Sample records for earth energy designer

  1. Computational Design of Solar Energy Harvesting Materials Made of Earth-Abundant Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiyang

    2012-02-01

    Very large-scale deployment of photovoltaic (PV) technology based on both the first and second generation solar cells posts serious questions on the materials supply as they rely on either high-purity and high-quality silicon crystals or rare elements such as indium and tellurium. ``Ancient'' PV materials made of earth-abundant elements, such as oxides and sulfides of copper and iron, have attracted resurgent interests. There is also intensive research devoted to the search for ``modern'' earth-abundant PV materials, with a recent promising example being Cu2ZnSnSe4. Computational approaches play a key role in this endeavor by guiding the screening and optimization of the materials toward high device performance. In this paper, I will focus on two aspects of computational design of earth-abundant PV materials. First, I will discuss the methods for accurately predicting band gaps of semiconductor materials. The emphasis will be on the performance of hybrid functional method on different classes of materials. Based on these understandings, I will discuss how to tune the band gap of a material to match the solar spectrum. For example, one could reduce of the band gap of anatase to 1.5 eV by the chemical codoping approach. Second, I will discuss the methods for accurate computation of defect properties, which is important as the defectiveness is intrinsic to the low-cost synthesized materials. I will introduce a method for calculation of defect formation energies by minimizing the error due to the ``band-gap problem'' of the density functional theory. I will also discuss approaches to mitigating the effects of defects, e.g., by passivation.

  2. Towards Designing an Integrated Earth Observation System for the Provision of Solar Energy Resource and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackouse, Paul W., Jr.; Renne, D.; Beyer, H.-G.; Wald, L.; Meyers, R.; Perez, R.; Suri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The GEOSS strategic plan specifically targets the area of improved energy resource management due to the importance of these to the economic and social viability of every nation of the world. With the world s increasing demand for energy resources, the need for new alternative energy resources grows. This paper overviews a new initiative within the International Energy Agency that addresses needs to better manage and develop solar energy resources worldwide. The goal is to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information of the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface in easily-accessible formats and understandable quality metrics. The scope of solar resource assessment information includes historic data sets and currently derived data products using satellite imagery and other means. Thus, this new task will address the needs of the solar energy sector while at the same time will serve as a model that satisfies GEOSS objectives and goals.

  3. BSR/CSA C448-201x, Design and Installation of Earth Energy Bi

    E-print Network

    . · Ewbank Geo Testing · Geo-Xergy Systems Inc · CM Engineering · HRAI · City of Calgary · Geo-Flo Products · Manufacturers · Regulators · Designers / engineers · Researchers / academia 2 #12;Committed StakeholdersLinked Technologies · REHAU Construction · HydroGeoPro · Geo-Energie inc. · NGWA · Asheville Geothermal · Geo

  4. BSR/CSA C448-201x, Design and Installation of Earth Energy Bi

    E-print Network

    · CM Engineering · HRAI · City of Calgary · Geo-Flo Products · Heat-Line Corporation · Government · Manufacturers · Regulators · Designers / engineers · Researchers / academia 2 #12;Committed StakeholdersLinked Technologies · REHAU Construction · HydroGeoPro · Geo-Energie inc. · NGWA · Asheville Geothermal · Geo

  5. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.

  6. Earth's Energy Cycle: Albedo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Center for Atmospheric Research

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, learners experiment and observe how the color of materials that cover the Earth affects the amounts of sunlight our planet absorbs. Use this activity to begin discussions on global warming and climate change. This lesson guide includes background information and handouts. Note: cost of materials does not include cost of thermometers or desk lamp/light bulbs.

  7. Earth Orbit Raise Design for the Artemis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiffen, Gregory J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

    2011-01-01

    The Artemis mission is an extension of the Themis mission. The Themis mission1 consisted of five identical spacecraft in varying sized Earth orbits designed to make simultaneous measurements of the Earth's electric and magnetic environment. Themis was designed to observe geomagnetic storms resulting from solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. Themis was meant to answer the age old question of why the Earth's aurora can change rapidly on a global scale. The Themis spacecraft are spin stabilized with 20 meter long electric field booms as well as several shorter magnetometer booms. The goal of the Artemis2 mission extension is to deliver the field and particle measuring capabilities of two of the Themis spacecraft to the vicinity of the Moon. The Artemis mission required transferring two Earth orbiting Themis spacecraft on to two different low energy trans-lunar trajectories ultimately ending in lunar orbit. This paper describes the processes that resulted in successful orbit raise designs for both spacecraft.

  8. Energy and the earth machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    The author explains how the energy dilemma evolved and what the present state of the business is, and presents the challenge for the future. The source of all the Earth's energy is the Sun. It is tapped inefficiently and indirectly--chiefly by burning coal, oil, and gas, and converting them to electricity to be distributed, at great loss, by cables. Nuclear

  9. CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment 2013 Annual Faculty

    E-print Network

    CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment 2013 Annual Faculty Conference Campus Update Terry Parker, Provost August 19, 2013 #12;CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment In Previous Years, we have discussed: · Campus budget on space overall and space location · Accreditation #12;CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment For this year, we

  10. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; von Schuckmann, K.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.

    2012-04-01

    Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. We update our analysis of Earth's observed energy imbalance through 2011 and compare this with climate simulations. Observed global surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing, implying existence of a large negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We discuss implications of the trend of observed sea level rise in recent years, and its consistency with reported ice melt rates and ocean thermal expansion.

  11. Approach to rapid mission design and planning. [earth orbit missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. G.; Matthys, V. J.

    1973-01-01

    Methods and techniques are described for implementation in automated computer systems to assess parametric data, capabilities, requirements and constraints for planning earth orbit missions. Mission planning and design procedures are defined using two types of typical missions as examples. These missions were the high energy Astronomical Observatory Satellite missions, and Small Applications Technology Satellite missions.

  12. An earth station design for rural telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tustison, G. F.

    A design for an earth station intended specifically for rural telephony applications is described with a discussion of overall system and satellite parameters. It is noted that higher satellite transfer gain and reduced receiver noise figure allow the use of more economical combinations of antenna size and HPA power in the rural terminal. Small-aperture earth terminals employing 3-meter antennas, 0.2 Watt transmitters, and 100-K low-noise amplifiers, designed using the integrated common equipment SCPC approach, provide substantial cost and power consumption savings over conventional designs. Specific objectives for a prototype development program are established. The integration of a satellite DAMA control system with a telephone exchange specifically designed for a small number of subscribers in a rural environment provides additional cost reduction.

  13. The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

  14. CERES Detects Earth's Heat and Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, CERES, monitors solar energy reflected from the Earth and heat energy emitted from the Earth. In this image, heat energy radiated from the earth is shown in varying shades of yellow, red, blue and white. The brightest yellow areas, such as the Sahara Desert and Arabian Peninsula, are emitting the most energy out to space, while the dark blue polar regions and bright white clouds are the coldest areas on Earth, and are emitting the least energy. The animation (1.5MB) (high-res (4MB)) shows roughly a week of CERES data. For more information: CERES images through Visible Earth. CERES web site Image courtesy of the CERES instrument team

  15. Energy-efficient buildings with earth-shelter protection. Proceedings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Boyer; W. T. Grondzik; R. L. Sterling; S. A. Baggs

    1983-01-01

    Climate and proximity to the equator as well as acceptance of the concept made Australia a logical place for an international conference on the energy-efficiency opportunities of earth-sheltered buildings. Papers presented at the conference are grouped under 10 general topics: earth environment, landscape\\/site, passive solar integration, hazard protection, design process, livability\\/acceptance, interior environment, energy conservation, performance simulation, and structural variations.

  16. Earth's energy imbalance and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; von Schuckmann, K.

    2011-09-01

    Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 ± 0.15 W m-2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 ± 0.3 W m-2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade. Humanity is potentially vulnerable to global temperature change, as discussed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001, 2007) reports and by innumerable authors. Although climate change is driven by many climate forcing agents and the climate system also exhibits unforced (chaotic) variability, it is now widely agreed that the strong global warming trend of recent decades is caused predominantly by human-made changes of atmospheric composition (IPCC, 2007). The basic physics underlying this global warming, the greenhouse effect, is simple. An increase of gases such as CO2 makes the atmosphere more opaque at infrared wavelengths. This added opacity causes the planet's heat radiation to space to arise from higher, colder levels in the atmosphere, thus reducing emission of heat energy to space. The temporary imbalance between the energy absorbed from the sun and heat emission to space, causes the planet to warm until planetary energy balance is restored. The planetary energy imbalance caused by a change of atmospheric composition defines a climate forcing. Climate sensitivity, the eventual global temperature change per unit forcing, is known with good accuracy from Earth's paleoclimate history. However, two fundamental uncertainties limit our ability to predict global temperature change on decadal time scales. First, although climate forcing by human-made greenhouse gases (GHGs) is known accurately, climate forcing caused by changing human-made aerosols is practically unmeasured. Aerosols are fine particles suspended in the air, such as dust, sulfates, and black soot (Ramanathan et al., 2001). Aerosol climate forcing is complex, because aerosols both reflect solar radiation to space (a cooling effect) and absorb solar radiation (a warming effect). In addition, atmospheric aerosols can alter cloud cover and cloud properties. Therefore, precise composition-specific measurements of aerosols and their effects on clouds are needed to assess the aerosol role in climate change. Second, the rate at which Earth's surface temperature approaches a new equilibrium in response to a climate forcing depends on how efficiently heat perturbations are mixed into the deeper ocean. Ocean mixing is complex and not necessarily simulated well by climate models. Empirical data on ocean heat uptake are improving rapidly, but still suffer limitations. We summarize current understanding of this basic physics of global warming and note observations needed to narrow uncertainties. Appropriate measurements can quantify the major factors driving climate change, reveal how much additional global warming is already in the pipeline, and help define the reduction of climate forcing needed to stabilize climate.

  17. Observing and modeling Earths energy flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stevens B; Schwartz S

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews, from the authors perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean

  18. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; von Schuckmann, Karina

    2011-01-01

    Improving observations of ocean temperature confirm that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 \\pm 0.15 W/m2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, provides fundamental verification of the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 \\pm 0.3 W/m2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. A recent decrease in ocean heat uptake ...

  19. EarthCARE/CPR design results and PFM performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aida, Yoshihisa; Tomita, Eichi; Nakatsuka, Hirotaka; Seki, Yoshihiro; Okada, Kazuyuki; Kadosaki, Gaku; Iide, Yoshiya; Horie, Hiroaki; Sato, Kenji; Ohno, Yuichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2013-10-01

    ESA and JAXA plan to launch a satellite called EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer). The Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), which will be the first millimeter-wave Doppler radar in space, is installed on this satellite as one of main sensors to observe clouds. This paper describes the design results and PFM performance of EarthCARE CPR.

  20. Designing and Creating Earth Science Lessons with Google Earth™

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steve Kluge (Fox Lane High School, Bedford, New York, and SUNY Purchase)

    This teacher's guide provides instructions on creating Earth science lessons using Google Earth™ software. The guide, which focuses on using the free version of the software, covers how to plan a lesson (what the software can do, what can be included in a lesson) and how to create a lesson (creating folders, placemarks, map layers; sharing lessons). There are also links to useful tools for image processing, text editing, and image hosting, and an appendix with instructions for downloading, installing, and using the software. A sample "tour" is provided, and a downloadable, printable version of the guide is included.

  1. Earth integrated design: office dormitory facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, H.B.; Barnes, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    The generation process of the design of the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is described. Architectural and energy considerations are discussed. The facility will contain living quarters for guest scientists who come to Oak Ridge to conduct short experiments and sleeping alcoves for local researchers on long experimental shifts as well as office space. (MHR)

  2. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Ocean Heat Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hansen; J. Willis; E. Leuliette; R. Bleck; K. Lo; R. Ruedy; M. Sato; S. Sun

    2006-01-01

    The Earth's energy imbalance, i.e., the difference between solar energy absorbed and thermal energy emitted by the planet, is fundamental to global climate change, as it measures the net forcing acting on the climate system. The imbalance is now positive on decadal time scales, due to dominance of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, and, with canonical climate sensitivity, it yields

  3. Compact earth stations, hubs for energy industry expanding

    SciTech Connect

    Shimabukuro, T. (Telecommunications Systems and Analysis, GTE Spacenet Corp., McLean, VA (US))

    1992-02-01

    That paper reports that advances in gallium arsenide (GaAs) technology, monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) and large scale integrated (VLSF) circuits, have contributed to the mass production of very reliable small aperture terminals (VSATs). Less publicized, but equally important to multinational energy organizations, are recent developments in compact earth station design and solid-state hubs for VSAT networks made possible by the new technology. Many applications are suited for the energy industry that involve compact earth station terminals and hubs. The first group of applications describes the use of GTE's ACES earth station for the Zaire Gulf Oil Co. in Zaire and for AMOCO in Trinidad. The second group of applications describes the compact hub for VSAT networks, which could potentially have a number of data communication uses in the energy industry, such as, IBM/SNA, X.25, or supervisory control an data acquisition (SCADA) applications.

  4. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument is one of five instruments that will be flown aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observatory. Data from the CERES instrument will be used to study the energy exchanged between the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, surface and clouds, and space. This webpage describes the TRMM mission, the CERES insrument, and how Earth's daily weather and climate are controlled by the balance between the amount of solar energy received by the Earth (both by its surface and its atmosphere and clouds) and the amount of energy emitted by Earth into space. School children worldwide will be involved in the CERES program, enabling them to be part of a scientific project. As a CERES instrument passes over, students will make local observations to determine the types of clouds over their school, the clouds' altitudes and how much of the sky they cover. Via the Internet, the students will then place their data in the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center where the data will be stored for further analysis by the CERES science team.

  5. Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stovall, John P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sorokine, Alexandre [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bhaduri, Budhendra L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); King, Jr., Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-01-01

    For the North American hurricane season, in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and working with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, we have developed a capability that helps visualize the status of the electric transmission system infrastructure. The capability toolkit, called VERDE - Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth, takes advantage of the Google Earth platform to display spatiotemporally informed power grid and related data. Custom libraries describe the electrical transmission network in the Eastern United States and the dynamic status of each transmission line. Standard Google Earth layers provide additional spatial context. In addition to live status, VERDE provides a framework and mechanism to ingest and intuitively present predictive models, data from different sources, and response needs.

  6. Earth radiation budget measurement from a spinning satellite: Conceptual design of detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Suomi, V. E.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design, sensor characteristics, sensor performance and accuracy, and spacecraft and orbital requirements for a spinning wide-field-of-view earth energy budget detector were investigated. The scientific requirements for measurement of the earth's radiative energy budget are presented. Other topics discussed include the observing system concept, solar constant radiometer design, plane flux wide FOV sensor design, fast active cavity theory, fast active cavity design and error analysis, thermopile detectors as an alternative, pre-flight and in-flight calibration plane, system error summary, and interface requirements.

  7. Observing and Modeling Earth's Energy Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Bjorn; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews, from the authors' perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within ±2 W m-2. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute importantly to this adjustment and thus contribute both to uncertainty in estimates of radiative forcing and to uncertainty in the response. Models are indispensable to calculation of the adjustment of the system to a compositional change but are known to be flawed in their representation of clouds. Advances in tracking Earth's energy flows and compositional changes on daily through decadal timescales are shown to provide both a critical and constructive framework for advancing model development and evaluation.

  8. An Earth-Moon System Trajectory Design Reference Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bosanac, Natasha; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    As demonstrated by ongoing concept designs and the recent ARTEMIS mission, there is, currently, significant interest in exploiting three-body dynamics in the design of trajectories for both robotic and human missions within the Earth-Moon system. The concept of an interactive and 'dynamic' catalog of potential solutions in the Earth-Moon system is explored within this paper and analyzed as a framework to guide trajectory design. Characterizing and compiling periodic and quasi-periodic solutions that exist in the circular restricted three-body problem may offer faster and more efficient strategies for orbit design, while also delivering innovative mission design parameters for further examination.

  9. Design definition study of the Earth radiation budget satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Wallschlaeger, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments for measuring the radiation budget components are discussed, and the conceptual design of instruments for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System (ERBSS) are reported. Scanning and nonscanning assemblies are described. The ERBSS test program is also described.

  10. Energy design for architects

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

  11. SIRTF high earth orbit mission conceptual structural design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, LI; Sarver, George L., III

    1990-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a cryogenically cooled, space based, one meter class telescope for infrared astronomy. A recent mission option study has moved SIRTF from a previous low earth orbit (900 km) shuttle launched design to a high earth orbit (100,000 km) Titan IV/Centaur launched design. The mission option study requirements and trades relating to the structural configuration and the chosen SIRTF design are described. Also discussed is a dynamic stress analysis of the new SIRTF baseline structural design which has been performed using finite element modeling and simulated launch interface loads.

  12. The Earth's Magnetic Field is Still Losing Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Russell Humphreys

    2002-01-01

    This paper closes a loophole in the case for a young earth based on the loss of energy from various parts of the earth's magnetic field. Using ambiguous 1967 data, evolutionists had claimed that energy gains in minor (\\

  13. Earth Science Mission Concept Design System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meemong Lee; Charles Miller; Annmarie Eldering; Zheng Qu

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about the Earth system (i.e., the physical-chemical processes that describe its evolution) is generated from global measurements of geophysical parameters taken at appropriate mission observation scenarios. Any given instrument transforms the incoming signal into an instrument-dependent output, from which the scientific observable of interest, say a chemical constituent, is eventually retrieved. The ability to simulate high-fidelity incoming geophysical signals,

  14. Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Larissa Nazarenko; Reto Ruedy; Makiko Sato; Josh Willis; Anthony Del Genio; Dorothy Koch; Andrew Lacis; Ken Lo; Surabi Menon; Tica Novakov; Judith Perlwitz; Gary Russell; Gavin A. Schmidt; Nicholas Tausnev

    2005-01-01

    Our climate model, driven mainly by increasing human-made greenhouse gases and aerosols, among other forcings, calculates that Earth is now absorbing 0.85 +\\/- 0.15 watts per square meter more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space. This imbalance is confirmed by precise measurements of increasing ocean heat content over the past 10 years. Implications include (i) the

  15. Discover Earth: Earth's Energy Budget or Can You Spare a Sun?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Tom; Peters, Dale E.; Steeley, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction, and provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park.

  16. Designing for Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, R. C.

    This document is a description of the energy efficient designs for new schools in the Alief Independent School District of Houston, Texas. Exhibit A shows how four major school projects differ from conventional designs. Parameters and designs for heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and lighting are given. Twenty year projected energy costs and…

  17. Energy-Conscious Design. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Practical energy-design elements adaptable for schools include building orientation and shape, inclusion of an energy-storage system, window placement, double or triple window glazing, air-curtain windows, and the use of earth berms and trees as wind breaks. (MLF)

  18. Earth Science by Design: Teaching the Big Ideas in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, H.; McAuliffe, C.

