic State University. The prototype demonstrates how an integrated system responds to a building design as it is being developed on a CAD system. While the designer draws a building floor plan, a number of intelligent design tools (IDTs) examine the drawing and evaluate the design`s acoustics, thermal profile, daylighting use, cost, and compliance with energy standards, to name a few. These IDTs also make design-specific recommendations intended to improve the cost, energy performance, and overall quality of the design.

Brambley, M.R.; Quadrel, R.W.; Stratton, R.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Brown, G.Z.; Meacham, M.; Miller, P. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Pohl, J.G.; La Porta, J.; Snyder, J. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Selkowitz, S.E.; Papamichael, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bailey, M.L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-06-01

146

Computer aided energy conscious building design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design process for an energy conscious building, which was built, along with the computer aided design tools that were applied, is presented. The building, situated in the hot-humid climate of Rehovot - Israel, houses the laboratories and offices of the Weizmann Institute's Environmental Science and Energy Research Department. Alternative bio-climatic design options were proposed and evaluated throughout the detailed

Edna Shaviv

1998-01-01

147

An integrated environment for intelligent energy design  

SciTech Connect

The design of energy-efficient buildings can be aided by intelligent computer tools that can evaluate design solutions and make recommendations for improving the buildings' energy performance. Such tools can be very productive when they are integrated with existing computer-aided design technology. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Oregon, the California Polytechnic State University, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is developing such tools and integrating them into a computational environment that can be easily used by architects, engineers, and designers. This project, called the Advanced Energy Design and Operations Technologies (AEDOT) project, intends to demonstrate how building energy performance can be improved by combining expertise from a variety of domain perspectives during the design process. This paper describes the first prototype to emerge from the AEDOT work. AEDOT Prototype 1 consists of several design and energy tools that have been integrated using, the ICADS framework developed at California Polytechnic State University. The prototype demonstrates how an integrated system responds to a building design as it is being developed on a CAD system. While the designer draws a building floor plan, a number of intelligent design tools (IDTs) examine the drawing and evaluate the design's acoustics, thermal profile, daylighting use, cost, and compliance with energy standards, to name a few. These IDTs also make design-specific recommendations intended to improve the cost, energy performance, and overall quality of the design.

Brambley, M.R.; Quadrel, R.W.; Stratton, R.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Brown, G.Z.; Meacham, M.; Miller, P. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States)); Pohl, J.G.; La Porta, J.; Snyder, J. (California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)); Selkowitz, S.E.; Papamichael, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bailey, M.L. (USDOE, Washington,

1992-06-01

148

Enhanced solar energy options using earth-orbiting mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of orbiting space reflectors is described, analyzed, and shown to economically provide nearly continuous insolation to preselected ground sites, producing benefits hitherto lacking in conventional solar farms and leading to large reductions in energy costs for such installations. Free-flying planar mirrors of about 1 sq km are shown to be optimum and can be made at under 10 g/sq m of surface, thus minimizing material needs and space transportation costs. Models are developed for both the design of such mirrors and for the analysis of expected ground insolation as a function of orbital parameters, time, and site location. Various applications (agricultural, solar-electric production, weather enhancement, etc.) are described.

Gilbreath, W. P.; Billman, K. W.; Bowen, S. W.

1978-01-01

149

Point response function of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System scanning radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of work related to the point response function (PRF) of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer is presented. The aspects of the CERES design that affect the PRF are described, and then the design of the PRF is explained. The PRF was designed by shaping the field of view so as to minimize the blur plus alias errors of the radiance field reconstructed from the CERES measurements. The design is conducted in the Fourier domain. The PRF can then be computed by transforming the resulting transfer function to the physical domain. Alternatively, the PRF can be computed in the physical plane. The PRF of each model of the CERES instrument has been tested in the Radiation Calibration Facility by use of a PRF source and compared well with prediction. CERES instruments are aboard the Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP spacecraft. In orbit, lunar observations are used to validate the PRF. These results showed nominal performance except for the longwave window channel of flight model 2, for which a region of anomalously high sensitivity was found.

Louis Smith, G.; Daniels, Janet L.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan

2014-01-01

150

Simulation for the design of next-generation global Earth observing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under a recently-funded NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) award we are now designing, and will eventually implement, a sensor web architecture that couples future Earth observing systems with atmospheric, chemical, and oceanographic models and data assimilation systems. The end product will be a "sensor web simulator" (SWS), based upon the proposed architecture, that would objectively quantify the scientific return of a fully functional modeldriven meteorological sensor web. Our proposed work is based upon two previously-funded ESTO studies that have yielded a sensor web-based 2025 weather observing system architecture, and a preliminary SWS software architecture that had been funded by NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept (RASC) and other technology awards. Sensor Web observing systems have the potential to significantly improve our ability to monitor, understand, and predict the evolution of rapidly evolving, transient, or variable meteorological features and events. A revolutionary architectural characteristic that could substantially reduce meteorological forecast uncertainty is the use of targeted observations guided by advanced analytical techniques (e.g., prediction of ensemble variance). Simulation is essential: investing in the design and implementation of such a complex observing system would be very costly and almost certainly involve significant risk. A SWS would provide information systems engineers and Earth scientists with the ability to define and model candidate designs, and to quantitatively measure predictive forecast skill improvements. The SWS will serve as a necessary trade studies tool to: evaluate the impact of selecting different types and quantities of remote sensing and in situ sensors; characterize alternative platform vantage points and measurement modes; and to explore potential rules of interaction between sensors and weather forecast/data assimilation components to reduce model error growth and forecast uncertainty. We will demonstrate key SWS elements using a proposed future lidar wind measurement mission as a use case.

Seablom, Michael S.; Talabac, Stephen J.; Higgins, Glenn J.; Womack, Brice T.

2007-09-01

151

Space colonies and energy supply to the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of establishing manufacturing facilities in a high orbit is discussed. They could be used for the construction of satellite solar power stations from lunar materials. Estimates indicate that this may be considerably more economical than constructing power stations on earth and lifting them into orbit.

1975-01-01

152

Rare earth permanent magnets and energy conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally in magnetoelectric devices the stator has been the massive and static part of the device and the dynamic element has been a moving coil. With improvements in the volumetric efficiency of permanent magnets it is possible to rearrange magnetic circuit elements and invert devices. Rare earth permanent magnets exhibit a high magnetic moment per unit volume and have extreme

R. J. Parker

1977-01-01

153

Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Design Study for Cargo Transfer to Earth-Moon L1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design study for a cargo transfer vehicle using solar electric propulsion was performed for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts program. Targeted for 2016, the solar electric propulsion (SEP) transfer vehicle is required to deliver a propellant supply module with a mass of approximately 36 metric tons from Low Earth Orbit to the first Earth-Moon libration point (LL1) within 270 days. Following an examination of propulsion and power technology options, a SEP transfer vehicle design was selected that incorporated large-area (approx. 2700 sq m) thin film solar arrays and a clustered engine configuration of eight 50 kW gridded ion thrusters mounted on an articulated boom. Refinement of the SEP vehicle design was performed iteratively to properly estimate the required xenon propellant load for the out-bound orbit transfer. The SEP vehicle performance, including the xenon propellant estimation, was verified via the SNAP trajectory code. Further efforts are underway to extend this system model to other orbit transfer missions.

Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Falck, Robert D.; Dudzinski, Leonard J.; Oleson, Steven R.

2002-01-01

154

Energy position of 4f levels in rare-earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy position of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels relative to the Fermi energy is studied for the rare-earth metals. This is done by treating the excited state as an impurity in an otherwise perfect crystal. This picture is first considered in the complete screening approximation. In this approximation thermochemical data can be used directly to give energy values

Börje Johansson

1979-01-01

155

INITIAL OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-ENERGY ELECTRONS IN THE EARTH'S MAGNETOSPHERE WITH OGO 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial observations of electrons over the energy range extending from 100 ev to 50 key at geocentric radial distances 8-20 RE in the dark hemisphere of the earth's magnetosphere with electrostatic analyzers borne on OGO 3 are presented for June 12-13, 1966. The electron differential energy spectrums typically are characterized by a single peak in intensities occurring in the energy

L. A. Frank

1967-01-01

156

Earth resources data systems design: S192 instrument measurements and characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and characteristics of the S192 instrument for use with the earth resources data systems are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) multispectral scanner measurements, (2) measurement characteristics, (3) calibration and aligment, (4) operating modes, and (5) time tagging and references. The S192 will obtain high spatial resolution, quantitative line scan imagery data of the radiation reflected and emitted by selected test sites in up to 13 spectral bands of visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Goldstein, A. S.

1972-01-01

157

Searching for high energy cosmic ray electrons using the Earth's magnetic field.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope (CREST) instrument is a balloon payload designed to measure the flux of primary cosmic ray electrons at energies greater than 2 TeV. Because electrons at these energies lose energy rapidly during propagation through the interstellar medium, their detection would indicate the existence of sources which are within a few kiloparsecs. In order to obtain the needed large exposure time and aperture of the detector, we use an approach that depends on the detection of synchrotron photons emitted when the electrons travel through the earth's magnetic field. Such photons have energies in the x-ray and gamma-ray region, hence CREST incorporates an array of inorganic scintillators. Since the primary electrons do not need to pass through the detector, the effective detection area is much larger than the actual detector array size. To verify the technique and to determine background count rates, a prototype array of BGO and BaF2 crystals was flown on high altitude balloon from Ft. Sumner, N.M. in autumn 2005. The full detector system is currently under construction. It will consist of a 1600 crystal array, and will be carried on Long-Duration Balloons on circumpolar trajectory.

Nutter, S.; Bower, C.; Coutu, S.; Duvernois, M.; Martell, A.; Muller, D.; Musser, J.; Schubnell, M.; Tarle, G.; Yagi, A.

2006-04-01

158

Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential  

SciTech Connect

The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

Wendt, R.L.

1982-04-01

159

Effect of the shrinking dipole on solar-terrestrial energy input to the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global average temperature of the Earth is rising rapidly. This rise is primarily attributed to the release of greenhouse gases as a result of human activity. However, it has been argued that changes in radiation from the Sun might play a role. Most energy input to the Earth is light in the visible spectrum. Our best measurements suggest this power input has been constant for the last 40 years (the space age) apart from a small 11-year variation due to the solar cycle of sunspot activity. Another possible energy input from the Sun is the solar wind. The supersonic solar wind carries the magnetic field of the Sun into the solar system. As it passes the Earth it can connect to the Earth's magnetic field whenever it is antiparallel t the Earth's field. This connection allows mass, momentum, and energy from the solar wind to enter the magnetosphere producing geomagnetic activity. Ultimately much of this energy is deposited at high latitudes in the form of particle precipitation (aurora) and heating by electrical currents. Although the energy input by this process is miniscule compared to that from visible radiation it might alter the absorption of visible radiation. Two other processes affected by the solar cycle are atmospheric entry of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic protons (SEP). A weak solar magnetic field at sunspot minimum facilitates GCR entry which has been implicated in creation of clouds. Large coronal mass ejections and solar flares create SEP at solar maximum. All of these alternative energy inputs and their effects depend on the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently the Earth's field is decreasing rapidly and conceivably might reverse polarity in 1000 years. In this paper we describe the changes in the Earth's magnetic field and how this might affect GCR, SEP, electrical heating, aurora, and radio propagation. Whether these effects are important in global climate change can only be determined by detailed physical models.

McPherron, R. L.

2011-12-01

160

Energy-Conscious Design: Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many design features that can be used to achieve an energy-efficient building. Described are task lighting, unoccupied space shutoff, onsite well with heat pump, wide-band thermostats, and solar energy. (MLF)

Lawrence, Jerry

1984-01-01

161

Design of a Representative Low Earth Orbit Satellite to Improve Existing Debris Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the process and methodologies used in the design of a small-satellite, DebriSat, that represents materials and construction methods used in modern day Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. This satellite will be used in a future hypervelocity impact test with the overall purpose to investigate the physical characteristics of modern LEO satellites after an on-orbit collision. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy Transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960 s. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques from a satellite built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. The design of DebriSat will focus on designing and building a next-generation satellite to more accurately portray modern satellites. The design of DebriSat included a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 10 kg to 5000 kg. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions, and helped direct the design of DebriSat.

Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Werremeyer, M.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.

2012-01-01

162

Design of an energy conservation building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts in designing and predicting energy consumption in a low energy use building are summarized. The building will use less than 30,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. of boarder energy. The building's primary energy conservation features include heavy concrete walls with external insulation, a highly insulated ceiling, and large amounts of glass for natural lighting. A solar collector air system is integrated into the south wall. Calculations for energy conservation features were performed using NASA's NECAP Energy Program.

Jensen, R. N.

1981-11-01

163

Design of an energy conservation building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concepts in designing and predicting energy consumption in a low energy use building are summarized. The building will use less than 30,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. of boarder energy. The building's primary energy conservation features include heavy concrete walls with external insulation, a highly insulated ceiling, and large amounts of glass for natural lighting. A solar collector air system is integrated into the south wall. Calculations for energy conservation features were performed using NASA's NECAP Energy Program.

Jensen, R. N.

1981-01-01

164

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

2013-01-01

165

AEOSS design guide for system analysis on Advanced Earth-Orbital Spacecraft Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced Earth Orbital Spacecraft System (AEOSS) enables users to project the requried power, weight, and cost for a generic earth-orbital spacecraft system. These variables are calculated on the component and subsystem levels, and then the system level. The included six subsystems are electric power, thermal control, structure, auxillary propulsion, attitude control, and communication, command, and data handling. The costs are computed using statistically determined models that were derived from the flown spacecraft in the past and were categorized into classes according to their functions and structural complexity. Selected design and performance analyses for essential components and subsystems are also provided. AEOSS has the feature permitting a user to enter known values of these parameters, totally and partially, at all levels. All information is of vital importance to project managers of subsystems or a spacecraft system. AEOSS is a specially tailored software coded from the relational database program of the Acius; 4th Dimension with a Macintosh version. Because of the licensing agreement, two versions of the AEOSS documents were prepared. This version AEOSS Design Guide, is for users to exploit the full capacity of the 4th Dimension. It is for a user who wants to alter or expand the program structures, the program statements, and the program procedures. The user has to possess a 4th Dimension first.

Lee, Hwa-Ping

1990-01-01

166

Design/cost tradeoff studies. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of design/cost tradeoff studies conducted during the Earth Observatory Satellite system definition studies are presented. The studies are concerned with the definition of a basic modular spacecraft capable of supporting a variety of operational and/or research and development missions, with the deployment either by conventional launch vehicles or by means of the space shuttle. The three levels investigated during the study are: (1) subsystem tradeoffs, (2) spacecraft tradeoffs, and (3) system tradeoffs. The range of requirements which the modular concept must span is discussed. The mechanical, thermal, power, data and electromagnetic compatibility aspects of modularity are analyzed. Other data are provided for the observatory design concept, the payloads, integration and test, the ground support equipment, and ground data management systems.

1974-01-01

167

Design of rare-earth-ion doped chalcogenide photonic crystals for enhancing the fluorescence emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth-ion doped chalcogenide glass is a promising material for developing mid-infrared light sources. In this work, Tm3+-doped chalcogenide glass was prepared and photonic crystal structures were designed to enhance its fluorescence emission at approximately 3.8 ?m. By employing the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, the emission characteristics of the luminescent centers in the bulk material and in the photonic crystals were worked out. Utilizing analysis of the photon excitation inside the sample and the photon extraction on the sample surface, it was found that fluorescence emission can be significantly enhanced 260-fold with the designed photonic crystal structure. The results of this work can be used to realize high-efficiency mid-infrared light sources.

Zhang, Peiqing; Dai, Shixun; Niu, Xueke; Xu, Yinsheng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yuehao; Xu, Tiefeng; Nie, Qiuhua

2014-07-01

168

ESPAS, the near-Earth space data infrastructure for e-Science: design and development phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space physics models with good predictive capabilities may be used to forecast accurately the state of the near-Earth space environment and to enable end user communities to mitigate the effects of adverse space weather on humans and technological systems. The results obtained from model runs, and also the validation of their performance accuracy, depend to a large extent on the availability of data from as many as possible regions of the near-Earth geospace. Despite the abundance and variety of related observational data, their exploitation is still challenging as they come from different sensors, in different formats and time resolution, and are provided from various organizations worldwide with different distribution procedures and policies. The primary objective of ESPAS is to provide the e-Infrastructure necessary to support the access to observations, extending from the Earth's atmosphere up to the outer radiation belts, including ionosondes, incoherent scatter radars, magnetometers, GNSS receivers and a large number of space sensors and radars. The development of the ESPAS common interface will allow users to uniformly find, access, and use resources of near-Earth space environment observations from ground-based and space-borne instruments and data from distributed data repositories, based on semantically web services (www.espas-fp7.eu). The first phase that will lead to the release of a first prototype includes the design and development of the data model that will support location of all available data from ground based experiments and satellite missions, available at certain spatial coordinates and time interval. For the first release only the basic data sources will be registered (i.e. Cluster, IMAGE/RPI, DEMETER, DIAS, EISCAT ISRs and SWACI). In a second phase, when all databases and enhanced databases will be registered, the ESPAS infrastructure must be extensively tested through the application of several use cases, designed to serve the needs of the wide interdisciplinary users and producers communities, such as the ionospheric, thermospheric, magnetospheric, space weather and space climate communities, the geophysics community, the space communications engineering, HF users, satellite operators, navigation and surveillance systems, and space agencies.

Hapgood, M.; Belehaki, A.; Zolesi, B.

2012-04-01

169

Characterizing the Energy Deposition Events Produced by Trapped Protons in Low Earth Orbit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Men and equipment in space vehicles in low earth orbit are exposed to a wide variety of radiations, but the majority of the dose is due to trapped protons, which have energies on the order of 100 MeV and are low LET particles. These high energy particles ...

L. W. Brackenbush L. A. Braby G. A. Anderson

1989-01-01

170

Recent Observations of Low-Energy Charged Particles in the Earth'S Magnetosphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several recent observations of low-energy proton and electron intensities within the energy range of about 100 eV to 50 keV in the eath's radiation zones with a sensitive array of electrostatic analyzers borne on the earth-satellite OGO 3 during mid-1966 ...

L. A. Frank

1967-01-01

171

Dehydration energies of alkaline earth metal halides – a novel simulation methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent dehydration energies and surface potentials of diverse alkaline earth halides are computed employing a novel simulation methodology incorporating hydration numbers, ion pairing effects and random distribution of molecules. The progressive variation of the hydration numbers and hydrated radii are estimated. The significance of the formalism in rationalizing the trend in the variation of the solubility, lattice energy, etc.

V. Sudha; S. Harinipriya; M. V. Sangaranarayanan

2005-01-01

172

Dehydration energies of alkaline earth metal halides - a novel simulation methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparent dehydration energies and surface potentials of diverse alkaline earth halides are computed employing a novel simulation methodology incorporating hydration numbers, ion pairing effects and random distribution of molecules. The progressive variation of the hydration numbers and hydrated radii are estimated. The significance of the formalism in rationalizing the trend in the variation of the solubility, lattice energy, etc. is indicated.

Sudha, V.; Harinipriya, S.; Sangaranarayanan, M. V.

2005-04-01

173

The measurement of the earth's radiation budget as a problem in information theory - A tool for the rational design of earth observing systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement of the earth's radiation budget has been chosen to illustrate the technique of objective system design. The measurement process is an approximately linear transformation of the original field of radiant exitances, so that linear statistical techniques may be employed. The combination of variability, measurement strategy, and error propagation is presently made with the help of information theory, as suggested by Kondratyev et al. (1975) and Peckham (1974). Covariance matrices furnish the quantitative statement of field variability.

Barkstrom, B. R.

1983-01-01

174

Energy-Aware System Design with SDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption is a major concern during the development of wireless networks consisting of battery-powered nodes. In\\u000a this paper, we study possibilities of specifying energy aspects in the system design phase, with SDL as design language. In\\u000a particular, we strive for suitable abstractions, by establishing a design view that is largely platform-independent. We achieve\\u000a this objective by identifying and realizing

Reinhard Gotzhein; Marc Krämer; Lothar Litz; Alain Chamaken

2009-01-01

175

National Energy Information System: Detailed conceptual design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of the National Enrgy Information System (NEIS) is presented. The existing energy data situation is reviewed and the basic approach to the design of NEIS is explained. The NEIS goals are analyzed and the NEIS user requirements in terms of information content, system functions, and operational requirements are defined. Alternative design strategies are analyzed as a means

M. Fiorello; M. Lutz; S. Morris; M. Shaw

1978-01-01

176

Energy Efficient Architectural Design and Model Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed for middle to high school level math teachers who want to illustrate the principles of scaling, ratio, and proportion in a concrete way through model building, and for science teachers who want to teach practical energy efficient design principles, with particular emphasis on passive solar design. Recommended for 7th-12th grade basic math and science.

Kass, Stephen

2007-07-29

177

Facility design criteria AN/GSC-39(V) 1 Earth terminal complex fixed site configuration. Addendum 1. HEMP considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This addendum provides high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) hardening design criteria for the AN/GSC-39 Earth Terminal Complex fixed site facilities. In addition to other criteria, this addendum is to be used for preparing construction plans and specifications for the Earth terminal complex. These HEMP criteria are based on two reports for HEMP hardening of the AN/FSC-78 Satellite Communications Terminal. The hardening measures developed in this Addendum will enhance protection for the digital communications subsystem.

Clark, S. A., Jr.; Chase, R. J.; Penar, J. D.

1981-03-01

178

High Earth orbit design for lunar assisted small Explorer class missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small Expendable launch vehicles are capable of injecting modest payloads into high Earth orbits having apogee near the lunar distance. However, lunar and solar perturbations can quickly lower perigee and cause premature reentry. Costly perigee raising maneuvers by the spacecraft are required to maintain the orbit. In addition, the range of inclinations achievable is limited to those of launch sites unless costly spacecraft maneuvers are performed. This study investigates the use of a lunar swingby in a near-Hohmann transfer trajectory to raise perigee into the 8 to 25 solar radius range and reach a wide variety of inclinations without spacecraft maneuvers. It is found that extremely stable orbits can be obtained if the postencounter spacecraft orbital period is one-half of a lunar sidereal revolution and the Earth-vehicle-Moon geometry is within a specified range. Criteria for achieving stable orbits with various perigee heights and ecliptic inclinations are developed, and the sensitivity of the resulting mission orbits to transfer trajectory injection (TTI) errors is examined. It is shown that carefully designed orbits yield lifetimes of several years, with excellent ground station coverage characteristics and minimal eclipses. A phasing loop error correction strategy is considered with the spacecraft propulsion system delta V demand for TTI error correction and a postlunar encounter apogee trim maneuver typically in the 30 to 120 meters per second range.

Mathews, M.; Hametz, M.; Cooley, J.; Skillman, D.

1994-01-01

179

Computational materials design for energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General adoption of sustainable energy technologies depends on the discovery and development of new high-performance materials. For instance, waste heat recovery and electricity generation via the solar thermal route require bulk thermoelectrics with a high figure of merit (ZT) and thermal stability at high-temperatures. Energy recovery applications (e.g., regenerative braking) call for the development of rapidly chargeable systems for electrical energy storage, such as electrochemical supercapacitors. Similarly, use of hydrogen as vehicular fuel depends on the ability to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract it at ambient temperatures at sufficiently rapid rates. We will discuss how first-principles computational methods based on quantum mechanics and statistical physics can drive the understanding, improvement and prediction of new energy materials. We will cover prediction and experimental verification of new earth-abundant thermoelectrics, transition metal oxides for electrochemical supercapacitors, and kinetics of mass transport in complex metal hydrides.

Ozolins, Vidvuds

2013-03-01

180

Energy Efficient Lighting System Design for Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lighting contributes the highest amount of electricity usage in a building. Generally, lighting will consume from 20% until 50% of the electricity consumption. The efficient and effective use of lighting can offer major energy and cost saving. This research investigates and analyses the energy management in a building and presents the design of energy efficient lighting systems. The first part

W. N. W. Muhamad; M. Y. M. Zain; N. Wahab; N. H. A. Aziz; R. A. Kadir

2010-01-01

181

How reliable are latitudinal energy balance models for habitability calculations when using Earth's radiative properties?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exoplanet habitability studies are often performed using simple energy balance models (EBMs), which rely on an understanding of a planet's radiative properties. However, knowledge of these properties is currently limited. Here, I use Earth as a testbed for examining habitability and model uncertainty in a diffusive latitudinal EBM. Using an empirical approach, I parametrize Earth's radiative properties - top of atmosphere albedo and outgoing infrared radiation - as a function of surface temperature, using measurements from the NASA Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System instruments. When using surface temperature to construct these functions, a bias analysis shows only small global biases of 3 and - 0.3 W m-2 are introduced for the albedo and infrared functions, respectively. I also show there is a very fine balance between Earth's incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation in the observational data, which is substantially smaller than previously assumed in this model. Using observationally derived radiative functions for an Earth-like planet, the snowball transition can be determined within a semimajor axis of ˜3 per cent, with a structural uncertainty of ˜2 per cent in the radiative function construction. This work shows that diffusive EBMs can be successfully used to identify habitable exo-Earths within ˜3 per cent if the radiative properties are known.