    2007-12-01

    Developed by TERC and the American Geological Institute with funding from the National Science Foundation, Earth Science by Design (ESBD) is a year-long program of professional development for middle or high school teachers based on the Understanding by Design approach pioneered by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. ESBD is designed to help teachers: · Teach for deep and enduring understanding of the "big ideas" in Earth system science. · Use "backward design" to create curriculum units and lessons that are engaging, rigorous, and aligned with national, state, and local standards. · Design effective classroom assessments and rubrics. · Incorporate powerful web-based Earth science visualizations and satellite imagery into an Earth system science approach. ESBD has developed a complete professional development package for staff developers and geoscience educators, including: · The ESBD Handbook, which provides everything you need to offer the program, including detailed workshop lesson plans. · The ESBD Web Site, where teachers can develop curriculum units online (www.esbd.org). · Online resources for Earth Science teaching and learning. · PowerPoint presentations for workshops and courses. · DVD of teacher reflections on their implementation experiences. In this session we will review the resources which ESBD makes available for geoscience educators: ·sample Earth science units produced by teachers in the program, ·field test results, ·the effect of the program on teacher practice, ·and how geoscience educators can get involved with ESBD. ESBD has been field-tested by staff developers in eight sites nationwide and is being adapted by college and university geoscience educators for use with pre-service teachers. In this session we will report on the results of field testing and on an experimental study of ESBD and other professional development approaches funded by the US Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences.

  19. Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

    1991-01-01

    This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

  20. Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

  1. Dichroic Design for the Orbiting VLBI Earth Station Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T.; Shillue, W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the design and performance of a single screen frequency selective surface with gridded square loop patch elements are described for diplexing the X-and Ku-band signals in an Orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometer (OVLBI) earth station reflector antenna system.

  2. Interplanetary Mission Design Handbook: Earth-to-Mars Mission Opportunities 2026 to 2045

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Laura M.; Falck, Robert D.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Mission Design Handbook is to provide trajectory designers and mission planners with graphical information about Earth to Mars ballistic trajectory opportunities for the years of 2026 through 2045. The plots, displayed on a departure date/arrival date mission space, show departure energy, right ascension and declination of the launch asymptote, and target planet hyperbolic arrival excess speed, V(sub infinity), for each launch opportunity. Provided in this study are two sets of contour plots for each launch opportunity. The first set of plots shows Earth to Mars ballistic trajectories without the addition of any deep space maneuvers. The second set of plots shows Earth to Mars transfer trajectories with the addition of deep space maneuvers, which further optimize the determined trajectories. The accompanying texts explains the trajectory characteristics, transfers using deep space maneuvers, mission assumptions and a summary of the minimum departure energy for each opportunity.

  3. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): algorithm overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Wielicki; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Bryan A. Baum; Thomas P. Charlock; Richard N. Green; David P. Kratz; Robert B. Lee; Patrick Minnis; G. Louis Smith; Takmeng Wong; David F. Young; Robert D. Cess; James A. Coakley; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Leo Donner; Robert Kandel; Michael D. King; Alvin J. Miller; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; David A. Randall; Larry L. Stowe; Ronald M. Welch

    1998-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), CERES objectives include the following. (1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) record of radiative fluxes at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same techniques as the existing ERBE data. (2) Double the accuracy of

  4. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Ocean Heat Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Willis, J.; Leuliette, E.; Bleck, R.; Lo, K.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Sun, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Earth's energy imbalance, i.e., the difference between solar energy absorbed and thermal energy emitted by the planet, is fundamental to global climate change, as it measures the net forcing acting on the climate system. The imbalance is now positive on decadal time scales, due to dominance of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, and, with canonical climate sensitivity, it yields an estimate of the amount of global warming that remains "in the pipeline" due to GHGs already in the atmosphere. The ocean is the largest sink for excess incoming energy. Inference of information from the energy imbalance is affected by a trade-off between decreasing accuracy of earlier data and the added information from longer time scales. We use two atmosphere-ocean models, with ocean heat and sea level measurements, to study the roles of different climate forcings, unforced climate variability including ocean- cloud interactions, and limitations of data sampling. We find that observed decrease in ocean heat content in the upper 750m in 2004-2005 does not significantly alter the estimate of ~0.5C global warming still "in the pipeline". Continuation and refinement of measurements of ocean heat, sea level, and ice sheet mass balance have the potential to greatly refine understanding of global warming, its practical implications, and important climate processes, but to be most useful they need to be supplemented by better measurements of deep ocean heat content changes and precise measurements of changing climate forcings such as tropospheric aerosols.

  5. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  6. Alternative energy design toolkit

    E-print Network

    Sukkasi, Sittha

    2004-01-01

    This thesis concerns the concepts, structure, and applications of the Alternative Energy Design Toolkit. The toolkit is aimed to provide a widely accessible, easy to use, flexible, yet powerful modeling environment for ...

  7. Interplanetary Mission Design Handbook: Earth-to-Mars Mission Opportunities and Mars-to-Earth Return Opportunities 2009-2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, L. E.; Kos, L. D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides information for trajectory designers and mission planners to determine Earth-Mars and Mars-Earth mission opportunities for the years 2009-2024. These studies were performed in support of a human Mars mission scenario that will consist of two cargo launches followed by a piloted mission during the next opportunity approximately 2 years later. "Porkchop" plots defining all of these mission opportunities are provided which include departure energy, departure excess speed, departure declination arrival excess speed, and arrival declinations for the mission space surrounding each opportunity. These plots are intended to be directly applicable for the human Mars mission scenario described briefly herein. In addition, specific trajectories and several alternate trajectories are recommended for each cargo and piloted opportunity. Finally, additional studies were performed to evaluate the effect of various thrust-to-weight ratios on gravity losses and total time-of-flight tradeoff, and the resultant propellant savings and are briefly summarized.

  8. Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Nazarenko, Larissa; Ruedy, Reto; Sato, Makiko; Willis, Josh; Del Genio, Anthony; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Lo, Ken; Menon, Surabi; Novakov, Tica; Perlwitz, Judith; Russell, Gary; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Tausnev, Nicholas

    2005-06-01

    Our climate model, driven mainly by increasing human-made greenhouse gases and aerosols, among other forcings, calculates that Earth is now absorbing 0.85 +/- 0.15 watts per square meter more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space. This imbalance is confirmed by precise measurements of increasing ocean heat content over the past 10 years. Implications include (i) the expectation of additional global warming of about 0.6°C without further change of atmospheric composition; (ii) the confirmation of the climate system's lag in responding to forcings, implying the need for anticipatory actions to avoid any specified level of climate change; and (iii) the likelihood of acceleration of ice sheet disintegration and sea level rise.

  9. Earth's energy imbalance: confirmation and implications.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Nazarenko, Larissa; Ruedy, Reto; Sato, Makiko; Willis, Josh; Del Genio, Anthony; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Lo, Ken; Menon, Surabi; Novakov, Tica; Perlwitz, Judith; Russell, Gary; Schmidt, Gavin A; Tausnev, Nicholas

    2005-06-01

    Our climate model, driven mainly by increasing human-made greenhouse gases and aerosols, among other forcings, calculates that Earth is now absorbing 0.85 +/- 0.15 watts per square meter more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space. This imbalance is confirmed by precise measurements of increasing ocean heat content over the past 10 years. Implications include (i) the expectation of additional global warming of about 0.6 degrees C without further change of atmospheric composition; (ii) the confirmation of the climate system's lag in responding to forcings, implying the need for anticipatory actions to avoid any specified level of climate change; and (iii) the likelihood of acceleration of ice sheet disintegration and sea level rise. PMID:15860591

  10. Energy Partition in Magnetic Reconnection in Earth's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Phan, T. D.; Drake, J. F.; Shay, M. A.; Borg, A. L.; Lavraud, B.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.

    2013-05-01

    The partition of energy flux in magnetic reconnection is examined experimentally using Cluster satellite observations of collisionless reconnection in Earth’s magnetotail. In this plasma regime, the dominant component of the energy flux is ion enthalpy flux, with smaller contributions from the electron enthalpy and heat flux and the ion kinetic energy flux. However, the Poynting flux is not negligible, and in certain parts of the ion diffusion region the Poynting flux in fact dominates. Evidence for earthward-tailward asymmetry is ascribed to the presence of Earth’s dipole fields.

  11. Design of optimal impulse transfers from the Sun-Earth libration point to asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yamin; Qiao, Dong; Cui, Pingyuan

    2015-07-01

    The lunar probe, Chang'E-2, is the first one to successfully achieve both the transfer to Sun-Earth libration point orbit and the flyby of near-Earth asteroid Toutatis. This paper, taking the Chang'E-2's asteroid flyby mission as an example, provides a method to design low-energy transfers from the libration point orbit to an asteroid. The method includes the analysis of transfer families and the design of optimal impulse transfers. Firstly, the one-impulse transfers are constructed by correcting the initial guesses, which are obtained by perturbing in the direction of unstable eigenvector. Secondly, the optimality of one-impulse transfers is analyzed and the optimal impulse transfers are built by using the primer vector theory. After optimization, the transfer families, including the slow and the fast transfers, are refined to be continuous and lower-cost transfers. The method proposed in this paper can be also used for designing transfers from an arbitrary Sun-Earth libration point orbit to a near-Earth asteroid in the Sun-Earth-Moon system.

  12. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for Returning Entire Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Oleson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    In situ resource utilization (ISRU) in general, and asteroid mining in particular are ideas that have been around for a long time, and for good reason. It is clear that ultimately human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit will have to utilize the material resources available in space. Historically, the lack of sufficiently capable in-space transportation has been one of the key impediments to the harvesting of near-Earth asteroid resources. With the advent of high-power (or order 40 kW) solar electric propulsion systems, that impediment is being removed. High-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) would be enabling for the exploitation of asteroid resources. The design of a 40-kW end-of-life SEP system is presented that could rendezvous with, capture, and subsequently transport a 1,000-metric-ton near-Earth asteroid back to cislunar space. The conceptual spacecraft design was developed by the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team at the Glenn Research Center in collaboration with the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) team assembled to investigate the feasibility of an asteroid retrieval mission. Returning such an object to cislunar space would enable astronaut crews to inspect, sample, dissect, and ultimately determine how to extract the desired materials from the asteroid. This process could jump-start the entire ISRU industry.

  13. Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications

    E-print Network

    specified level of climate change; and (iii) the likelihood of acceleration of ice sheet disintegration climate change. The effect of the inertia is to delay Earth_s response to climate forcings, i.e., changes to reduce the mag- nitude of anthropogenic climate change before it is fully realized, if appropriate action

  14. The Earth's Internal Heat Energy and Interior Structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Victor Camp

    This resource identifies the sources of the Earth's internal heat energy as extraterrestrial impacts, gravitational contraction of the Earth's interior, and the radioactive decay of unstable isotopes, each of which is explained in detail. A discussion of melting and compositional differentiation of the early Earth is followed by a description of the present layers, including the inner and outer core, mantle, and crust. In addition, the asthenosphere and lithosphere are described and illustrated.

  15. EarthCARE/CPR design and verification status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Kimura, T.; Nakatsuka, H.; Seki, Y.; Kadosaki, G.; Yamaguchi, J.; Takahashi, N.; Ohno, Y.; Horie, H.; Sato, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Earth, Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission is joint mission between Europe and Japan for the launch year of 2015. Mission objective is to improve scientific understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation interactions that is one of the biggest uncertain factors for numerical climate and weather predictions. The EarthCARE spacecraft equips four instruments such as an ultra violet lidar (ATLID), a cloud profiling radar (CPR), a broadband radiometer (BBR), and a multi-spectral imager (MSI) to observe aerosols, clouds and their interactions simultaneously from the orbit. Japan aerospace exploration agency (JAXA) is responsible for development of the CPR that will be the first space-borne W-band Doppler radar. The CPR is defined with minimum radar sensitivity of -35dBz, radiometric accuracy of 2.7 dB, and Doppler velocity measurement accuracy of 1m/s. These specifications require highly accurate pointing technique in orbit and high power source with large antenna dish. JAXA and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) have been jointly developed this CPR to meet these requirements. In addition, new ground calibration technique is also being progressed for the launch of EarthCARE/CPR. This evaluation method will also be the first use for spacecraft as well as Doppler cloud radar. This paper shows the summary of the CPR design and verification status, and activity status of development of ground calibration method with a few results of experiment using current space-borne cloud radar (CloudSat, NASA).

  16. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, Part 5: Mars-to-Earth ballistic mission opportunities, 1992-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, Andrey; Cunniff, Ross

    1987-01-01

    This document contains graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions returning from Mars. Contours of Mars-departure energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Earth-arrival parameters are presented in arrival-date/launch-date space for all departure opportunities from 1992 through 2007. In addition, an extensive companion document (Part 2) is available; it contains Earth-Mars graphical data and explains mission design methods, using the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters. This is one of a planned series of mission design handbooks.

  17. The energy balance of the earth' surface : a practical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruin de H. A. R

    1982-01-01

    This study is devoted to the energy balance of the earth's surface with a special emphasis on practical applications. A simple picture of the energy exchange processes that take place at the ground is the following. Per unit time and area an amount of radiant energy is supplied to the surface. This radiation originates partly from the sun, but an~

  18. Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, L.; Ardanuy, P.; Hucek, R.; Abel, P.; Jacobowitz, H. [NOAA/NESDIS, Washington, DC (United States)] [NOAA/NESDIS, Washington, DC (United States); [Research and Data Systems, Greenbelt, MD (United States); [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument`s ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%.

  19. A new mix design concept for earth-moist concrete: A theoretical and experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hüsken; H. J. H. Brouwers

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses experiments on earth-moist concrete (EMC) based on the ideas of a new mix design concept. First, a brief introduction into particle packing and relevant packing theories is given. Based on packing theories for geometric packing, a new concept for the mix design of earth-moist concrete will be introduced and discussed in detail. Within the new mix design

  20. Near-Earth object intercept trajectory design for planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardaxis, George; Wie, Bong

    2014-08-01

    Tracking the orbit of asteroids and planning for asteroid missions have ceased to be a simple exercise, and become more of a necessity, as the number of identified potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroids increases. Several software tools such as Mystic, MALTO, Copernicus, SNAP, OTIS, and GMAT have been developed by NASA for spacecraft trajectory optimization and mission design. However, this paper further expands upon the development and validation of an Asteroid Mission Design Software Tool (AMiDST), through the use of approach and post-encounter orbital variations and analytic keyhole theory. Combining these new capabilities with that of a high-precision orbit propagator, this paper describes fictional mission trajectory design examples of using AMiDST as applied to a fictitious asteroid 2013 PDC-E. During the 2013 IAA Planetary Defense Conference, the asteroid 2013 PDC-E was used for an exercise where participants simulated the decision-making process for developing deflection and civil defense responses to a hypothetical asteroid threat.

  1. Wave Energy Budget in the Earth Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, Anton; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mourenas, Didier; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Mozer, Forest

    2015-04-01

    Whistlers are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and ionization or chemical composition in the upper-atmosphere. Here, we report an analysis of ten-year Cluster data, evaluating for the first time the wave energy budget in Earth's magnetosphere and revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with ten times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  2. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  3. The Role of Water Vapour in Earth's Energy Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Richard P.

    2012-07-01

    Water vapour modulates energy flows in Earth's climate system through transfer of latent heat by evaporation and condensation and by modifying the flows of radiative energy both in the longwave and shortwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This article summarizes the role of water vapour in Earth's energy flows with particular emphasis on (1) the powerful thermodynamic constraint of the Clausius Clapeyron equation, (2) dynamical controls on humidity above the boundary layer (or free-troposphere), (3) uncertainty in continuum absorption in the relatively transparent "window" regions of the radiative spectrum and (4) implications for changes in the atmospheric hydrological cycle.

  4. Energy partition in magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetotail.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, J P; Phan, T D; Drake, J F; Shay, M A; Borg, A L; Lavraud, B; Taylor, M G G T

    2013-05-31

    The partition of energy flux in magnetic reconnection is examined experimentally using Cluster satellite observations of collisionless reconnection in Earth's magnetotail. In this plasma regime, the dominant component of the energy flux is ion enthalpy flux, with smaller contributions from the electron enthalpy and heat flux and the ion kinetic energy flux. However, the Poynting flux is not negligible, and in certain parts of the ion diffusion region the Poynting flux in fact dominates. Evidence for earthward-tailward asymmetry is ascribed to the presence of Earth's dipole fields. PMID:23767730

  5. Earth science contexts for teaching physics. Part 2: Contexts relating to the teaching of Energy, Earth and Beyond and Radioactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris King; Peter Kennett

    2002-01-01

    The physics taught to 11-16 year-old pupils can often be set in Earth contexts in ways that highlight the key role that physics plays in many Earth processes and their effects. This is demonstrated and explained in the context of familiar physics content areas, namely: energy resources and transfer; light and sound; waves; Earth and beyond; and radioactivity. Some of

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Research for Energy Management. Part 1; Overview of Energy Issues and an Assessment of the Potential for Application of NASA Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of energy resources is critical for the U.S. economy, the environment, and, more broadly, for sustainable development and alleviating poverty worldwide. The scope of energy management is broad, ranging from energy production and end use to emissions monitoring and mitigation and long-term planning. Given the extensive NASA Earth science research on energy and related weather and climate-related parameters, and rapidly advancing energy technologies and applications, there is great potential for increased application of NASA Earth science research to selected energy management issues and decision support tools. The NASA Energy Management Program Element is already involved in a number of projects applying NASA Earth science research to energy management issues, with a focus on solar and wind renewable energy and developing interests in energy modeling, short-term load forecasting, energy efficient building design, and biomass production.

  7. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana 

    E-print Network

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  8. Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

  9. Solar-powered Stirling engines - Energy converters on earth and in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinwaechter, H.; Kleinwaechter, J.

    The development of the crankshaft Stirling engine has resulted in a machine suitable for energy conversion on earth and in space, using solar energy. The principle of the Stirling engine is discussed, the realization of the engine in a variety of applications is shown. The advantages of the free-piston design of the Stirling engine are addressed, and the engine's use in a receiver antenna for direct reception from satellites is considered.

  10. Recent Changes in Earth's Energy Budget As Observed By CERES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to produce a long-term climate data record of Earth's radiation budget at the top-of-atmosphere, within-atmosphere and surface together with coincident cloud, aerosol and surface properties. CERES relies on a number of data sources, including broadband CERES radiometers on Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP, high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS and VIIRS), geostationary visible/infrared imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. The many input data sets are integrated and cross-calibrated to provide a consistent climate data record that accurately captures variations in Earth's radiation budget and associated cloud, aerosol and surface properties over a range of time and space scales. The CERES datasets are primarily used for climate model evaluation, process studies and climate monitoring. This presentation will review some of the ways in which the CERES record along with other datasets have been used to improve our understanding Earth's energy budget. At the top-of-atmosphere, we will show how Earth's energy imbalance, a critical indictor of climate change, has varied during the past 15 years relative to what is observed by in-situ observations of ocean heat content by the Argo observing system. We will use these results to place the so-called global warming hiatus into a larger context that takes Earth's energy budget into account. We will also discuss how recent advances in surface radiation budget estimation by the CERES group is reshaping the debate on why the surface energy budget cannot be closed to better than 15 Wm-2 using state-of-the-art observations. Finally, we will highlight the dramatic changes that have been observed by CERES over the Arctic Ocean, and discuss some of the yet unresolved observational challenges that limit our ability document change in this unique part of the planet.