Gilmore, James B.

2014-05-01

182

A method to detect ultra high energy electrons using earth's magnetic field as a radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the detection of electrons with energies exceeding a few TeV, which lose energy rapidly through synchrotron and inverse Compton processes, would provide valuable information on the distribution of sources and on the propagation of cosmic rays in the solar neighborhood. However, it would not be possible to measure the energy spectrum beyond a few TeV with any of the existing experimental techniques. The present investigation is, therefore concerned with the possibility of detecting electrons with energies exceeding a few TeV on the basis of the photons emitted through synchrotron radiation in the earth's magnetic field. Attention is given to the synchrotron radiation of electrons in the earth's magnetic field, detector response and energy estimation, and the characteristics of an ideal detector, capable of detecting photons with energies equal to or greater than 20 keV.

Stephens, S. A.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

1983-01-01

183

High kinetic energy density jets in the Earth’s magnetosheath: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study several high kinetic energy density jets observed during a traversal of the dayside magnetosheath by the Cluster spacecraft on March 17, 2001, at various distances from the magnetopause, generally characterised by anomalously high values of the local magnetosonic Mach number. We concentrate on two jets observed just outside the magnetopause, the first almost parallel to the GSM x axis and the second directed northward-tailward along the nominal magnetopause surface. We present evidence that none of them can be ascribed to magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause and show that the magnetopause is severely deformed by the jets, so that its local normal forms an angle of 97° with the quiet time magnetopause normal. On these grounds, we suggest that the indentation of the magnetopause is caused by an anti-sunward jet ramming into the magnetopause slightly equatorward of the northern cusp and that the northward-tailward jet is the result of its reflection at the deformed magnetopause. Finally, we briefly discuss our results by comparing them with past studies of events which in some way recall the one analysed herein.

Amata, E.; Savin, S. P.; Ambrosino, D.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Marcucci, M. F.; Romanov, S.; Skalsky, A.

2011-05-01

184

A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical quantum communication utilizing satellite platforms has the potential to extend the reach of quantum key distribution (QKD) from terrestrial limits of ˜200 km to global scales. We have developed a thorough numerical simulation using realistic simulated orbits and incorporating the effects of pointing error, diffraction, atmosphere and telescope design, to obtain estimates of the loss and background noise which a satellite-based system would experience. Combining with quantum optics simulations of sources and detection, we determine the length of secure key for QKD, as well as entanglement visibility and achievable distances for fundamental experiments. We analyse the performance of a low Earth orbit satellite for downlink and uplink scenarios of the quantum optical signals. We argue that the advantages of locating the quantum source on the ground justify a greater scientific interest in an uplink as compared to a downlink. An uplink with a ground transmitter of at least 25 cm diameter and a 30 cm receiver telescope on the satellite could be used to successfully perform QKD multiple times per week with either an entangled photon source or with a weak coherent pulse source, as well as perform long-distance Bell tests and quantum teleportation. Our model helps to resolve important design considerations such as operating wavelength, type and specifications of sources and detectors, telescope designs, specific orbits and ground station locations, in view of anticipated overall system performance.

Bourgoin, J.-P.; Meyer-Scott, E.; Higgins, B. L.; Helou, B.; Erven, C.; Hübel, H.; Kumar, B.; Hudson, D.; D'Souza, I.; Girard, R.; Laflamme, R.; Jennewein, T.

2013-02-01

185

Improving Product Design based on Energy Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The industrial sector consumes a significant amount of the world’s energy supply; the rationalisation of energy consumption\\u000a would provide the most effective method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions attributed to manufacturing and use of products.\\u000a Energy consumed across the various stages of a product’s lifecycle varies significantly depending on the product design and\\u000a its application. In non-energy using products such

Yingying Seow; Shahin Rahimifard

186

The Definition and Specification of the Near Earth Environmental Criteria for Spacecraft Thermal Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The variation of the earth's thermal and albedo radiation received by a near-earth orbiting space vehicle or space payload as a result of temporal variation of the earth atmosphere is discussed. A statistical study of current satellite data for determinin...

G. A. Gary P. D. Craven

1974-01-01

187

ESAS-Derived Earth Departure Stage Design for Human Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration has set the nation on a course to have humans on Mars as early as 2030. To reduce the cost and risk associated with human Mars exploration, NASA is planning for the Mars architecture to leverage the lunar architecture as fully as possible. This study takes the defined launch vehicles and system capabilities from ESAS and extends their application to DRM 3.0 to design an Earth Departure Stage suitable for the cargo and crew missions to Mars. The impact of a propellant depot in LEO was assessed and sLzed for use with the EDS. To quantitatively assess and compare the effectiveness of alternative designs, an initial baseline architecture was defined using the ESAS launch vehicles and DRM 3.0. The baseline architecture uses three NTR engines, LH2 propellant, no propellant depot in LEO, and launches on the Ares I and Ares V. The Mars transfer and surface elements from DRM 3.0 were considered to be fixed payloads in the design of the EDS. Feasible architecture alternatives were identified from previous architecture studies and anticipated capabilities and compiled in a morphological matrix. ESAS FOMs were used to determine the most critical design attributes for the effectiveness of the EDS. The ESAS-derived FOMs used in this study to assess alternative designs are effectiveness and performance, affordability, reliability, and risk. The individual FOMs were prioritized using the AHP, a method for pairwise comparison. All trades performed were evaluated with respect to the weighted FOMs, creating a Pareto frontier of equivalently ideal solutions. Additionally, each design on the frontier was evaluated based on its fulfillment of the weighted FOMs using TOPSIS, a quantitative method for ordinal ranking of the alternatives. The designs were assessed in an integrated environment using physics-based models for subsystem analysis where possible. However, for certain attributes such as engine type, historical, performance-based mass estimating relations were more easily employed. The elements from the design process were integrated into a single loop, allowing for rapid iteration of subsystem analyses and compilation of resulting designs.

Flaherty, Kevin; Grant, Michael; Korzun, Ashley; Malo-Molina, Faure; Steinfeldt, Bradley; Stahl, Benjamin; Wilhite, Alan

2007-01-01

188

Diagnosing ocean energy transports from earth radiation budget measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The maximum energy production (MEP) principle suggested by Paltridge (1975) is applied to separate the satellite-inferred required total transports into the atmospheric and the oceanic components within a two-dimensional (2D) framework. For this purpose, the required 2D energy transports (Sohn and Smith, 1991) are imposed on Paltridge's energy balance model which is then solved as a variational problem. The results provide separated atmospheric and oceanic transports on a 2D basis such that the total divergence is equal to the net radiation measured from a satellite.

Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

1992-01-01

189

Constraining mantle heat generation and Earth's energy budget with geo-neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total energy loss of the Earth is well constrained by heat flux measurements on land, the plate cooling model for the oceans, and the buoyancy flux of hotspots. It amounts to 46±2 TW. The main sources that balance the total energy loss are the radio-activity of the Earth's crust and mantle, the secular cooling of the Earth's mantle, and the energy loss from the core. Only the crustal radio-activity is well constrained. The uncertainty on each of the other components is larger than the uncertainty of the total heat loss. The mantle energy budget can not be balanced by adding the current estimates of mantle radioactivity, secular cooling of the mantle, and heat flux from the core. Neutrino observatories in deep underground mines can detect antineutrinos emitted by the radioactivity of U and Th. Provided that the crustal contribution to the geo-neutrino flux can be very precisely calculated, it will be possible to put robust constraints on mantle radio-activity and its contribution to the Earth's energy budget. If directional information could be obtained, geo-neutrino observations could directly resolve radial variations in the distribution of the radio-elements U and Th and detect the presence of deep reservoirs of these elements in the mantle.

Mareschal, J.; Jaupart, C. P.; Phaneuf, C.

2011-12-01

190

Star Power on Earth: Path to Clean Energy Future  

ScienceCinema

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's "Science on Saturday" lecture series presents Ed Moses, Director of the National Ignition Facility, discussing the world's largest laser system and its potential impact on society's upcoming energy needs.

191

Star Power on Earth: Path to Clean Energy Future  

ScienceCinema

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's "Science on Saturday" lecture series presents Ed Moses, Director of the National Ignition Facility, discussing the world's largest laser system and its potential impact on society's upcoming energy needs.

Ed Moses

2010-09-01

192

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a review: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-07-01

193

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-01-01

194

Energy simulation in the building design process  

SciTech Connect

The energy consumption of a building is a complex function of a vast number of interrelated processes. Some of these processes are weather dependent, others rigorously scheduled, and some are entirely random. For the design of an energy conscious building, estimates of this elusive sum are needed to guide design decisions. To date, the most accurate means of supplying these estimates is an hourby-hour computer simulation of the building, its occupancy, systems and components. In most design efforts, this tool is used sparingly, often only as a final check on the fully designed building. This article discusses techniques to extend the usefulness of this tool throughout the design process, to provide specific information, economically and in a timely manner, relevant to each major design decision.

Nall, D.; Crawley, D.B.

1983-11-01

195

Energy simulation in the building design process  

SciTech Connect

The energy consumption of a building is a complex function of a vast number of interrelated processes. Some of these processes are weather dependent, others rigorously scheduled, and some are entirely random. For the design of an energy conscious building, estimates of this elusive sum are needed to guide design decisions. To date, the most accurate means of supplying these estimates is an hour-by-hour computer simulation of the building, its occupancy, systems and components. In most design efforts, this tool is used sparingly, often only as a final check on the fully designed building. This article discusses techniques to extend the usefulness of this tool throughout the design process, to provide specific information, economically and in a timely manner, relevant to each major design decision.

Nall, D.H.; Crawley, D.B.

1983-11-01

196

Design, Delivery, and Results of the Earth and Space Science Partnership Teacher Professional Development Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth and Space Science Partnership (ESSP) is a collaboration among Penn State scientists and science educators with seven school districts across Pennsylvania. Part of the multi-faceted ESSP effort includes long-term professional development that is built around annual summer workshops for middle grades teachers in several content areas, including Solar System astronomy. Our project was initially funded for five years (we are in year 3 now), so teachers remain engaged with the ESSP for longer than many professional development programs. This project duration allows us to implement several methods for building on the summer workshops: (1) Teachers are able to repeat workshops in a content area more than once, which means that in most of our workshops we have a mix of veteran teachers and those new to the program, (2) three meetings are held throughout the school year where all partners revisit the content and pedagogy from the summer, and (3) the teachers are encouraged and supported in their own efforts to create learning communities in their districts that meet more frequently. In this poster, we report on our efforts to impact the teaching of Earth and Space Science by offering a professional development program designed around coherent content storylines and a claims/evidence/reasoning (CER) framework. We will present the storyline from our summer 2012 astronomy workshop and samples of the CER activities that were developed to align with pieces of the storyline. Finally, we will discuss how aspects of the storyline / CER approach are being implemented in the sixth grade curriculum of one of our partner school districts, the Bellefonte Area School District. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF from a Targeted Math Science Partnership award DUE#0962792.

Palma, Christopher; Flarend, A.; Petula, J.; Richards, M. T.; Spotts, H.; McDonald, S.; Furman, T.

2013-01-01

197

On-orbit solar calibrations using the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers were used to measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at satellite altitude. The bolometers measured the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers) and total (0.3->100 micrometers) spectral bands as well as in the (8 - 12 micrometers) water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. In May 2002, the fourth and fifth sets of CERES bolometers were launched aboard the Aqua spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations defined the initial count conversion coefficients that were used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields-of-view of the shortwave and total sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with silicon dioxide. Temperature sensors are located in each MAM plate and baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this paper, the MAM solar calibration procedures are presented along with on-orbit results. Comparisons are also made between the Aqua, Terra and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) CERES MAM solar calibrations.

Wilson, Robert S.; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

2003-11-01

198

On-orbit solar calibrations using the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers were used to measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at satellite altitude. The bolometers measured the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers) and total (0.3->100 micrometers) spectral bands as well as in the (8 - 12 micrometers) water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. In May 2002, the fourth and fifth sets of CERES bolometers were launched aboard the Aqua spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations defined the initial count conversion coefficients that were used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields-of-view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with silicon dioxide. Temperature sensors are located in each MAM plate and baffle. The CERES MAM wass designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this paper, the MAM solar calibration procedures are presented along with on-orbit results. Comparisons are also made between the Aqua,Terra and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) CERES MAM solar calibrations.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2009-08-01

199

Design of a Formation of Earth Orbiting Satellites: The Auroral Lites Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has proposed a set of spacecraft flying in close formation around the Earth in order to measure the behavior of the auroras. The mission, named Auroral Lites, consists of four spacecraft configured to start at the vertices of a tetrahedron, flying over three mission phases. During the first phase, the distance between any two spacecraft in the formation is targeted at 10 kilometers (km). The second mission phase is much tighter, requiring satellite interrange spacing targeted at 500 meters. During the final phase of the mission, the formation opens to a nominal 100-km interrange spacing. In this paper, we present the strategy employed to initialize and model such a close formation during each of these phases. The analysis performed to date provides the design and characteristics of the reference orbit, the evolution of the formation during Phases I and II, and an estimate of the total mission delta-V budget. AI Solutions' mission design tool, FreeFlyer(R), was used to generate each of these analysis elements. The tool contains full force models, including both impulsive and finite duration maneuvers. Orbital maintenance can be fully modeled in the system using a flexible, natural scripting language built into the system. In addition, AI Solutions is in the process of adding formation extensions to the system facilitating mission analysis for formations like Auroral Lites. We will discuss how FreeFlyer(R) is used for these analyses.

Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.; Richon, Karen

1999-01-01

200

Design of a High Resolution Scalable Cluster Based Portable Tiled Display for Earth Sciences Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Earth Observations and Applications (CEOA) collaborated with researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visualization Center and the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) to design an advanced portable visualization system to explore geophysical and oceanography datasets at very high resolution. The system consists of 15 Dell 24" monitors arranged in a 3x5 grid ( 3 panels high and 5 wide). Each monitor supports a resolution of upto 1920 x 1200 and is driven by one node of a cluster of 15 Intel Mac Minis. The tiled display supports a total resolution of over 34 million pixels and can be used either as a single large desktop to display rendered animations, HD movies and image files or to display web-based content on each panel for simultaneous viewing of mutliple datasets. The system is enclosed in a custom built case that can hold all the required components and transported to research sites or to meetings and conferences for public awareness activities. We call the system the 'Mobile INteractive Imaging Multidisplay Environment' or simply 'miniMe'. The design of the miniMe wall is based on a class of advanced display systems called Geowall-2 developed at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Nayak, A. M.; Dawe, G.; Samilo, D.; Keen, C.; Matthews, J.; Patel, A.; Im, T.; Orcutt, J.; Defanti, T.

2006-12-01

201

Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)

Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

1988-01-01

202

DSN energy data base preliminary design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of a computerized data base created to support the DSN Energy Conservation Project with data relating to energy use at Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex are described. The results of development work to date, are presented along with work currently in progress or in the planning stage.

Cole, E. R.; Herrera, L. O.; Lascu, D. M.

1979-01-01

203

Climate-induced tree mortality: earth system consequences for carbon, energy, and water exchanges  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere that could present hazards to current earth system function. Terrestrial ecosystems, and in particular forests, exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets. Widespread, rapid, drought- and infestation-triggered

H. D. Adams; A. Macalady; D. D. Breshears; C. D. Allen; C. Luce; P. D. Royer; T. E. Huxman

2010-01-01

204

Novel nanostructured rare-earth-free magnetic materials with high energy products.  

PubMed

Novel nanostructured Zr2 Co11 -based magnetic materials are fabricated in a single step process using cluster-deposition method. The composition, atomic ordering, and spin structure are precisely controlled to achieve a substantial magnetic remanence and coercivity, as well as the highest energy product for non-rare-earth and Pt-free permanent-magnet alloys. PMID:24038456

Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Das, Bhaskar; Skomski, Ralph; Zhang, Wenyong Y; Sellmyer, David J

2013-11-13

205

ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF EARTH-SHELTERED HOUSES WITH SOUTHERN ELEVATION EXPOSED  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the article the authors present the results of heating and cooling energy usage of earth-sheltered houses with exposed southern elevations. The results were then compared to a conventional above-ground building. Simulations were focused on the influence of soil cover and the thermal insulation of building envelope thickness and were done for Polish climate conditions. The large thermal inertia of

Maja Staniec; Henryk Nowak

206

Design integration for minimal energy and cost  

SciTech Connect

The authors present requirements for creating alternative energy conserving designs including energy management and architectural, plumbing, mechanical, electrical, electronic and optical design. Parameters of power, energy, life cycle costs and benefit for resource for an evaluation by the interested parties are discussed. They present an analysis of power systems through a seasonal power distribution diagram. An analysis of cost systems includes capital cost from the power components, annual costs from the utility energy use, and finance costs with loans, taxes, settlement and design fees. Equations are transposed to the evaluative parameter and are uniquely explicit with consistent symbols, parameter definitions, dual and balanced units, unit conversions, criteria for operation, incorporated constants for rapid calculations, references to data in the handbook, other common terms, and instrumentation for the measurement. Each component equation has a key power diagram.

Halldane, J.E. (John Halldane and Associates, Chino, CA (US))

1989-01-01

207

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 5: System design and specifications. Part 1: Observatory system element specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance, design, and quality assurance requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Observatory and Ground System program elements required to perform the Land Resources Management (LRM) A-type mission are presented. The requirements for the Observatory element with the exception of the instruments specifications are contained in the first part.

1974-01-01

208

Activation energy for alkaline-earth ion transport in low alkali aluminoborosilicate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activation energies (Ea) for ionic conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glasses due to alkaline-earth (Ba, Ca) and alkali (Na) ion transport have been estimated using thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) and AC impedance spectroscopy techniques. The TSDC plot showed distinct relaxation peaks which shifted to higher temperatures with increasing ramp rates, and the dielectric dispersion plot showed individual low frequency relaxation peaks indicating space charge polarization due to transport of cations with different Ea (0.93, 1.83, and 3.5 eV for Na, Ba, and Ca, respectively). The higher value of Ea for Ca transport is attributed to mixed alkaline earth effect.

Dash, Priyanka; Furman, Eugene; Pantano, Carlo G.; Lanagan, Michael T.

2013-02-01

209

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design  

SciTech Connect

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

Monty Lehmann

2011-07-01

210

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed around three Earth-orbiting satellites: the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and two NOAA satellites. ERBE has helped scientists world-wide better understand how clouds and aerosols, as well as some chemical compounds in the atmosphere ("greenhouse" gases), affect the Earth's daily and long-term weather.The data from these satellites is being used to study the energy exchanged between the Sun, the Earth and space. This site is one of NASA's Fact Sheets, and features a textual description of ERBE.

211

Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires federal facilities to be built to achieve 30% energy savings over the 2004 International Energy Code or American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004, as appropriate. The Engineer Research and Development Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing target energy budgets and design guides with a prescriptive path to achieve 30% energy savings over a baseline built to the minimum requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This project covers eight building types in 15 U.S. climate zones. The building types include barracks, administrative buildings, a maintenance facility, a dining facility, a child development center, and an Army reserve center. All the design guides will be completed by the end of 2008. This paper focuses on the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing (UEPH). The UEPH buildings are similar to apartment buildings with double occupancy units. For each building type, a baseline was established following typical Army construction and ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix G modeling rules. Improvements in energy performance were achieved for the envelope using the NREL optimization platform for commercial buildings and previous ASHRAE design guides. Credit was also taken for tightening the building envelope by using proposed envelope leakage rates from ASHRAE and the Army. Two HVAC systems, including a dedicated outdoor air system, were considered. The final results achieved 29% site energy savings in two climates and greater than 30% site energy savings in all other climates. Results of this study were implemented in the Army's standard RFP process for new UEPH barracks construction in late 2007. New UEPH design/construction begun in 2008 and beyond will require the contractor to design and construct a UEPH facility that meets the target energy budget developed in this study using either a custom design or the design guide's prescriptive path developed as part of this study.

Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

2008-01-01

212

MY NASA DATA: Earth's Energy Budget - Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Net Radiative Flux (NRF) is used to determine the flow of solar energy in and out of the Earth system. NRF is influenced by seasonal variations related to the tilt of the Earth's axis and degree of cloud cover as well as Earthâs surface features. Using measurements taken by the CERES instrument, students will observe and analyze NRF patterns. Analysis will focus on seasonal shifts and the impact of both surface features and clouds. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extensions, an online glossary and a list of related AP Environmental Science topics.

213

Design of actuators based on biased magnetostrictive rare earth-iron alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to design biased magnetostrictive devices is presented. The method employs a chaining between several CAD software systems, which makes it possible to handle different design aspects (bias system, excitation, 3D electromechanical behavior) with the same preprocessor. It is argued that a good bias excitation system should use a permanent magnet bias which does not store dynamic magnetic energy. The method is used to design three actuators. The first is biased by dc current in the coil. The second is biased by permanent magnets in a series configuration. The third is biased by permanent magnets in a new configuration which keeps Terfenol-D in one single rod. The third configuration appears to be far better than the others. It has a good effective coupling factor (55 percent), high strain capability (3000 ppm), simplicity of construction (one single rod), and good efficiency (no dc dissipated) power. This renders Terfenol-D more competitive with PZT ceramics.

Lhermet, Nicolas; Claeyssen, Frank; Wendling, Philippe; Grosso, Gilles

1993-07-01

214

Dual nozzle design update. [on liquid rocket engines for advanced earth-to-orbit transportation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dual-nozzle engines, such as the dual-throat and dual-expander engines, are being evaluated for advanced earth-to-orbit transportation systems. Potential derivatives of the Space Shuttle and completely new vehicles might benefit from these advanced engines. In this paper, progress in the design of single-fuel and dual-fuel dual-nozzle engines is summarized. Dual-nozzle engines include those burning propellants such as LOX/RP-1/LH2, LOX/LC3H8/LH2, LOX/LCH4/LH2, LOX/LH2/LH2, LOX/LCH4/LCH4, LOX/LC3H8/C3H8 and N2O4/MMH/LH2. Engine data are applicable for thrust levels from 200,000 through 670,000 lbF. The results indicate that several versions of these engines utilize state-of-the-art technology and that even advanced versions of these engines do not require a major breakthrough in technology.

Obrien, C. J.

1982-01-01

215

Advanced Spacecraft Designs in Support of Human Missions to Earth's Neighborhood  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by The NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the LTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the LTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP.

Fletcher, David

2002-01-01

216

The Design and Evaluation of a High-Performance Earth Science Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth scientists have encountered two major obstacles in their attempts to use remotely sensed imageryto analyze the earth's land cover dynamics. First, the volume of data involved is very large and second,significant preprocessing is needed before the data can be used. This is particularly so for studies that analyzeglobal trends using data sets that cover multiple years. In this paper,

Carter T. Shock; Chialin Chang; Bongki Moon; Anurag Acharya; Larry S. Davis; Joel H. Saltz; Alan Sussman

1998-01-01

217

Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

2011-01-01

218

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

2013-01-01

219

Energy-Efficient System-Level Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of current and futureintegrated systems requires a paradigm shift towards component-based design technologies\\u000a that enable the integration of large computational cores, memory hierarchies and communication channels as well as system\\u000a and application software onto a single chip. Moving from a set of case studies, we give an overview of energy-efficient system-\\u000a level design, emphasizing a component-based approach.

Luca Benini; Giovanni De Micheli

220

Low-energy neutrino factory design  

SciTech Connect

The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

Ankenbrandt, C.; /Fermilab /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Bogacz, S.A.; /Jefferson Lab; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

2009-07-01

221

Energy recovery transport design for PKU FEL  

SciTech Connect

A free-electron laser based on superconducting linac is under construction in Peking University(PKU). To increase FEL output power, energy recovery is chosen as one of the most potential and popular way. The design of beam transport system for energy recovery is presented, which is suitable for Peking University construction area. Especially, a chicane structure is chosen to change path length at +/-18 degree and R56 in the arc is adjusted for fully bunch compression.

Guimei Wang; Yu-Chiu Chao; KUI Zhao; Xiangyang Lu; Jiejia Zhuang; Chuyu Liu; Zhenchao Liu; Jiaer Chen

2007-06-25

222

Design of a Slab Waveguide Multiaperture Fourier Spectrometer for Water Vapor Measurements in Earth's Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concept, theory and design of a new type of waveguide device, a multiaperture Fourier-transform planar waveguide spectrometer[1], implemented as a prototype instrument is pre-sented. The spectrometer's objective is to demonstrate the ability of the new slab waveguide technology for application in remote sensing instruments[2]. The spectrometer will use a limb viewing configuration to detect the 1.36um waveband allowing concentrations of water vapor in earth's atmosphere to be measured[3]. The most challenging aspects of the design, assembly and calibration are presented. Focus will be given to the effects of packaging the spectrometer and interfacing to the detector array. Stress-induced birefringence will affect the performance of the waveguides, therefore the design of a stress-free mounting over a range of temperatures is important. Spectral retrieval algo-rithms will have to correct for expected fabrication errors in the waveguides. Data processing algorithms will also be developed to correct for non-uniformities of input brightness through the array, making use of MMI output couplers to capture both the in-phase and anti-phase interferometer outputs. A performance assessment of an existing breadboard spectrometer will demonstrate the capability of the instrument. REFERENCES 1. M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Multiaper-n ture planar waveguide spectrometer formed by arrayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Expr. 15(26), 18176-18189 (2007). 2. M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. n Lapointe, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Slab waveguiode spatial heterodyne spectrom-eters for remote sensing from space," Optical sensors 2009. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7356 (2009)., pp. 73560V-73560V-7 (2009). 3. A. Scott, M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, n B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Micro-interferometer with high throughput for remote sensing." MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems VIII. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7208 (2009)., pp. 72080G-72080G-7 (2009).

Sinclair, Kenneth; Florja?czyk, Miros?aw; Solheim, Brian; Scott, Alan; Quine, Ben; Cheben, Pavel

223

Investigation of Alternative Return Strategies for Orion Trans-earth Injection Design Options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate alternative return strategies for the Orion trans-Earth injection (TEI) phase. A dynamical systems analysis approach considers the structure of the stable and unstable Sun perturbed Earth-Moon manifolds near the Earth-Moon interface region. A hybrid approach, then, combines the results from this analysis with classical two-body methods in a targeting process that seeks to expand the window of return opportunities in a precision entry scenario. The resulting startup arcs can be used, for instance, to enhance the block set of solutions available onboard during an autonomous targeting process.

Marchand, Belinda G.; Scarritt, Sara K.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Weeks, Michael W.

2010-01-01

224

Photovoltaic power system for satellite Earth stations in remote areas: Project status and design description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photovoltaic power system which will be installed at a remote location in Indonesia to provide power for a satellite Earth station and a classroom for video and audio teleconferences are described. The Earth station may also provide telephone service to a nearby village. The use of satellite communications for development assistance applications and the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic engine generator power system for remote satellite Earth stations are demonstrated. The Indonesian rural satellite project is discussed and the photovoltaic power system is described.

Delombard, R.

1984-01-01

225

Enhancing Decision Making in the Energy Sector Using Space-Based Earth Observations: A GEO and CEOS Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observations from space are playing an increasing role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, spaceborne observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations to improve solar energy resource assessment globally. As one of the nine Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of policy and management decision making in the energy sector employing Earth observations and related models is being conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS supports the space-based activities of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), contributing directly to GEO work plan tasks supporting the energy societal benefit area. We describe several projects being conducted by CEOS member agencies, including NASA, to engage and partner with end-user energy decision makers to enhance their decision support systems using space-based observations. These prototype projects have been pursued through the GEO Energy Community of Practice and, more recently, in collaboration with the CEOS Energy societal benefit area. Several case studies exhibiting the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment, improve the forecast of space-weather impacts on the power grid, and augment integrated assessment modeling studies for energy technology scenario evaluation are discussed. In addition, ongoing activities to engage stakeholders in other Federal agencies, industry, and academia are described.

Eckman, R. S.; Stackhouse, P. W.

2009-12-01

226

On-orbit solar calibration methods using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3-<100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-<12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Recently, (October 2011) the sixth instrument was launched on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (Suomi NPP) Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of the total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx (SIO2 for PFM). Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration contrasting procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the eleven years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than a fixed azimuth rotating elevation scan will be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra, Aqua, and Suomi NPP CERES instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2012-09-01

227

On-orbit Solar Calibrations Using the Terra Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) In-flight Calibrations System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3 -5.0 microns) and total (0.3 ->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8 - 12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third sets of CERES bolometers were launched on the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define on-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminium mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with silicon dioxide. Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching 1 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. However, in their first year of operation the Terra FM1 and FM2 shortwave and the FM1 and FM2 total MAMs showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 6 percent respectively. In the subsequent year of operation all instruments begin to stabilize within the .5 percent precision range. Correspondingly, the FM1, FM2 shortwave and the FM1 and FM2 total MAMs showed shifts in their internal blackbody calibrations of 0.2, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 percent respectively over the 2 year period. This suggests that the reason for the solar calibration's larger shifts is due to changes in the MAM itself and not to instrument changes. In this paper, the MAM solar calibration procedures are presented along with on-orbit measurements for the 2000-2002 period of operation. Comparisons are also made between the Terra CERES instruments and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) instrument during their MAM solar calibrations.

Wilson, R. S.; Lee, R. B.; Al-Hajjah, A. Y.; Paden, J.; Pandey, D. K.; Priestley, K. J.; Thomas, S.

2002-05-01

228

Surface Interactions with Compartmentalized Cellular Phosphates Explain Rare Earth Oxide Nanoparticle Hazard and Provide Opportunities for Safer Design  

PubMed Central

Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1? release, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use.

2014-01-01

229

Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dynamic Earth is an interactive Web site where students can learn about the structure of the Earth, the movements of tectonic plates, and the forces that create mountains, valleys, volcanoes, and earthquakes. It consists of four sections, a glossary and an assessment. Each section explores one aspect of the Earth's structure and the movement of its tectonic plates. At various points of the interactive, students can check their knowledge by taking a quick quiz or playing a game to see how much they have learned. Dynamic Earth includes an extensive assessment section designed to evaluate how well students have learned the content and skills.

230

Energy conservation in new housing design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential implications of energy cost and availability for new housing design over the rest of the century are examined. The discussion is based on the premise that the rise in the price of fuels relative to that of labor and materials is focusing the attention of home builders and home buyers on total life-cycle costs. This shift in emphasis

J. E. Snell; P. R. Achenbach; S. R. Petersen

1976-01-01

231

Optical design of the moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer-tilt for the Earth Observing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) is an earth-viewing sensor that is planned as a facility instrument for the Earth observing system (Eos) scheduled to begin functioning in the late 1990s. The MODIS is composed of two mutually supporting sensors, one of which is MODIS-T (where 'T' signifies a tiltable along-track field of view). MODIS-T is a 32-channel imaging spectrometer

Peter W. Maymon

1991-01-01

232

Design of optimal earth pole-sitter transfers using low-thrust propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown the feasibility of an Earth pole-sitter mission using low-thrust propulsion. This mission concept involves a spacecraft following the Earth's polar axis to have a continuous, hemispherical view of one of the Earth's poles. Such a view will enhance future Earth observation and telecommunications for high latitude and polar regions. To assess the accessibility of the pole-sitter orbit, this paper investigates optimum Earth pole-sitter transfers employing low-thrust propulsion. A launch from low Earth orbit (LEO) by a Soyuz Fregat upper stage is assumed after which solar electric propulsion is used to transfer the spacecraft to the pole-sitter orbit. The objective is to minimize the mass in LEO for a given spacecraft mass to be inserted into the pole-sitter orbit. The results are compared with a ballistic transfer that exploits manifold-like trajectories that wind onto the pole-sitter orbit. It is shown that, with respect to the ballistic case, low-thrust propulsion can achieve significant mass savings in excess of 200 kg for a pole-sitter spacecraft of 1000 kg upon insertion. To finally obtain a full low-thrust transfer from LEO up to the pole-sitter orbit, the Fregat launch is replaced by a low-thrust, minimum time spiral, which provides further mass savings, but at the cost of an increased time of flight.

Heiligers, Jeannette; Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R.; Biggs, James D.

2012-10-01

233

Fluoride technology for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth metals  

SciTech Connect

Unique specific properties of rare-earth metals (REMs) are to a large extent responsible for the technical progress in many branches of industry, science, and technology. A new fluoride procedure for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth and transition metals has been proposed.

Buinovskii, A.S.; Sofronov, V.L.; Chizhikov, V.S.; Shtefan, Yu.P. [and others

1995-10-20

234

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

235

The high-energy environment in the super-Earth system CoRoT-7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy irradiation of exoplanets has been identified to be a key influence on the stability of these planets' atmospheres. So far, irradiation-driven mass-loss has been observed only in two Hot Jupiters, and the observational data remain even more sparse in the super-Earth regime. We present an investigation of the high-energy emission in the CoRoT-7 system, which hosts the first known transiting super-Earth. To characterize the high-energy XUV radiation field into which the rocky planets CoRoT-7b and CoRoT-7c are immersed, we analyzed a 25 ks XMM-Newton observation of the host star. Our analysis yields the first clear (3.5?) X-ray detection of CoRoT-7. We determine a coronal temperature of ? 3 MK and an X-ray luminosity of 3 × 1028 erg s-1. The level of XUV irradiation on CoRoT-7b amounts to ?37 000 erg cm-2 s-1. Current theories for planetary evaporation can only provide an order-of-magnitude estimate for the planetary mass loss; assuming that CoRoT-7b has formed as a rocky planet, we estimate that CoRoT-7b evaporates at a rate of about 1.3 × 1011 g s-1 and has lost ?4-10 earth masses in total.

Poppenhaeger, K.; Czesla, S.; Schröter, S.; Lalitha, S.; Kashyap, V.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

2012-05-01

236

A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

237

DESIGN OF A LOW-COST SINGLE BOARD COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR USE IN LOW-EARTH ORBIT SMALL SATELLITE MISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-board computer system created specifically to meet the demands of a new generation of small satellite missions is being designed, built and tested by students at the University of New Hampshire. The Satellite Single-Board Computer (SSBC) is an Intel 80C186 based system that is qualified for explicit use in low-earth orbit missions. The SSBC serves as a low-cost, high-c~uality

Dino B. Milanil

238

Evaluating the design of an earth radiation budget instrument with system simulations. Part 2: Minimization of instantaneous sampling errors for CERES-I  

SciTech Connect

Much of the new record of broadband earth radiation budget satellite measurements to be obtained during the late 1990s and early twenty-first century will come from the dual-radiometer Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-I) flown aboard sun-synchronous polar orbiters. Simulation studies conducted in this work for an early afternoon satellite orbit indicate that spatial root-mean-square (rms) sampling errors of instantaneous CERES-I shortwave flux estimates will range from about 8.5 to 14.0 W/m on a 2.5 deg latitude and longitude grid resolution. Rms errors in longwave flux estimates are only about 20% as large and range from 1.5 to 3.5 W/sq m. These results are based on an optimal cross-track scanner design that includes 50% footprint overlap to eliminate gaps in the top-of-the-atmosphere coverage, and a `smallest` footprint size to increase the ratio in the number of observations lying within to the number of observations lying on grid area boundaries. Total instantaneous measurement error also depends on the variability of anisotropic reflectance and emission patterns and on retrieval methods used to generate target area fluxes. Three retrieval procedures from both CERES-I scanners (cross-track and rotating azimuth plane) are used.

Stowe, L.; Hucek, R.; Ardanuy, P.; Joyce, R. [NOAA, Washington, DC (United States)] [NOAA, Washington, DC (United States); [Research and Data Systems Corporation, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1994-10-01

239

Energy design for protein-protein interactions  

PubMed Central

Proteins bind to other proteins efficiently and specifically to carry on many cell functions such as signaling, activation, transport, enzymatic reactions, and more. To determine the geometry and strength of binding of a protein pair, an energy function is required. An algorithm to design an optimal energy function, based on empirical data of protein complexes, is proposed and applied. Emphasis is made on negative design in which incorrect geometries are presented to the algorithm that learns to avoid them. For the docking problem the search for plausible geometries can be performed exhaustively. The possible geometries of the complex are generated on a grid with the help of a fast Fourier transform algorithm. A novel formulation of negative design makes it possible to investigate iteratively hundreds of millions of negative examples while monotonically improving the quality of the potential. Experimental structures for 640 protein complexes are used to generate positive and negative examples for learning parameters. The algorithm designed in this work finds the correct binding structure as the lowest energy minimum in 318 cases of the 640 examples. Further benchmarks on independent sets confirm the significant capacity of the scoring function to recognize correct modes of interactions.

Ravikant, D. V. S.; Elber, Ron

2011-01-01

240

Optimization methods for alternative energy system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study reports both new experimental data from the case studies and the benefits of using modified linear programming methods to account for the real nature of alternative energy design problems.

Reinhardt, Michael Henry

241

Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 5: The earth from orbit. [experimental design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut training in the recognition of various geological features from space is described as well as the cameras, lenses and film used in experiment MA-136 to measure their effectiveness in photographing earth structural features from orbit. Aerosols that affect climate and weather are discussed in relation to experiment Ma-007 which relied on infrared observations of the setting or rising sun, as seen from Apollo, to measure the amount of dust and droplets in the lower 150 km of earth's atmosphere. The line spectra of atomic oxygen and nitrogen and their densities at 22 km above the earth's surface are examined along with experiment MA-059 which measured ultraviolet absorption at that altitude.

Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

1977-01-01

242

Geology and Earth Sciences Sourcebook for Elementary and Secondary Schools, Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This earth science resource book, designed for use by elementary and secondary school teachers, presents aspects of earth science which illustrate the significance of matter, energy, forces, motion, time, and space in the dynamics and history of the earth. The major content of this resource manual consists of authoritative information about earth

Heller, Robert L.

243

Mechanisms of Earth activity forsed by external celestial bodies:energy budjet and nature of cyclicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In given report we discuss tidal and non-tidal mechanisms of forced tectonic (endogenous) activity of the Earth caused by gravitational attraction of the Moon, Sun and the planets. On the base of the classical solution of the problem of elasticity for model of the Earth with concentric mass distribution the evaluations of the tidal energy and power of Earth lunar-solar deformations, including their joint effect, were obtained. Important role of the joint energetic effect of rotational deformation of the Earth with lunar and solar tides was illustrated. Gravitational interaction of the Moon and Sun with non-spherical, non-homogeneous shells of the Earth generates big additional mechanical forces and moments of the interaction of the neighboring shells (rigid core, liquid core, mantle, lithosphere and separate plates). Acting of these forces and moments in the different time scales on the corresponding sells generates cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative translational displacements and small relative rotational oscillations of the shells. In geological period of time it leads to a fundamental tectonic reconstruction of the Earth. These additional forces and moments of the cyclic celestial-mechanical nature produce cyclic deformations of the all layers of the body and organize and control practically all natural processes. The additional force between mantle and core is cyclic and characterized by the wide basis of frequencies typical for orbital motions (of the Sun, Moon and planets), for rotational motion of the Earth, Moon and Sun and for many from observed natural processes. The problem about small relative translatory-rotary motion of the two shells separated by the thin viscous-elastic layer is studied. The differential equations of motion were obtained and have been studied in particular cases (plane motion of system; case of two axisymmetrical interacting shells and oth.) by approximate methods of small parameter and methods of averaging. Some regimes of the relative translatory-rotary motions of the shells were described in analytical form. Wide set observed geodynamical and geophysical phenomena can be illustrated as results or as reflections of the small and slow relative displacements of the shells in corresponding time-scales. Barkin's work was accepted and financed by RFBR grant 02-05-64176 and by grant SAB2000-0235 of Ministry of Education of Spain (Secretaria de Estado de Educacion y Universidades).

Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

2003-04-01

244

Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials  

ScienceCinema

Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-05-30

245

Preview of the BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has been detecting and monitoring point sources in the high energy sky since 1991. Although BATSE is best known for gamma ray bursts, it also monitors the sky for longer-lived sources of radiation. Using the Earth occultation technique to extract flux information, a catalog is being prepared of about 150 sources with potential emission in the large area detectors (20-1000 keV). The catalog will contain light curves, representative spectra, and parametric data for black hole and neutron star binaries, active galaxies, and supernova remnants. In this preview, we present light curves for persistent and transient sources, and also show examples of what type of information can be obtained from the BATSE Earth occultation database. Options for making the data easily accessible as an ``on line" WWW document are being explored.

Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; McCollough, M. L.; Robinson, C. R.; Sahi, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.

1999-04-01

246

Systematics of 4f electron energies relative to host bands by resonant photoemission of rare earth doped optical materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative energies of 4fn electronic states and crystal band states are important for a fundamental understanding of rare-earth-doped optical materials and a practical understanding of each material's potential performance in specific applications. With this motivation, the 4fn ground state binding energies of rare earth ions have been studied in the gallium garnets using resonant photoemission spectroscopy and compared with the

C. W. Thiel; H. Cruguel; Y. Sun; G. J. Lapeyre; R. M. Macfarlane; R. W. Equall; R. L. Cone

2001-01-01

247

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 1: Baseline system description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system baseline design oriented to the requirements of the next generation of Earth Observatory Satellite missions is presented. The first mission (EOS-A) is envisioned as a two-fold mission which (1) provides a continuum of data of the type being supplied by ERTS for the emerging operational applications and also (2) expands the research and development activities for future instrumentation and analysis techniques. The baseline system specifically satisfies the requirements of this first mission. However, EOS-A is expected to be the first of a series of earth observation missions. Thus the baseline design has been developed so as to accommodate these latter missions effectively as the transition is made from conventional, expendable launch vehicles and spacecraft to the Shuttle Space Transportation System era. Further, a subset of alternative missions requirements including Seasat, SEOS, SMM and MSS-5 have been analyzed to verify that the spacecraft design to serve a multi-mission role is economically sound. A key feature of the baseline system design is the concept of a modular observatory system whose elements are compatible with varying levels of launch vehicle capability. The design configuration can be used with either the Delta or Titan launch vehicles and will adapt readily to the space shuttle when that system becomes available in the early 1980's.

1974-01-01

248

Evaluating the design of an earth radiation budget instrument with system simulations. Part 2: Minimization of instantaneous sampling errors for CERES-I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the new record of broadband earth radiation budget satellite measurements to be obtained during the late 1990s and early twenty-first century will come from the dual-radiometer Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-I) flown aboard sun-synchronous polar orbiters. Simulation studies conducted in this work for an early afternoon satellite orbit indicate that spatial root-mean-square (rms) sampling errors

L. Stowe; R. Hucek; P. Ardanuy; R. Joyce

1994-01-01

249

Reconciling Observations of Global Sea Level Rise with Changes in the Earth's Energy Balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean warming and the thermal expansion of seawater account for a sizable portion of global sea-level rise during the past two decades. The rate of ocean warming, however, carries additional climatic significance because the vast majority of any excess heat trapped in the Earth's climate system winds up warming the oceans. Thus in addition to the implications for sea level rise, ocean warming rates also provide a measure of the net radiative balance of the Earth as a whole. Despite its importance, the historical record of global ocean warming still contains large uncertainties. Prior to global deployment of the Argo array in about 2005, the historical record of ocean warming is dominated by data from eXpendable BathyThermographs (XBTs), which are known to contain sizable systematic errors. Global ocean warming during the transition period between XBT and Argo data therefore remains highly uncertain. In this study, we consider observations from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments to assess the Earth's net radiation balance from 2000 to 2010. These observations provide an important constraint on ocean warming rates during the critical period from 2003 to 2005 when ocean temperature observations transitioned from XBT to Argo data. Observations of the net change in ocean mass from GRACE, as well as the net change in total sea level rise from altimetry will also be used to constrain ocean warming rates during this period. Given these constraints, we will assess the validity of different corrections for XBT biases and will assess both the global sea level budget and energy balance during the first decade of the 2000s.

Willis, J.; Wong, T.; Hobbs, W. R.

2011-12-01

250

Design Challenges of Power Systems for Instrumented Spacecraft with Very Low Perigees in the Earth's Ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a solar array to power a spacecraft bus supporting a set of instruments making in situ plasma and neutral atmosphere measurements in the ionosphere at altitudes of 120km or lower poses several challenges. The driving scientific requirements are the field-of-view constraints of the instruments resulting in a three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the need for an electromagnetically unperturbed environment accomplished by designing an electrostatically conducting solar array surface to avoid large potentials, making the spacecraft body as small and as symmetric as possible, and body-mounting the solar array. Furthermore, the life and thermal constraints, in the midst of the effects of the dense atmosphere at low altitude, drive the cross-sectional area of the spacecraft to be small particularly normal to the ram direction. Widely varying sun angles and eclipse durations add further complications, as does the growing desire for multiple spacecraft to resolve spatial and temporal variations packaged into a single launch vehicle. Novel approaches to insure adequate orbit-averaged power levels of approximately 250W include an oval-shaped cross section to increase the solar array collecting area during noon-midnight orbits and the use of a flywheel energy storage system. The flywheel could also be used to help maintain the spacecraft's attitude, particularly during excursions to the lowest perigee altitudes. This paper discusses the approaches used in conceptual power designs for both the proposed Dipper and the Global Electrodynamics Connections (GEC) Mission currently being studied at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

Moran, Vickie Eakin; Manzer, Dominic D.; Pfaff, Robert E.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Gervin, Jan C.

1999-01-01

251

Analytic design of satellite constellations for zonal earth coverage using inclined circular orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of identifying the minimum number of satellites in circular, inclined orbit constellations at the same altitude which provide continuous, single, and redundant coverage for global, polar cap, equatorial, and zonal areas of the earth's surface is solved analytically in closed form using street-of-coverage techniques with arbitrary interorbit plane phasing of satellites. The results are compared with optimal polar

L. Rider

1986-01-01

252

Design of structural models of sections of the earth's crust at different hierarchical levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper portion of the earth's crust is in the stage of solid deformation that occurs with the formation of a sufficiently ideal block structure. Thus, in order to solve various problems of geomechanics it is necessary to construct models that contain information about block structures and the mechanical properties of mountain masses. These types of problems are also encountered

A. L. Benedik; A. V. Ivanov; G. G. Kocharyan

1995-01-01

253

Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

2010-01-01

254

Importance of light scattering properties of cloud particles on calculating the earth energy cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is an open system, and the energy cycle of the Earth is not always a certain amount. In other words, the energy cycle in the nature is imbalance. A better understanding of the earth energy cycle is very important to study global climate change. the IPCC-AR4 reported that the cloud in the atmosphere are still characterized by large uncertainties in the estimation of their effects on energy sysle of the Earth's atmosphere. There are two types of cloud in the atmosphere, which are Cirrus and warm water cloud. In order to strongly reflect visible wavelength from sun light, thick water cloud has the effect of cooling the earth surface. When Cirrus is compared to water cloud, temperature is almost lower. Thus, there is a feature that Cirrus is easy to absorb long-wave radiation than warm water cloud. However, in order to quantitatively evaluate the reflection and absorption characteristics of cloud on remote senssing application and energy cycle of the imbalance of nature, it is necessary to obtain the scattering properties of cloud particles. Since the shapes of the water cloud particle are close to spherical, scattering properties of the particles can be calculated accurately by the Mie theory. However, Cirrus particles have a complex shape, including hexagonal, plate, and other non- spherical shapes. Different from warm water cloud partical, it is required to use several different light scattering methods when calculating the light scattering properties of the non-spherical Cirrus cloud particals. Ishimoto et al. [2010, 2012] and Masuda et al. [2012] developed the Finite-Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and Improved Geometrical-Optics Method (IGOM) for the solution of light scattering by non-spherical particles. Nakajima et al [1997,2009] developed the LIght Scattering solver for Arbitral Shape particle (Lisas)-Geometrical-Optics Method (GOM) and Surface Integral Equations Method of Müller-type (SIEMM) to calculate the light scattering properties for hexagonal ice crystals. Lisas/GOM and IGOM methods are efficient for calculating the single scattering properties of the ice crystal when size parameter is large enough, while exact solution such as FDTD and Lisas/SIEMM methods are efficient for calculating the light scattering properties of the non-spherical partical when size parameter is small. However, to develop the compact light scattering database for satellite remote sensing application, it is important to optimize the scattering database based on the specification of the satellite sensor. Letu et al. (2012) optimized the ice crystal scattering database for Cirrus cloud remote sensing of the GCOM-C/SGLI satellite mission of JAXA, Japan and radiative transfer calculation in earth atmospheric system. Based on the above optimization results, we developed the ice crystal scattering database for GCOM-C/SGLI satellite mission with hexagonal, plate and aggregate shapes determined by in-situ observation for radiative transfer calculation and satellite remote sensing retrieval. Futuermore, radiance flux, alculated by RSTAR radiative transfer code with scattering database of the water cloud and the Cirrus particle is compared both at the earth surface and at the top of atmosphere. Furthermore, calculation uncertainty caused by different cloud particle scattering database was discussed.