  11. Gravitational potential energy of the earth - A spherical harmonic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic expansion agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the crust and mantle of -2.77 x 10 to the 29th ergs, an order of magnitude below McKenzie's (1966) estimate. McKenzie's result stems from mathematical error. Our figure is almost identical with Kaula's (1963) estimate of the minimum shear strain energy in the mantle, a not unexpected result on the basis of the virial theorem. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 20th P is found by assuming that the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation of energy. This number is almost six orders of magnitude below MacDonald's (1966) estimate of the viscosity and removes his objection to convection. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at 1% efficiency, then the viscosity is 10 to the 22nd P, a number preferred by Cathles (1975) and Peltier and Andrew (1976) as the viscosity of the mantle.

  12. ??????????????????????????????????????? State Of The Earth And Renewable Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ammata Tusnapuckdi; Chatchai Plengsaard; Kiattisak Sakulphan

    ???????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????? ???? ??????????, ???????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ???????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????? (Green house gases) ???? ???????????????? (CO2) ????????????????????????????????????? Abstract In the past many decades, humans have tried to find the stored fuel energy sources and brought them to utilize in many fields such as industrial and agriculture etc. Since stored fuel energy sources have continuously

  13. Low energy neutral atoms in the earth`s magnetosphere: Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1992-06-01

    Detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by the interaction of the Earth`s geocorona with ambient space plasma has been proposed as a technique to obtain global information about the magnetosphere. Recent instrumentation advances reported previously and in these proceedings provide an opportunity for detecting LENAs in the energy range of <1 keV to {approximately}50 keV. In this paper, we present results from a numerical model which calculates line of sight LENA fluxes expected at a remote orbiting spacecraft for various magnetospheric plasma regimes. This model uses measured charge exchange cross sections, either of two neural hydrogen geocorona models, and various empirical modes of the ring current and plasma sheet to calculate the contribution to the integrated directional flux from each point along the line of sight of the instrument. We discuss implications for LENA imaging of the magnetosphere based on these simulations. 22 refs.

  14. Satellite earth observations for energy resource development and environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.B. (Geosat Committee, Norman, OK (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Global change and growing needs for energy and other resources and their impact on the environment will be major international issues for the 1990s. Advanced international satellite earth observation systems during the 1990s will include systems for Japan (JERS, ADEOS), France (SPOT), Canada (Radarsat), Europe (ERS), India (IRS), and the U.S. (Landsat, NOAA, and N-POP). NASA's proposed advanced Earth Observing System (EOS/N-POP) will provide extensive satellite earth observations for resource development and global change studies for better environmental management. These satellites will produce tremendous volumes of digital electro-optical, microwave, and radar data creating a massive database for basic scientific and applied research for geology, agriculture, oceanography, meteorology, and environmental sciences. Database management and data access are major NASA and international issues under current review. Use of earth observations in energy and mineral resource exploration and development has become established during the last 20 years and will continue to expand with new information derived from these new satellite systems. US government environment global change research is being coordinated by the new interagency Committee on Earth Sciences (C.E.S.). The Geosat Committee, supported by resource industries who contribute to man's environmental impact and have a major stake in the C.E.S. research plan, is working with the C.E.S. to establish industry-government-academia linkages for research in the broad global resource and environmental studies from space.

  15. Solar energy system case study: Telex Communications, Blue Earth, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, M.G.

    1984-09-01

    A study is made of a solar energy system for space heating a 97,000-square-foot office, factory, and warehouse building owned by Telex Communications, Inc. in Blue Earth, Minnesota. The solar system has 11,520 square feet of ground-oriented flat-plate collectors and a 20,000-gallon storage tank inside the building. Freeze protection is by drainback. Solar heated water from the storage tank circulates around the clock throughout the heating season to heating coils in the ducts. The system achieves its design solar fraction, is efficient, and generally reliable, but not cost-effective. Performance data for the solar system was collected by the National Solar Data Network for three heating seasons from 1978 to 1981. Because of a freeze-up of the collector array in December 1978, the solar system was only partially operational in the 1978 to 1979 heating season. The data in this report were collected in the 1979 to 1980 and 1980 to 1981 heating seasons.

  16. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): An Earth Observing System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation to examine the role of cloud/radiation feedback in the Earth's climate system. The CERES broadband scanning radiometers are an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers. The CERES instruments will fly on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites starting in 1998 and extending over at least 15 years. The CERES science investigations will provide data to extend the ERBE climate record of top-of-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes CERES will also combine simultaneous cloud property data derived using EOS narrowband imagers to provide a consistent set of cloud/radiation data, including SW and LW radiative fluxes at the surface and at several selected levels within the atmosphere. CERES data are expected to provide top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with a factor of 2 to 3 less error than the ERBE data Estimates of radiative fluxes at the surface and especially within the atmosphere will be a much greater challenge but should also show significant improvements over current capabilities.

  17. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

  18. Energy-adjusted pseudopotentials for the rare earth elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dolg; H. Stoll; A. Savin; H. Preuss

    1989-01-01

    Nonrelativistic and quasirelativistic energy-adjusted pseudopotentials and optimized (7s6p5d)\\/[5s4p3d]-GTO valence basis sets for use in molecular calculations for fixed f-subconfigurations of the rare earth elements, La through Lu, have been generated. Atomic excitation and ionization energies from numerical HF, as well as SCF pseudopotential calculations using the derived basis sets, differ by less than 0.1 eV from numerical HF all-electron results.

  19. Gamma rays made on Earth have unexpectedly high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Johanna

    2011-01-15

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are the source of the highest-energy nonanthropogenic photons produced on Earth. Associated with thunder-storms - and in fact, with individual lightning discharges - they are presumed to be the bremsstrahlung produced when relativistic electrons, accelerated by the storms' strong electric fields, collide with air molecules some 10-20 km above sea level. The TGFs last up to a few milliseconds and contain photons with energies on the order of MeV.

  20. Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

  1. Fault Tolerant Design in the Earth Observing System Archive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alla Lake; Jonathan Crawford; Raymond Simanowith; Bradley Koenig

    2000-01-01

    The Archive for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is one of the largest and highest data rate archives in the world. The EOS Archive is referred to as EOS Core System (ECS) and is a multi-site distributed data warehouse of Earth-oriented satellite images and science algorithms\\/reports. Its data holdings are projected to approach five petabytes by 2002. Each distributed site

  2. Boundary layer dynamics and energy transport in the earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, T.; Walker, R. J.; Fukazawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    Anomalous energy transport, accumulation and release of three kinds of energy, namely energy budgets are important problems in interaction between the solar wind and earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere. We have studied distribution of three kinds of the kinetic, thermal and magnetic energies and three kinds of energy fluxes in the magnetosphere. Most dominant energy flux is Poynting flux in the magnetosphere which is main driver of magnetospheric convection. In the earth side of near-earth neutral line in plasma sheet, thermal energy flux is generally greater than kinetic energy flux, because thermal energy is large there and Much number is less than unity. The kinetic energy flux firstly becomes small and the thermal flux does secondly when plasma high speed flows come close to the earth from the neutral line by magnetic reconnection. Poynting flux survives finally and approaches very near the earth in the plasma sheet and then carries the energy from nightside to dayside magnetosphere. At the same time, as the solar wind and IMF becomes abnormal conditions, plasma turbulence are strongly excited near boundary layers in the magnetosphere. In the plasma sheet magnetic reconnection occurs in patchy and intermittent manner to produce streamer-like structure. At the magnetopause, more regular vortex train is formed for northward IMF. It is because velocity shear created between the magnetosheath fast flow and magnetopause slow flow. On the other hand, sunward fast flow is produced by tail reconnection for southward IMF. Therefore two types of velocity shears created outside and inside of the magnetopause to excite Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in both sides. Moreover dayside reconnection occurs in patchy and intermittent manner to give seeds of plasma turbulence. As the results, complicated and strong vortex turbulence appears in flank magnetopause. We will demonstrate those phenomena from 3-dimensional visualization method of simulation results to discuss relationship between the currents and vortices in boundary layers. In particularly we will stress relationship among parallel and perpendikular components of vorticity and current, and also compressibility in order to understand the fundamental picture of magnetospheric physics.

  3. The Design and Evaluation of a HighPerformance Earth Science Carter T. Shock, Chialin Chang, Bongki Moon, Anurag Acharya,

    E-print Network

    Moon, Bongki

    The Design and Evaluation of a High­Performance Earth Science Database Carter T. Shock, Chialin the design of an earth science database as well as our early experiences with it. The primary design goal amount of earth science research is devoted to developing correlations between raw sensor readings from

  4. Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Chyba, C; Sagan, C

    1991-01-01

    In 1959, Miller and Urey (Science 130, 245) published their classic compilation of energy sources for indigenous prebiotic organic synthesis on the early Earth. Much contemporary origins of life research continues to employ their original estimates for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges, 2 x 10(19) J yr-1 and 6 x 10(19) J yr-1, respectively. However, more recent work in terrestrial lightning and point discharge research suggests that these values are overestimates by factors of about 20 and 120, respectively. Calculated concentrations of amino acids (or other prebiotic organic products) in the early terrestrial oceans due to electrical discharge sources may therefore have been equally overestimated. A review of efficiencies for those experiments that provide good analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges suggests that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole J-1) are about one order of magnitude higher than those for coronal discharge. Therefore organic production by lightning may be expected to have dominated that due to coronae on early Earth. Limited data available for production of nitric oxide in clouds suggests that coronal emission within clouds, a source of energy heretofore too uncertain to be included in the total coronal energy inventory, is insufficient to change this conclusion. Our recommended values for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early Earth are, respectively, 1 x 10(18) J yr-1 and 5 x 10(17) J yr-1. PMID:11537539

  5. Earth's Energy Balance From Space: A 35 Year Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Earth's radiative energy balance is the most fundamental driver of long term climate. Changes of 1% or less are sufficient to cause major climate change. Earth orbiting satellites provide the optimal platform to observe this energy balance, and efforts began with Nimbus 3 in 1969. Prior to satellite missions, the Earths reflected and emitted radiation were estimated using earthshine from the moon, or by a radiative transfer calculation using surface observations of aerosol, cloud, temperature, humidity, and ozone. Observing the earths radiation balance from space is an 8-dimensional sampling problem, with a requirement for extremely high accuracy and stability to directly observe climate signals. The challenge is especially severe for decadal changes in aerosols and clouds. A perspective is given on the dramatic progress that has occurred in measuring radiation in space, from Nimbus 3 in 1969 to current CERES global and GERB geostationary observations. A vision for future advances in these observations as part of the global climate observing system is also given, including new ways to use the data in unscrambling the effects of aerosol indirect effects as well as cloud feedback in the climate system. These last two issues provide extraordinary challenges in climate forcing and climate sensitivity respectively.

  6. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-03

    With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

  7. Design highlights of a low cost earth station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corless, W. S.

    A new generation of small earth stations suitable for applications requiring 1 to 6 SCPC channels of voice or data traffic is described. The SPARCOM terminals are configured for high performance, ease of installation, reliable operation and low cost. A combination of recent advances in semiconductor technology, new production techniques and the experience of world wide earth station installations has resulted in this new product line which represents a unique capability in cost effective, reliable satellite communications. The baseline model of this product line, a single channel, earth station operating in Ku band (14/12 GHz) was developed under a joint program with CRC/DOC. The hardware configuration, specification highlights and field measurement results of this terminal, the SPARCOM 101C, are presented.

  8. Commissioning of a Coupled Earth Tube and Natural Ventilation System at the Design Phase 

    E-print Network

    Yoshida, H.; Pan, S.; Zheng, M.

    2007-01-01

    (Computational Fluid Dynamics) to simultaneously calculate indoor air flow/temperature distribution and natural ventilation airflow rate. In this paper, at the design phase of an actual coupled earth tube and natural ventilation system in a gymnasium, natural...

  9. Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J. (principal investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  10. Designing to Save Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santamaria, Joseph W.

    1977-01-01

    While tripling the campus size of Alvin Community College in Texas, architects and engineers cut back on nonessential lighting, recaptured waste heat, insulated everything possible, and let energy considerations dictate the size and shape of the building. (Author/MLF)

  11. Internal variability of Earth’s energy budget simulated by CMIP5 climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M. D.; McNeall, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    We analyse a large number of multi-century pre-industrial control simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to investigate relationships between: net top-of-atmosphere radiation (TOA), globally averaged surface temperature (GST), and globally integrated ocean heat content (OHC) on decadal timescales. Consistent with previous studies, we find that large trends (˜0.3 K dec-1) in GST can arise from internal climate variability and that these trends are generally an unreliable indicator of TOA over the same period. In contrast, trends in total OHC explain 95% or more of the variance in TOA for two-thirds of the models analysed; emphasizing the oceans’ role as Earth’s primary energy store. Correlation of trends in total system energy (TE ? time integrated TOA) against trends in OHC suggests that for most models the ocean becomes the dominant term in the planetary energy budget on a timescale of about 12 months. In the context of the recent pause in global surface temperature rise, we investigate the potential importance of internal climate variability in both TOA and ocean heat rearrangement. The model simulations suggest that both factors can account for O (0.1 W m-2) on decadal timescales and may play an important role in the recently observed trends in GST and 0-700 m (and 0-1800 m) ocean heat uptake.

  12. The definition and specification of the near earth environmental criteria for spacecraft thermal design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. A.; Craven, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    The variation of the earth's thermal and albedo radiation received by a near-earth orbiting space vehicle or space payload as a result of temporal variation of the earth atmosphere is discussed. A statistical study of current satellite data for determining probability distributions is proposed. With these distributions the thermal designer can define confidence levels on predicted temperature ranges which are compatible with engineering models for use in design, failure probabilities, and spacecraft cost estimates. Use of the distributions in environmental criteria guidelines is also considered.

  13. Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument's ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%. A key issue is the amount of systematic ADM error (departures from the mean models) that is present at the 2.5 deg resolution of the ERBE target areas. If this error is less than 30%, then the CERES-I, ERBE, and CSR, in order of increasing error, provide the most accurate instantaneous flux estimates, within 2-3 W/sq m of each other in reflected shortwave flux. The magnitude of this error is near the 10 W/sq m accuracy requirement of the user community. Longwave flux errors have been found to have the same space and time characteristics as errors in shortwave radiation, but only about 25% as large.

  14. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

  15. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    A conservative design approach was adopted by the International Space Station Program for specifying total ionizing radiation dose requirements for use in selecting and qualifying materials for construction of the International Space Station. The total ionizing dose design environment included in SSP 30512 Space Station Ionizing Radiation Design Environment is based on trapped proton and electron fluence derived from the solar maximum versions of the AE-8 and AP-8 models, respectively, specified for a circular orbit at 500 km altitude and 51.7 degree inclination. Since launch, the range of altitudes utilized for Space Station operations vary from a minimum of approximately 330 km to a maximum of approximately 405 km with a mean operational altitude less than 400 km. The design environment, therefore, overestimates the radiation environment because the particle flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly is the primary contributor to radiation dose in low Earth orbit and flux within the Anomaly is altitude dependent. In addition, a 2X multiplier is often applied to the design environment to cover effects from the contributions of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particle events, geomagnetic storms, and uncertainties in the trapped radiation models which are not explicitly included in the design environment. Application of this environment may give radiation dose overestimates on the order of 1OX to 30X for materials exposed to the space environment, suggesting that materials originally qualified for ten year exposures on orbit may be used for longer periods without replacement. In this paper we evaluate the "as flown" radiation environments derived from historical records of the ISS flight trajectory since launch and compare the results with the SSP 30512 design environment to document the magnitude of the radiation dose overestimate provided by the design environment. "As flown" environments are obtained from application of the AE-8/AP-8 trapped particle models along the ISS flight trajectory including variations in altitude due to decay of the vehicle orbit and periodic reboosts to higher altitudes. In addition, an estimate of the AE-8 model to predict low Earth orbit electron flux (because the radiation dose for thin materials is dominated by the electron component of the radiation environment) is presented based on comparisons of the AE-8 model to measurements of electron integral flux at approximately 850 km from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector on board the NOAA Polar Operational Environmental Satellite.

  16. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  17. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  18. A 37.5kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low Earth orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Manzo; M. A. Hoberecht

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem

  19. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  20. TPS design for aerobraking at Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.; Gietzel, M. M.; Rochelle, W. C.; Curry, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of using an aerobrake system for manned and unmanned missions to Mars, and to Earth from Mars and lunar orbits. A preliminary thermal protection system (TPS) was examined for five unmanned small nose radius, straight bi-conic vehicles and a scaled up Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle aerocapturing at Mars. Analyses were also conducted for the scaled up AFE and an unmanned Sample Return Cannister (SRC) returning from Mars and aerocapturing into Earth orbit. Also analyzed were three different classes of lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's): an expendable scaled up modified Apollo Command Module (CM), a raked cone (modified AFT), and three large nose radius domed cylinders. The LTV's would be used to transport personnel and supplies between Earth and the moon in order to establish a manned base on the lunar surface. The TPS for all vehicles analyzed is shown to have an advantage over an all-propulsive velocity reduction for orbit insertion. Results indicate that TPS weight penalties of less than 28 percent can be achieved using current material technology, and slightly less than the most favorable LTV using advanced material technology.

  1. Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

  2. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    1 Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025, USA Columbia University Earth Institute, New York that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during

  3. Skylab Earth Resource Experiment Package critical design review. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An outline of the conference for reviewing the design of the EREP is presented. Systems design for review include: tape recorder, support equipment, view finder/tracking, support hardware, and control and display panel.

  4. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  5. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  6. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  7. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  8. Design of experiment for earth rotation and baseline parameter determination from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermanis, A.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of recovering earth rotation and network geometry (baseline) parameters are emphasized. The numerical simulated experiments performed are set up in an environment where station coordinates vary with respect to inertial space according to a simulated earth rotation model similar to the actual but unknown rotation of the earth. The basic technique of VLBI and its mathematical model are presented. The parametrization of earth rotation chosen is described and the resulting model is linearized. A simple analysis of the geometry of the observations leads to some useful hints on achieving maximum sensitivity of the observations with respect to the parameters considered. The basic philosophy for the simulation of data and their analysis through standard least squares adjustment techniques is presented. A number of characteristic network designs based on present and candidate station locations are chosen. The results of the simulations for each design are presented together with a summary of the conclusions.