Letu, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Nagao, T. M.; Ishimoto, H.

2013-12-01

255

Earth occultation imaging of the low energy gamma-ray sky with GBM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The Earth Occultation Technique (EOT) has been applied to Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) to perform all-sky monitoring for a predetermined catalog of hard X-ray/soft ?-ray sources. In order to search for sources not in the catalog, thus completing the catalog and reducing a source of systematic error in EOT, an imaging method has been developed - Imaging with a Differential filter using the Earth Occultation Method (IDEOM). Methods: IDEOM is a tomographic imaging method that takes advantage of the orbital precession of the Fermi satellite. Using IDEOM, all-sky reconstructions have been generated for ~4 years of GBM data in the 12-50 keV, 50-100 keV and 100-300 keV energy bands in search of sources otherwise unmodeled by the GBM occultation analysis. Results: IDEOM analysis resulted in the detection of 57 sources in the 12-50 keV energy band, 23 sources in the 50-100 keV energy band, and 7 sources in the 100-300 keV energy band. Seventeen sources were not present in the original GBM-EOT catalog and have now been added. We also present the first joined averaged spectra for four persistent sources detected by GBM using EOT and by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi: NGC 1275, 3C 273, Cen A, and the Crab.

Rodi, J.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Chaplin, V.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

2014-02-01

256

Optical design of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Tilt (MODIS-T) for the Earth Observing System (Eos)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is an Earth viewing sensor that is planned as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (Eos) scheduled to begin functioning in the late 1990's. The MODIS is composed of two mutually supporting sensors one of which is MODIS-T, where 'T' signifies a tiltable along-track field of view. MODIS-T is a 32 channel imaging spectrometer with a required 10 nm to 15 nm spectral resolution (FWHM) in the 400 nm to 880 nm spectral range with less than 2.3 percent instrument induced linear polarization. The instrument provides at nadir a 33 km by 1500 km swath with a 1.1 km spatial resolution and an along-track pointing capability of +/- 50 deg about nadir. The heart of the optical design consists of a f/3 grating-type reflecting Schmidt camera.

Maymon, Peter W.

1991-01-01

257

System models used to support a space-based telescope design for discovery of near Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the effects of several key system parameters related to development of a space-based observatory for discovering near-earth objects (NEOs). The space-based mission is seen as complementary to ground-based observations for identifying objects with the potential to impact the Earth. A system model is developed from an articial data set of 1218 NEOs with initial orbital elements generated from a probability distribution model similar to that incorporated in the NASA NEO Science Definition Team Report. By running the model over a 7 year period, the statistics of NEO detection can be investigated as a function of changes to telescope parameters. This paper discusses the system model development of orbital models, radiometric calculations and some initial results from parameter studies on the engineering design.

Lieber, Mike; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Arentz, Robert; Reitsema, Harold; Linfield, Roger; Hardesty, Chuck

2007-09-01

258

Impact of Interactive EnergyBalance Modeling on Student Learning in a Core-Curriculum Earth Science Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive instructional module has been developed to study energy balance at the earth's surface. The module uses a graphical interface to model each of the major energy components involved in the partitioning of energy at this surface: net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat flux, heat storage, anthropogenic heat, and advective heat transport. The graphical interface consists

R. L. Mandock

2008-01-01

259

Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy System Design Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are dis...

D. H. Maund

1981-01-01

260

Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the Earth and Jupiter.  

PubMed

The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source--the Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (> or = 100 keV) and proton (> or = 1 MeV) populations--the dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4th largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are -0.1 krad(Si) d(-1) at the geosynchronous orbit and -30 krad(Si) d((-1) at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield--a factor of -300 between the two planets. PMID:16604595

Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B

2005-01-01

261

The design and analysis of a phased array microstrip antenna for a low earth orbit communication satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Naval Postgraduate School spacecraft design class proposed a multiple beam, phased array, microstrip antenna as part of the preliminary design of a low earth orbit communication satellite. The antenna must provide coverage over the satellite's entire field of view while both uplink and down-link operate simultaneously on the same 1-band frequency. This thesis assesses the feasibility of the antenna proposed in that preliminary design. Design tradeoffs for a microstrip array constrained by both available surface area and a limited mass budget are examined. Two different substrate materials are considered in terms of weight and performance. Microstrip patch theory is applied to array element design and layout and antenna array theory is applied to determine phase and amplitude coefficients. The focus of the design is on obtaining the desired beam shape and orientation, given antenna size constraints. A corporate feed method is discussed and a general design presented. Antenna performance is predicted through the use of a computer model based on Modal Expansion theory and results are plotted in a series of graphs which demonstrate the limitations of the proposed design.

Barfield, William L.

1994-06-01

262

Complete energy transfer due to rare-earth phase segregation in optical fiber preform glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Yb3+ to Tm3+ energy-transfer quantum yield close to one has been found in phase-separated yttrium-alumina silicate optical fiber preform glasses. Optical absorption, luminescence, lifetime measurements, and rare-earth concentration dependence have been performed to investigate the feasibility of efficient blue upconversion fiber lasers through convenient Yb3+ sensitation. Luminescence decay measurements have demonstrated the co-existence of two phases. One of the phases is characterized by an yttrium-rich composition. Most of the RE ions partition into the yttrium-rich phase and produce the intense upconversion emission.

Lahoz, F.; Pérez-Rodríguez, C.; Halder, A.; Das, S.; Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Bhadra, S. K.; Vasconcelos, H. C.

2011-10-01

263

Energy transfer in rare earth ion clusters and fluorescence from rare-earth-doped La sub 1. 85 Sr sub 0. 15 CuO sub 4 superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Laser spectroscopy of rare earth ions in solids was used to study mechanisms of non-resonant energy transfer within rare earth clusters, and to detect insulating, impurity phases in rare-earth-doped La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4} superconductors. The mechanisms of phonon-assisted, non-resonant energy transfer were studied in well-defined dimer sites in Er{sup 3+}:SrF{sub 2} and Pr{sup 3+}:CaF{sub 2}. Application of a magnetic field to Er{sup 3+}:SrF{sub 2} greatly increased the energy-transfer rate. The magnetic field dependence in Er{sup 3+}:SrF{sub 2} indicates that the mechanism of non-resonant energy transfer is a two-phonon, resonant process (Orbach process). Application of a magnetic field to Pr{sup 3+}:CaF{sub 2} had no effect on the energy-transfer rate because no significant Zeeman splittings occurred. The temperature dependence of the energy-transfer rate in Pr{sup 3+}:CaF{sub 2} showed the mechanism to be a one-phonon-assisted process at low temperatures and predominantly an Orbach process above 10 K. In the second part of this thesis, laser spectroscopy of a Eu{sup 3+} probe ion is developed to detect impurity phases in La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4} superconductors. Two impurity phases were found in polycrystalline La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}: unreacted La{sub 2}O{sub 3} starting material, and a La-silicate phase, which formed from contamination during sintering.

Tissue, B.M.

1988-01-01

264

Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution Earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-spatial-resolution microwave radiometer sensing from space with reasonable swath widths and revisit times favors large aperture systems. However, with traditional precision antenna design, the size and weight requirements for such systems are in conflict with the need to emphasize small launch vehicles. This paper describes tradeoffs between the science requirements, basic operational parameters, and expected sensor performance for selected satellite radiometer concepts utilizing novel lightweight compactly packaged real apertures. Antenna, feed, and radiometer subsystem design and calibration are presented. Preliminary results show that novel lightweight real aperture coupled with state-of-the-art radiometer designs are compatible with small launch systems, and hold promise for high-resolution earth science measurements of sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind speeds.

Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Campbell, Thomas G.

1994-01-01

265

The Dark Energy Survey CCD imager design  

SciTech Connect

The Dark Energy Survey is planning to use a 3 sq. deg. camera that houses a {approx} 0.5m diameter focal plane of 62 2kx4k CCDs. The camera vessel including the optical window cell, focal plate, focal plate mounts, cooling system and thermal controls is described. As part of the development of the mechanical and cooling design, a full scale prototype camera vessel has been constructed and is now being used for multi-CCD readout tests. Results from this prototype camera are described.

Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Guarino, V.; Kuk, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schultz, K.; Schmitt, R.L.; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U. /Argonne

2008-06-01

266

Pairing Essential Climate Science with Sustainable Energy Information: the "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social science research on the effective communication of climate science suggests that today's audiences may be effectively engaged by presenting information about Earth's climate in the context of individual and community actions that can be taken to increase energy efficiency and to reduce carbon emissions. "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) is an informal science education and outreach project supported by NSF, comprising three related components: a 3-part broadcast television mini-series; on-site outreach at 5 major science centers and natural history museums strategically located across the USA; and a website with innovative social networking tools. A companion tradebook, written by series presenter and Penn State glaciologist Richard Alley, is to be published by W. W. Norton in spring 2011. Program 1, THE BURNING QUESTION, shows how throughout human history our need for energy has been met by burning wood, whale oil and fossil fuels, but notes that fossil fuels produce carbon dioxide which inevitably change the composition of Earth's atmosphere. The program uses little known stories (such as US Air Force atmospheric research immediately after WW2, looking at the effect of CO2 levels on heat-seeking missiles, and Abraham Lincoln's role in the founding of the National Academy of Sciences and the Academy's role in solving navigation problems during the Civil War) to offer fresh perspectives on essential but sometimes disputed aspects of climate science: that today's levels of CO2 are unprecedented in the last 400,000 and more years; that human burning of fossil fuel is the scientifically-proven source, and that multiple lines of evidence show Earth is warming. Program 2, TEN WAYS TO KEEP TEN BILLION SMILING, offers a list of appealing strategies (such as "Get Rich and Save the World": Texas & wind energy, and "Do More with Less": how glow worms make cool light without waste heat, suggesting a role for organic LEDs) to motivate positive responses to the considerable challenge of supplying clean energy to a growing population. Additional scenes have been filmed in Brazil, Spain, China, Morocco, Scotland, and across America, including at the National Renewable Energy Lab. in Denver, CO, and New Orleans. Program 3 (presently untitled and targeted for 2012) will feature American communities seeking to increase energy efficiency and minimize carbon emissions. The Fall 2010 AGU presentation will include video clips from the series, initial findings from focus groups (coordinated by project evaluator, Rockman Et Al) as to what information has been found most compelling to potential audiences, and a description of plans being developed by the project's science center partners in San Diego CA, Portland OR, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Fort Worth TX and Raleigh NC. "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" is an experiment to determine the effectiveness of these activities to reach audiences who, according to surveys, have actually become less convinced of anthropogenic climate change, while remaining supportive of investments in advancing clean energy opportunities.

Akuginow, E.; Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.

2010-12-01

267

Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span,…

Penuel, William R.; McWilliams, Harold; McAuliffe, Carla; Benbow, Ann E.; Mably, Colin; Hayden, Margaret M.

2009-01-01

268

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 5: Specification for EROS operations control center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functional, performance, and design requirements for the Operations Control Center (OCC) of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system are presented. The OCC controls the operations of the EOS satellite to acquire mission data consisting of: (1) thematic mapper data, (2) multispectral scanner data on EOS-A, or High Resolution Pointable Imager data on EOS-B, and (3) data collection system (DCS) data. The various inputs to the OCC are identified. The functional requirements of the OCC are defined. The specific systems and subsystems of the OCC are described and block diagrams are provided.

1974-01-01

269

Climate-induced tree mortality: earth system consequences for carbon, energy, and water exchanges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere that could present hazards to current earth system function. Terrestrial ecosystems, and in particular forests, exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets. Widespread, rapid, drought- and infestation-triggered tree mortality is now emerging as a phenomenon affecting forests globally and may be linked to increasing temperatures and drought frequency and severity. We demonstrate the link between climate-sensitive tree mortality and risks of altered earth system function though carbon, water, and energy exchange. Tree mortality causes a loss of carbon stocks from an ecosystem and a reduction sequestration capacity. Recent research has shown that the 2000s pinyon pine die-off in the southwest US caused the loss of 4.6 Tg of aboveground carbon stocks from the region in 5 years, far exceeding carbon loss from other disturbances. Widespread tree mortality in British Columbia resulted in the loss of 270 Tg of carbon, shifting affected forestland from a carbon sink to a source, and influenced Canadian forest policy on carbon stocks. Tree mortality, as an immediate loss of live tree cover, directly alters albedo, near-ground solar radiation, and the relative contributions of evaporation and transpiration to total evapotranspiration. Near-ground solar radiation, an important ecosystem trait affecting soil heating and water availability, increased regionally following the pinyon pine die-off. Conversely, forest canopy loss with tree mortality, is expected to increase regional albedo, especially for forests which experience winter snow cover, potentially offsetting the climate forcing of terrestrial carbon releases to the atmosphere. Initial hydrological response to die-off is likely a reduction in evapotranspiration, which can increase subsurface flow, runoff, groundwater recharge, and streamflow. Under some circumstances there may also be increased flood risks. We hypothesized thresholds of mean annual precipitation and canopy cover reduction identified from the forest harvesting literature as minima that must be exceeded for die-off to noticeably affect hydrologic processes. We note exceptions to these thresholds when snowmelt dominates the watershed hydrology and when mortality affects a single species with a unique hydrologic role. Management options for mitigating die-off effects on ecosystem and earth system processes and implementing post-die-off restoration will likely be limited and costly, requiring ecological and societal adaptation in many areas. As such, climate-induced tree mortality poses a significant risk to the current earth system function through altered exchanges of carbon, energy, and water between the land surface and atmosphere.

Adams, H. D.; Macalady, A.; Breshears, D. D.; Allen, C. D.; Luce, C.; Royer, P. D.; Huxman, T. E.

2010-12-01

270

Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data in the S4 format. The S4 data are monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo collected at selected times during the day. Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained from the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used, which makes the method easily applicable and computationally efficient. Four surface types are distinguished, namely, ocean, vegetation, desert, and snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates based on ERBE data compare well with those obtained from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. For the 9 months analyzed the linear correlation coefficient and the standard difference between the two datasets are 0.95 and 14 W/sq m (about 6% of the average shortwave irradiance), respectively, and the bias is 15 W/sq m (higher ERBE values). The bias, a strong function of ISCCP satellite viewing zenith angle, is mostly in the ISCCP-based estimates. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model, which accounts crudely for multiple reflection between the surface and clouds, may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. As found in other studies, our values are generally higher than Esbensen and Kushnir's by as much as 80 W/sq m in the tropical oceans. A cloud parameter, defined as the difference between clear-sky and actual irradiances normalized to top-of-atmosphere clear-sky irradiance, is also examined. This parameter, minimally affected by sun zenith angle, is higher in the midlatitude regions of storm tracks than in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), suggesting that, on average, the higher cloud coverage in midlatitudes is more effective at reducing surface shortwave irradiance than opaque, convective, yet sparser clouds in the ITCZ. Surface albedo estimates are realistic, generally not exceeding 0.06 in the ocean, as high as 0.9 in polar regions, and reaching 0.5 in the Sahara and Arabian deserts.

Breon, Francois-Marie; Frouin, Robert

1994-01-01

271

Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews, J., Kneale, P., Sougnez, Y., Stewart, M., and Stott, T. A. (2003). Carrying out Pedagogic research into the Constructive Alignment of Fieldwork. Planet Special Edition 5: Linking Teaching and Research and undertaking Pedagogic Research in Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 51-52. Carmichael, P. (2008) ‘The Semantic Web and ‘Web 3.0' in: Selwyn, N. (ed.) Education 2.0? Designing the web for teaching and learning. London: ESRC Teaching and Learning Research Programme. Fletcher, S., France, D., Moore, K. and Robinson, G. (2002). Fieldwork education and technology: A GEES perspective, Planet 4, 17-19. Fletcher, S., France, D., Moore, K. and Robinson, G. (2007). Putting technology into fieldwork education: A pedagogic evaluation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 31, 2, 319 - 330 Maskall, J., Stokes, A., Truscott, J. B., Bridge, A., Magnier, K. and Calderbank, V. (2007) Supporting fieldwork using information technology, Planet 18, 18-21. Stott, TA., Nuttall, AM. and McCloskey, J. (2009a) Design, Development and Student Evaluation of a Virtual Alps Field Guide www.virtualalps.co.uk. Planet 22, 64-71. Publication of the Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Learning & Teaching Support Network www.gees.ac.uk/planet/. Stott, TA, Clark, H., Milson, C., McCloskey, J. and Crompton, K. (2009b) The Ingleton Waterfalls Virtual Field Trip: Design, Development and Preliminary Evaluation, Teaching Earth Sciences 34 (1), 13-19, Magazine of the Earth Science Teachers Association.

Stott, Tim

2010-05-01

272

Performance assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard Terra and Aqua spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometer sensors on CERES measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to <100 micrometer) and in 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. Of the five CERES instruments that are currently in operation, four of the CERES instruments (Flight Models1 through 4) fly aboard Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua platforms with two instruments aboard each spacecraft, in 705 KM sun-synchronous orbits of 10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equatorial crossing time. A rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol comprising of various studies was developed to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the CERES instruments. The in-flight calibration of CERES sensors are carried out using the internal calibration module (ICM) comprising of blackbody sources and quartzhalogen tungsten lamp, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration results are instrumental in determining the changes in CERES sensors' gains after launch from the prelaunch determined values and the on-orbit gain variations. In addition to the broadband response changes derived from the on-board blackbody and the tungsten lamp, the shortwave and the total sensors show a spectrally dependent drop in responsivity in the shorter wavelegth region below one micron that were brought to light through validation studies. The spectrally dependent changes were attributed to the instrument operational modes and the corrections were derived using the sensor radiance comparisons. This paper covers the on-orbit behavior of CERES sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the determination of the sensor response changes utilising the in-flight calibration and the radiance measurement comparisons viewing various targets. The corrections for the sensor response changes were incorporated in the radiance calculations of CERES Edition3 data products.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Shankar, M.; Smith, N. M.; Loeb, N. G.; Walikainen, D. R.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, R. S.; Smith, N. P.

2013-09-01

273

Determination of rare earth elements and thorium in britholite ore by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioisotope-excited X-ray fluorescence technique is applied for the determination of thorium and rare earth elements in britholite ore from Canada. An annular source of57Co is employed for excitation of characteristic K X-rays of thorium and rare earth elements. The peak ratios of lanthanides were used to remove the difficulties because of overlapping lines at the 33–50 keV energy region.

N. Efe; S. Akman; P. Arikan

1987-01-01

274

Towards an Earth System Knowledge Environment Designed to Promote More Usable Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is abundantly clear that fundamental decisions about how to manage future human society will need to be informed by quantitative scientific analyses of processes, options, impacts, and responses. In fact, one could argue that the human experience into the foreseeable future will increasingly be tied to the integrating of information, understanding, and experiences to create knowledge and with it solutions to emerging problems as well as opportunities for further progress. This is particularly true for the Geosciences. Our scientific field, and by extension our Union, has a special responsibility for informing policy makers and the public about how the earth system functions and about the relationship between environmental stressors and human activities. In this regard, a greatly improved working interface between natural and social scientists is needed. In this talk, I argue that something like an "Earth System Knowledge Environment" or "Earth System Collaboratory" should be developed using modern information technologies to encapsulate and make accessible existing and emerging interdisciplinary knowledge of particular use to decision makers. Such a "work place" should be open to all and could provide access to observations, models and theories in ways that more easily allow for credible scientific understanding to be translated into policy options at all levels. Examples of fledgling efforts along these lines will be cited in areas such as severe weather impacts and climate change. The challenges involved in creating more usable scientific knowledge are, of course, quite significant and include major issues such as: institutional impediments to interdisciplinary research, the role of proprietary interests, the difficulties involved in working across the natural/social science boundary, and the challenge of developing the kind of human capital needed to effectively close the gap between good science and public policy.

Killeen, T. L.

2006-12-01

275

Energy efficient building design. A transfer guide for local governments  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

Not Available

1992-03-01

276

EDECT: An Energy Design, Evaluation, and Comparison Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EDECT is a computer-aided architectural design systems which assists the architectural designer to accurately and rapidly determine the energy impact of his or her design decisions. The system emphasizes interactive computer graphic techniques and easily ...

W. D. Alley

1986-01-01

277

Design Enhancements of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer to Enable Detection of Earth Twins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last few years, considerable effort has been directed towards very large-scale (> $5 billion) missions to detect and characterize Mars-radius to Earth-radius planets around nearby stars; such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer and Darwin missions. However, technological issues such as formation flying and control of systematic noise sources will likely prevent these missions from entering Phase A until at least the end of the next decade. Presently more than 350 planets have been discovered by a variety of techniques, and little is known about the majority of them other than their approximate mass. However, a simplified nulling interferometer operating in the near- to mid-infrared (e.g. approx. 5-15 microns), like the enhanced version of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI), can characterize the atmospheres of a large sample of the known planets - including Earth twins. Many other scientific problems can be addressed with a system like FKSI, including the studies of debris disks, active galactic nuclei, and low mass companions around nearby stars. We report results of a recent engineering study on an enhanced version of FKSI that includes 1-meter primary mirrors, 20-meter boom length, and an advanced sun shield that will provide a 45-degree FOR and 40K operating temperature for all optics including siderostats.

Barry, Richard K.; Danchi, William C.; Lopez, Bruno; Rinehart, Stephan; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Beust, Herve; Bonfils, Xavier; Borde, Pascal; Kern, Pierre; Leger, Alain; Monin, Jean-Louis; Mourard, Denis; Ollivier, Marc; Petrov, Roman; Vakhili, Farrokh

2009-01-01

278

On-orbit solar calibrations using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx. Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. However, in their first year of operation the Terra and Aqua MAMs showed shifts in their calibrations larger than expected. Shifts of this nature have been seen in other Solar viewing instruments in the past. A possible explanation has attributed the changes to pre-orbit or on-orbit contamination combined with solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen induced chemical changes to the contaminant during solar exposure. In the subsequent year of operation all instruments begin to stabilize within the .5 percent precision range. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the nine years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than an elevation scan will be discussed. The implementation of a thermal correction to the shortwave channel will also be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra CERES instruments and the Aqua instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2010-08-01

279

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 2: Earth to Mars ballistic mission opportunities, 1990-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Mars are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Mars arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1990 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Mars probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.; Cunniff, R. A.

1983-01-01

280

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 1: Earth to Venus ballistic mission opportunities, 1991-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Venus is presented. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and arrival parameters, are presented in launch data/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1991 through 2005. An extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Venus probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Yin, N. H.

1983-01-01

281

Application of propagation predictions to Earth/space telecommunications system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The corresponding between a given propagation phenomenon and system performance is considered. Propagation data are related to system performance parameters, allowing the systems engineer to perform the analyses determining how well requirements are met by a given system design, and enabling the systems engineer to modify that design if necessary. The various ways of specifying performance criteria for different kinds of systems are discussed, and a general procedure for system design is presented and demonstrated.

1981-01-01

282

Energy efficient building design: Guidelines for local government  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the project was to develop an effective, in-house energy review process for County building design, covering new buildings and major renovations of existing buildings. Montgomery County enacted regulations for energy efficient design of buildings in July 1986. In essence, the regulation sets energy consumption limits for buildings and calls for life-cycle-cost analysis of design choices. In the course of this project significant achievements were realized in the following areas: Energy Design Guidelines were established or refined in several areas of energy technology and design practice. The Energy Review Process was formalized and implemented. Energy personnel received supplemental training in lighting technologies and design methods, energy analysis programs and commercial design standards. The key technical findings of the project are as follows: A combination of energy design tools was found to provide optimum results, including energy analysis, life-cycle-cost analysis, prescriptive standards and guide specifications. There is a dramatic decrease in design energy consumption in buildings processed under the guidelines, ranging from 30 % to 50 % decrease in energy consumption compared to existing County buildings. On average, it was found that energy-efficient new buildings cost no more to build than energy-hog buildings. An economic analysis indicates a very high rate of return in utility savings compared to the cost of implementing the program. 10 figs.

Balon, R.J.

1989-07-01

283

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), A Review: Past, Present and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmo-sphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward surface shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes, the radiation fluxes 500 mb and 250 mb altitude. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. Another application of the CERES scanning radiometers is special operations in which the azimuth of the scan plane of a CERES instrument is programmed in order to line up with ground stations or other spacecraft instruments. This capability has been used to compare radiances with those of other spacecraft instruments and with ground stations. One use of this ability has been to rotate a CERES instrument so as to scan in the same plane as a second instrument, as was done with a CERES instrument on both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft in order to compare radiance measurements. These compar-isons are needed in order to assure that any changes in the radiation budget record due to the change of instruments is understood and quantified and not attributed to a climate shift. The CEREinstrumentsaboardtheT erraandAquaspacecraf thaveservedwellpasstheirdesignlif etimes.ACERE onmissions.

Smith, G. Louis

284

Conceptual design of rotary magnetostrictive energy harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the conceptual design of a rotary magnetostrictive energy harvester (RMEH), which consists of one coil-wound Galfenol cantilever, with two PMs adhered onto the each end, and one permanent magnet (PM) array sandwiched between two wheels. Modeling and simulation are used to validate the concept. The proof-of-concept RMEH is fabricated by using the simulation results, and subjected to the experimental characterization. The experimental setup for the simulated characterization uses the motor-driven PM array to induce a forced vibration. It can be concluded that the theoretical prediction on the induced voltage agrees well with the experimental results and that induced voltage increases with rpm and with number of PMs. Future work includes optimization of RMEH performance via PM array configuration and development of prototype.

Park, Young-Woo; Kang, Han-Sam; Wereley, Norman M.

2014-05-01

285

Design and construction of earth retaining walls for deep excavation – a risk management process  

Microsoft Academic Search

TR26: 2010: Technical Reference for Deep Excavation requires a detailed assessment of buildings in proximity to the site. The requirement is an important part of a risk management process for the design of temporary works for deep excavations. This paper will present the key elements of the risk management process for design and construction. It will demonstrate that the risk

Paul Fok; Bian Hong Neo; Dazhi Wen; Chepurthy Veeresh

2012-01-01

286

FPGA design for constrained energy minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM) has been widely used for hyperspectral detection and classification. The feasibility of implementing the CEM as a real-time processing algorithm in systolic arrays has been also demonstrated. The main challenge of realizing the CEM in hardware architecture in the computation of the inverse of the data correlation matrix performed in the CEM, which requires a complete set of data samples. In order to cope with this problem, the data correlation matrix must be calculated in a causal manner which only needs data samples up to the sample at the time it is processed. This paper presents a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) design of such a causal CEM. The main feature of the proposed FPGA design is to use the Coordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm that can convert a Givens rotation of a vector to a set of shift-add operations. As a result, the CORDIC algorithm can be easily implemented in hardware architecture, therefore in FPGA. Since the computation of the inverse of the data correlction involves a series of Givens rotations, the utility of the CORDIC algorithm allows the causal CEM to perform real-time processing in FPGA. In this paper, an FPGA implementation of the causal CEM will be studied and its detailed architecture will be also described.

Wang, Jianwei; Chang, Chein-I.; Cao, Mang

287

Evaluation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanner Pointing Accuracy using a Coastline Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiometer was launched on November 27, 1997 into a 35 inclination, 350 km altitude orbit, on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The CERES instrument consists of a three channel scanning broadband radiometer. The spectral bands measure shortwave (0.3 - 5 microns), window (8 - 12 microns), and total (0.3 - 100 microns) radiation reflected or emitted from the Earth-atmosphere system. Each Earth viewing measurement is geolocated to the Earth fixed coordinate system using satellite ephemeris, Earth rotation and geoid, and instrument pointing data. The interactive CERES coastline detection system is used to assess the accuracy of the CERES geolocation process. By analyzing radiative flux gradients at the boundaries of ocean and land masses, the accuracy of the scanner measurement locations may be derived for the CERES/TRMM instrument/satellite system. The resulting CERES measurement location errors are within 10% of the nadir footprint size. Precise pointing knowledge of the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) is required for convolution of cloud properties onto the CERES footprint; initial VIRS coastline results are included.

Currey, Chris; Smith, Lou; Neely, Bob

1998-01-01

288

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix D: EOS configuration design data. Part 1: Spacecraft configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of structural studies of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) which define the member sizes to meet the vehicle design requirements are presented. The most significant requirements in sizing the members are the stiffness required to meet the launch vehicle design frequencies both in the late al and in the longitudinal directions. The selected configurations, both baseline and preferred, for the Delta and Titan launch vehicles were evaluated for stiffness requirements. The structural idealization used to estimate the stiffness of each structural arrangement, was based on an evaluation of primary loads paths, effectivity of structural members, and estimated sizes for the preferred configurations. The study included an evaluation of the following structural materials: (1) aluminum alloys, (2) titanium alloys, (3) beryllium, (4) beryllium/aluminum alloy, and (5) composite materials.

1974-01-01

289

Hydrogeologic Controls on the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere - Chemolithotrophic Energy for Subsurface Life on Earth and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As exploration for gold, diamonds and base metals expand mine workings to depths of almost 3 km below the Earth's surface, the mines of the Canadian Shield provide a window into the deep biosphere as diverse, but to date less well-explored than the South African Gold Mines. To date investigations of the deep biosphere have, in most cases, focused on the marine subsurface, including deep sea sediments, hydrothermal vents, off-axis spreading centers and cold seeps. Yet the deep terrestrial subsurface hosted in the fracture waters of Archean Shield rocks provides an important analog and counterpoint to studies of the deep marine biosphere. Depending on the particular geologic and hydrogeologic setting, sites vary from those dominated by paleometeoric waters and microbial hydrocarbon production, to those in which H2 and hydrocarbon gases have been suggested to be a function of long-term accumulation of the products of water-rock interaction in the deepest, most saline fracture waters with residence times on the order of tens of millions of years. The hydrogeologically isolated fracture-controlled ground water system periodically generates steep redox gradients and chemical disequilibrium due to fracture opening, and episodic release of mM levels of H2 that support a redox driven microbial community of H2-utilizing sulfate reducers and methanogens. Exploration of these systems may provide information about the limits of the deep terrestrial biosphere, controls on the distribution of deep subsurface life, and the diversity of geochemical reactions that produce substrates on which microbiological communities at great depths survive. The geologically stable Precambrian cratons of Earth are arguably the closest analogs available to single-plate planets such as Mars. Studies of these Earth analogs imply that the habitability of the Martian crust might similarly not be restricted to sites of localized hydrothermal activity. While the presence of the Martian cryosphere and potential clathrates will affect the porosity and permeability, and net flux of gases from the Martian crust, the underlying principles of fracture-controlled energy sequestration and episodic release remain. Furthermore understanding the origin and distribution of biogenic and geologic sources of CH4 at these analog Earth sites will inform models and strategies for deciphering the origin of CH4 recently reported in the Martian atmosphere.

Sherwood Lollar, B.; Moran, J.; Tille, S.; Voglesonger, K.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Onstott, T.; Pratt, L.; Slater, G.

2009-05-01

290

Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are a promising class of emerging devices that offer zero off-state leakage and behave like an ideal switch. Recent advances in planar fabrication technology have demonstrated that microelectromechanical (MEMS) scale miniature relays could be manufactured reliably and could be used to build fully functional, complex integrated circuits. The zero leakage operation of relays has renewed the interest in relay based low power logic design. This dissertation explores circuit architectures using NEM relays and NEMS-CMOS heterogeneous integration. Novel circuit topologies for sequential logic, memory, and power management circuits have been proposed taking into consideration the NEM relay device properties and optimizing for energy efficiency and area. In nanoscale electromechanical devices, dispersion forces like Van der Waals' force (vdW) affect the pull-in stability of the relay devices significantly. Verilog-A electromechanical model of the suspended gate relay operating at 1V with a nominal air gap of 5 – 10nm has been developed taking into account all the electrical, mechanical and dispersion effects. This dissertation explores different relay based latch and flip-flop topologies. It has been shown that as few as 4 relay cells could be used to build flip-flops. An integrated voltage doubler based flip flop that improves the performance by 2X by overdriving Vgb has been proposed. Three NEM relay based parallel readout memory bitcell architectures have been proposed that have faster access time, and remove the reliability issues associated with previously reported serial readout architectures. A paradigm shift in design of power switches using NEM relays is proposed. An interesting property of the relay device is that the ON state resistance (Ron) of the NEM relay switch is constant and is insensitive to the gate slew rate. This coupled with infinite OFF state resistance (Roff ) offers significant area and power advantages over CMOS. This dissertation demonstrates NEM relay based charge pump and NEM-CMOS heterogeneous discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) buck regulator and the results are compared against a standard commercial 0.35?m CMOS implementation. It is shown that NEM-CMOS heterogeneous DC-DC converter has an area savings of 60% over CMOS and achieves an overall higher efficiency over CMOS, with a peak efficiency of 94.3% at 100mA. NEM relays offers unprecedented 10X-30X energy efficiency improvement in logic design for low frequency operation and has the potential to break the CMOS efficiency barrier in power electronic circuits as well. The practical aspects of NEM Relay integration are evaluated and algorithms for synthesis and development of large NEM relay based logic circuits are explored.

Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

291

Toward an Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explore (EarthCARE) thermal flux determination: Evaluation using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) true along-track data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission developed by the European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency addresses the need to improve the understanding of the interactions between cloud, aerosol, and radiation processes. The broadband radiometer (BBR) instrument on board the EarthCARE spacecraft provides measurements of broadband reflected solar and emitted thermal radiances at the top of atmosphere (TOA) over the along-track satellite path at three fixed viewing zenith angles. The multiangular information provided by the BBR, combined with the spectral information from the EarthCARE's multispectral imager (MSI) can be exploited to construct accurate thermal radiance-to-flux conversion algorithms on the basis of radiative transfer modeling. In this study, the methodology to derive longwave (LW) fluxes from BBR and MSI data is described, and the performance of the LW BBR angular models is compared with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Terra flux retrievals in order to evaluate the reliability of the BBR synthetic models when applied to satellite-based radiances. For this purpose, the BBR methodology proposed in this work is adapted to the CERES and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument specifications, and new LW angular models for CERES are developed. According to plane-parallel simulations, the BBR LW flux uncertainty caused by flux inversion could be reduced up to 0.4 W m-2. The intercomparison between CERES BBR-like adapted and CERES original angular models is performed over a BBR-like database of CERES true along track, and the averaged instantaneous retrievals agree to within 2 W m-2.

Domenech, C.; Wehr, T.; Fischer, J.

2011-03-01

292

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 4: Earth to Saturn ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Saturn are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements as well as many other launch and Saturn arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Saturn probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations elating various parameters. This is the first of a planned series of mission design documents which will apply to all planets and some other bodies in the solar system.

Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

1981-01-01

293

Seismic Design, Analysis, and Remedial Measures to Improve Stability of Existing Earth Dams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the seismic design of new embankment dams and analysis of existing dams, and possible courses of action to mitigate seismic hazards in the event that analysis indicates unsatisfactory conditions. Also discussed are the use of pseudos...

W. F. Marcuson A. G. Franklin

1983-01-01

294

Design Challenges of Power Systems for Instrumented Spacecraft with Very Low Perigees in the Earth's Ionosphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Designing a solar array to power a spacecraft bus supporting a set of instruments making in situ plasma and neutral atmosphere measurements in the ionosphere at altitudes of 120km or lower poses several challenges. The driving scientific requirements are ...

V. E. Moran D. D. Manzer R. E. Pfaff J. M. Grebowsky J. C. Gervin

1999-01-01

295

Development of the Simplified Method for Internal Stability Design of Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1994, a technical working group under the auspices of the T-15 Technical Committee on Substructures and Walls of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Bridge Subcommittee, was formed to reevaluate the design sp...

T. Allen, B. Christopher, V. Elias, J. DeMaggio

2001-01-01

296

Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the COSMOS 1887 mission.

Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

1995-01-01

297

Constraints on Energy Dissipation in the Earth's Body Tide From Satellite Tracking and Altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phase lag by which the earth's body tide follows the tidal potential is estimated for the principal lunar semidiurnal tide M(sub 2). The estimate results from combining recent tidal solutions from satellite tracking data and from Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. Each data type is sensitive to the body-tide lag: gravitationally for the tracking data, geometrically for the altimetry. Allowance is made for the lunar atmospheric tide. For the tidal potential Love number kappa(sub 2) we obtain a lag epsilon of 0.20 deg +/- 0.05 deg, implying an effective body-tide Q of 280 and body-tide energy dissipation of 110 +/- 25 gigawatts.

Ray, Richard D.; Eanes, Richard J.; Lemoine, Frank G.

1992-01-01

298

Linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit.  

PubMed

Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the Cosmos 1887 mission. PMID:11537520

Akopova, A B; Magradze, N V; Dudkin, V E; Kovalev, E E; Potapov YuV; Benton, E V; Frank, A L; Benton, E R; Parnell, T A; Watts, J W

1990-01-01

299

Linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the Cosmos 1887 mission.

Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W. Jr

1990-01-01

300

Wavelength-stable rare earth-free green light-emitting diodes for energy efficiency.  

PubMed

Solid state lighting seeks to replace both, incandescent and fluorescent lighting by energy efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Just like compact fluorescent tubes, current white LEDs employ costly rare earth-based phosphors, a drawback we propose to overcome with direct emitting LEDs of all colors. We show the benefits of homoepitaxial LEDs on bulk GaN substrate for wavelength-stable green spectrum LEDs. By use of non-polar growth orientation we avoid big color shifts with drive current and demonstrate polarized light emitters that prove ideal for pairing with liquid crystal display modulators in back light units of television monitors. We further offer a comparison of the prospects of non-polar a- and m-plane growth over conventional c-plane growth. PMID:21747568

Wetzel, Christian; Detchprohm, Theeradetch

2011-07-01

301

Low-energy electron intensities at large distances over the earth's polar cap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The eccentric-orbiting satellite Imp 5 penetrated the distant polar magnetosphere at positions corresponding to those for magnetic field lines which intersect the earth's northern polar cap. Measurements of electron intensities with E not less than 250 eV in these regions of extremely low plasma densities were gained with an electrostatic analyzer. The observational period was January-October 1970. Electron intensities within the energy range 250 eV-50 keV were less by orders of magnitude than those typically encountered within the plasma sheet and over the auroral oval. However, dramatic temporal variations of average electron intensities in the polar cap region were found for orbit-to-orbit comparisons. The observed intensity variations showed a remarkable correlation with the polarity of the magnetic sector structure in the interplanetary medium: high intensities for 'away from the sun' sectors and low intensities for 'toward' sectors.

Yeager, D. Y.; Frank, L. A.

1976-01-01

302

Energy Transfer in Rare Earth Ion Clusters and Fluorescence from Rare Earth Doped LANTHANUM(1.85)STRONTIUM(0.15)COPPER -OXYGEN(4) Superconductors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser spectroscopy of rare earth ions in solids was used to study mechanisms of non-resonant energy transfer within rare earth clusters, and to detect insulating, impurity phases in rare earth doped La_{1.85 }Sr_{0.15}CuO _4 superconductors. The mechanisms of phonon-assisted, non-resonant energy transfer were studied in well-defined dimer sites in Er^{3+ }:SrF_2 and Pr ^{3+}:CaF_2. Application of a magnetic field to Er^{3+} :SrF_2 greatly increased the energy transfer rate. The magnetic field dependence in Er^{3+}:SrF _2 indicates that the mechanism of non-resonant energy transfer is a two-phonon, resonant process (Orbach process). Application of a magnetic field to Pr ^{3+}:CaF_2 had no effect on the energy transfer rate because no significant Zeeman splittings occurred. The temperature dependence of the energy transfer rate in Pr^{3+ }:CaF_2 showed the mechanism to be a one-phonon-assisted process at low temperatures and predominantly an Orbach process above 10 K. In the second part of this thesis, laser spectroscopy of a Eu ^{3+} probe ion is developed to detect impurity phases in La_{1.85 }Sr_{0.15}CuO _4 superconductors. Two impurity phases were found in polycrystalline La_ {1.85}Sr_{0.15} CuO_4: unreacted La _2O_3 starting material, and a La-silicate phase, which formed from contamination during sintering. The spectroscopic technique was found to be more than 100 times more sensitive than powder x -ray diffraction to detect minor impurity phases. In preparing the superconductors, several studies were made on the effect of Pr^{3+}, Eu ^{3+}, Bi^{3+ }, and fluorine dopants on the superconducting properties of La_{1.85}Sr _{0.15}CuO_4 and La_2Cuo_4 . Pr^{3+}, Eu ^{3+}, Bi^ {3+}, and F_2 doping all decreased the superconductivity in La_ {1.85}Sr^{0.15} CuO_4. Treating semi-conducting La_2CuO_4 in F_2 gas converted it to a superconductor with an onset T_{rm c} of 30-35 K.

Tissue, Brian Max

1988-12-01

303

Energy-Efficient Design for Florida Educational Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides a detailed simulation analysis of a variety of energy conservation measures (ECMs) with the intent of giving educational facility design teams in Florida a basis for decision making. The manual's three sections cover energy efficiency design considerations that appear throughout the following design processes: schematic…

Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral.

304

The design and implementation of a high sensitivity telescope for in situ measurements of energetic particles in the Earth's radiation belts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the design and implementation of a high-sensitivity telescope (HST) for in situ detection and energy analysis of energetic charged particles in the Earth's radiation belts from a near-equatorial orbit that will range over geocentric distances from ? 2--3.5 Earth radii as part of the US Air Force's Demonstrations and Science eXperiment (DSX) mission. The HST employs a two element silicon solid state detector telescope that has a geometrical factor of 0.1 cm2 sr with a 14° field-of-view centered on the on-orbit local magnetic field vector to detect ? 100 particles s-1 cm-2 sr-1 in the geomagnetic bounce loss cone. The pointing direction of the HST is guaranteed by the active attitude control subsystem of the spacecraft. A novel implementation of a knife-edged baffled collimator design restricts the field-of-view and provides a sharp cutoff (? 103) in the angular response to all particle species with energies from ? 40--800 keV. The HST detectors are shielded with 5g cm-2 of aluminum followed by 3.1 g cm-2 of tungsten in all non-look directions to reduce the background fluxes incident on the detectors through the orbit (>107 particles cm -2 s-1 for electrons and protons individually) to levels that will allow the detection of the target flux in the loss cone. The HST has been extensively characterized on the ground and is capable of analyzing the energies of particles over the range of 25--850 keV with an energy resolution of 3.7keV and a noise FWHM of 15keV. The calibration has been established using 241Am and 133Ba X-ray sources and verified using additional beta- and X-ray sources and the electron beams produced by the 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center's Radiation Effects Facility. The instrument's calibration has been shown to vary by less than 2% over the operational temperature range of --20 to +35°C. Electromagnetic interference testing has proven that the HST is unaffected by strong VLF fields of peak amplitude 1.5 kV.

Parker, Charles Walter

305

An exploration of energy-saving green products design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the growing problem of global warming, resource depletion, air pollution and other environmental problems, by analyzing the excessive use of fossil fuels, and the drawbacks of product design without considering energy consumption, this paper points out the importance of green energy-saving products design and explores the types of energy-saving green products.

Xiaodan Yang; Wenhuan Liao

2010-01-01

306

Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

1991-01-01

307

Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

1991-10-01

308

Beam-waveguide antenna servo design issues for tracking low earth-orbiting satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upcoming NASA missions will require tracking of low-orbit satellites. As a consequence, NASA antennas will be required to track satellites at higher rates than for the current deep space missions. This article investigates servo design issues for the 34-m beam-waveguide antennas that track low-orbit satellites. This includes upgrading the servo with a feedforward loop, using a monopulse controller design, and reducing tracking errors through either proper choice of elevation pinion location, application of a notch filter, or adjustment of the elevation drive amplifier gain. Finally, improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio through averaging of the over-sampled monopulse signal is described.

Gawronski, W. K.; Mellstrom, J. A.

1993-01-01

309

Probabilistic Design of a Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The driving requirement for design of a Mars Sample Return mission is to assure containment of the returned samples. Designing to, and demonstrating compliance with, such a requirement requires physics based tools that establish the relationship between engineer's sizing margins and probabilities of failure. The traditional method of determining margins on ablative thermal protection systems, while conservative, provides little insight into the actual probability of an over-temperature during flight. The objective of this paper is to describe a new methodology for establishing margins on sizing the thermal protection system (TPS). Results of this Monte Carlo approach are compared with traditional methods.

Dec, John A.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.

2002-01-01

310

Design, microstructure, and high-temperature behavior of silicon nitride sintered with rate-earth oxides  

SciTech Connect

The processing-microstructure-property relations of silicon nitride ceramics sintered with rare-earth oxide additives have been investigated with the aim of improving their high-temperature behavior. The additions of the oxides of Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, or Yb were compositionally controlled to tailor the intergranular phase. The resulting microstructure consisted of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and a crystalline secondary phase of RE{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with a thin residual amorphous phase present at grain boundaries. The lanthanide oxides were found to be as effective as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in densifying Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, resulting in identical microstructures. The crystallization behavior of all six disilicates was similar, characterized by a limited nucleation and rapid growth mechanism resulting in large single crystals. Complete crystallization of the intergranular phase was obtained with the exception of a residual amorphous, observed at interfaces and believed to be rich in impurities, the cause of incomplete devitrification. The low resistance to oxidation of these materials was attributed to the minimization of amorphous phases via devitrification to disilicates, compatible with SiO{sub 2}, the oxidation product of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The strength retention of these materials at 1300{degrees}C was found to be between 80% and 91% of room-temperature strength, due to crystallization of the secondary phase and a residual but refractory amorphous grain-boundary phase. The creep behavior was found to be strongly dependent on residual amorphous phase viscosity as well as on the oxidation behavior, as evidenced by the nonsteady-state creep rates of all materials. 122 refs., 51 figs., 12 tabs.

Ciniculk, M.K. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

1991-08-01

311

MATLAB® and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

2012-04-01

312

High energy-intensity atomic oxygen beam source for low earth orbit materials degradation studies  

SciTech Connect

A high intensity (10/sup 19/O-atoms/s-sr) high energy (5 eV) source of oxygen atoms has been developed that produces a total fluence of 10/sup 22/ O-atoms/cm/sup 2/ in less than 100 hours of continuous operation at a distance of 15 cm from the source. The source employs a CW CO/sub 2/ laser sustained discharge to form a high temperature (15,000 K) plasma in the throat of a 0.3-mm diameter nozzle using 3--8 atmospheres of rare gas/O/sub 2/ mixtures. Visible and infrared photon flux levels of 1 watt/cm/sup 2/ have been measured 15 cm downstream of the source while vacuum UV (VUV) fluxes are comparable to that measured in low earth orbit. The reactions of atomic oxygen with kapton, Teflon, silver, and various coatings have been studied. The oxidation of kapton (reaction efficiency = 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/24/ cm /+-/ 50%) has an activation energy of 0.8 Kcal/mole over the temperature range of 25/degree/C to 100/degree/C at a beam energy of 1.5 eV and produces low molecular weight gas phase reaction products (H/sub 2/O, NO, CO/sub 2/). Teflon reacts with approx.0.1--0.2 efficiency to that of kapton at 25/degree/C and both surfaces show a rug-like texture after exposure to the O-atom beam. Angular scattering distribution measurements of O-atoms show a near cosine distribution from reactive surfaces indicating complete accommodation of the translational energy with the surface while a nonreactive surface (nickel oxide) shows specular-like scattering with 50% accommodation of the translational energy with the surface. A technique for simple on orbit chemical experiments using resistance measurements of coated silver strips is described. 9 figs.

Cross, J.B.; Blais, N.C.

1988-01-01

313

ERTS-B (Earth Resources Technology Satellite). [spacecraft design remote sensor description, and technology utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission plans and objectives of the ERTS 2 Satellite are presented. ERTS 2 follow-on investigations in various scientific disciplines including agriculture, meteorology, land-use, geology, water resources, oceanography, and environment are discussed. Spacecraft design and its sensors are described along with the Delta launch vehicle and launch operations. Applications identified from ERTS 1 investigations are summarized.