  9. High efficient numerical techniques for the earthing design and the analysis of grounded phenomena

    E-print Network

    Colominas, Ignasi

    " or "earthing" system of an electrical substation comprises all interconnected grounding fa- cilities for the computational design of grounding systems of electrical installations in uniform and layered soils in specific places of the installation site [1]. The accurate design of a grounding system is es- sential

  10. Feed and Optics Design for the Green Bank OVLBI Earth Station Bill Shillue

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Feed and Optics Design for the Green Bank OVLBI Earth Station feed and receiver. During a preliminary design review in July,* * 1991, it was decided to use a two-feed of Sandwich FSS," OVLBI Memo #26, April 24,* * 1992 L.R. D'Addario,"Requirements for the Feed and Optics

  11. Concept design, modeling and station-keeping attitude control of an earth observation platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yueneng; Wu, Jie; Zheng, Wei

    2012-11-01

    The stratosphere airship provides a unique and promising platform for earth observation. Researches on the project design and control scheme for earth observation platforms are still rarely documented. Nonlinear dynamics, model uncertainties, and external disturbances contribute to the difficulty in maneuvering the stratosphere airship. A key technical challenge for the earth observation platform is station keeping, or the ability to remain fixed over a geo-location. This paper investigates the conceptual design, modeling and station-keeping attitude control of the near-space earth observation platform. A conceptual design of the earth observation platform is presented. The dynamics model of the platform is derived from the Newton-Euler formulation, and the station-keeping control system of the platform is formulated. The station-keeping attitude control approach for the platform is proposed. The multi-input multi-output nonlinear control system is decoupled into three single-input single-output linear subsystems via feedback linearization, the attitude controller design is carried out on the new linear systems using terminal sliding mode control, and the global stability of the closed-loop system is proven by using the Lyapunov theorem. The performance of the designed control system is simulated by using the variable step Runge-Kutta integrator. Simulation results show that the control system tracks the commanded attitude with an error of zero, which verify the effectiveness and robustness of the designed control system in the presence of parametric uncertainties. The near-space earth observation platform has several advantages over satellites, such as high resolution, fast to deploy, and convenient to retrieve, and the proposed control scheme provides an effective approach for station-keeping attitude control of the earth observation platform.

  12. Earth-to-Moon low energy transfers targeting L1 hyperbolic transit orbits.

    PubMed

    Topputo, Francesco; Vasile, Massimiliano; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the lunar exploration, numerous future space missions will require maximization of payload mass, and simultaneously achieving reasonable transfer times. To fulfill this request, low energy non-Keplerian orbits could be used to reach the Moon instead of high energetic transfers. The low energy solutions can be separated into two main categories depending on the nature of the trajectory approaching the Moon: low energy transit orbits that approach the Moon from the interior equilibrium point L(1) and weak stability boundary transfers that reach the Moon after passing through L(2). This paper proposes an alternative way to exploit the opportunities offered by L(1) transit orbits for the design of Earth-Moon transfers. First, in a neighborhood of the L(1) point, the three-body dynamics is linearized and written in normal form; then the entire family of nonlinear transit orbits is obtained by selecting the appropriate nontrivial amplitudes associated with the hyperbolic part. The L(1)-Earth arc is close to a 5:2 resonant orbit with the Moon, whose perturbations cause the apogee to rise. In a second step, two selected low altitude parking orbits around the Earth and the Moon are linked with the transit orbit by means of two three-body Lambert arcs, solutions of two two-point boundary value problems. The resulting Earth-to-Moon trajectories prove to be very efficient in the Moon captured arc and save approximately 100 m/sec in Deltav cost when compared to the Hohmann transfer. Furthermore, such solutions demonstrate that Moon capture could be obtained in the frame of the Earth-Moon R3BP neglecting the presence of the Sun. PMID:16510403

  13. MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan: Earth's Energy Budget-Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This lesson plan uses Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiation data to understand seasonal variations in the pattern of net energy input to the Earth system. The net amount of energy received by different parts of the Earth at different times of year determines the type of weather and climate they will experience. The net radiative flux shows the combined effect of the Sun's location and the conditions in the Earth system. The two primary components of the Earth system that affect the net radiative flux are: 1) the type of surface and 2) clouds. This lesson will allow students to explore these variations.

  14. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Sensors and Preflight Calibration Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, R. Wes; Thomas, Susan; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.

    1996-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft sensors are designed to measure broadband earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and earth-emitted longwave (5- > 100 microns) radiances at the top of the atmosphere as part of the Mission to Planet Earth program. The scanning thermistor bolometer sensors respond to radiances in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and total-wave (0.3- > 100 microns) spectral regions, as well as to radiances in the narrowband water vapor window (8-12 microns) region. 'ne sensors are designed to operate for a minimum of 5 years aboard the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System AM-1 spacecraft platforms that are scheduled for launches in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The flight sensors and the in-flight calibration systems will be calibrated in a vacuum ground facility using reference radiance sources, tied to the international temperature scale of 1990. The calibrations will be used to derive sensor gains, offsets, spectral responses, and point spread functions within and outside of the field of view. The shortwave, total-wave, and window ground calibration accuracy requirements (1 sigma) are +/-0.8, +/-0.6, and +/-0.3 W /sq m/sr, respectively, while the corresponding measurement precisions are +/-O.5% and +/-1.0% for the broadband longwave and shortwave radiances, respectively. The CERES sensors, in-flight calibration systems, and ground calibration instrumentation are described along with outlines of the preflight and in-flight calibration approaches.

  15. Who Believes What? Clearing up confusion about Intelligent Design and Young-Earth Creationism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus R. Ross

    2005-01-01

    The question of what differentiates young-Earth creationism (YEC) from Intelligent Design (ID) has resulted in inaccurate and confusing terminology, and hinders both understanding and dialogue. Though both YEC and ID groups have drawn distinctions between themselves, previous attempts to classify design-based positions on origins have been unable to adequately resolve their relationships. The Nested Hierarchy of Design, a multiple-character classification

  16. Imaging high-energy astrophysical sources using Earth occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. N.; Fishman, G. J.; Harmon, B. A.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1993-11-01

    HIGH-ENERGY astrophysical sources can be difficult to image. Photons with energies above ~5 keV are hard to focus, so experiments usually employ coded masks1-4 or moving collimators5-9 to modulate the flux received by the detectors; the resulting signals are then deconvolved to form the images. Here we demonstrate a new approach which makes use of the large-area, non-collimated detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. As the spacecraft moves in its orbit, the Earth itself acts as a stable occulting disk. Changes in the measured signal during a single occultation correspond to the integrated intensity of sources positioned along the arc described by the Earth's edge (limb). The low-altitude, moderately inclined orbit of the spacecraft ensures that the angle at which the limb traverses a source region varies between occultations, and thus data from a series of occultations can be transformed into an image. This imaging process is conceptually and mathematically similar to those used in fan-beam aperture-synthesis radio-astronomy10 and medical computer-assisted tomography11, and holds great promise for all-sky imaging with relatively simple (and hence inexpensive) detectors.

  17. Energy coupling in the magnetospheres of earth and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the dissipation of solar-wind energy during magnetospheric substorms are considered theoretically, comparing models for earth and Mercury. In the model for terrestrial substorms, IMF lines interconnect with terrestrial field lines near the front of the magnetosphere and are dragged back, carrying plasma and energy, to form tail lobes; a magnetic neutral region is then formed by reconnection of the open lines as the plasma sheet thins, and reconnective heating and acceleration of tail plasma lead to plasma inflow at the poles and formation of a plasmoid flowing down the tail at high velocity. Analogous phenomena on Mercury could produce precipitation of particles carrying 10-1000 GW of power into 'auroral zones' on the dark side of the planet. The feasibility of remote or in situ observations to detect such processes is discussed.

  18. Low energy neutral atoms in the earth's magnetosphere: Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by the interaction of the Earth's geocorona with ambient space plasma has been proposed as a technique to obtain global information about the magnetosphere. Recent instrumentation advances reported previously and in these proceedings provide an opportunity for detecting LENAs in the energy range of <1 keV to {approximately}50 keV. In this paper, we present results from a numerical model which calculates line of sight LENA fluxes expected at a remote orbiting spacecraft for various magnetospheric plasma regimes. This model uses measured charge exchange cross sections, either of two neural hydrogen geocorona models, and various empirical modes of the ring current and plasma sheet to calculate the contribution to the integrated directional flux from each point along the line of sight of the instrument. We discuss implications for LENA imaging of the magnetosphere based on these simulations. 22 refs.

  19. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    1 Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025, USA Columbia University Earth Institute, New York, hosted by Ifremer, Brest, France Abstract. Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth

  20. Solar sail trajectory design in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ashwati

    The quest to explore the Moon has helped resolve scientific questions, has spurred leaps in technology development, and has revealed Earth's celestial companion to be a gateway to other destinations. With a renewed focus on returning to the Moon in this decade, alternatives to chemical propulsion systems are becoming attractive methods to efficiently use scarce resources and support extended mission durations. Thus, an investigation is conducted to develop a general framework, that facilitates propellant-free Earth-Moon transfers by exploiting sail dynamics in combination with advantageous transfer options offered in the Earth-Moon circular restricted multi-body dynamical model. Both periodic orbits in the vicinity of the Earth-Moon libration points, and lunar-centric long-term capture orbits are incorporated as target destinations to demonstrate the applicability of the general framework to varied design scanarios, each incorporating a variety of complexities and challenges. The transfers are comprised of three phases - a spiral Earth escape, a transit period, and, finally, the capture into a desirable orbit in the vicinity of the Moon. The Earth-escape phase consists of spiral trajectories constructed using three different sail steering strategies - locally optimal, on/off and velocity tangent. In the case of the Earth-libration point transfers, naturally occurring flow structures (e.g., invariant manifolds) arising from the mutual gravitational interaction of the Earth and Moon are exploited to link an Earth departure spiral with a destination orbit. In contrast, sail steering alone is employed to establish a link between the Earth-escape phase and capture orbits about the Moon due to a lack of applicable natural structures for the required connection. Metrics associated with the transfers including flight-time and the influence of operational constraints, such as occultation events, are investigated to determine the available capabilities for Earth-Moon transfers given current sail technology levels. Although the implemented steering laws suffice to generate baseline paths, infeasible turn rate demands placed on the sail are also investigated to explore the technical hurdles in designing Earth-Moon transfers. The methodologies are suitable for a variety of mission scenarios and sail configurations, rendering the resulting trajectories valuable for a diverse range of applications.

  1. Earth station design at 12/14 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design of a 12/14 GHz wideband two-way ground station compatible with the CTS, PSCS, and SYNCOM 4 satellites is described. Efforts to find a suitable site location in the vicinity of the Denver Network Coordinating Center are related.

  2. Earth Observations and the Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Marx, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Water-Energy-Food (W-E-F) Security Nexus has received a great deal of attention internationally since 2011 when the World Economic Forum identified it as one of the three largest threats to the global economy. Since then several international conferences and research initiatives have focused on the linkages and synergies between these sectors. In addition, it has been recognized that land and/or ecosystems must also be considered as part of this nexus to fully understand the linkages between the sectors. The Global Water System Project carried out a preliminary assessment of the role of basin management on W-E-F security in a number of transboundary basins to determine the factors that drive this nexus, to understand how W-E-F security is perceived; to evaluate the degree to which data are used in making decisions related to this nexus; and to identify opportunities for enhancing the role of Earth Observations in making decisions relevant to W-E-F security. This assessment which relied on expert surveys is supplemented by a more in-depth case study in the Lake Winnipeg Basin which includes the basin of the Red River of the North. This paper provides a summary of the results of this assessment with an emphasis on the actual and potential roles of Earth Observations. In particular, their possible role is discussed in both national and transboundary basin contexts. Recommendations arising from the study deal with data sets and information systems, the need for targets related to the W-E-F Nexus, and possible new approaches for enhancing W-E-F resilience through the use Earth Observations to better plan and monitor the movement of water on the landscape.

  3. a Study on the Solar Wind Energy Input at Mercury and Earth Magnetospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezequiel Echer

    2008-01-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling at Mercury and Earth magnetospheres is studied in this work. Using typical solar wind parameters at Mercury and Earth orbits, and assuming the magnetic reconnection mechanism, the energy input into these two planetary magnetospheres is calculated using the Akasofu's epsilon parameter. The energy input is calculated for varied solar wind conditions- solar wind speed, interplanetary

  4. Systems and Methods for Providing Energy to Support Missions in Near Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system has a plurality of spacecraft in orbit around the earth for collecting energy from the Sun in space, using stimulated emission to configure that energy as well defined states of the optical field and delivering that energy efficiently throughout the region of space surrounding Earth.

  5. CEOS contributions to informing energy management and policy decision making using space-based Earth observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S. Eckman; Paul W. Stackhouse

    2012-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the

  6. Design of ballistic three-body trajectories for continuous polar earth observation in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates orbits and transfer trajectories for continuous polar Earth observation in the Earth-Moon system. The motivation behind this work is to complement the services offered by polar-orbiting spacecraft, which offer high resolution imaging but poor temporal resolution, due to the fact that they can only capture one narrow swath at each polar passage. Conversely, a platform for high-temporal resolution imaging can enable a number of applications, from accurate polar weather forecasting to Aurora study, as well as direct-link telecommunications with high-latitude regions. Such a platform would complement polar orbiters. In this work, we make use of resonant gravity swing-by manoeuvres at the Moon in order to design trajectories that are suitable for quasi-continuous polar observation. In particular, it is shown that the Moon can flip the line of apsides of a highly eccentric, highly inclined orbit from north to south, without the need for thrust. In this way, a spacecraft can alternatively loiter for an extended period of time above the two poles. In addition, at the lunar encounter it is possible to change the period of time spent on each pole. In addition, we also show that the lunar swing-by can be exploited for transfer to a so-called pole-sitter orbit, i.e. a spacecraft that constantly hovers above one of the Earth's poles using continuous thrust. It is shown that, by using the Moon's gravity to change the inclination of the transfer trajectory, the total ?v is less than using a trajectory solely relying on high-thrust or low-thrust, therefore enabling the launchers to inject more mass into the target pole-sitter position.

  7. Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

    2013-10-01

    The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

  8. Evaluation of an Individualized Earth Science Course Designed for College Non-Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, James Curtis

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized earth science course designed as a general education course for nonscience majors at the University of Dubuque. The population of students consisted of all freshman and sophomore nonscience majors who entered the university in 1969 and 1970 as full-time students. The…

  9. Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Penuel; Lawrence P. Gallagher

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect to the conceptions

  10. System design and specifications. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A design summary of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The systems considered in the summary are: (1) the spacecraft structure, (2) electrical power modules, (3) communications and data handling module, (4) attitude determination module, (5) actuation module, and (6) solar array and drive module. The documents which provide the specifications for the systems and the equipment are identified.

  11. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The key issues in the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program which are subject to configuration study and tradeoff are identified. The issue of a combined operational and research and development program is considered. It is stated that cost and spacecraft weight are the key design variables and design options are proposed in terms of these parameters. A cost analysis of the EOS program is provided. Diagrams of the satellite configuration and subsystem components are included.

  12. Eigensensitivity in integrated design. [of earth-pointing satellite's control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Hou, Gene J.; Belvin, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    An application of eigensensitivity analysis to the control-structure integrated design process is presented with an emphasis placed on computational efficiency improvement of the overall design optimization process. The computational efficiency of eigenvalue/vector sensitivity analysis is demonstrated using the Earth Pointing Satellite in the context of a control-structure integrated design program. Results for a 2 percent design variable perturbation with and without the effects of the actuator mass show a 42 and 52 percent reduction in CPU time, respectively.

  13. Energy spectra of high-energy electrons and positrons under the earth's radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, S. A.; Gal'Per, A. M.; Koldashov, S. V.; Maslennikov, L. V.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Popov, A. V.

    1991-10-01

    Experimental measurements of electrons and positrons with energies of 10-200 MeV at an altitude of 350 km outside the earth's radiation belt in the L range 0.95-5.0 are presented. Results of a comparison between the data obtained and calculations are discussed.

  14. Analytical Simulations of Energy-Absorbing Impact Spheres for a Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Marcus Dwight; Fasanella, Edwin L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic finite element simulations were performed to aid in the design of an energy-absorbing impact sphere for a passive Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) that is a possible architecture for the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The MSR EEV concept uses an entry capsule and energy-absorbing impact sphere designed to contain and limit the acceleration of collected samples during Earth impact without a parachute. The spherical shaped impact sphere is composed of solid hexagonal and pentagonal foam-filled cells with hybrid composite, graphite-epoxy/Kevlar cell walls. Collected Martian samples will fit inside a smaller spherical sample container at the center of the EEV's cellular structure. Comparisons were made of analytical results obtained using MSC.Dytran with test results obtained from impact tests performed at NASA Langley Research Center for impact velocities from 30 to 40 m/s. Acceleration, velocity, and deformation results compared well with the test results. The correlated finite element model was then used for simulations of various off-nominal impact scenarios. Off-nominal simulations at an impact velocity of 40 m/s included a rotated cellular structure impact onto a flat surface, a cellular structure impact onto an angled surface, and a cellular structure impact onto the corner of a step.

  15. Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

    2008-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and NREL are developing target energy budgets and design guides to achieve 30% energy savings. This paper focuses the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing.

  16. Design for Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Song, M.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, G.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Policy for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VII-3-5 Design for Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings Mei Song Yali Zhang Guang Yang China Architecture Design & Research Group Beijing Institute...

  17. Advanced Energy Conversion Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Phillips, Dane J.; Laycock, Rustin L.; ONeill, Mark; Henley, Mark W.; Fork, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. There is a need to produce "proof-ofconcept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space surface sites. Space surface receiving sites of particular interest include the areas of permanent shadow near the moon s North and South poles, where WPT technologies could enable access to ice and other useful resources for human exploration. This paper discusses work addressing a promising approach to solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) applied to both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components (only the photovoltaic cells need to be different), economies of manufacturing and scale may be realized by using SLA on both ends of the laser power beaming system in a space solar power application. Near-term uses of this SLA-laser-SLA system may include terrestrial and space exploration in near Earth space. Later uses may include beamed power for bases or vehicles on Mars. Strategies for developing energy infrastructures in space which utilize this technology are presented. This dual use system produces electrical energy efficiently from either coherent light, such as from a highly coherent laser, or from conventional solar illumination. This allows, for example, supplementing solar energy with energy provided by highly coherent laser illumination during periods of low solar illumination or no illumination. This reduces the need for batteries and alternate sources of power. The capability of using laser illumination in a lowest order Gaussian laser mode provides means for transmitting power optically with maximum efficiency and precision over the long distances characteristic of space. A preliminary receiving system similar to that described here, has been produced and tested under solar and laser illumination. A summary of results is given.