1975-01-01

314

Trajectory design in the Earth-Moon system and lunar South Pole coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacecraft trajectory design is evolving and innovation is increasingly driven by computational methods. As new regimes are explored, numerical techniques are most often developed to cope with undesirable behavior in sensitive dynamical systems. Nonlinear systems with sensitive dynamics are ubiquitous spacecraft trajectory modeling, where the models include, for example, perturbations due to an aspherical central body, multi-body perturbations, and solar

Daniel J. Grebow

2010-01-01

315

Wire Antenna Designed for Space Wave Radiation Over the Earth Using a Genetic Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wire antenna is designed for optimal performance at low elevation angles in the presence of a lossy half-space. A simple genetic algorithm (GA) and GENOCOP III software are each integrated with Numerical Electromagnetics Code Version 4.1 (NEC4.1) to opt...

B. S. Sandlin

1997-01-01

316

Electromagnetic force motor design using rare earth-cobalt permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high force, long stroke force motor has been developed for use in driving control valves on hydraulic actuators which position aircraft control surfaces. The force motor replaces more conventional secondary actuators at considerable savings in cost and space with improved reliability. The force motor design concept utilizes samarium cobalt magnets to achieve a compact configuration suitable for interfacing redundant

M. F. Marx; T. D. Lewis

1977-01-01

317

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Revised Eros Orbit Phase Trajectory Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trajectory design of the orbit phase of the NEAR mission involves a new process that departs significantly from those procedures used in previous missions. In most cases, a precise spacecraft ephemeris is designed well in advance of arrival at the target body. For NEAR, the uncertainty in the dynamic environment around Eros does not allow the luxury of a precise spacecraft trajectory to be defined in advance. The principal cause of this uncertainty is the limited knowledge oi' the gravity field a,-id rotational state of Eros. As a result, the concept for the NEAR trajectory design is to define a number of rules for satisfying spacecraft, mission, and science constraints, and then apply these rules to various assumptions for the model of Eros. Nominal, high, and low Eros mass models are used for testing the trajectory design strategy and to bracket the ranges of parameter variations that are expected upon arrival at the asteroid. The final design is completed after arrival at Eros and determination of the actual gravity field and rotational state. As a result of the unplanned termination of the deep space rendezvous maneuver on December 20, 1998, the NEAR spacecraft passed within 3830 km of Eros on December 23, 1998. This flyby provided a brief glimpse of Eros, and allowed for a more accurate model of the rotational parameters and gravity field uncertainty. Furthermore, after the termination of the deep space rendezvous burn, contact with the spacecraft was lost and the NEAR spacecraft lost attitude control. During the subsequent gyrations of the spacecraft, hydrazine thruster firings were used to regain attitude control. This unplanned thruster activity used Much of the fuel margin allocated for the orbit phase. Consequently, minimizing fuel consumption is now even more important.

Helfrich, J; Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. G.; Carranza, E.; Williams, B. G.; Dunham, D. W.; Farquhar, R. W.; McAdams, J. V.

1999-01-01

318

Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

2008-01-01

319

The World's Largest Experiment Manipulating Solar Energy Input To Earth Resumed In 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small amounts of solar-ultraviolet-energy absorbing gases such as ozone, SO2, and NO2 play an unusually large role warming the atmosphere. A mere 3 to 8 ppmv ozone at elevations of 15 to 50 km and associated exothermic chemical reactions warm the atmosphere >50oC, forming the stratosphere. All three molecules have an asymmetric top shape that, unlike linear molecules of CO2, forms a permanent electromagnetic dipole enhancing interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Planck’s postulate (Energy = a constant times frequency) implies that solar ultraviolet energy strongly absorbed by SO2 is 43 times greater than infrared energy radiated by earth and strongly absorbed by CO2. Solar energy in the blue visible spectrum and ultraviolet causes electronic transitions and an absorption spectrum that is a continuum, absorbing far more energy per unit gas than spectral line absorption of infrared energy caused by rotational and vibrational transitions. Absorption of electromagnetic energy by atmospheric gases increases rapidly with increasing frequency, an observation not accounted for by the use of specific heat in atmospheric models to link energy flux with temperature. While SO2 in the stratosphere is oxidized to a sulfuric acid aerosol that reflects sunlight, cooling the earth, SO2 in the troposphere is oxidized much more slowly than commonly assumed. Well-documented concentrations of tens of ppbv SO2 emitted by humans burning fossil fuels, especially coal, in northern mid-latitudes are contemporaneous, with suitable time delays for warming the ocean, with increased global warming during the 20th century, greatest by nearly a factor of two in the northern hemisphere. A decrease by 18% of anthropogenic SO2 emissions between 1979 and 2000 aimed at reducing acid rain had the unintended effect of reducing the global mean rate of temperature increase to zero by 1998. By 2003, global SO2 emissions began to rise sharply due to the rapid increase in number of new coal-burning power plants in Asia. The 20th century rate of increase in tropospheric methane also approached zero by 1998 but began to increase in 2007 as explained by SO2 reducing the oxidizing capacity and thus the troposphere’s ability to remove methane. SO2 does not last long in the atmosphere, but a continual and increasing flux causes increased concentrations. SO2 from China is traceable across the Pacific Ocean even to eastern America, perhaps playing a major role in the unusually high air temperatures in 2010. Atmospheric circulation in the northern hemisphere moves SO2 towards the pole where it is the primary cause of Arctic Haze. In polar regions, solar radiation travels longer path lengths through the atmosphere during longer summer days than in equatorial regions, contributing to the well-documented excessive global warming in the Arctic. The resumed increase in SO2 emissions since 2003 provides the world’s largest geoengineering experiment and an excellent chance to measure, especially in China and India, the effects of SO2 and NO2 on global warming. Technology exists to reduce SO2 emissions economically. The time has come to control this large geoengineering experiment in the hopes that we can minimize continued global warming.

Ward, P. L.

2010-12-01

320

Assessment of the global energy budget of Mars and comparison to the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy balance of a planet depends on its radiative environment and internal energy production. In the case of present-day Mars, the whole climate system is by far controlled by solar radiation rather than internal heat. Over the last hundreds of millions of years, changes in the orbital parameters and insolation pattern have induced various climatic excursions, during which the energy transfers within the atmosphere were different from today. On the longer term, i.e. over the last billions of years, the energy budget was even more different, as a result of the larger geothermal flux and heat provided by volcanic eruptions and impacts. Seeing the climate of Mars from an energy budget perspective provides a framework for understanding the key processes, as well as constraining climate models. The goal of this research is thus to characterize and analyze the energy budget of Mars. The first step, which is described in this communication, consists of quantifying the different components of the Mars radiation budget using the LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) GCM (Global Climate Model). The LMD/GCM has been developed for more than 20 years and has now reached a level of detail that allows us to quantify the different contributions of CO2 gas, dust and clouds to the radiation budget. The general picture of the radiation budget as simulated by the GCM can be summarized as follows. First of all, the global-mean shortwave (SW) flux incident on the top of the Martian atmosphere is 148.5 W m-2. Whereas most of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by atmospheric gases on Earth, on Mars most of the sunlight is absorbed by dust particles. Our simulations show that around 15% of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by dust particles whereas 2.5% is reflected by them. Water-ice clouds also reflect around 1.5% of the solar radiation, which is much smaller than the amount of radiation reflected by clouds on Earth (around 20%). The Martian atmosphere is even more transparent in the long-wave (LW) domain. Only 7% of the infrared radiation emitted by the surface is absorbed by the atmosphere. Most of this absorption (around 4% of the total outgoing infrared radiation) is due to dust particles. Water-ice clouds also play a significant role, and absorb approximately half as much LW radiation as the dust particles. The distribution of energy among the different atmospheric processes (release of latent heat by condensing CO2, atmospheric motions, etc.) can also be analyzed with the GCM and is being further documented. The next steps include analyzing the available observations of the radiation budget, using them to better constrain the GCM, simulating the energy budget during past climatic excursions, and further comparing the fluxes to those of terrestrial glacial regions. The analysis of the integrated SW and LW fluxes has been done using instruments such as TES onboard Mars Global Surveyor, but only in the polar regions. Indeed, measuring the energy budget requires a good spatial and temporal sampling that is better achieved in the polar regions (most Martian satellites have a sun-synchronous polar orbit). Now that GCMs can simulate the SW and LW radiation fields accurately, simulations can be used to fill the temporal gaps in non-polar regions and explore the measurements on a global scale.

Madeleine, J.; Head, J. W.; Forget, F.; Wolff, M. J.

2012-12-01

321

Galileo: Earth avoidance study report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1989 Galileo mission to Jupiter is based on a VEEGA (Venus Earth Earth-Gravity Assist) trajectory which uses two flybys of Earth and one of Venus to achieve the necessary energy and shaping to reach Jupiter. These encounters are needed because the Centaur upper stage is not now being used on this mission. Since the Galileo spacecraft uses radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for electrical power, the question arises as to whether there is any chance of an inadvertent atmospheric entry of the spacecraft during either of the two Earth flybys. A study was performed which determined the necessary actions, in both spacecraft and trajectory design as well as in operations, to insure that the probability of such reentry is made very small, and to provide a quantitative assessment of the probability of reentry.

Mitchell, R. T.

1988-01-01

322

Advanced Energy Efficiency Design Strategies In Retail Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents two US retail building projects that were designed and constructed using the energy design process. These buildings, the BigHorn Center in Silverthorne, Colorado, and the Zion National Park Visitor Center in Springdale, Utah, were both...

S. Hayter P. Torcellini

2000-01-01

323

Early Design Energy Analysis Using Building Information Modeling Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the advent of Military Construction (MILCON) Transformation, the responsibility for conducting energy modeling late in the design process falls solely on the Design/Build contractor or their consultants. This research utilized Building Information Mo...

A. L. Stumpf E. M. Jenicek H. Kim

2011-01-01

324

Architecture and Design of Storage and Data Management for the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is a long-term NASA research mission to study the processes leading to global climate change. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the component within MTPE that will provide the Earth science community with easy, affordable, and reliable access to Earth science data. EOSDIS is a distributed system, with major facilities at eight Distributed

Ben Kobler; John Berbert; Parris Caulk; P. C. Hariharan

1995-01-01

325

Survival probability and energy change of hydrogen Energetic Neutral Atoms on their way from the termination shock to Earth orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the forthcoming launch of a NASA SMEX mission IBEX devoted to imaging of heliospheric interface by in-situ detection of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA), an important issue becomes recognizing of transport of these atoms from the termination shock of the solar wind to Earth orbit. I investigate modifications of energy and of survival probability of the H ENA detectable by

Maciej Bzowski

2008-01-01

326

Survival probability and energy modification of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms on their way from the termination shock to Earth orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Recognizing the transport of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA), from their place of birth to Earth orbit, has become an important issue in light of the forthcoming launch of the NASA SMEX mission IBEX, which is devoted to imaging of the heliospheric interface by in-situ detection of ENAs. Aims: We investigate the modifications of both energy of survival probability of

M. Bzowski

2008-01-01

327

Design of a K-Band Transmit Phased Array For Low Earth Orbit Satellite Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a light weight, low cost phased array antenna is presented. Multilayer printed wiring board (PWB) technology is utilized for Radio Frequencies (RF) and DC/Logic manifold distribution. Transmit modules are soldered on one side and patch antenna elements are on the other, allowing the use of automated assembly processes. The 19 GHz antenna has two independently steerable beams, each capable of transferring data at 622 Mbps. A passive, self-contained phase change thermal management system is also presented.

Watson, Thomas; Miller, Stephen; Kershner, Dennis; Anzic, Godfrey

2000-01-01

328

Design of a 12-GHz multicarrier earth-terminal for satellite-CATV interconnection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of the front-end for a multi-carrier system that allows multiplex signal transmission from satellite-borne transponders is described. Detailed systems analyses provided down-converter specifications. The 12 GHz carrier down-converter uses waveguide, coaxial, and microstrip transmission line elements in its implementation. Mixing is accomplished in a single-ended coaxial mixer employing a field-replacable cartridge style diode.

Newman, B. A.; Singh, J. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

1971-01-01

329

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 3: Earth to Jupiter ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Jupiter are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Jupiter arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Jupiter probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

1982-01-01

330

Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science\\u000a teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices\\u000a in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span, included follow-up support to\\u000a teachers, and incorporated active learning approaches

William R. Penuel; Harold McWilliams; Carla McAuliffe; Ann E. Benbow; Colin Mably; Margaret M. Hayden

2009-01-01

331

Energies of rare-earth ion states relative to host bands in optical materials from electron photoemission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a vast number of applications for rare-earth-activated materials and much of today's cutting-edge optical technology and emerging innovations are enabled by their unique properties. In many of these applications, interactions between the rare-earth ion and the host material's electronic states can enhance or inhibit performance and provide mechanisms for manipulating the optical properties. Continued advances in these technologies require knowledge of the relative energies of rare-earth and crystal band states so that properties of available materials may be fully understood and new materials may be logically developed. Conventional and resonant electron photoemission techniques were used to measure 4f electron and valence band binding energies in important optical materials, including YAG, YAlO3, and LiYF4. The photoemission spectra were theoretically modeled and analyzed to accurately determine relative energies. By combining these energies with ultraviolet spectroscopy, binding energies of excited 4fN-15d and 4fN+1 states were determined. While the 4fN ground-state energies vary considerably between different trivalent ions and lie near or below the top of the valence band in optical materials, the lowest 4f N-15d states have similar energies and are near the bottom of the conduction band. As an example for YAG, the Tb3+ 4f N ground state is in the band gap at 0.7 eV above the valence band while the Lu3+ ground state is 4.7 eV below the valence band maximum; however, the lowest 4fN-15d states are 2.2 eV below the conduction band for both ions. We found that a simple model accurately describes the binding energies of the 4fN, 4fN-1 5d, and 4fN+1 states. The model's success across the entire rare-earth series indicates that measurements on two different ions in a host are sufficient to predict the energies of all rare-earth ions in that host. This information provides new insight into electron transfer transitions, luminescence quenching, and valence stability. All of these results lead to a clearer picture for the host's effect on the rare-earth ion's electron binding energies and will motivate fundamental theoretical analysis and accelerate the development of new optical materials.

Thiel, Charles Warren

332

Energy Exchange Studies at the Earth's Surface. II. Energy Budget of a Pumice Desert.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The energy budget of a pumice desert surface was analyzed under clear skies during early, mid- and late summer periods. The pumice site is in the semi-arid plateau region of Central Oregon at an elevation of about 1500 meters.

H. R. Holbo

1973-01-01

333

Designing for Optimal Energy Use in Production Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These briefing charts accompany a presentation on how Albert Kahn Associate saves its clients energy costs through building structure, design of HVAC systems, lighting systems, process related systems, control improvements, and energy recovery.

2004-01-01

334

Investigation of design options for improving the energy efficiency of conventionally designed refrigerator-freezers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several design options for improving the energy efficiency of conventionally-designed, domestic refrigerator freezers (RFs) were incorporated into two 1990 production RF cabinets and refrigeration systems. The baseline performance of the original units an...

J. R. Sand E. A. Vineyard R. H. Bohman

1993-01-01

335

A communications system conceptual design for a low earth orbiting Manned Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a NASA study on the design of the communications system for a space station RF communications system are reported. The system requirements, ground rules, and assumptions are detailed, together with the overall configuration, the relay satellite links, and the forward and return links. The operational modes are surveyed for voice and data transmission performances, as well as links to unmanned orbital transfer vehicles. Tradeoff studies are yet to be performed for system growth, video data compression, multiaccess communications, optical or conventional functioning, and the necessary antenna systems.

Tu, K.; Teasdale, W. E.; Zimmerman, R. J.

1982-01-01

336

Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design estimate for the materials for the International Space Station (ISS) specified in SSP 30512 was a conservative estimate. The environment dose was over estimated. The materials originally qualified for approximately 10-15 years are anticipated to be acceptable for periods of up to 20-30 years based on SSP-30512 or 40-60 years based on 2x SSP-30512. This viewgraph presentation shows charts and graphs that review the altitude, the solar minimum and maximum, and the radiation exposure of other satellite, among other graphics.

Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; McWilliams, Brett; Koontz, Steven L.

2006-01-01

337

Initial Investigation of Reaction Control System Design on Spacecraft Handling Qualities for Earth Orbit Docking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of research, development, test, and evaluation is planned for the development of Spacecraft Handling Qualities guidelines. In this first experiment, the effects of Reaction Control System design characteristics and rotational control laws were evaluated during simulated proximity operations and docking. Also, the influence of piloting demands resulting from varying closure rates was assessed. The pilot-in-the-loop simulation results showed that significantly different spacecraft handling qualities result from the design of the Reaction Control System. In particular, cross-coupling between translational and rotational motions significantly affected handling qualities as reflected by Cooper-Harper pilot ratings and pilot workload, as reflected by Task-Load Index ratings. This influence is masked but only slightly by the rotational control system mode. While rotational control augmentation using Rate Command Attitude Hold can reduce the workload (principally, physical workload) created by cross-coupling, the handling qualities are not significantly improved. The attitude and rate deadbands of the RCAH introduced significant mental workload and control compensation to evaluate when deadband firings would occur, assess their impact on docking performance, and apply control inputs to mitigate that impact.

Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Ragsdale, W. Al; Neuhaus, Jason; Barnes, Jim

2008-01-01

338

Space shuttle seal material and design development for earth storable propellant systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a program to investigate and characterize seal materials suitable for space shuttle storable propellant systems are given. Two new elastomeric materials were identified as being potentially superior to existing state-of-the art materials for specific sealing applications. These materials were AF-E-124D and AF-E-411. AF-E-124D is a cured perfluorinated polymer suitable for use with dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizer, and hydrazine base fuels. AF-E-411 is an ethylene propylene terpolymer material for hydrazine base fuel service. Data are presented relative to low and high temperature characteristics as well as propellant exposure effects. Types of data included are: mechanical properties, stress strain curves, friction and wear characteristics, compression set and permeability. Sealing tests with a flat poppet-seal valve were conducted for verification of sealing capability. A bibliography includes over 200 references relating to seal design or materials and presents a concise tabulation of the more useful seal design data sources.

1973-01-01

339

Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires federal facilities to be built to achieve 30% energy savings over the 2004 International Energy Code or American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004, as appropriate. The Engineer Research and Development Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing target

M. Deru; A. Zhivov; D. Herron

2008-01-01

340

Climate Model Evaluation using New Datasets from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are some in the science community who believe that the response of the climate system to anthropogenic radiative forcing is unpredictable and we should therefore call off the quest . The key limitation in climate predictability is associated with cloud feedback. Narrowing the uncertainty in cloud feedback (and therefore climate sensitivity) requires optimal use of the best available observations to evaluate and improve climate model processes and constrain climate model simulations over longer time scales. The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a satellite-based program that provides global cloud, aerosol and radiative flux observations for improving our understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation feedbacks in the Earth s climate system. CERES is the successor to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which has widely been used to evaluate climate models both at short time scales (e.g., process studies) and at decadal time scales. A CERES instrument flew on the TRMM satellite and captured the dramatic 1998 El Nino, and four other CERES instruments are currently flying aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms. Plans are underway to fly the remaining copy of CERES on the upcoming NPP spacecraft (mid-2010 launch date). Every aspect of CERES represents a significant improvement over ERBE. While both CERES and ERBE measure broadband radiation, CERES calibration is a factor of 2 better than ERBE. In order to improve the characterization of clouds and aerosols within a CERES footprint, we use coincident higher-resolution imager observations (VIRS, MODIS or VIIRS) to provide a consistent cloud-aerosol-radiation dataset at climate accuracy. Improved radiative fluxes are obtained by using new CERES-derived Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) for converting measured radiances to fluxes. CERES radiative fluxes are a factor of 2 more accurate than ERBE overall, but the improvement by cloud type and at high latitudes can be as high as a factor of 5. Diurnal cycles are explicitly resolved by merging geostationary satellite observations with CERES and MODIS. Atmospheric state data are provided from a frozen version of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office- Data Assimilation System at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. In addition to improving the accuracy of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes, CERES also produces radiative fluxes at the surface and at several levels in the atmosphere using radiative transfer modeling, constrained at the TOA by CERES (ERBE was limited to the TOA). In all, CERES uses 11 instruments on 7 spacecraft all integrated to obtain climate accuracy in TOA to surface fluxes. This presentation will provide an overview of several new CERES datasets of interest to the climate community (including a new adjusted TOA flux dataset constrained by estimates of heat storage in the Earth system), show direct comparisons between CERES ad ERBE, and provide a detailed error analysis of CERES fluxes at various time and space scales. We discuss how observations can be used to reduce uncertainties in cloud feedback and climate sensitivity and strongly argue why we should NOT "call off the quest".

Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.

2008-01-01

341

The Dynamics of High-energy Cosmic Rays In Near Earth Space and Earthquake Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of correlation between short-term variations of high energy charged par- ticle fluxes in the near Earth space and seismic activity was discovered at the end of 1980s in MARIA experiment on board SALYUT-7 orbital station. Basing on 15 years investigations of high energy charged particles fluxes dynamics in magnetosphere by means of instruments installed on spacecraft it was found the correlation between the variations of particle intensities and earthquakes as temporal and spatial as well. It dis- plays as the sudden increases of counting rate of charged particles several hours before active phase of earthquakes with magnitudes more then 4 (Richter scale) The detailed study of electron and proton flux variations under the radiation belt was continued by means of MARIA-2 magnetic spectrometer on board MIR orbital station, and by in- strument ELECTRON on board INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 and METEOR- 3 satellites. The results of analysis of bursts of high-energy charged particle fluxes on the base of these experiments and data of GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites as well are presented. All these experiments confirmed the existence of correlation between short-term sharp increases of particle intensities and seismic phenomena. The possi- ble nature of this correlation is discussed. The phenomenon is explained by resonance interaction of VLF electromagnetic emission of seismic origin with charged particles trapped in radiation belt above an epicentre and following drift of disturbance along the longitude in the same L-shell as epicentre has. The fact of spatial correlation of epicentre position and place of registration of intensity variation gives the possibility to obtain the coordinates of future earthquake some hours before its beginning with accuracy up to 100 km in real time and so use this precursor in practice.

Alexandrin, S.; Galper, A.; Grishantseva, L.; Koldashov, S.; Maslennikov, L.; Murashov, A.; Picozza, P.; Voronov, S.

342

Development of Energy Performance Standards for New Buildings: Energy Conscious Designs. Phase Two Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected drawings from each of 168 commercial and multifamily building designs and 20 energy-conserving single-family dwelling designs are included in this appendix to the Report for the Development of Energy Performance Standards. Individual drawings fro...

1978-01-01

343

System implementation for earth radiation budget satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The earth-orbiting satellite provides a platform, outside the earth's atmosphere, which is capable of simultaneously monitoring the outgoing reflection of the sun's energy from the earth's surface and atmosphere, and the longwave radiation emitted by the earth and its atmosphere. These capabilities provide the opportunity to conduct detailed studies of the variations in the earth's radiation budget, the effects of natural and manmade changes in the environment on this budget, and the effects which changes in the energy budget produce on earth's weather and climate. A description is presented of the instrument system requirements and a conceptual design of an instrument approach to meet these requirements for providing the earth radiation budget data.

Cooper, J. E.; Woerner, C. V.

1978-01-01

344

Earth to space dc to dc power transmission system utilizing a microwave beam as source of energy for electric propelled interorbital vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper contributes to the credibility of an electric propelled interorbital transportation system by introducing a new low-mass source of continuous dc power for electric propulsion and illustrating how the source can be economically tied to an electric utility on earth by an electronically steered microwave beam. The new thin-film rectenna, which functions as the receiving end of an earth-to-space microwave power transmission system is described. It is easily fabricated, is over 80 percent efficient, has a specific mass of no more than 2 kilograms per kilowatt of continuous dc power output, and is well adapted for deployment in space. The paper then describes a complete system consisting of the interorbital vehicle and the microwave power transmission system that supplies it with power. A design scenario is used to obtain performance data from the system in terms of vehicle transfer times, payload fractions, and costs. Electric energy costs are found to be less than $1000 per kilogram of payload delivered to geosynchronous orbit from low-earth orbit.

Brown, W. C.

1985-01-01

345

Analysis of some Earth, Moon and Mars samples in terms of gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors: Penetration depth, weight fraction of constituent elements and photon energy dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth, Moon and Mars samples have been investigated in terms of gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors (EABF) depending on penetration depth, weight fraction of constituent elements and photon energy. The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to compute the buildup factors in the energy region 0.015–15MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mean

Murat Kurudirek; Bekir Dogan; Yüksel Özdemir; Anderson Camargo Moreira; Carlos Roberto Appoloni

2011-01-01

346

Parametric analysis of performance and design characteristics for advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance, trajectory, and design characteristics are presented for (1) a single-stage shuttle with a single advanced rocket engine, (2) a single-stage shuttle with an initial parallel chemical engine and advanced engine burn followed by an advanced engine sustainer burn, (3) a single-stage shuttle with an initial chemical engine burn followed by an advanced engine burn, and (4) a two-stage shuttle with a chemical propulsion booster stage and an advanced propulsion upper stage. The ascent trajectory profile includes a brief initial vertical rise; zero-lift flight through the sensible atmosphere; variational steering into an 83-kilometer by 185-kilometer intermediate orbit; and a fixed, 460-meter per second allowance for subsequent maneuvers. Results are given in terms of burnout mass fractions (including structure and payload), trajectory profiles, propellant loadings, and burn times. These results are generated with a trajectory analysis that includes a parametric variation of the specific impulse from 800 to 3000 seconds and the specific engine weight from 0 to 1.0.

Willis, E. A., Jr.; Strack, W. C.; Padrutt, J. A.

1972-01-01

347

Five year research plan, 1988--1992: Energy from the earth: Geothermal energy program  

SciTech Connect

Consistent with national energy policy guidance, the plan concentrates on research and development (R and D) and limits system experiments to only those necessary to stimulate industrial confidence in the validity of research findings. A key strategy element is the continuation of the government/industry partnership which is critical to successful development of geothermal technology. The primary near-term research emphasis is the extension of hydrothermal technology options for reservoir identification, reservoir analysis, hard rock penetration, and flash and binary electric plants. The advanced geothermal resources--geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma--are longer-term and higher-risk focal points, and research in these areas centers on establishing a technology base that will allow industry to make prudent and timely investment decisions with respect to the use of these resources. 13 figs.

Not Available

1988-10-01

348

Design connection: energy and technology in architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six prominent architects probe the relationship of formal architectural design to both building technology and human values. Examining the history of architecture in terms of human, material, and technological resources, they shed new light on the search for responsible new designs in today's era of rapid societal change, shrinking physical resources, and economic and political retrenchment. The essential area of

R. W. Crump; M. J. Harms

1981-01-01

349

Developing an energy design tool: Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the planning phase of a proposed four-phase project for creating computer software to provide energy expertise in a manageable form to architects and engineers - thereby decreasing energy use in new buildings. The government sponsored software would be integrated with commercially developed software for use in the design of buildings. The result would be an integrated software package to aid the designer in the building design process and to provide expert insight into the energy related implications of a proposed design.

Heidell, J.A.; Deringer, J.D.

1987-02-01

350

Modeling the energy effect of gravitational differentiation in the early evolution of the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal history of the Earth can be studied only by mathematical modeling that relies on a system of cosmogonic notions. Assumptions regarding the possible sources of interior planetary heat are of course closely linked with the thermal evolution of the Earth. In this context, it is important to consider the nature of the stratified vertical structure of the planet,

E. N. Solov'eva

1991-01-01

351

A general design for energy test procedures  

SciTech Connect

Appliances are increasingly controlled by microprocessors. Unfortunately, energy test procedures have not been modified to capture the positive and negative contributions of the microprocessor to the appliance's energy use. A new test procedure is described which captures both the mechanical and logical features present in many new appliances. We developed an energy test procedure for refrigerators that incorporates most aspects of the proposed new approach. Some of the strengths and weaknesses of the new test are described.

Meier, Alan

2000-06-15

352

Evaluating the design of an earth radiation budget instrument with system simulations. Part 2: Minimization of instantaneous sampling errors for CERES-I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of the new record of broadband earth radiation budget satellite measurements to be obtained during the late 1990s and early twenty-first century will come from the dual-radiometer Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-I) flown aboard sun-synchronous polar orbiters. Simulation studies conducted in this work for an early afternoon satellite orbit indicate that spatial root-mean-square (rms) sampling errors of instantaneous CERES-I shortwave flux estimates will range from about 8.5 to 14.0 W/m on a 2.5 deg latitude and longitude grid resolution. Rms errors in longwave flux estimates are only about 20% as large and range from 1.5 to 3.5 W/sq m. These results are based on an optimal cross-track scanner design that includes 50% footprint overlap to eliminate gaps in the top-of-the-atmosphere coverage, and a 'smallest' footprint size to increase the ratio in the number of observations lying within to the number of observations lying on grid area boundaries. Total instantaneous measurement error also depends on the variability of anisotropic reflectance and emission patterns and on retrieval methods used to generate target area fluxes. Three retrieval procedures from both CERES-I scanners (cross-track and rotating azimuth plane) are used. (1) The baseline Earth Radiaton Budget Experiment (ERBE) procedure, which assumes that errors due to the use of mean angular dependence models (ADMs) in the radiance-to-flux inversion process nearly cancel when averaged over grid areas. (2) To estimate N, instantaneous ADMs are estimated from the multiangular, collocated observations of the two scanners. These observed models replace the mean models in computation of satellite flux estimates. (3) The scene flux approach, conducts separate target-area retrievals for each ERBE scene category and combines their results using area weighting by scene type. The ERBE retrieval performs best when the simulated radiance field departs from the ERBE mean models by less than 10%. For larger perturbations, both the scene flux and collocation methods produce less error than the ERBE retrieval. The scene flux technique is preferable, however, because it involves fewer restrictive assumptions.

Stowe, Larry; Hucek, Richard; Ardanuy, Philip; Joyce, Robert

1994-01-01

353

The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma-Ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4 (Levine et al. 1984), as well as new transient sources discovered with BATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique (Harmon et al. 2001, astro-ph/0109069) was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling to about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (> 10 mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the HEASARC for public use.

Harmon, B. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.; Finger, M. H.; Connaughton, V.; Koshut, T. M.; Henze, W.; McCollough, M. L.; Sahi, M.; Peterson, B.; Grindlay, J.; Barret, D.; Shrader, C. R.

2002-04-01

354

The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma-Ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE),aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4 (Levine et al. 1984), as well as new transient sources discovered with BATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique (Harmon et al. 2001, astro-ph/0109069) was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (>10 mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the HEASARC for public use.

Harmon, B. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.; Finger, M. H.; Connaughton, V.; Koshut, T. M.; Henze, W.; McCollough, M. L.; Sahi, M.; Peterson, B.; Grindlay, J.; Barret, D.; Shrader, C. R.

2001-12-01

355

Sustainable Design and Renewable Energy Concepts in Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy use of residential and non-residential buildings in the US makes up a full 50% of the total energy use in the country. The Architects role in positively altering this equation has become more and more apparent. A change in the paradigm of how buildings are designed and the integration of renewable energy sources to meet their energy requirements can have tremendous impacts on sustainability, energy consumption, environment impacts, and the potential for climate change.

Maxwell, Lawrence

2009-07-01

356

Analysis of some Earth, Moon and Mars samples in terms of gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors: Penetration depth, weight fraction of constituent elements and photon energy dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth, Moon and Mars samples have been investigated in terms of gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors (EABF) depending on penetration depth, weight fraction of constituent elements and photon energy. The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to compute the buildup factors in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mean free paths (mfp). The maximum values of EABF have been observed for the Earth, Mars and Moon samples at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.2 MeV, respectively. At the corresponding energies where maximum EABF occur, the Earth samples have the highest and the Mars samples have the lowest EABF values. There is no significant variation in EABF for the Earth, Moon and Mars samples beyond 1 MeV, hence the values of EABF remain constant with the variation in chemical composition for all the given materials. Finally, the buildup factors so obtained have been discussed in function of the penetration depth, weight fraction of constituent elements and photon energy.

Kurudirek, Murat; Dogan, Bekir; Özdemir, Yüksel; Moreira, Anderson Camargo; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

2011-03-01

357

Optimal design for energy conservation of a vertically articulated manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to help reduce global warming, it is important to design even for a vertically articulated manipulator with 3 joints so that the dissipated energy of running gears with motor can be minimized. This paper proposes an optimal design method for simultaneously determining 8 design variables, which are the 3 motor masses, the 3 reduction gear ratios, the counterbalancer

Teruyuki Izumi; Miku Adachi; Hai Zhou

2007-01-01

358

Theory of one-phonon-assisted energy transfer between rare-earth ions in crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical framework and the method of application are presented to describe nonresonant energy transfer processes between rare-earth ions of the fN electronic configuration at centrosymmetric sites of crystals, in which the energy mismatch is made up by the emission or absorption of one “nondiagonal” phonon. The established theory of Holstein, Lyo, and Orbach (HLO) is applicable to, for example, an (EQ?EQ,V) energy transfer process which is composed of an allowed pure electric quadrupole-electric quadrupole (EQ-EQ) nonradiative transition and a vibrational transition in which one “diagonal” phonon emission or absorption occurs from a definite electronic state of the donor or acceptor. By contrast, the theory applies to an (EQ?EDV) process where an EQ transition occurs at one site and one nondiagonal phonon in an electric dipole vibronic (EDV) transition is involved at the other site. We find that for the (EQ?EDV) process the coherent cancellations occurring in the conventional diagonal HLO theory of one-phonon-assisted processes, which lead to the dominance of two-phonon energy transfer processes, do not occur in the nondiagonal one-phonon-assisted case. First, the Debye phonon model used by HLO theory has been employed, in which the crystal is assumed to consist of an isotropic, continuous medium. This model is only applicable to acoustic phonons with small wave vector q. The energy transfer rate obtained for the nondiagonal one-phonon-assisted process increases quadratically with increasing intersite energy mismatch, when it is small compared with the average thermal energy kBT at temperature T. Second, to take into account the crystal structure on the atomic scale which usually has anisotropic properties and to consider optical phonons, etc., the phonon involved in the diagonal and nondiagonal energy transfer process has been described by a running lattice wave, as an irreducible representation basis component of the space group and of the solution of lattice dynamical equations. The transition element and transition rate thus obtained show that the significant difference between the coherence effects of the diagonal and nondiagonal cases still occurs. Furthermore, some new points arise, especially the contributions from flat parts of the dispersion curves of optical phonon branches, to the studied processes. Therefore, contrary to the conclusion of HLO theory, optical phonons with q=0 can make important contributions to one-phonon-assisted energy transfer processes for the nondiagonal case. In addition, the approximations inherent in the widely used spectral overlap model are pinpointed, and the selection rules and coherence effect of lattice waves are briefly discussed. Noticeably, although we focus upon centrosymmetric systems, however, the nondiagonal processes and the related results obtained in this paper are also applicable to noncentrosymmetric systems.

Xia, Shangda; Tanner, Peter A.

2002-12-01

359

Design and power management of energy harvesting embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting energy from the environment is a desirable and increas- ingly important capability in several emerging applications of em- bedded systems such as sensor networks, biomedical implants, etc. While energy harvesting has the potential to enable near-perpetual system operation, designing an efficient energy harvesting system that actually realizes this potential requires an in-depth understand- ing of several complex tradeoffs. These

Vijay Raghunathan; Pai H. Chou

2006-01-01

360

Survival probability and energy modification of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms on their way from the termination shock to Earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Recognizing the transport of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA), from their place of birth to Earth orbit, has become an important issue in light of the forthcoming launch of the NASA SMEX mission IBEX, which is devoted to imaging of the heliospheric interface by in-situ detection of ENAs. Aims: We investigate the modifications of both energy of survival probability of the hydrogen ENA (H ENA) detectable by IBEX (0.01-6 keV), between the termination shock and Earth orbit. We take into account the influence of the variable and anisotropic solar wind and of solar EUV radiation. Methods: Energy changes of the atoms are calculated by numerical simulations of the orbits of H ENA between ~100 AU from the Sun and Earth orbit, taking into account solar gravity and Lyman-? radiation pressure, which is variable in time and depends on the radial velocity of the atom. To calculate the survival probabilities of the atoms against ionization, a detailed observation-based 3D and time-dependent model of H ENA ionization is constructed, and with the use of this model the probabilities of survival of the atoms are calculated by numerical integration along the previously-calculated orbits. Results: Due to radiation pressure, H ENA reach the Earth orbit practically without energy and direction change, apart from the atoms of energy lower than 0.1 keV, during high solar activity. The survival probability of H ENA increases from just ˜ 2% for the slowest detectable ENA at solar minimum to ~ 80% for the fastest ENA. For a given energy at Earth orbit we expect fluctuations in the survival probability of amplitude between ˜ 20 percent at 0.01 keV to just a few percent at 6 keV and a modulation of survival probability as a function of the location at Earth orbit, ecliptic latitude of the arrival direction, and phase of solar cycle with an amplitude of a few dozen percent for 0.1 keV atoms at solar minimum to a few percent for 6 keV atoms at solar maximum. Conclusions: With appropriate account of local transport effects IBEX should be able to discover departures from symmetry in the flux of H ENA from the heliospheric interface at a level of a few percent. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Bzowski, M.

2008-09-01

361

HELIPLAT: design of high altitude very-long endurance solar powered platform for telecommunication and earth observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A research is being carried out at the Turin Polytechnic University aiming at the design of an HAVE/UAV (High Altitude Very-long Endurance/Uninhabited Air Vehicle) and manufacturing of a scale-sized solar-powered prototype. The vehicle should climg to 17-20 km by taking advantage, mainly, of direct sun radiation and maintaining; electric energy not requeired for propulsion and payload operation is pumped back into the fuel cells energy storage system for the night. A computer program has been developed for carrying out a parametric study for the platform design, by taking into account the solar radiation change over one year, the altitude, masses and efficiencies of solar cells and fuel cells, aerodynamic performances, etc. A parametric study shows as fuel cells and solar cells efficiency and mass give the most influence on the platform dimensions. A wide use of high modulus CFRP has been made in designing the structure in order to minimise the airframe weight. The whole mass resulted of 70 kg. The classical hydraulic loading rig was designed for applying the ultimate shear-bending-torsion load to the structure and to verify the theoretical behaviour. A finite element analysis has been carried out by using the MSC/PATRAN/NASTRAN code in order to predict th static and dynamic behaviour. A good correlation has been obtained between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results up to a load corresponding to 5g.

Romeo, Giulio; Frulla, Giacomo

2002-07-01

362

EDECT: an energy design, evaluation, and comparison tool. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

EDECT is a computer-aided architectural design system that assists the architectural designer to accurately and rapidly determine the energy impact of design decisions. The system emphasizes interactive computer-graphic techniques and easily digested analysis results. The basic 3D building model used by EDECT is generated on the ARCHIMODOS (Architectural Modeling, Design and Drafting System of the Ohio State University) system and

Alley

1986-01-01

363

Method for the design of broad energy range focusing reflectrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for the design of reflections capable of focusing large kinetic energy ranges is presented. The design method\\u000a itself is a numerical approach that provides a geometrically flexible alternative to traditional analytical design solutions.\\u000a This design method has been used to produce a reflectron that provides unit mass resolution for product spectra in a tandem\\u000a reflectron time-of-flight (TOF)

Paul R. Vlasak; Douglas J. Beussman; Qinchung Ji; Christie G. Enke

1996-01-01

364

Impact of Interactive Energy-Balance Modeling on Student Learning in a Core-Curriculum Earth Science Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interactive instructional module has been developed to study energy balance at the earth's surface. The module uses a graphical interface to model each of the major energy components involved in the partitioning of energy at this surface: net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat flux, heat storage, anthropogenic heat, and advective heat transport. The graphical interface consists of an energy-balance diagram composed of sky elements, a line or box representing the air or sea surface, and arrows which indicate magnitude and direction of each of the energy fluxes. In April 2005 an energy-balance project and laboratory assignment were developed for a core-curriculum earth science course at Clark Atlanta University. The energy-balance project analyzes surface weather data from an assigned station of the Georgia Automated Environmental Monitoring Network (AEMN). The first part of the project requires the student to print two observations of the "Current Conditions" web page for the assigned station: one between the hours of midnight and 5:00 a.m., and the other between the hours of 3:00- 5:00 p.m. A satellite image of the southeastern United States must accompany each of these printouts. The second part of the project can be completed only after the student has modeled the 4 environmental scenarios taught in the energy-balance laboratory assignment. The student uses the energy-balance model to determine the energy-flux components for each of the printed weather conditions at the assigned station. On successful completion of the project, the student has become familiar with: (1) how weather observations can be used to constrain parameters in a microclimate model, (2) one common type of error in measurement made by weather sensors, (3) some of the uses and limitations of environmental models, and (4) fundamentals of the distribution of energy at the earth's surface. The project and laboratory assignment tie together many of the earth science concepts taught in the course: geology (soils), oceanography (surface mixed layer), and atmospheric science (meteorology of the lowest part of the atmosphere). Details of the project and its impact on student assessment tests and surveys will be presented.

Mandock, R. L.

2008-12-01

365

Control system design refuse to energy plants  

SciTech Connect

Present day Resource Recovery Facilities (RRF) are designed to generate electricity, much as a power plant does. The primary purpose of a Resource Recovery Facility is to dispose of refuse (usually municipal garbage); however, the primary purpose of a power plant is to generate electricity. For an RRF to be profitable, the refuse must be burned efficiently and the steam generated must be sold or used to generate electricity for sale to the local electrical utility. This paper discusses the control of Mass Burn RRFs designed by Ogden Martin, using the proprietary Martin GmbH technologic.

Ahluwalia, K. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)); Nicolau, T. (Ogden Martin Systems Inc., Fairfield, NJ (US))

1991-01-01

366

Geostationary earth radiation budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB), the balance between the incoming solar radiation from the sun and the outgoing reflected and scattered solar radiation and the thermal infrared emission from the Earth, provides information on the fundamental energy source of the climate system. To fulfil global coverage and sampling requirements, the ERB measurements have to be made from space. Broad-band measurements are necessary because all spectral regions in both the solar and infrared contribute to the radiative fluxes. Satellite data are used in a wide range of basic studies of the radiative forcing of the climate, such as understanding the effects of variations in trace gases, clouds and the surface. They also provide essential validation for climate models. All such measurements to date have been made from satellites in low earth orbit (LEO). There are strong diurnal variations in the radiation budget, particularly over land, in response to the diurnal variation of solar heating. Four LEO satellites could provide coverage of the diurnal cycle with a temporal resolution of 3 hours. At least hourly measurements are needed to resolve the diurnal cycle of tropical convection properly, and no practicable system of polar orbiting or other LEO satellites can deliver this. From the above, it appears that the only viable solution to the problem of diurnal sampling of the Earth's radiation budget is the inclusion of suitable sensors on the geostationary satellites which would allow for an essentially perfect temporal sampling. Disadvantages include the fact that geostationary satellites are much further from the Earth than polar orbiters, which affects the instrumental design, and each one can only provide a limited coverage of the globe. The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget instrument (GERB) is a highly accurate visible-infrared radiometer designed to make unique measurements of the outgoing shortwave and longwave components of the Earth's Radiation Budget (ERB) from geostationary orbit. Such measurements have not been achieved previously, and are extremely important, because they will permit a rigorous test of our understanding of the diurnal variations in the ERB: this will enable improved operational weather monitoring and permit further important developments in climate change research. GERB will be launched on the (MSG) geostationary satellite in the year 2000. Both short-wave (0.32 - 4 micrometer) and total (0.32 - 30 micrometer) radiance measurements would be made, with longwave (4 - 30 micrometer) data obtained by subtraction. The accuracy requirements (1% short-wave and 0.5% longwave) are consistent with previous radiation budget measurements. The availability of GERB on MSG will also allow a more accurate calibration of the principal Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) operational sounding instrument, SEVIRI (Spinning, Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager).

Mossavati, Ruzbeh; Kellock, Steve; Mueller, Johannes; Harries, J. E.; Murray, J. E.; Sawyer, Eric C.; Caldwell, Martin E.; Oliver, M.; Delderfield, J.; Sandford, Michael C.

1997-12-01

367

Theoretical analysis of the O(1s) binding-energy shifts in alkaline-earth oxides: Chemical or electrostatic contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results from ab initio cluster-model calculations on the O(1s) binding energy (BE) in the alkaline-earth oxides, MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO; all these oxides have a cubic lattice structure. We have obtained values for both the initial- and final-state BE's. A simple point-charge model, where an O2- anion is surrounded by point charges, accounts for the observed shift

Gianfranco Pacchioni; Paul S. Bagus

1994-01-01

368

Effects of energy, momentum and particle transport in the near-earth solar terrestrial system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has included the scientific studies of high-latitude plasma irregularities and the physics of the aurora, engineering of space environmental sensors, and data processing services. Scientific studies were conducted in the areas of energy dissipation, magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions and ionospheric plasma. Design work has been done on a series of plasma instruments for the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Studies (CRRES), the Photovoltaic Array Space Power (PASP), the Interactions Measurements Payload for Shuttle (IMPS) and the NASA POLAR satellite program. Computer programs have been written to process RPA and Drift Meter data from the F8 and F9 DMSP satellites.

Anderson, P. B.; Basinska-Lewin, E. M.; Greenspan, M. E.; James, J. H.; Weimer, D. R.

1990-06-01

369

Educating the design professional: energy-conscious design for commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

The energy problem in a residence is substantially different from that in a commercial building; therefore, the approach to using renewable resources in a commercial building differs from that in a residence. For this reason, educational materials, seminars, and workshops developed to teach architects and engineers basic design principles to integrate renewable energy into commercial buildings must differ from that developed for residential building designers. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the differences in approach between residential and commercial solar design, discuss what the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Commercial Buildings Group has learned about educating commercial building design professionals through experience, and describe the American Institute of Architects (AIA) national effort to educate architects about energy-conscious design.

Carlisle, N.; Franta, G.

1981-04-01

370

Double Optimization for Design of Protein Energy Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose an automated protocol for designing the energy landscape suitable for the description of a given set of protein\\u000a sequences with known structures, by optimizing the parameters of the energy function. The parameters are optimized so that\\u000a not only the global minimum-energy conformation becomes native-like, but also the conformations distinct from the native structure\\u000a have higher energies than those

Seung-yeon Kim; Julian Lee

2006-01-01

371

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements.  

PubMed

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300?mAh·g(-1) at a voltage of approximately 2.4?V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

372

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements  

PubMed Central

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300?mAh·g?1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4?V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide–triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cedric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

373

On-orbit solar calibration methods using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system: lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted long-wave radiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Recently, (October 2011) the sixth instrument was launched on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (Suomi NPP) Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define on-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. It followed a similar design as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanners with improvements from lessons learned. The shortwave and shortwave part of the total-wave sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, over-coated with SIOx (SIO2 for PFM). Thermistors are located within each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. The Terra FM1 and FM2 shortwave channels and the FM1 and FM2 total channels MAM calibration systems showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 6 percent, respectively within the first year. The Aqua FM3, and FM4 shortwave channels and the FM3 and FM4 total channels MAM calibration systems showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.0, 1.2, 2.1 and .8 percent, respectively within the first year. A possible explanation has attributed the MAM reflectance change to on-orbit solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen/out-gassing induced chemical changes to the SIOx coated MAM assembly during ram and solar exposure. There is also changes to the sensor telescope shortwave filters as well as the Total channel mirrors and/or sensors. The Soumi NPP FM5 is still after 2.5 years displaying a stability of less than .5 percent. In this presentation, lessons learned from the ERBE MAM and application of knowledge of how the space environment affected the CERES FM1-4 solar calibrations will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the thirteen years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip; Shankar, Mohan; Smith, Nathaniel; Szewczyk, Peter

2013-09-01

374

Diffuser designs for improved wind energy conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes experimental work on two classes of compact diffusers for augmenting the power output of wind energy conversion systems. The first employs slot-injected air to energize the boundary layer of the internal flow, while the second employs short ring airfoils. The low pressure distribution along the internal ring surface of high-lift airfoil shapes induces augmented flow through the

K. M. Foreman; B. L. Gilbert

1978-01-01

375

Energy Transfer Processes from Amorphous GaN and AlN Hosts to Rare Earth Intra-Shell Emitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous thin films of AlN and GaN doped with Er, Tb, Ce, Sm, or Eu are prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering of Al and Ga targets with additional pellets of metallic rare earths. The intensity of the photoluminescence related to the rare earth ions in the wide gap nitrides is greatly enhanced when the annealing temperature reaches 750°C. Raman scattering measurements show a clear tendency to crystallization of the amorphous host during annealing. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that in GaN or AlN after annealing the structure consists of crystallites with diameter of 4 to 7 nm embedded in the respective amorphous GaN or AlN matrix. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy shows that the absorption edges are exponential over several orders of magnitude and are reminiscent of the Urbach behaviour in other amorphous materials. A broad background absorption from the amorphous matrix is superimposed on resonant absorption bands of the rare earth ions. The photoluminescence excitation spectra reveal that optically active trivalent rare earth ions can be excited both indirectly, through the electron-hole pairs in the host, and directly through resonant pumping into f-energy levels.