  18. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    PubMed

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  19. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    PubMed Central

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  20. Elastic energy of a deformable earth: General expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Getino; Facultad Ciencias

    1992-01-01

    This work is the first in the second part of a project dedicated to elaborating a Hamiltonian theory for the rotational motion of a deformable Earth. In the four works which make up the first part the basis of this theory is laid down, studying the effects produced when the Earth's elastic mantle is deformed by lunisolar attraction. More specifically,

  1. Earth and Planetary Science 120/Energy and Resources 130 Fall 2005 Analysis of Environmental Data Organizational Information

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Earth and Planetary Science 120/Energy and Resources 130 Fall 2005 Analysis of Environmental Data Organizational Information Registration: Earth and Planetary Science C120 -- or -- Energy and Resources C130

  2. Advances in the design of heavy alkaline earth metal complexes as precursors for chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Anna Yosick

    The heavy alkaline earth metals, calcium, strontium, and barium, are components in thin films with electronic properties such as high-capacitance, superconductance and electroluminescence. The formation of these thin films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods requires precursors that are volatile, but the high reactivity of the heavy alkaline earth metal precursors has made this challenging. Historically, heavy alkaline earth metal beta-diketonates have been utilized as precursors, but their tendency towards aggregation and hydrolysis affords high molecular weight compounds with low volatility. The lack of a suitable heavy alkaline earth metal precursor is a major limiting factor in the production of these electronic thin films by CVD. As a result, improved precursor materials have been pursued, yet a number of drawbacks, including limited synthetic methodologies, lack of availability, and incorporation of undesired elements into the films, have prevented their widespread use in industry. This thesis work focuses on the development of novel alkaline earth metal precursors based on pyrazolate and beta-ketoiminate ligand systems, which are thermally robust, readily available, and devoid of undesired elements such as silicon and fluorine. One of the key factors in precursor design is control of the coordination environment of the metal, to prevent aggregation and hydrolysis, and to keep the volatility high. However, the coordination chemistry of the heavy alkaline earth metals is only in its infancy, which is a major roadblock in the design of future precursors. Concurrently with the development of new precursors, this thesis work uncovers new insights into their coordination chemistry, most significantly, the effects of agostic interactions on the thermal stability of the compounds. Secondary interactions, such as agostics and pi-bonding, appear to play a large role in the coordination chemistry of these metals, with implications in the design of future precursors. Additional findings in this work reveal the reproducible formation of an alkaline earth metal-hydroxide framework with triply bridging pyrazolate ligands in novel binding modes. Furthermore, the effect of synthetic methodologies on a beta-ketoiminate ligand system is presented, specifically, the use of direct metallation by ammonia activation.

  3. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

  4. Translunar low-energy trajectories via Earth-Moon L1 Lyapunov orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maodeng Li; Wuxing Jing

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with low-energy Earth- Moon transfer trajectory via Lyapunov orbit located on Earth- Moon libration point LI. The circular restricted three-body problem is used as the model for Earth-Moon system, and Birkhoff regularization is used to avoid singularities when the distance between spacecraft and primary is very short. Using both analytical and numerical methods, Lyapunov orbits near

  5. An integrated environment for intelligent energy design

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M.R.; Quadrel, R.W.; Stratton, R.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Brown, G.Z.; Meacham, M.; Miller, P. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Pohl, J.G.; La Porta, J.; Snyder, J. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Selkowitz, S.E.; Papamichael, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bailey, M.L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The design of energy-efficient buildings can be aided by intelligent computer tools that can evaluate design solutions and make recommendations for improving the buildings` energy performance. Such tools can be very productive when they are integrated with existing computer-aided design technology. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Oregon, the California Polytechnic State University, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is developing such tools and integrating them into a computational environment that can be easily used by architects, engineers, and designers. This project, called the Advanced Energy Design and Operations Technologies (AEDOT) project, intends to demonstrate how building energy performance can be improved by combining expertise from a variety of domain perspectives during the design process. This paper describes the first prototype to emerge from the AEDOT work. AEDOT Prototype 1 consists of several design and energy tools that have been integrated using, the ICADS framework developed at California Polytechnic State University. The prototype demonstrates how an integrated system responds to a building design as it is being developed on a CAD system. While the designer draws a building floor plan, a number of intelligent design tools (IDTs) examine the drawing and evaluate the design`s acoustics, thermal profile, daylighting use, cost, and compliance with energy standards, to name a few. These IDTs also make design-specific recommendations intended to improve the cost, energy performance, and overall quality of the design.

  6. Advancing Solutions for an EarthCube Design. What can be learned from the CUAHSI HIS experience?

    E-print Network

    Tarboton, David

    ? An EarthCube Design Approaches Paper Prepared by: David Tarboton1 , David Maidment2 , Ilya Zaslavsky3 , Jon Goodall4 , Dan Ames5 , Richard P Hooper6 , Jeffery Horsburgh1 , Kim Schreuders1 , Ray Idaszak7 , Alva Geospatial Consortium and EarthCube" being submitted by David Maidment describes how an Open Geospatial 1

  7. Energy balance at the Earth's surface: Heat flux history in Eastern Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo Beltrami; Jingfeng Wang; Rafael L. Bras

    2000-01-01

    The heat exchange at the air\\/ground interface is determined by many complex processes making the energy balance at the earth's surface extremely difficult to quantify and model. A new methodology allows heat flux at the Earth's surface to be estimated using ground surface temperature history reconstructed from geothermal data. We found that over a large region in eastern and central

  8. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Henry Reinhardt

    2000-01-01

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal

  9. Energy Efficient Design of Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Raghunathan; Curt Schurgers; Sung Park; Mani B. Srivastava

    The battery driven nature of wireless sensor networks, combined with the need for operational lifetimes of months to years, mandates that energy efficiency be treated as a metric of utmost priority while designing these distributed sensing systems. This chapter presents an overview of energy-centric sensor node design techniques that enable designers to significantly extend system and network lifetime. Such extensions

  10. An integrated environment for intelligent energy design

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M.R.; Quadrel, R.W.; Stratton, R.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Brown, G.Z.; Meacham, M.; Miller, P. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States)); Pohl, J.G.; La Porta, J.; Snyder, J. (California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)); Selkowitz, S.E.; Papamichael, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bailey, M.L. (USDOE, Washington,

    1992-06-01

    The design of energy-efficient buildings can be aided by intelligent computer tools that can evaluate design solutions and make recommendations for improving the buildings' energy performance. Such tools can be very productive when they are integrated with existing computer-aided design technology. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Oregon, the California Polytechnic State University, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is developing such tools and integrating them into a computational environment that can be easily used by architects, engineers, and designers. This project, called the Advanced Energy Design and Operations Technologies (AEDOT) project, intends to demonstrate how building energy performance can be improved by combining expertise from a variety of domain perspectives during the design process. This paper describes the first prototype to emerge from the AEDOT work. AEDOT Prototype 1 consists of several design and energy tools that have been integrated using, the ICADS framework developed at California Polytechnic State University. The prototype demonstrates how an integrated system responds to a building design as it is being developed on a CAD system. While the designer draws a building floor plan, a number of intelligent design tools (IDTs) examine the drawing and evaluate the design's acoustics, thermal profile, daylighting use, cost, and compliance with energy standards, to name a few. These IDTs also make design-specific recommendations intended to improve the cost, energy performance, and overall quality of the design.

  11. The EOS Aqua/Aura Experience: Lessons Learned on Design, Integration, and Test of Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and NOAA earth observing satellite programs are flying a number of sophisticated scientific instruments which collect data on many phenomena and parameters of the earth's environment. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Program originated the EOS Common Bus approach, which featured two spacecraft (Aqua and Aura) of virtually identical design but with completely different instruments. Significant savings were obtained by the Common Bus approach and these lessons learned are presented as information for future program requiring multiple busses for new diversified instruments with increased capabilities for acquiring earth environmental data volume, accuracy, and type.

  12. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  13. Design integration for minimal energy and cost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halldane

    1989-01-01

    The authors present requirements for creating alternative energy conserving designs including energy management and architectural, plumbing, mechanical, electrical, electronic and optical design. Parameters of power, energy, life cycle costs and benefit for resource for an evaluation by the interested parties are discussed. They present an analysis of power systems through a seasonal power distribution diagram. An analysis of cost systems

  14. The design of a low energy FPGA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varghese George; Hui Zhang; Jan M. Rabaey

    1999-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT This work presents the design of an energy efllcient FPGA architecture. Significant reduction in the energy consumption is achieved by tackling both circuit design and architecture optimization issues concurrently. A hybrid interconnect structure incorporating Nearest Neighbor Connections, Symmetric Mesh Architecture, and Hierarchical connectivity is used. The energy of the interconnect is also reduced by employing low-swing circuit techniques.

  15. Design of Round-trip Trajectories to Near-Earth Asteroids Utilizing a Lunar Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.

    2011-01-01

    There are currently over 7,700 known Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and more are being discovered on a continual basis. Current models predict that the actual order of magnitude of the NEA population may range from 10' to 10 6 . The close proximity of NEA orbits to Earth's orbit makes it possible to design short duration round-trip trajectories to NEAs under the proper conditions. In previous work, 59 potentially accessible NEAs were identified for missions that depart Earth between the years 2016 and 2050 and have round-trip flight times of a year or less. We now present a new method for designing round-trip trajectories to NEAs in which the Moon's gravity aids the outbound trajectory via a lunar flyby. In some cases this gravity assist can reduce the overall spacecraft propellant required for the mission, which in turn can allow NEAs to be reached which would otherwise be inaccessible to a given mission architecture. Results are presented for a specific case study on NEA 2003 LN6.

  16. Design a Net-Zero Energy Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students create a concept design of their very own net-zero energy classroom by pasting renewable energy and energy-efficiency items into and around a pretend classroom on a sheet of paper. They learn how these items (such as solar panels, efficient lights, computers, energy meters, etc.) interact to create a learning environment that produces as much energy as it uses.

  17. Design for Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings

    E-print Network

    Song, M.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the thermal design and heating design of an energy saving residential building in Beijing where the owners lived until 2004. Results show the advantages and disadvantages of a household-based heating mode by natural gas. Based...

  18. Earth Science Week 2010 - Infrared Energy - Duration: 3 minutes, 9 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video explores what infrared energy is and how NASA detects it to study our Earth's systems more completely. Satellite measurements over time allow scientists to study seasonal changes in loca...

  19. In-space inertial energy storage design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Evans, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage is a means of significantly improving the performance of space power systems. Two study contracts have been completed to investigate the merits of a magnetically suspended, ironless armature, ring rotor 'Mechanical Capacitor' design. The design of a suitable energy storage system is evaluated, taking into account baseline requirements, the motor generator, details regarding the suspension design, power conditioning, the rotor, and an example design. It appears on the basis of this evaluation that the inertial (flywheel) energy storage design is feasible.

  20. Design description report for a photovoltaic power system for a remote satellite earth terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, N. A.; Naff, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) power system has been installed as an adjunct to an agricultural school at Wawatobi on the large northern island of the Republic of Indonesia. Its purpose is to provide power for a satellite earth station and a classroom. The renewable energy developed supports the video and audio teleconferencing systems as well as the facility at large. The ground station may later be used to provide telephone service. The installation was made in support of the Agency for International Development's Rural Satellite Program, whose purpose is to demonstrate the use of satellite communications for rural development assistance applications. The objective of this particular PV power system is to demonstrate the suitability of a hybrid PV engine-generator configuration for remote satellite earth stations.

  1. Low-earth-orbit Satellite Internet Protocol Communications Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slywezak, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a design concept for a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end Internet-Protocol- (IP-) based mission. The goal is to maintain an up-to-date communications infrastructure that makes communications seamless with the protocols used in terrestrial computing. It is based on the premise that the use of IPs will permit greater interoperability while also reducing costs and providing users the ability to retrieve data directly from the satellite. However, implementing an IP-based solution also has a number of challenges, since wireless communications have different characteristics than wired communications. This report outlines the design of a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end IP-based mission; the ideas and concepts of Space Internet architectures and networks are beyond the scope of this document. The findings of this report show that an IP-based mission is plausible and would provide benefits to the user community, but the outstanding issues must be resolved before a design can be implemented.

  2. Design of an energy conservation building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1981-11-01

    The concepts in designing and predicting energy consumption in a low energy use building are summarized. The building will use less than 30,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. of boarder energy. The building's primary energy conservation features include heavy concrete walls with external insulation, a highly insulated ceiling, and large amounts of glass for natural lighting. A solar collector air system is integrated into the south wall. Calculations for energy conservation features were performed using NASA's NECAP Energy Program.

  3. Design of an energy conservation building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The concepts in designing and predicting energy consumption in a low energy use building are summarized. The building will use less than 30,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. of boarder energy. The building's primary energy conservation features include heavy concrete walls with external insulation, a highly insulated ceiling, and large amounts of glass for natural lighting. A solar collector air system is integrated into the south wall. Calculations for energy conservation features were performed using NASA's NECAP Energy Program.

  4. Geothermal Energy: Harnessing the Power of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KQED

    This video describes how geothermal heat resources in California have been tapped to supply 850 MW of electricity. Images and animations show how the area known as The Geysers has been developed to capture steam, produced from trapped rainwater and heated by the earth. Major challenges include finding suitable geothermal resources to develop, and ensuring that underground water is replenished.

  5. Energy position of 4f levels in rare-earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Börje Johansson

    1979-01-01

    The energy position of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels relative to the Fermi energy is studied for the rare-earth metals. This is done by treating the excited state as an impurity in an otherwise perfect crystal. This picture is first considered in the complete screening approximation. In this approximation thermochemical data can be used directly to give energy values

  6. Path of the solar wind energy into the Earth s magnetosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Alexeev

    2002-01-01

    The solar wind MHD generator is an unique energy source for all magnetospheric processes. The field-aligned currents directly transport the energy and momentum of the solar wind plasma to the Earth's ionosphere. The magnetospheric lobe and plasma sheet convection generated by the solar wind is another magnetospheric energy source. Plasma sheet particles and cold ionospheric polar wind ions are accelerated

  7. Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

  8. Rocky super-Earths: variety in composition and energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Solid exoplanets offer a unique opportunity for comparative planetology with the small solar system planets, and in particular with Earth. With more than 40 low-mass planets (with masses less than 10 earth-masses) with measured masses and radii, it is now possible to distinguish trends in the data. Although most of these planets have a substantial envelope that makes them closer in nature to Uranus and Neptune, there are about 10 low-mass exoplanets that are potentially rocky. Despite the uncertainties in the data (especially in the mass), it is becoming evident that there is variety in compositions expressed mostly in a wide range of Fe/Si ratios that may affect the interior dynamics and thermal evolution of these planets. In addition, numerous observing campaigns have targeted M stars to find super-Earths in the habitable zone, as this region is closer to the host star. It is well recognized that these planets may also be subjected to variable amounts of early and/or sustained tidal heating. This may in turn affect the mode of convection and outgassing of these planets. I will present results on the lessons learned from the super-Earth data and the implications of variable Fe/Si ratio and tidal heating for the dynamics of the interior using the model by [1] including a simple degassing model for water. [1] Tackley, P. J., M. Ammann, J. P. Brodholt, D. P. Dobson and D. Valencia (2013) Mantle dynamics in super-Earths: Post-perovskite rheology and self-regulation of viscosity, Icarus 225(1), 50-61

  9. Energy Design Reviews: The End of the Energy Audit? 

    E-print Network

    Corthat, E. T.; Griesbach, R.

    2013-01-01

    It is much more cost effective to design an industrial plant upfront for optimum energy efficiency rather than retrofit an existing plant, yet typically design engineers and project managers continue to focus on capital costs, not lifecycle costs...

  10. Energy Design Reviews: The End of the Energy Audit?

    E-print Network

    Corthat, E. T.; Griesbach, R.

    2013-01-01

    It is much more cost effective to design an industrial plant upfront for optimum energy efficiency rather than retrofit an existing plant, yet typically design engineers and project managers continue to focus on capital costs, not lifecycle costs...

  11. Energy Efficient Design of Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Raghunathan; Curt Schurgers; Sung Park; Mani B. Srivastava

    The battery driven nature of wireless sensor networks, combined with the need for operational lifetimes of months to years,\\u000a mandates that energy efficiency be treated as a metric of utmost priority while designing these distributed sensing systems.\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of energy-centric sensor node design techniques that enable designers to significantly extend\\u000a system and network lifetime. Such extensions

  12. Design/cost tradeoff studies. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results of design/cost tradeoff studies conducted during the Earth Observatory Satellite system definition studies are presented. The studies are concerned with the definition of a basic modular spacecraft capable of supporting a variety of operational and/or research and development missions, with the deployment either by conventional launch vehicles or by means of the space shuttle. The three levels investigated during the study are: (1) subsystem tradeoffs, (2) spacecraft tradeoffs, and (3) system tradeoffs. The range of requirements which the modular concept must span is discussed. The mechanical, thermal, power, data and electromagnetic compatibility aspects of modularity are analyzed. Other data are provided for the observatory design concept, the payloads, integration and test, the ground support equipment, and ground data management systems.

  13. Design of rare-earth-ion doped chalcogenide photonic crystals for enhancing the fluorescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqing; Dai, Shixun; Niu, Xueke; Xu, Yinsheng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yuehao; Xu, Tiefeng; Nie, Qiuhua

    2014-07-01

    Rare-earth-ion doped chalcogenide glass is a promising material for developing mid-infrared light sources. In this work, Tm3+-doped chalcogenide glass was prepared and photonic crystal structures were designed to enhance its fluorescence emission at approximately 3.8 ?m. By employing the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, the emission characteristics of the luminescent centers in the bulk material and in the photonic crystals were worked out. Utilizing analysis of the photon excitation inside the sample and the photon extraction on the sample surface, it was found that fluorescence emission can be significantly enhanced 260-fold with the designed photonic crystal structure. The results of this work can be used to realize high-efficiency mid-infrared light sources.

  14. AEOSS design guide for system analysis on Advanced Earth-Orbital Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hwa-Ping

    1990-01-01

    Advanced Earth Orbital Spacecraft System (AEOSS) enables users to project the requried power, weight, and cost for a generic earth-orbital spacecraft system. These variables are calculated on the component and subsystem levels, and then the system level. The included six subsystems are electric power, thermal control, structure, auxillary propulsion, attitude control, and communication, command, and data handling. The costs are computed using statistically determined models that were derived from the flown spacecraft in the past and were categorized into classes according to their functions and structural complexity. Selected design and performance analyses for essential components and subsystems are also provided. AEOSS has the feature permitting a user to enter known values of these parameters, totally and partially, at all levels. All information is of vital importance to project managers of subsystems or a spacecraft system. AEOSS is a specially tailored software coded from the relational database program of the Acius; 4th Dimension with a Macintosh version. Because of the licensing agreement, two versions of the AEOSS documents were prepared. This version AEOSS Design Guide, is for users to exploit the full capacity of the 4th Dimension. It is for a user who wants to alter or expand the program structures, the program statements, and the program procedures. The user has to possess a 4th Dimension first.