Aldabergenova, Saule; Albrecht, Martin; Strunk, Horst; Viner, John; Taylor, Craig; Davydov, Valery; Andreev, Arkadi

2000-03-01

376

Energy product and coercivity of a rare-earth-free multilayer FeCo/FePt exchange spring magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method, we have explored the energy product and the coercivity field of rare-earth-free FeCo/FePt(001) multilayered exchange spring magnet systems. We have considered 5 and 7 monolayers (ML) of a FePt hard layer and 3, 5, 7, and 9 ML of a FeCo soft layer. The FeCo soft layers are found to show close to half metallic features, while the FePt hard layers manifest conventional metallic behavior. A giant perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (EMCA) is observed. For instance, an EMCA of 27.24 meV/cell is found in FeCo(9 ML)/FePt(7 ML) multilayer structure. The energy product almost linearly increases with increasing FeCo thickness, while the coercivity filed shows the opposite behavior. Interestingly, we have obtained that the multilayer structures display very large energy product and coercivity field. For example, FeCo(9 ML)/FePt(5 ML) multilayer has an energy product of about 82 MGOe and a coercivity field of about 130 KOe. Moreover, we find that the multilayer system may show enhanced coercivity field compared with that found in FeCo/FePt bilayer film structures, while the energy product is comparable to that observed in bilayer films. Therefore, our results may imply that the FeCo/FePt multilayer can be employed as a potential rare- earth-free permanent magnet material.

Kim, Dongyoo; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

2013-03-01

377

Residential site design and energy conservation. Part 1: General report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy costs that can be saved by a subdivision design format related to energy conservation that is reasonably acceptable in marketing and aesthetic terms were determined. Six subdivision layouts were designed to densities ranging from 6.5 to 13.6 units per gross acre (1058 to 2232 units) or 16.25 to 34 units per gross hectare. Hourly radiation temperature, and wind characteristics for a year constitute the local climate data base. Six house types (from detached to apartment units) and seventeen basic house designs (mostly picked at random) were used. The method for calculating the set heat load and an analysis of the results are presented. The study shows that by way of the selection of the more energy efficient traditional house designs, orientation of buildings to maximize solar transmission, and landscaping to reduce the effect of wind, there is a possible residential space heating energy saving of up to 20% for a low density housing development.

1981-01-01

378

Shock Ignition Target Design for Inertial Fusion Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Continuing work in the design of shock ignition targets is described. Because of reduced implosion velocity requirements, low target adiabats, and efficient drive by short wavelength lasers, these targets produce high gain (>100) at laser energies well be...

A. J. Schmitt D. E. Fyfe J. W. Bates S. P. Obenschain S. T. Zalesak

2010-01-01

379

Design of a Sending Magnet for the High Energy Beamline.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the high energy beamline of the National Accelerator Centre the beam appeared to disregard the calculated path. To correct these deflections sending magnets will be used at various places on the beamline. Magnets for the external beamline were designed...

J. L. Conradie D. T. Fourie J. C. Cornell

1984-01-01

380

High-energy high-luminosity ?+?- collider design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the design of a high luminosity (1035 cm-2 s-1), high energy (2+2 TeV) ?+?- collider, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muon beams and proceeding through the muon storage ring

Robert B. Palmer; Richard Fernow; Juan C. Gallardo; Y. Y. Lee; Yagmur Torun; D. Neuffer; David Winn

1995-01-01

381

Optimized Design of Total Energy Systems: The Rete Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design to optimize the utilization of primary energy sources, providing both electricity and heat, is described. A project plant will be located at Reggio Emilia (Italy). Several computer analyses were performed to provide climatic data, electric and he...

P. Alia F. Dallavalle C. Denard F. Sanson S. Veneziani

1980-01-01

382

Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design  

SciTech Connect

A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

1980-06-01

383

On the relationship of the earth radiation budget to the variability of atmospheric available potential and kinetic energies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The zonal and eddy kinetics energies and available potential energies are examined for both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres, using a data set produced by 8 years of continuous simultaneous observations of the circulation parameters and measurements of the earth radiation budget (ERB) from the Nimbus-7 ERB experiment. The relationships between the seasonal cycles in ERB and those of the energetics are obtained, showing that the solar annual cycle accounts for most of the seasonal variability. It was found that the ERB midlatitude gradients of the net balance and the outgoing radiation lead the annual cycle of the energetics by 2-3 weeks.

Randel, David L.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

1990-01-01

384

Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools - 50% Energy Savings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-K12) (ASHRAE et al. 2011a) was written to help owners and designers of elementary, middle, and high schools achieve 50% whole-...

E. Bonnema M. Leach P. Torcellini S. Pless

2013-01-01

385

Low energy process variation tolerant digital image processing system design based on accuracy-energy tradeoffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a low energy image processing system design based on efficient accuracy-energy tradeoffs. The proposed design allows aggressive voltage scaling in the presence of process variation by employing an error concealing method based on the inherent error tolerance of digital signal processing applications. Based on a system-level analysis, we demonstrate that significant energy savings can be

Se Hun Kim; Saibal Mukhopadhyay; Honggab Kim; Marilyn Wolf

2011-01-01

386

Satellite Collectors of Solar Energy for Earth and Colonized Planet Habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary An array of 55,000 40-foot antennas can generate from the rays of the Sun enough electrical power to replace 50 The economic potential is huge. There are new industries that will only grow and there are different ways to collect solar energy, including wind power. The energy sources we rely on for the most part are finite - fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas are all limited in supply. The cost will only continue to rise as demand increases. The time of global economic crossover between the EU, Asia Pacific and North America is coming within less than five years. The biggest opportunity for solar energy entrepreneurs would seem to be in municipal contracting where 1500 40-foot stacking antennas can be hooked into a grid to power an entire city. The antenna can generate 45 kilowatts of energy, enough to satisfy the electrical needs 7x24 of ten to twenty homes. It is possible to design and build 35-by-80-foot pedestals that track the sun from morning until night to provide full efficiency. A normal solar cell looks in the sky for only four or five hours of direct sunlight. Fabrication of these pedestals would sell for USD 50, 000-70,000 each. The solar heat collected by the antennas can be bounced into a Stirling engine, creating electricity at a focal point. Water can be heated by running through that focal point. In addition, salt water passing through the focal point can be desalinated, and since the antenna can generate up to 2,000 degrees of heat at the focal point. The salt water passing through the focal point turns to steam, which separates the salt and allows the steam to be turned into fresh drinking water. Collector energy can be retained in betavoltaics which uses semiconductors to capture energy from radioactive materials and turn it into usable electricity for automobiles. In a new battery, the silicon wafers in the battery are etched with a network of deep pores. These pores vastly increase the exposure surface area of the silicon, allowing it to absorb more energy and making the antenna collector 20 times more efficient than planar designs. A tracking pedestal powered by betavoltaics can follow the sun. With a 500-sun photovoltaic cell underneath a Fresnal lens magnifies and distributes the sun's energy at 500 times. Primary results and the main conclusions This idea is revolutionary and utilizes satellite tracking abilities to follow the sun, maintaining a constant energy source that can reach 700 to 800 degrees. This technology will have many applications, from instant fresh water in the form of steam to the use of fiber optics to filter natural light through a building. With the direction of the oil and energy costs continuing to spiral upward, there has been recent emphasis on alternative energy that is transmitted from space. Satellite antenna manufacturers can move quickly to production and create a revolution in sustainable energy that was never thought of before. The efforts of the United States, Russia, China, and India to colonize the Moon and Mars would be greatly enhanced by use of satellite solar collectors and betavoltaics electrical energy technologies for the colonies' habitats. Introduction This study was undertaken for the Global environment is in a crisis. The rich oil producing countries of Russia, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and Africa, have been at war to gain monopoly power and to restrict the space based explorations of the solar system. The physics of solar energy transmission to electrical mechanical energy is unique in improving the economies of the entire community of Nations. It is easy to produce satellite antennas, thus, satellite antennas can now be used as solar panels which can generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity. Solar Panels require no moving parts; have zero emissions, and no maintenance. These antennas will revolutionize the use of solar rays from the sun to benefit a global grid. These "collectors of free energy" are able to harness solar energy for thermal heating, desalination, lighting, and electricity. Further,

Kusiolek, Richard

387

Communications via the radio artificial earth satellite: Design of the tracking diagram and features for conducting QSO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed examination is made of the operation of a transmitting artifical Earth satellite. A tracking diagram for the satellite is constructed. The zone of radio visibility can be determined based on the techniques proposed.

Dobrozhanskiy, V.; Rybkin, V.

1980-01-01

388

Evaluating the Design of Satellite Scanning Radiometers for Earth Radiation Budget Measurements with System Simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous Estimates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (witho...

L. Stowe P. Ardanuy R. Hucek P. Abel H. Jacobowitz

1991-01-01

389

Studies of earth simulation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low gravity environment of earth orbit offers the potential for performing experiments involving baroclinic Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (GFD) on spherical surfaces. These experiments in turn have the potential for providing deeper understanding of large scale planetary and solar circulations. However, to perform these experiments, one requires an experimental technique whereby a radially directed body force can be generated to simulate a radial gravitational force field. One viable technique is the use of dielectric fluids with temperature dependent dielectric permittivity in a radially directed electric field. Application of the Boussinesq approximation to the equations of motion for this system and restrictions on the size of certain electrodynamic terms in the energy equations yields a set of equations which are analogous to the equations of motions of geophysical systems like the earth's atmosphere on term by term basis. The theoretical design of GFD experiments for performance in earth orbit are described along with results of preliminary tests of a prototype.

Hart, J. E.

1976-01-01

390

Space- and Earth-based solar power for the growing energy needs of future generations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future global supply with terrestrial regenerative energies (solar, wind, hydro and geothermal) is discussed and compared to energy from space via Solar Power Satellites. It is shown that both have the potential to satisfy global energy needs. Obviously, regenerative solutions must be taken into account and installed with higher priority within the next decades to reduce the deposition of CO 2 into the atmosphere. This is absolutely necessary to stabilize the climate. In addition, the threatening depletion of fossil and nuclear fuels in the long run forces research into alternative solutions. Concerning solar power from space, the recently developed concepts for light-weight inflatable and deployable solar arrays/concentrators—like in the NASA 'Sun Tower' and the 'European Sail Tower SPS'—are reviewed and major problems with wireless power transmission are discussed. Compared to earlier concepts the designs have the potential to reduce significantly the masses and, thus, the costs. But the technological demands and operational uncertainties are still immense. Anyhow, major progress with cost reductions of one to two orders of magnitude is required for the space option to become competitive with terrestrial regenerative options.

Seboldt, Wolfgang

2004-08-01

391

Target earth - It will happen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic impacts of the earth by asteroiods and comets are examined. The impact history of the moon is discussed and compared with that of the earth. Theoretical and laboratory simulation experiments to evaluate the consequences of a collision between the earth and an asteroid or comet are reviewed. Earth crossing asteroids are listed and the probability of impacts with various equivalent energies is estimated.

Morrison, David; Chapman, Clark R.

1990-01-01

392

Design and development considerations for SIRAS-G, the Spaceborne Infrared Atmospheric Sounder for Geosynchronous Earth Orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

BATC is developing the Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder for Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (SIRAS-G) under NASA's 2002 Instrument Incubator Program. SIRAS-G represents a new approach to infrared imaging spectrometry suitable for Earth observation from geosynchronous orbit. SIRAS-G is an instrument concept with lower mass and power requirements than contemporary instruments that offers enhanced capabilities for measuring atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and

Dan L. Michaels; Thomas U. Kampe; Paul Hendershott; Gary L. Mills; Grzegorz Miecznik; Peter Johnson

2005-01-01

393

Optical design of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Tilt (MODIS-T) for the Earth Observing System (Eos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is an Earth viewing sensor that is planned as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (Eos) scheduled to begin functioning in the late 1990's. The MODIS is composed of two mutually supporting sensors one of which is MODIS-T, where 'T' signifies a tiltable along-track field of view. MODIS-T is a 32 channel

Peter W. Maymon

1991-01-01

394

Energy Efficient Engine ICLS Nacelle detail design report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the detail design of the Nacelle for the General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Integrated Core Low Spool (ICLS) test vehicles are presented. A slave nacelle is designed for the ICLS test. Cost and reliability are the important factors considered. The slave nacelle simulates the internal flow lines of the actual Flight Propulsion System (FPS) but has

R. R. Eskridge; A. P. Kuchar; C. L. Stotler

1982-01-01

395

A design guide for energy-efficient research laboratories  

SciTech Connect

This document--A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories--provides a detailed and holistic framework to assist designers and energy managers in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide fills an important void in the general literature and compliments existing in-depth technical manuals. Considerable information is available pertaining to overall laboratory design issues, but no single document focuses comprehensively on energy issues in these highly specialized environments. Furthermore, practitioners may utilize many antiquated rules of thumb, which often inadvertently cause energy inefficiency. The Guide helps its user to: introduce energy decision-making into the earliest phases of the design process, access the literature of pertinent issues, and become aware of debates and issues on related topics. The Guide does focus on individual technologies, as well as control systems, and important operational factors such as building commissioning. However, most importantly, the Guide is intended to foster a systems perspective (e.g. right sizing) and to present current leading-edge, energy-efficient design practices and principles.

Wishner, N.; Chen, A.; Cook, L. [eds.; Bell, G.C.; Mills, E.; Sartor, D.; Avery, D.; Siminovitch, M.; Piette, M.A.

1996-09-24

396

Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span, included follow-up support to teachers, and incorporated active learning approaches in the professional development. In addition, the designs had a high level of coherence with other reform activities and with local standards. The main difference among the designs was in the roles of teachers in designing, adopting, or adapting curriculum materials. Evidence from teacher survey and observation data indicated that all programs had positive impacts on how teachers planned and enacted teaching for understanding, but differences among programs was more evident in their impacts on instructional planning.

Penuel, William R.; McWilliams, Harold; McAuliffe, Carla; Benbow, Ann E.; Mably, Colin; Hayden, Margaret M.

2009-10-01

397

Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

2001-01-01

398

Earth Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Earth Institute at Columbia University is to help the world achieve sustainability by expanding understanding of the Earth as one integrated system. Through research, education, and the practical application of research to real-world challenges, the Institute addresses nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, and hazards and urbanization. The Institute's site offers a collection of videotaped events, including the biannual "State of the Planet" conferences, 2002-08, a Distinguished Lecture series, and the Sustainable Development seminar series, as well as e-seminars and e-briefings, information about funding opportunities, and information about educational opportunities at Columbia.

399

Earth plasmas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.

2005-01-01

400

Axial focusing of impact energy in the Earth's interior: Proof-of-principle tests of a new hypothesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A causal link between major impact events and global processes would probably require a significant change in the thermal state of the Earth's interior, presumably brought about by coupling of impact energy. One possible mechanism for such energy coupling from the surface to the deep interior would be through focusing due to axial symmetry. Antipodal focusing of surface and body waves from earthquakes is a well-known phenomenon which has previously been exploited by seismologists in studies of the Earth's deep interior. Antipodal focusing from impacts on the Moon, Mercury, and icy satellites has also been invoked by planetary scientists to explain unusual surface features opposite some of the large impact structures on these bodies. For example, 'disrupted' terrains have been observed antipodal to the Caloris impact basis on Mercury and Imbrium Basin on the Moon. Very recently there have been speculations that antipodal focusing of impact energy within the mantle may lead to flood basalt and hotspot activity, but there has not yet been an attempt at a rigorous model. A new hypothesis was proposed and preliminary proof-of-principle tests for the coupling of energy from major impacts to the mantle by axial focusing of seismic waves was performed. Because of the axial symmetry of the explosive source, the phases and amplitudes are dependent only on ray parameter (or takeoff angle) and are independent of azimuthal angle. For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth, all the seismic energy radiated by the impact at a given takeoff angle will be refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Mantle material near the axis of symmetry will experience more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere and will therefore experience more irreversible heating. The situation is very different than for a giant earthquake, which in addition to having less energy, has an asymmetric focal mechanism and a larger area. Two independent proof-of-principle approaches were used. The first makes use of seismic simulations, which are being performed with a realistic Earth model to determine the degree of focusing along the axis and to estimate the volume of material, if any, that experiences significant irreversible heating. The second involves two-dimensional hydrodynamic code simulations to determine the stress history, internal energy, and temperature rise as a function of radius along the axis.

Boslough, M. B.; Chael, E. P.; Trucano, T. G.; Kipp, M. E.; Crawford, D. A.

1994-01-01

401

Energy density of ionospheric and solar wind origin ions in the near-Earth magnetotail during substorms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comprehensive energy density studies provide an important measure of the participation of various sources in energization processes and have been relatively rare in the literature. We present a statistical study of the energy density of the near-Earth magnetotail major ions (H(+), O(+), He(++), He(+)) during substorm expansion phase and discuss its implications for the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling. Our aim is to examine the relation between auroral activity and the particle energization during substorms through the correlation between the AE indices and the energy density of the major magnetospheric ions. The data we used here were collected by the charge-energy-mass (CHEM) spectrometer on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Trace Explorer (AMPTE)/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) satellite in the near-equatorial nightside magnetosphere, at geocentric distances approximately 7 to 9 R(sub E). CHEM provided the opportunity to conduct the first statistical study of energy density in the near-Earth magnetotail with multispecies particle data extending into the higher energy range (greater than or equal to 20 keV/E). the use of 1-min AE indices in this study should be emphasized, as the use (in previous statistical studies) of the (3-hour) Kp index or of long-time averages of AE indices essentially smoothed out all the information on substorms. Most distinct feature of our study is the excellent correlation of O(+) energy density with the AE index, in contrast with the remarkably poor He(++) energy density - AE index correlation. Furthermore, we examined the relation of the ion energy density to the electrojet activity during substorm growth phase. The O(+) energy density is strongly correlated with the pre-onset AU index, that is the eastward electrojet intensity, which represents the growth phase current system. Our investigation shows that the near-Earth magnetotail is increasingly fed with energetic ionospheric ions during periods of enhanced dissipation of auroral currents. The participation of the ionosphere in the substorm energization processes seems to be closely, although not solely, associated with the solar wind/magnetosphere coupling. That is, the ionosphere influences actively the substorm energization processes by responding to the increased solar wind/magnetosphere coupling as well as to the unloading dissipation of stored energy, with the increased feeding of new material into the magnetosphere.

Daglis, Loannis A.; Livi, Stefano; Sarris, Emmanuel T.; Wilken, Berend

1994-01-01

402

Challenge Students to Design an Energy-Efficient Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an activity that gives students a practical understanding of how much energy the average home consumes and wastes, and shows how the construction technologies used in home design affect overall energy usage. In this activity, students will outline the cost of a home's electrical system, give a breakdown of how much power the…

Griffith, Jack

2008-01-01

403

Design of Photovoltaic automatic Tracking System for solar energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gave a particular description of a tracking and concentration system for solar energy utilization. A multi-glasses concentration and tracking photovoltaic system is designed. A research on the racking and concentration system for solar energy utilization was made. A tracking system based on the theory that solar can be gathered depending on plane mirror reflecting was set up. And

Zhou Haifeng; Huang Yuanqing; Ling Gang; Wang Rongjie; Lin Zhonghua; Zheng Tianyi

2009-01-01

404

Energy Management Method for solar race car design and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy management method for designing a solar-cell supplied electrical vehicle is described and its implementation on Istanbul Technical University (ITU) race cars is discussed. The effectiveness of the method has been tested and proved during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 races organized by the Scientific and Technical Council of Turkey. The ldquoenergy management model (EMS)rdquo, which computes the energy

O. Ustun; M. Yilmaz; C. Gokce; U. Karakaya; R. N. Tuncay

2009-01-01

405

Energy strategy selector for small office building design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project has been conducted to develop a simple handbook to encourage the incorporation of cost saving energy conservation strategies into the design of small office buildings. Modeling of base case buildings has been accomplished and a limited set of Energy Problem Types have been defined as typical of the full spread of runs. Representative utility rate profiles have

S. H. Pansky; J. K. Holton

1983-01-01

406

Energy and environment in an architectural design application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Office buildings with important administrative functions can produce high energy demands for lighting, cooling and heating. However, appropriate architectural design decisions can achieve significant energy savings and improve environmental conditions, without sacrificing architectural quality. Intense solar radiation and high temperature swings in dry continental climates favour deep plan offices, though natural daylight requires limited depth. This paper presents a case

Silvia de Schiller; John Martin Evans

1998-01-01

407

Conceptual design and engineering studies of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (CAES) with thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to perform a conceptual engineering design and evaluation study and to develop a design for an adiabatic CAES system using water-compensated hard rock caverns for compressed air storage. The conceptual plant design was to feature underground containment for thermal energy storage and water-compensated hard rock caverns for high pressure air storage. Other design constraints

Hobson

2011-01-01

408

Conceptual design and engineering studies of adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) with thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adiabatic CAES system using water compensated hard rock caverns for compressed air storage was designed. The conceptual plant design features underground containment for thermal energy storage and water compensated hard rock caverns for high pressure air storage. Other design constraints include the selection of turbomachinery designs that require little development and therefore are available for near term plant construction

M. J. Hobson

1981-01-01

409

Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

2011-12-01

410

Radiative Energy Budget Studies Using Observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our research activities under this NASA grant have focused on two broad topics associated with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE): (1) the role of clouds and the surface in modifying the radiative balance; and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of the earth's radiation budget. Each of these broad topics is discussed separately in the text that follows. The major points of the thesis are summarized in section 3 of this report. Other dissertation focuses on deriving the radiation budget over the TOGA COARE region.

Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, R.; Shie, M.; Olson, R.; Collimore, C.; Friedman, M.

1997-01-01

411

A review on sustainable design of renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviewed the state of the art in designing renewable energy systems specifically solar-based energy system, ground source-based system and day-lighting system, to gain optimum performances in sustainable buildings. Efficiency of each of these systems in reducing resource consumption was evaluated. Geometric conditions have a determining effect on the performances of solar-based energy system and day-lighting system. In solar-based

Long Shi; Michael Yit Lin Chew

412

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered systems demands optimizations in both hardware and software. We present a modular approach for enhancing instruction level simulators with cycle-accurate simulation of energy dissipation in embedded systems. Our methodology has tightly coupled component models thus making our approach more accurate. Performance and energy computed by our simulator are within a 5% tolerance of hardware measurements on

Tajana Simunict; Luca Benini; Giovanni De Michelit

1999-01-01

413

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems demands optimizations in both hardware and software. In this work we leverage cycle-accurate energy consumption models to explore compiler and source code optimizations aimed at reducing energy consumption. In addition, we extend cycle-accurate architectural power simulation with battery models that provide battery lifetime estimates. The enhanced simulator and software optimizations are used to study

T. Simunic; Luca Benini; G. de Micheli

1999-01-01

414

Controlled timing-error acceptance for low energy IDCT design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In embedded digital signal processing (DSP) sys- tems, quality is set by a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) floor. Con- ventional digital design strategies guarantee timing correctness of all operations, which leaves large quality margins in practical systems and sacrifices energy efficiency. This paper presents techniques to significantly improve energy efficiency by shaping the quality-energy tradeoff achievable via VDD scaling. In an

Ku He; Andreas Gerstlauer; Michael Orshansky

2011-01-01

415

Design of energy-aware video codec-based system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifetimes of battery-powered monitoring and surveillance systems are limited by the given battery capacity. This could lead either to a complete loss, or to a significant loss of quality in the recorded image, of events. In this paper, we propose a energy-aware video codec-based system design which exploits event characteristics to minimize the energy consumption through energy-aware architecture exploration. Given

Sangkwon Na; Jungsoo Kim; Jaemoon Kim; Giwon Kim; Chong-Min Kyung

2010-01-01

416

Guidelines for sustainable building design: Recommendations from the Presidio of San Francisco energy efficiency design charrette.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1994, the Bay Chapter of the Association of Energy Engineers(reg sign) organized a two-day design charrette for energy-efficient redevelopment of buildings by the National Park Se