  15. 50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Liu, B.; Wang, W.; Thornton, B.; Williams, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box retail buildings, (4) Large hospital buildings.

  16. Constraining the gravitational wave energy density of the Universe using Earth's ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Michael; Harms, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The search for gravitational waves is one of today's major scientific endeavors. A gravitational wave can interact with matter by exciting vibrations of elastic bodies. Earth itself is a large elastic body whose so-called normal-mode oscillations ring up when a gravitational wave passes. Therefore, precise measurement of vibration amplitudes can be used to search for the elusive gravitational-wave signals. Earth's free oscillations that can be observed after high-magnitude earthquakes have been studied extensively with gravimeters and low-frequency seismometers over many decades leading to invaluable insight into Earth's structure. Making use of our detailed understanding of Earth's normal modes, numerical models are employed for the first time to accurately calculate Earth's gravitational-wave response, and thereby turn a network of sensors that so far has served to improve our understanding of Earth, into an astrophysical observatory exploring our Universe. In this paper, we constrain the energy density of gravitational waves to values in the range 0.035-0.15 normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe at frequencies between 0.3 and 5 mHz, using ten years of data from the gravimeter network of the Global Geodynamics Project that continuously monitors Earth's oscillations. This work is the first step towards a systematic investigation of the sensitivity of gravimeter networks to gravitational waves. Further advances in gravimeter technology could improve sensitivity of these networks and possibly lead to gravitational-wave detection.

  17. Rare-earth contribution to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in R2Fe14B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Radwan-acute-accentski; J. J. M. Franse

    1987-01-01

    The zero-temperature value of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) energy of trivalent rare-earth ions and its temperature dependence have been calculated for the whole series of the R2Fe14B compounds. The computations, performed with a single-ion origin of the anisotropy and within a molecular-field approximation, reveal a large local anisotropy of the rare-earth ion, 2 orders of magnitude larger than the iron

  18. Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

  19. Method and apparatus for generating power and irrigating plants with solar energy and earth heat

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.

    1982-08-03

    A method and apparatus for generating power and irrigating plants by using unlimited natural resources of solar energy and earth heat. The method and apparatus utilize various forms of solar energy and/or earth heat to produce pressure difference in two air-evacuated interconnecting chambers and to create periodic oscillation of the volatile liquid in said two chambers. The energy of the periodic oscillation of the liquid is used to lift water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir, thus creating a working hydraulic head. The water in the upper reservoir is then used to generate power or irrigate plants.

  20. The measurement of the earth's radiation budget as a problem in information theory - A tool for the rational design of earth observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of the earth's radiation budget has been chosen to illustrate the technique of objective system design. The measurement process is an approximately linear transformation of the original field of radiant exitances, so that linear statistical techniques may be employed. The combination of variability, measurement strategy, and error propagation is presently made with the help of information theory, as suggested by Kondratyev et al. (1975) and Peckham (1974). Covariance matrices furnish the quantitative statement of field variability.

  1. The Dynamics of High-energy Cosmic Rays In Near Earth Space and Earthquake Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Alexandrin; A. Galper; L. Grishantseva; S. Koldashov; L. Maslennikov; A. Murashov; P. Picozza; S. Voronov

    2002-01-01

    The existence of correlation between short-term variations of high energy charged par- ticle fluxes in the near Earth space and seismic activity was discovered at the end of 1980s in MARIA experiment on board SALYUT-7 orbital station. Basing on 15 years investigations of high energy charged particles fluxes dynamics in magnetosphere by means of instruments installed on spacecraft it was

  2. Systematic approach in designing rare-Earth-free hybrid semiconductor phosphors for general lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Wei; Wei, George Z; Banerjee, Debasis; Hu, Zhichao; Li, Jing

    2014-10-01

    As one of the most rapidly evolving branches of solid-state lighting technologies, light emitting diodes (LEDs) are gradually replacing conventional lighting sources due to their advantages in energy saving and environmental protection. At the present time, commercially available white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) are predominantly phosphor based (e.g., a yellow-emitting phosphor, such as cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet or (YAG):Ce(3+), coupled with a blue-emitting InGaN/GaN diode), which rely heavily on rare-earth (RE) metals. To avoid potential supply risks of these elements, we have developed an inorganic-organic hybrid phosphor family based on I-VII binary semiconductors. The hybrid phosphor materials are totally free of rare-earth metals. They can be synthesized by a simple, low-cost solution process and are easily scalable. Their band gap and emission energy, intensity, and color can be systematically tuned by incorporating ligands with suitable electronic properties. High quantum efficiency is achieved for some of these compounds. Such features make this group of materials promising candidates as alternative phosphors for use in general lighting devices. PMID:25216125

  3. Investigation of a minimum energy Earth-Mars trajectory 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Richard Emett

    1967-01-01

    Almanac an epoch between earth and Mars must be chosen corresponding to the time it takes the spacecraft to effect the transfer. This insures that Mars will arrive at the point of intersection of the transfer orbit at the same time as the vehicle..., inclination of the target plane, and the launch window are established, the analysis of the trajec- tory itself may proceed. Equations of Motion of Rocket Flight Before the trajectory of a spacecraft can be studied, it is essential to discuss...

  4. Energy manager design for microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01

    On-site energy production, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as bill savings and predictability, improved system efficiency, improved reliability, control over power quality, and in many cases, greener electricity. Additionally, DER systems can benefit electric utilities by reducing congestion on the grid, reducing the need for new generation and transmission capacity, and offering ancillary services such as voltage support and emergency demand response. Local aggregations of distributed energy resources (DER) that may include active control of on-site end-use energy devices can be called microgrids. Microgrids require control to ensure safe operation and to make dispatch decisions that achieve system objectives such as cost minimization, reliability, efficiency and emissions requirements, while abiding by system constraints and regulatory rules. This control is performed by an energy manager (EM). Preferably, an EM will achieve operation reasonably close to the attainable optimum, it will do this by means robust to deviations from expected conditions, and it will not itself incur insupportable capital or operation and maintenance costs. Also, microgrids can include supervision over end-uses, such as curtailing or rescheduling certain loads. By viewing a unified microgrid as a system of supply and demand, rather than simply a system of on-site generation devices, the benefits of integrated supply and demand control can be exploited, such as economic savings and improved system energy efficiency.

  5. The opto-mechanical design of the GMT-consortium large earth finder (G-CLEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark; Baldwin, Daniel; Bean, Jacob; Bergner, Henry; Bigelow, Bruce; Chun, Moo-Young; Crane, Jeffrey; Foster, Jeff; F?rész, Gabor; Gauron, Thomas; Guzman, Dani; Hertz, Edward; Jordán, Andrés.; Kim, Kang-Min; McCracken, Kenneth; Norton, Timothy; Ordway, Mark; Park, Chan; Park, Sang; Podgorski, William A.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Uomoto, Alan; Yuk, In-Soo

    2014-08-01

    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is a fiber fed, optical echelle spectrograph that has been selected as a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) currently under construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile's Atacama desert region. We designed G-CLEF as a general-purpose echelle spectrograph with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability used for exoplanet detection. The radial velocity (RV) precision goal of GCLEF is 10 cm/sec, necessary for detection of Earth-sized planets orbiting stars like our Sun in the habitable zone. This goal imposes challenging stability requirements on the optical mounts and the overall spectrograph support structures. Stability in instruments of this type is typically affected by changes in temperature, orientation, and air pressure as well as vibrations caused by telescope tracking. For these reasons, we have chosen to enclose G-CLEF's spectrograph in a thermally insulated, vibration isolated vacuum chamber and place it at a gravity invariant location on GMT's azimuth platform. Additional design constraints posed by the GMT telescope include: a limited space envelope, a thermal emission ceiling, and a maximum weight allowance. Other factors, such as manufacturability, serviceability, available technology and budget are also significant design drivers. All of the previously listed considerations must be managed while ensuring that performance requirements are achieved. In this paper, we discuss the design of G-CLEF's optical mounts and support structures including technical choices made to minimize the system's sensitivity to thermal gradients. A more general treatment of the properties of G-CLEF can be found elsewhere in these proceedings1. We discuss the design of the vacuum chamber which houses the irregularly shaped optical bench and optics while conforming to a challenging space envelope on GMT's azimuth platform. We also discuss the design of G-CLEF's insulated enclosure and thermal control systems which maintain the spectrograph at milli-Kelvin level stability while simultaneously limiting the maximum thermal emission into the telescope dome environment. Finally, we discuss G-CLEF's front-end assembly and fiber-feed system as well as other interface challenges presented by the telescope, enclosure and neighboring instrumentation.

  6. Earth-Science Research for Addressing the Water-Energy Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. W.; Alley, W. M.; Engle, M.; McMahon, P. B.; Bales, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, the United States will face two significant and sometimes competing challenges: preserving sustainable supplies of fresh water for humans and ecosystems, and ensuring available sources of energy. This presentation provides an overview of the earth-science data collection and research needed to address these challenges. Uncertainty limits our understanding of many aspects of the water-energy nexus. These aspects include availability of water, water requirements for energy development, energy requirements for treating and delivering fresh water, effects of emerging energy development technologies on water quality and quantity, and effects of future climates and land use on water and energy needs. Uncertainties can be reduced with an integrated approach that includes assessments of water availability and energy resources; monitoring of surface water and groundwater quantity and quality, water use, and energy use; research on impacts of energy waste streams, hydraulic fracturing, and other fuel-extraction processes on water quality; and research on the viability and environmental footprint of new technologies such as carbon capture and sequestration and conversion of cellulosic material to ethanol. Planning for water and energy development requires consideration of factors such as economics, population trends, human health, and societal values; however, sound resource management must be grounded on a clear understanding of the earth-science aspects of the water-energy nexus. Information gained from an earth-science data-collection and research program can improve our understanding of water and energy issues and lay the ground work for informed resource management.

  7. Different Sun-Earth energy coupling between different solar cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Geoeffect of the extremely low solar (sunspot) activity starting from the last solar minimum is one of major space science issues. This study compared responses of global geomagnetic indices Dst, Kp, and AL to the same solar wind conditions (density, velocity, magnetic field and their products) between the recent decade (2005-2014) and each of the previous four decades (1965-1974, 1975-1984, 1985-1994, 1995-2004) using the NASA OMNI hourly values up to August 2014. It is found that geomagnetic activity for a given solar wind condition, namely the Sun-Earth coupling efficiency, during the last 10 years (from after the declining phase of cycle #23 to the maximum of cycle #24) is quantitatively lower than those during the previous four decades (each decade approximately corresponds to cycles #20--23, respectively). The low Sun-Earth coupling efficiency became obvious from around 2006 and continued until now with a sharp peak at 2009. The speciality after 2006 is more obvious in Dst than in AL. Acknowledgement: Dst, Kp, AL, and sunspot numbers (RI) are official IAGA and IAA endorsed indices that are provided by World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto University, Japan (Dst and AL), GFZ, Adolf-Schmidt-Observatory Niemegk, Germany (Kp), and the Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels (RI). Including these indices, all data in hourly values are obtained from NASA-GSFC/SPDF through OMNIWeb (http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/ow.html).

  8. Power inversion design for ocean wave energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebani, Anwar N.

    The needs for energy sources are increasing day by day because of several factors, such as oil depletion, and global climate change due to the higher level of CO2, so the exploration of various renewable energy sources is very promising area of study. The available ocean waves can be utilized as free source of energy as the water covers 70% of the earth surface. This thesis presents the ocean wave energy as a source of renewable energy. By addressing the problem of designing efficient power electronics system to deliver 5 KW from the induction generator to the grid with less possible losses and harmonics as possible and to control current fed to the grid to successfully harvest ocean wave energy. We design an AC-DC full bridge rectifier converter, and a DC-DC boost converter to harvest wave energy from AC to regulated DC. In order to increase the design efficiency, we need to increase the power factor from (0.5-0.6) to 1. This is accomplished by designing the boost converter with power factor correction in continues mode with RC circuit as an input to the boost converter power factor correction. This design results in a phase shift between the input current and voltage of the full bridge rectifier to generate a small reactive power. The reactive power is injected to the induction generator to maintain its functionality by generating a magnetic field in its stator. Next, we design a single-phase pulse width modulator full bridge voltage source DC-AC grid-tied mode inverter to harvest regulated DC wave energy to AC. The designed inverter is modulated by inner current loop, to control current injected to the grid with minimal filter component to maintain power quality at the grid. The simulation results show that our design successfully control the current level fed to the grid. It is noteworthy that the simulated efficiency is higher than the calculated one since we used an ideal switch in the simulated circuit.

  9. Guidelines in Wave Energy Conversion System Design

    E-print Network

    Guiberteau, K. L.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.; Kozman, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an investigational study on wave energy converters (WECs). The types of WEC available from the market are studied first. The design considerations for implementing a WEC in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are then evaluated...

  10. Design and development of a gossamer sail system for deorbiting in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Juan M.; Visagie, Lourens; Schenk, Mark; Stohlman, Olive R.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Lappas, Vaios J.; Erb, Sven

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of space debris in low Earth orbits poses an increasing threat of collisions and damage to spacecraft. As a low-cost solution to the space debris problem the Gossamer Deorbiter proposed herein is designed as a scalable stand-alone system that can be attached to a low-to-medium mass host satellite for end-of-life disposal from low Earth orbit. It consists of a 5 m by 5 m square solar/drag sail that uses four bistable carbon fiber booms for deployment and support. Prior to deployment of the gossamer structure, a telescopic enclosure system is used to displace the sail from the host craft in order to extend the sail without hindrance from the host peripherals, and also provide passive stabilization. The principal advantage of an entirely passive operational mode allows the drag augmentation system to act as a “fail-safe” device that would activate if the spacecraft suffers a catastrophic failure. Several scenarios are analyzed to study the potential application and performance of the system to current and future missions. A detailed breakdown of the mechanical subsystems of the Gossamer Deorbiter is presented, as well as the characterization process of the deployable booms and sail membrane and the full qualification testing campaign at component and system levels. Finally, the performance scalability of the concept is analyzed.

  11. High Earth orbit design for lunar assisted small Explorer class missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, M.; Hametz, M.; Cooley, J.; Skillman, D.

    1994-01-01

    Small Expendable launch vehicles are capable of injecting modest payloads into high Earth orbits having apogee near the lunar distance. However, lunar and solar perturbations can quickly lower perigee and cause premature reentry. Costly perigee raising maneuvers by the spacecraft are required to maintain the orbit. In addition, the range of inclinations achievable is limited to those of launch sites unless costly spacecraft maneuvers are performed. This study investigates the use of a lunar swingby in a near-Hohmann transfer trajectory to raise perigee into the 8 to 25 solar radius range and reach a wide variety of inclinations without spacecraft maneuvers. It is found that extremely stable orbits can be obtained if the postencounter spacecraft orbital period is one-half of a lunar sidereal revolution and the Earth-vehicle-Moon geometry is within a specified range. Criteria for achieving stable orbits with various perigee heights and ecliptic inclinations are developed, and the sensitivity of the resulting mission orbits to transfer trajectory injection (TTI) errors is examined. It is shown that carefully designed orbits yield lifetimes of several years, with excellent ground station coverage characteristics and minimal eclipses. A phasing loop error correction strategy is considered with the spacecraft propulsion system delta V demand for TTI error correction and a postlunar encounter apogee trim maneuver typically in the 30 to 120 meters per second range.

  12. A preliminary design for the GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Barnes, Stuart; Bean, Jacob; Bigelow, Bruce; Bouchez, Antonin; Chun, Moo-Young; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Epps, Harland; Evans, Ian; Evans, Janet; Frebel, Anna; Furesz, Gabor; Glenday, Alex; Guzman, Dani; Hare, Tyson; Jang, Bi-Ho; Jang, Jeong-Gyun; Jeong, Ueejong; Jordan, Andres; Kim, Kang-Min; Kim, Jihun; Li, Chih-Hao; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; McCracken, Kenneth; McLeod, Brian; Mueller, Mark; Nah, Jakyung; Norton, Timothy; Oh, Heeyoung; Oh, Jae Sok; Ordway, Mark; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Park, Sung-Joon; Phillips, David; Plummer, David; Podgorski, William; Rodler, Florian; Seifahrt, Andreas; Tak, Kyung-Mo; Uomoto, Alan; Van Dam, Marcos A.; Walsworth, Ronald; Yu, Young Sam; Yuk, In-Soo

    2014-08-01

    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is an optical-band echelle spectrograph that has been selected as the first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). G-CLEF is a general-purpose, high dispersion spectrograph that is fiber fed and capable of extremely precise radial velocity measurements. The G-CLEF Concept Design (CoD) was selected in Spring 2013. Since then, G-CLEF has undergone science requirements and instrument requirements reviews and will be the subject of a preliminary design review (PDR) in March 2015. Since CoD review (CoDR), the overall G-CLEF design has evolved significantly as we have optimized the constituent designs of the major subsystems, i.e. the fiber system, the telescope interface, the calibration system and the spectrograph itself. These modifications have been made to enhance G-CLEF's capability to address frontier science problems, as well as to respond to the evolution of the GMT itself and developments in the technical landscape. G-CLEF has been designed by applying rigorous systems engineering methodology to flow Level 1 Scientific Objectives to Level 2 Observational Requirements and thence to Level 3 and Level 4. The rigorous systems approach applied to G-CLEF establishes a well defined science requirements framework for the engineering design. By adopting this formalism, we may flexibly update and analyze the capability of G-CLEF to respond to new scientific discoveries as we move toward first light. G-CLEF will exploit numerous technological advances and features of the GMT itself to deliver an efficient, high performance instrument, e.g. exploiting the adaptive optics secondary system to increase both throughput and radial velocity measurement precision.

  13. Microscale energy harvesting: a system design perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Lu; Vijay Raghunathan; Kaushik Roy

    2010-01-01

    Harvesting electrical power from environmental energy sources is an attractive and increasingly feasible option for several micro-scale electronic systems such as biomedical implants and wireless sensor nodes that need to operate autonomously for long periods of time (months to years). However, designing highly efficient micro-scale energy harvesting systems requires an in-depth understanding of various design considerations and tradeoffs. This paper

  14. Enhancing Decision Making in the Energy Sector Using Space-Based Earth Observations: A GEO and CEOS Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Eckman; P. W. Stackhouse

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations from space are playing an increasing role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, spaceborne observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations to improve solar energy resource assessment globally. As one of the nine Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of policy and management decision making in

  15. Phased array feed design technology for Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Earth observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuman, H. K.

    1992-12-01

    An assessment of the potential and limitations of phased array antennas in space-based geophysical precision radiometry is described. Mathematical models exhibiting the dependence of system and scene temperatures and system sensitivity on phased array antenna parameters and components such as phase shifters and low noise amplifiers (LNA) are developed. Emphasis is given to minimum noise temperature designs wherein the LNA's are located at the array level, one per element or subarray. Two types of combiners are considered: array lenses (space feeds) and corporate networks. The result of a survey of suitable components and devices is described. The data obtained from that survey are used in conjunction with the mathematical models to yield an assessment of effective array antenna noise temperature for representative geostationary and low Earth orbit systems. Practical methods of calibrating a space-based, phased array radiometer are briefly addressed as well.

  16. Core, Mantle, Crust: Imaging the Earth's Interior with Ultra-High Energy Neutrino Tomography

    E-print Network

    John P. Ralston; Pankaj Jain; George M. Frichter

    1999-09-02

    We report on the feasibility of using an isotropic flux of cosmic neutrinos in the energy range of 10 to 10,000 TeV to study the interior geophysical structure of the Earth. The angular distribution of events in a $\\sim {\\rm km}^3$-scale neutrino telescope can be inverted to yield the Earth's nucleon density distribution. The approach is independent of previous seismic methods. The energy spectrum of the neutrino primaries can also be determined from consistency with the angular distribution. Depending on neutrino flux, a reasonable density determination can be obtained with a few hundred receivers operating for a few years.

  17. A method to detect ultra high energy electrons using earth's magnetic field as a radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, S. A.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the detection of electrons with energies exceeding a few TeV, which lose energy rapidly through synchrotron and inverse Compton processes, would provide valuable information on the distribution of sources and on the propagation of cosmic rays in the solar neighborhood. However, it would not be possible to measure the energy spectrum beyond a few TeV with any of the existing experimental techniques. The present investigation is, therefore concerned with the possibility of detecting electrons with energies exceeding a few TeV on the basis of the photons emitted through synchrotron radiation in the earth's magnetic field. Attention is given to the synchrotron radiation of electrons in the earth's magnetic field, detector response and energy estimation, and the characteristics of an ideal detector, capable of detecting photons with energies equal to or greater than 20 keV.

  18. Passive solar heating and natural cooling of an earth-integrated design

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is being designed with innovative features that will greatly reduce its energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting. A reference design has been studied and the effects of extending the overhang during summer and fall, varying glazing area, employing RIB, and reducing internal heat by natural lighting have been considered. The use of RIB and the extendable overhang increases the optimum window glazing area and the solar heating fraction. A mass-storage wall which will likely be included in the final design has also been considered. A figure of merit for commercial buildings is the total annual energy consumption per unit area of floor space. A highly efficient office building in the Oak Ridge area typically uses 120 to 160 kWhr/m/sup 2/. The Joint Institute reference design with natural lighting, an annual average heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) equal to 1.8, RIB, and the extendable overhang uses 71 kWhr/m/sup 2/. This figure was determined from NBSLD simulations corrected for the saving from RIB. The internal heat energy from lighting and equipment used in the simulation was 1653 kWhrs/month (high natural lighting case) which is much lower than conventional office buildings. This value was adopted because only a portion of the building will be used as office space and efforts will be made to keep internal heat generation low. The mass-storage wall and ambient air cooling will reduce energy consumption still further. The combined savings of the innovative features in the Joint Institute building are expected to result in a very energy efficient design. The building will be instrumented to monitor its performance and the measured data will provide a means of evaluating the energy-saving features. The efficiency of the design will be experimentally verified over the next several years.

  19. ESAS-Derived Earth Departure Stage Design for Human Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaherty, Kevin; Grant, Michael; Korzun, Ashley; Malo-Molina, Faure; Steinfeldt, Bradley; Stahl, Benjamin; Wilhite, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration has set the nation on a course to have humans on Mars as early as 2030. To reduce the cost and risk associated with human Mars exploration, NASA is planning for the Mars architecture to leverage the lunar architecture as fully as possible. This study takes the defined launch vehicles and system capabilities from ESAS and extends their application to DRM 3.0 to design an Earth Departure Stage suitable for the cargo and crew missions to Mars. The impact of a propellant depot in LEO was assessed and sLzed for use with the EDS. To quantitatively assess and compare the effectiveness of alternative designs, an initial baseline architecture was defined using the ESAS launch vehicles and DRM 3.0. The baseline architecture uses three NTR engines, LH2 propellant, no propellant depot in LEO, and launches on the Ares I and Ares V. The Mars transfer and surface elements from DRM 3.0 were considered to be fixed payloads in the design of the EDS. Feasible architecture alternatives were identified from previous architecture studies and anticipated capabilities and compiled in a morphological matrix. ESAS FOMs were used to determine the most critical design attributes for the effectiveness of the EDS. The ESAS-derived FOMs used in this study to assess alternative designs are effectiveness and performance, affordability, reliability, and risk. The individual FOMs were prioritized using the AHP, a method for pairwise comparison. All trades performed were evaluated with respect to the weighted FOMs, creating a Pareto frontier of equivalently ideal solutions. Additionally, each design on the frontier was evaluated based on its fulfillment of the weighted FOMs using TOPSIS, a quantitative method for ordinal ranking of the alternatives. The designs were assessed in an integrated environment using physics-based models for subsystem analysis where possible. However, for certain attributes such as engine type, historical, performance-based mass estimating relations were more easily employed. The elements from the design process were integrated into a single loop, allowing for rapid iteration of subsystem analyses and compilation of resulting designs.

  20. Preliminary Downlink Design and Performance Assessment for Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth (ARISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Wang, C. C.; Gray, A.; Hemmati, H.; Mittskus, A.; Golshan, N.; Noca, M.

    1998-10-01

    Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth (ARISE) is a space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission with a nominal launch date of 2008. It consists of an inflatable 25-m radio telescope circulating in a highly elliptical Earth orbit with a perigee of 5,000 km and an apogee of 40,000 km. The objective is to observe in conjunction with Earth-based telescopes to obtain high-resolution maps of quasars and active galactic nuclei for science investigations. ARISE requires an 8-Gb/s downlink of science data, which is a challenge using today's technology. In this article, 8-Gb/s systems using both traditional radio frequency (RF) and laser communication are proposed with the goal of minimizing both the cost and the risk of the design. Either option requires appropriate technology investments. The RF system requires the use of dual polarization, high-order modulations such as 32-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), and spectrally efficient square-root raised-cosine (SRRC) filters to meet the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectral allocation. If additional bandwidth is allocated by the FCC, constant-envelope modulations such as cross-correlated trellis-coded quadrature modulation (XTCQM) can be used in place of SRRC filters and QAM to reduce the power required on the spacecraft. The proposed laser communication system uses on-off keying (OOK) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The wavelength of 1550 nm has the advantage of lower background light subtended at the ground receiver for downlink communications. The critical components of the system are based on mature fiber-optic technologies. The downlink transceiver terminal will be a modified Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) that has been in development at JPL over the past 3 years. This article includes a road map on how the 8-Gb/s RF and laser communication systems can be developed with a series of demonstrations between now and the launch date. The demonstrations are needed to verify technologies and to raise the confidence level of the designs. With the completion of the demonstrations, both the RF system and the laser communication systems can be deployed with relatively low risk.

  1. Annual UCF Progress Energy Senior Design Symposium

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    3rd Annual UCF ­ Progress Energy Senior Design Symposium on Renewable & Sustainable Energy Friday and build a prototype, and prepare engineering reports. At the end of their senior year, the students and industry. This year, the symposium was held on Friday, April 8, 2011 and focused on the theme of renewable

  2. DSN energy data base preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, E. R.; Herrera, L. O.; Lascu, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    The design and implementation of a computerized data base created to support the DSN Energy Conservation Project with data relating to energy use at Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex are described. The results of development work to date, are presented along with work currently in progress or in the planning stage.

  3. Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)

  4. Design of a Surface Albedo Modification Payload for Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Mitigation 

    E-print Network

    Ge, Shen

    2011-10-21

    The development of the Surface Albedo Treatment System (SATS) onboard a spacecraft mission to the near earth asteroid (NEA) Apophis in 2012 is an innovative concept of deflecting NEAs from possible impact with the Earth through altering...

  5. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  6. Co-Seismic Energy Changes Induced by Earthquakes on a Rotating, Gravitating Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Gross, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Besides operating its own energy budget, an earthquake acts as an agent transferring a much greater amount of energy among the Earth's rotation, elastic field, gravitational field and internal heat. We compute the co-seismic, globally integrated gravitational and rotation changes induced by some 20,000 large earthquakes that occurred in the last quarter century, according to Chao et al. (1995, GJI, 122,776- 783,784-789) and using the Harvard CMT catalog. The result confirms an extremely strong tendency for the earthquakes to decrease the global gravitational energy and to increase the spin energy. It is found that energy is being extracted from the Earth's gravitational field by the action of earthquakes at an average rate of about approx. 2 TeraW during the studied period, larger by far than the approx. 7 GigaW for the average rate of the earthquake-induced rotational energy increase and the approx. 5 GigaW for the seismic energy release. Based on energetics considerations and assuming the inability of the Earth to build up elastic energy continuously over time, it is argued that earthquakes, by converting gravitational energy, may make a significant contribution to the global hedflow.

  7. Major Map: Earth & Space Exploration (Exploration Systems Design) Bachelor of Science (B.S.)

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    if Required Additional Critical Requirement Notes TERM ONE: 0-15 CREDIT HOURS SES 100: Introduction/or a First Year Seminar Grade of C in (MA) SES 101: Earth, Solar System, Universe 3 Grade of C SES 103 SES 102: Earth, Solar System, and Universe II 3 Grade of C SES 104: Earth, Solar System, and Universe

  8. Power and Propulsion System Design for Near-Earth Object Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Landau, Damon F.; Bury, Kristen M.; Malone, Shane P.; Hickman, Tyler A.

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are exciting targets for exploration; they are relatively easy to reach but relatively little is known about them. With solar electric propulsion, a vast number of interesting NEOs can be reached within a few years and with extensive flexibility in launch date. An additional advantage of electric propulsion for these missions is that a spacecraft can be small, enabling a fleet of explorers launched on a single vehicle or as secondary payloads. Commercial, flight-proven Hall thruster systems have great appeal based on their performance and low cost risk, but one issue with these systems is that the power processing units (PPUs) are designed for regulated spacecraft power architectures which are not attractive for small NEO missions. In this study we consider the integrated design of power and propulsion systems that utilize the capabilities of existing PPUs in an unregulated power architecture. Models for solar array and engine performance are combined with low-thrust trajectory analyses to bound spacecraft design parameters for a large class of NEO missions, then detailed array performance models are used to examine the array output voltage and current over a bounded mission set. Operational relationships between the power and electric propulsion systems are discussed, and it is shown that both the SPT-100 and BPT-4000 PPUs can perform missions over a solar range of 0.7 AU to 1.5 AU - encompassing NEOs, Venus, and Mars - within their operable input voltage ranges. A number of design trades to control the array voltage are available, including cell string layout, array offpointing during mission operations, and power draw by the Hall thruster system.

  9. Computational materials design for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2013-03-01

    General adoption of sustainable energy technologies depends on the discovery and development of new high-performance materials. For instance, waste heat recovery and electricity generation via the solar thermal route require bulk thermoelectrics with a high figure of merit (ZT) and thermal stability at high-temperatures. Energy recovery applications (e.g., regenerative braking) call for the development of rapidly chargeable systems for electrical energy storage, such as electrochemical supercapacitors. Similarly, use of hydrogen as vehicular fuel depends on the ability to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract it at ambient temperatures at sufficiently rapid rates. We will discuss how first-principles computational methods based on quantum mechanics and statistical physics can drive the understanding, improvement and prediction of new energy materials. We will cover prediction and experimental verification of new earth-abundant thermoelectrics, transition metal oxides for electrochemical supercapacitors, and kinetics of mass transport in complex metal hydrides. General adoption of sustainable energy technologies depends on the discovery and development of new high-performance materials. For instance, waste heat recovery and electricity generation via the solar thermal route require bulk thermoelectrics with a high figure of merit (ZT) and thermal stability at high-temperatures. Energy recovery applications (e.g., regenerative braking) call for the development of rapidly chargeable systems for electrical energy storage, such as electrochemical supercapacitors. Similarly, use of hydrogen as vehicular fuel depends on the ability to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract it at ambient temperatures at sufficiently rapid rates. We will discuss how first-principles computational methods based on quantum mechanics and statistical physics can drive the understanding, improvement and prediction of new energy materials. We will cover prediction and experimental verification of new earth-abundant thermoelectrics, transition metal oxides for electrochemical supercapacitors, and kinetics of mass transport in complex metal hydrides. Research has been supported by the US Department of Energy under grant Nos. DE-SC0001342, DE-SC0001054, DE-FG02-07ER46433, and DE-FC36-08GO18136.

  10. Design + energy: results of a national student design competition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A national competition for students in schools of architecture was conducted during the Spring of 1980. The competition was the first of a series of competitions that emphasized the integration of architectural design and energy considerations in medium-scale building projects, and specifically applying passive solar design strategies and the appropriate use of brick masonry materials. Some 300 faculty members and over 2200 students representing 80 of the 92 US architecture schools participated in the program. A summary is presented of the program and the range of submissions grouped by problem types and general climatic region.

  11. Diagnosing ocean energy transports from earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    The maximum energy production (MEP) principle suggested by Paltridge (1975) is applied to separate the satellite-inferred required total transports into the atmospheric and the oceanic components within a two-dimensional (2D) framework. For this purpose, the required 2D energy transports (Sohn and Smith, 1991) are imposed on Paltridge's energy balance model which is then solved as a variational problem. The results provide separated atmospheric and oceanic transports on a 2D basis such that the total divergence is equal to the net radiation measured from a satellite.

  12. A simple energy budget of the Earth for informing climate discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Murphy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Discussions of recent climate change usually center around average surface temperature. Although temperature is important and easily interpreted, there is no conservation law for surface temperature as there is for energy. Energy conservation can therefore add to the discussion. For example, we are certain that increasing carbon dioxide is causing the Earth to retain energy. Any explanation of climate change must account for that energy. For the period when ocean data are available (1957-2013), the ocean heat content, IPCC AR5 estimates of forcing, and increased thermal emission from a warming Earth together produce a self-consistent energy budget. Emission from a warming Earth has balanced more greenhouse gas energy than has ocean heat uptake. Positive/negative cloud feedbacks on climate are consistent with an aerosol forcing larger/smaller than the central value. With experience in using the energy budget in teaching an undergraduate course on climate science, we are trying to show the simplest possible energy budget that accurately conveys the science.

  13. Advancing Water and Water-Energy-Food Cluster Activities within Future Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Bhaduri, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2014-12-01

    In building its emerging program, Future Earth has encouraged former Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) projects to redefine their objectives, priorities and problem approaches so they are aligned with those of Future Earth. These new projects will be characterized by more integrated applications of natural and social sciences as well as dialogue and science integrated across disciplinary boundaries to address a wide range of environmental and social issues. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) has had a heritage of integrating natural and social sciences, and recently started to also look at issues within the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) cluster using similar integrated approaches. As part of the growth of the scientific elements of this cluster, GWSP has approached Future Earth opportunities by addressing the sustainability for Water, Energy, and Food through integrated water information and improved governance.In this presentation the approaches being considered for promoting integration in both water and the WEF cluster will be discussed. In particular, potential contributions of Future Earth to research related to the use and management of water and to issues and science underpinning the W-E-F nexus deliberations will be identified. In both cases the increasing ability to utilize Earth observations and big data will advance this research agenda. In addition, the better understanding of the implications of governance structures in addressing these issues and the options for harmonizing the use of scientific knowledge and technological advances will be explored. For example, insights gained from water management studies undertaken within the GWSP are helping to focus plans for a "sustainable water futures" project and a WEF cluster within Future Earth. The potential role of the Sustainable Development Goals in bringing together the monitoring and science capabilities, and understanding of governance approaches, will be discussed as a framework for facilitating the factors that could encourage more coherence in water management and in the WEF cluster.

  14. Spacecraft Formation Design Near the Sun-Earth L(sub 2) Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collange, Guillaume; Leitner, Jesse

    2003-01-01

    Over the next two decades international space agencies including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the European Space Agency are proposing space missions which employ distributed spacecraft technologies to enable vast improvements in remote sensing performance as compared to fundamental performance limitations associated with fairing sizes of even the largest launch vehicles. A key initial step towards enabling such challenging missions is the development of processes and algorithms for designing the desired motion of the spacecraft formation subject to simultaneous gravitational and fuel constraints. In this paper we develop analogous methodologies for designing trajectories of relative motion near the L(sub 2) point as have been thoroughly developed for the Earth-orbiting regime. In this preliminary study, we confine ourselves to the basic assumptions of the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem where disturbances, non-gravitational effects, and fourth and greater body affects are ignored. The focus is on determining formations that are defined primarily by the natural gravitational effects on the vehicles, such that maintenance over long-term will not require significant fuel consumption.

  15. Star Power on Earth: Path to Clean Energy Future

    ScienceCinema

    Ed Moses

    2010-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's "Science on Saturday" lecture series presents Ed Moses, Director of the National Ignition Facility, discussing the world's largest laser system and its potential impact on society's upcoming energy needs.

  16. Design, Delivery, and Results of the Earth and Space Science Partnership Teacher Professional Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Christopher; Flarend, A.; Petula, J.; Richards, M. T.; Spotts, H.; McDonald, S.; Furman, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth and Space Science Partnership (ESSP) is a collaboration among Penn State scientists and science educators with seven school districts across Pennsylvania. Part of the multi-faceted ESSP effort includes long-term professional development that is built around annual summer workshops for middle grades teachers in several content areas, including Solar System astronomy. Our project was initially funded for five years (we are in year 3 now), so teachers remain engaged with the ESSP for longer than many professional development programs. This project duration allows us to implement several methods for building on the summer workshops: (1) Teachers are able to repeat workshops in a content area more than once, which means that in most of our workshops we have a mix of veteran teachers and those new to the program, (2) three meetings are held throughout the school year where all partners revisit the content and pedagogy from the summer, and (3) the teachers are encouraged and supported in their own efforts to create learning communities in their districts that meet more frequently. In this poster, we report on our efforts to impact the teaching of Earth and Space Science by offering a professional development program designed around coherent content storylines and a claims/evidence/reasoning (CER) framework. We will present the storyline from our summer 2012 astronomy workshop and samples of the CER activities that were developed to align with pieces of the storyline. Finally, we will discuss how aspects of the storyline / CER approach are being implemented in the sixth grade curriculum of one of our partner school districts, the Bellefonte Area School District. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF from a Targeted Math Science Partnership award DUE#0962792.

  17. Lifting from Earth Marshall is NASA's designated developer and integrator of launch systems. The Center has the engineering capabilities

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Lifting from Earth Marshall is NASA's designated developer and integrator of launch systems and innovative scientific discoveries of our time. The deep space images from the Hubble Space Telescope for testing large telescope mirrors in a space-simulated environment. Teams at Marshall manage NASA's programs

  18. Regional earth-atmosphere energy balance estimates based on assimilations with a GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Michael A.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oort and Vonder Haar (1976) column-budget technique is presently used to evaluate the physical consistency and accuracy of regional earth-atmosphere energy balance estimates for (1) atmospheric budget terms, (2) net radiation at the top of the atmosphere, and (3) time tendency and flux divergence of energy, for Special Observing Periods of the FGGE year. It is found that, during winter, the midlatitude oceans supply large quantities of energy to the overlying atmosphere, which then transports the energy to the continental heat-sinks; the energy flows in the opposite direction during summer.

  19. Solar wind energy as a source of upper-atmosphere heating on earth and Jupiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. von Zahn; K. H. Fricke

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of thermospheric composition by the Esro 4 gas analyzer reveal a permanent increase in exospheric temperature at high latitudes. It is argued that the required energy is ultimately derived from the solar wind and that a 0.0005 part of the total solar-wind flux intercepted by the magnetosphere of earth will maintain the observed temperature increase. Heating of a planetary

  20. Solar wind energy as a source of upper-atmosphere heating on Earth and Jupiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. von Zahn; K. H. Fricke

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of thermospheric composition by the Esro 4 gas analyzer reveal a permanent increase of exospheric temperature at high latitudes. It is argues that the required energy is ultimately derived from the solar wind and that 5 x 10⁻⁴ of the total solar wind flux intercepted by the magnetosphere of the earth will maintain the observed temperature increase. Heating of

  1. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low Earth orbit space station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Martin; J. Garow; K. B. Michaels

    1984-01-01

    Results of a study to define the characteristics of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a large space station operating in low earth orbit (LEO) are presented. The regenerative fuel cell system employs an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell with the option of employing either an alkaline or a solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzer.

  2. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low Earth orbit space station

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K.B.

    1984-08-01

    Results of a study to define the characteristics of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a large space station operating in low earth orbit (LEO) are presented. The regenerative fuel cell system employs an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell with the option of employing either an alkaline or a solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzer.

  3. Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005 Scientists radiation. This imbalance provides confirmation of global warming theory and a measure of the net forcing global warming `in-the-pipeline' ­ warming that will occur this century without any further increases

  4. Global Change Research Related in the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Linda R.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle is to enhance the scientific knowledge and educational benefits obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). This paper presents the final technical report on this collaborative effort. Various appendices include: A) Staff Travel Activities years one through three; B) Publications and Presentations years one through three; C) Education Activities; D) Students year one through three; E) Seminars year one through three; and F) Center for Applied Optics Projects.

  5. High-energy cosmic ray muons in the Earth's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanov, A. A., E-mail: kochanov@iszf.irk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (Russian Federation); Sinegovskaya, T. S. [Irkutsk State Railway University (Russian Federation)] [Irkutsk State Railway University (Russian Federation); Sinegovsky, S. I., E-mail: sinegovsky@api.isu.ru [Irkutsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    We present the calculations of the atmospheric muon fluxes at energies 10-10{sup 7} GeV based on a numerical-analytical method for solving the hadron-nucleus cascade equations. It allows the non-power-law behavior of the primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum, the violation of Feynman scaling, and the growth of the total inelastic cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions with increasing energy to be taken into account. The calculations have been performed for a wide class of hadron-nucleus interaction models using directly the PCR measurements made in the ATIC-2 and GAMMA experiments and the parameterizations of the primary spectrum based on a set of experiments. We study the dependence of atmospheric muon flux characteristics on the hadronic interaction model and the influence of uncertainties in the PCR spectrum and composition on the muon flux at sea level. Comparison of the calculated muon energy spectra at sea level with the data from a large number of experiments shows that the cross sections for hadron-nucleus interactions introduce the greatest uncertainty in the energy region that does not include the knee in the primary spectrum.

  6. Earth Sciences Earth Sciences

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    Earth Sciences Earth Sciences Undergraduate Studies #12;Department of Earth Sciences2 Royal;3Department of Earth Sciences Earth Sciences The Department of Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway.ac.uk/studyhere Contents Why study Earth Sciences? 4 Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway 5 Admissions and entry requirements 6

  7. Low-energy neutrino factory design

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; /Fermilab /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Bogacz, S.A.; /Jefferson Lab; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

  8. Guidelines in Wave Energy Conversion System Design 

    E-print Network

    Guiberteau, K. L.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.; Kozman, T.

    2014-01-01

    student for the Industrial Assessment Center at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, and her research interests include energy management, integrated product and process design, and wave energy. Email: kguiberteau@gmail.com Theodore A. Kozman... uses large arrays to provide for higher demands [13]. According to the Ocean Power Technology website (www.oceanpowertechnologies.com), the company is planning on building a commercial unit off the coast of Spain, which will generate 1.39 MW...

  9. Building design cuts energy use 40%

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gorzeinik

    1980-01-01

    The new Technology Applications Center designed for BDM Corp. of Albuquerque, New Mexico, a consulting firm to government and industry, is expected to use 40% less energy on a day-to-day basis than a comparable structure without its energy saving features. The building features a skylighted, visually stunning three-story atrium that serves both as a light tunnel and thermal flywheel. Heating

  10. Dual nozzle design update. [on liquid rocket engines for advanced earth-to-orbit transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    Dual-nozzle engines, such as the dual-throat and dual-expander engines, are being evaluated for advanced earth-to-orbit transportation systems. Potential derivatives of the Space Shuttle and completely new vehicles might benefit from these advanced engines. In this paper, progress in the design of single-fuel and dual-fuel dual-nozzle engines is summarized. Dual-nozzle engines include those burning propellants such as LOX/RP-1/LH2, LOX/LC3H8/LH2, LOX/LCH4/LH2, LOX/LH2/LH2, LOX/LCH4/LCH4, LOX/LC3H8/C3H8 and N2O4/MMH/LH2. Engine data are applicable for thrust levels from 200,000 through 670,000 lbF. The results indicate that several versions of these engines utilize state-of-the-art technology and that even advanced versions of these engines do not require a major breakthrough in technology.

  11. Advanced Spacecraft Designs in Support of Human Missions to Earth's Neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by The NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the LTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the LTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP.

  12. Optimum design of substation grounding in a two layer earth structure: Part I?Analytical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Dawalibi; D. Mukhedkar

    1975-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer program which calculates the potential in earth, the resistance and the required potential probe position in field resistance measurements [1], for any complex electrode in a two layer earth structure. The first part of the study describes the theoretical basis of the programs and compares the two analytical methods of potential calculations, the summation

  13. The Design and Evaluation of a High-Performance Earth Science Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carter T. Shock; Chialin Chang; Bongki Moon; Anurag Acharya; Larry S. Davis; Joel H. Saltz; Alan Sussman

    1998-01-01

    Earth scientists have encountered two major obstacles in their attempts to use remotely sensed imageryto analyze the earth's land cover dynamics. First, the volume of data involved is very large and second,significant preprocessing is needed before the data can be used. This is particularly so for studies that analyzeglobal trends using data sets that cover multiple years. In this paper,

  14. Geology and Earth Sciences Sourcebook for Elementary and Secondary Schools, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Robert L.

    This earth science resource book, designed for use by elementary and secondary school teachers, presents aspects of earth science which illustrate the significance of matter, energy, forces, motion, time, and space in the dynamics and history of the earth. The major content of this resource manual consists of authoritative information about earth…

  15. Surface Interactions with Compartmentalized Cellular Phosphates Explain Rare Earth Oxide Nanoparticle Hazard and Provide Opportunities for Safer Design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1? release, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use. PMID:24417322

  16. Surface interactions with compartmentalized cellular phosphates explain rare earth oxide nanoparticle hazard and provide opportunities for safer design.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibin; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dunphy, Darren R; Cai, Xiaoming; Meng, Huan; Zhang, Haiyuan; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Dong, Juyao; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Nel, Andre; Xia, Tian

    2014-02-25

    Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1? release, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use. PMID:24417322

  17. Energy design for protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ravikant, D. V. S.; Elber, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Proteins bind to other proteins efficiently and specifically to carry on many cell functions such as signaling, activation, transport, enzymatic reactions, and more. To determine the geometry and strength of binding of a protein pair, an energy function is required. An algorithm to design an optimal energy function, based on empirical data of protein complexes, is proposed and applied. Emphasis is made on negative design in which incorrect geometries are presented to the algorithm that learns to avoid them. For the docking problem the search for plausible geometries can be performed exhaustively. The possible geometries of the complex are generated on a grid with the help of a fast Fourier transform algorithm. A novel formulation of negative design makes it possible to investigate iteratively hundreds of millions of negative examples while monotonically improving the quality of the potential. Experimental structures for 640 protein complexes are used to generate positive and negative examples for learning parameters. The algorithm designed in this work finds the correct binding structure as the lowest energy minimum in 318 cases of the 640 examples. Further benchmarks on independent sets confirm the significant capacity of the scoring function to recognize correct modes of interactions. PMID:21842951

  18. Re-Evaluation of the Earth's Surface Energy Balance Using a New Method of Heat Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Y.; Deng, Y.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The recently proposed and tested model of surface heat fluxes, based on the theory of maximum entropy production (MEP), was used for re-evaluating the global mean annual energy balance over the Earth's surface. Compared to the commonly used bulk transfer models, the MEP model predicted heat fluxes are constrained by surface radiation fluxes satisfying energy balance and independent of temperature/moisture gradient, wind speed and roughness lengths. The MEP model holds for the entire range of soil moisture from dryness to saturation over land surfaces. It provides the first global maps of water heat fluxes at ocean surfaces as well as at snow/ice covered polar regions. The MEP model is less sensitive to the uncertainties of model input (surface radiation fluxes, temperature and/or humidity) parameters and free of location specific tuning (empirical) parameters. Ten years of earth surface radiation fluxes, surface temperature data products from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System supplemented (when needed) by the surface specific humidity data from Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications were used to reproduce global annual surface energy budgets. The MEP modeled global annual sensible heat fluxes are in close agreement with both previous studies and ocean content climatology (OHC) data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, while those of latent heat fluxes are significantly lower than previous estimates. The net surface-atmosphere heat exchange according to the MEP model is consistent with the OHC data.

  19. Design of a Slab Waveguide Multiaperture Fourier Spectrometer for Water Vapor Measurements in Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Kenneth; Florja?czyk, Miros?aw; Solheim, Brian; Scott, Alan; Quine, Ben; Cheben, Pavel

    Concept, theory and design of a new type of waveguide device, a multiaperture Fourier-transform planar waveguide spectrometer[1], implemented as a prototype instrument is pre-sented. The spectrometer's objective is to demonstrate the ability of the new slab waveguide technology for application in remote sensing instruments[2]. The spectrometer will use a limb viewing configuration to detect the 1.36um waveband allowing concentrations of water vapor in earth's atmosphere to be measured[3]. The most challenging aspects of the design, assembly and calibration are presented. Focus will be given to the effects of packaging the spectrometer and interfacing to the detector array. Stress-induced birefringence will affect the performance of the waveguides, therefore the design of a stress-free mounting over a range of temperatures is important. Spectral retrieval algo-rithms will have to correct for expected fabrication errors in the waveguides. Data processing algorithms will also be developed to correct for non-uniformities of input brightness through the array, making use of MMI output couplers to capture both the in-phase and anti-phase interferometer outputs. A performance assessment of an existing breadboard spectrometer will demonstrate the capability of the instrument. REFERENCES 1. M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Multiaper-n ture planar waveguide spectrometer formed by arrayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Expr. 15(26), 18176-18189 (2007). 2. M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. n Lapointe, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Slab waveguiode spatial heterodyne spectrom-eters for remote sensing from space," Optical sensors 2009. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7356 (2009)., pp. 73560V-73560V-7 (2009). 3. A. Scott, M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, n B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Micro-interferometer with high throughput for remote sensing." MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems VIII. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7208 (2009)., pp. 72080G-72080G-7 (2009).

  20. Building Student Awareness of Societal Decision-Making Challenges about Energy through the Study of Earth System Data and Innovations in Energy-Related Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.; Berding, M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy literacy requires knowledge about the trade-offs inherent in energy alternatives, about how humans use energy and have choices in how much energy to use, and about what changes to the Earth system are occurring from energy uses. It also requires collaborative decision-making skills coupled with awareness about what values we bring to the table as we negotiate solutions that serve both personal needs and the common good. Coming up with a notion of the common good requires delineating how environmental crises occurring in other parts of the world compare to our own. We also need to understand criteria for judging what might be viable solutions. This presentation describes work that SRI International is carrying out to meet these awareness-building needs. SRI educational researchers created a curriculum that immerses students in studying regional climate change data about California in comparison to global climate change. Students ponder solution energy-related strategies and impact analyses. The curriculum will be described, as will a collaboration between SRI educational researchers and materials scientists. The scientists are designing and testing technologies for producing biofuels and solar power, and for sequestering carbon from coal fired power plants. As they apply principles of science and engineering to test materials intended to meet these energy challenges, they understand that even if the tests prove successful, if there is not economic feasibility or environmental advantage, the technology may not stand as a viable solution. This educator-scientist team is using the Essential Energy Principles and Next Generation Science Standards to articulate milestones along a trajectory of energy learning. The trajectory starts with simple understandings of what energy is and what constitute our energy challenges. It ends with more the types of more sophisticated understandings needed for designing and testing energy technology solutions.

  1. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Michael Henry

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study reports both new experimental data from the case studies and the benefits of using modified linear programming methods to account for the real nature of alternative energy design problems.

  2. The feasibility and application of using gravitational energy to allow efficient travel between earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, O. L.; Avvento, Gennaro J.

    This paper discusses the feasibility and application of using gravitational energy attained in a planetary swing-by to control the trajectory of an interplanetary transfer vehicle (IPTV) - establishing nonstop round trip orbits between earth and Mars. Energy supplied by the swing-by process and supplemented by minor correction burns will allow efficient nonstop round trip travel between earth and Mars. The IPTV will have all the necessary support equipment to maintain the cargo (manned/unmanned) during transit. At the planetary 'landfall' points, the IPTV will not decelerate but will perform a swing-by maneuver returning to the planet of origin. Cargo elements will either depart or dock with the IPTV at the planetary approach asymptote. This will be the only component of the system to undergo propulsive maneuvers.

  3. Fluoride technology for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Buinovskii, A.S.; Sofronov, V.L.; Chizhikov, V.S.; Shtefan, Yu.P. [and others

    1995-10-20

    Unique specific properties of rare-earth metals (REMs) are to a large extent responsible for the technical progress in many branches of industry, science, and technology. A new fluoride procedure for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth and transition metals has been proposed.

  4. Design energy-efficient buildings with ESP. [Energy simulation programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kalasinsky; F. Ferreira

    1978-01-01

    A new Energy Simulation Program-Level I (ESP-I), developed by Automated Procedures for Engineeing Consultants (APEC), allows architects and engineers a way to design aesthetically satisfying buildings and use innovative technology without sacrificing energy-efficiency standards. The computer program simulates a building's configuration and performance, is easily understood by engineers, and conforms to current building codes. LOADS and SYSTEM SIMULATION are the

  5. Photovoltaic power system for satellite Earth stations in remote areas: Project status and design description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delombard, R.

    A photovoltaic power system which will be installed at a remote location in Indonesia to provide power for a satellite Earth station and a classroom for video and audio teleconferences are described. The Earth station may also provide telephone service to a nearby village. The use of satellite communications for development assistance applications and the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic engine generator power system for remote satellite Earth stations are demonstrated. The Indonesian rural satellite project is discussed and the photovoltaic power system is described.

  6. Design approaches to more energy efficient engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.; Colladay, R. S.; Macioce, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The status of NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Project, a comparative government-industry effort aimed at advancing the technology base for the next generation of large turbofan engines for civil aircraft transports is summarized. Results of recently completed studies are reviewed. These studies involved selection of engine cycles and configurations that offer potential for at least 12% lower fuel consumption than current engines and also are economically attractive and environmentally acceptable. Emphasis is on the advancements required in component technologies and systems design concepts to permit future development of these more energy efficient engines.

  7. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-28

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  8. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-30

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  9. Opportunities and limitations in low earth subsonic testing for qualification of extraterrestrial supersonic parachute designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, A.; Cruz, J.; Bruno, R.; Mitcheltree, R.

    2003-01-01

    Parachutes for Mars and other planetary missions often need to operate at supersonic speeds in very low density atmospheres. Flight testing of such parachutes at appropriate conditions in the Earth's atmosphere is possible at high altitudes.

  10. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  11. Initial observations of low energy charged particles near the earth's bow shock on ISEE-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Fan, C. Y.; Fisk, L. A.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Initial measurements from the ULECA sensor of the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland experiment on ISEE 1 are reported. ULECA is an electrostatic deflection - total energy sensor consisting of a collimator, a deflection analyzer, and an array of solid-state detectors. The position of a given detector, which determines the energy per charge of an incident particle, together with the measured energy, determines the particle's charge state. It is found that a rich variety of phenomena are operative in the transthermal energy regime (about 10 keV/Q to 100 keV/Q) covered by ULECA. Specifically, observations are presented of locally accelerated protons, alpha particles, and heavier ions in the magnetosheath and upstream of earth's bow shock. Preliminary analysis indicates that the behavior of these locally accelerated particles is most similar at the same energy per charge.

  12. Optimized energy harvesting materials and generator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Christian; Hitzbleck, Julia; Feller, Torsten; Clauberg, Karin; Wagner, Joachim; Krause, Jens; Maas, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Electroactive polymers are soft capacitors made of thin elastic and electrically insulating films coated with compliant electrodes offering a large amount of deformation. They can either be used as actuators by applying an electric charge or they can be used as energy converters based on the electrostatic principle. These unique properties enable the industrial development of highly efficient and environmentally sustainable energy converters, which opens up the possibility to further exploit large renewable and inexhaustible energy sources like wind and water that are widely unused otherwise. Compared to other electroactive polymer materials, polyurethanes, whose formulations have been systematically modified and optimized for energy harvesting applications, have certain advantages over silicones and acrylates. The inherently higher dipole content results in a significantly increased permittivity and the dielectric breakdown strength is higher, too, whereby the overall specific energy, a measure for the energy gain, is better by at least factor ten, i.e. more than ten times the energy can be gained out of the same amount of material. In order to reduce conduction losses on the electrode during charging and discharging, a highly conductive bidirectional stretchable electrode has been developed. Other important material parameters like stiffness and bulk resistivity have been optimized to fit the requirements. To realize high power energy harvesting systems, substantial amounts of electroactive polymer material are necessary as well as a smart mechanical and electrical design of the generator. In here we report on different measures to evaluate and improve electroactive polymer materials for energy harvesting by e.g. reducing the defect occurrence and improving the electrode behavior.

  13. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 1: Baseline system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A system baseline design oriented to the requirements of the next generation of Earth Observatory Satellite missions is presented. The first mission (EOS-A) is envisioned as a two-fold mission which (1) provides a continuum of data of the type being supplied by ERTS for the emerging operational applications and also (2) expands the research and development activities for future instrumentation and analysis techniques. The baseline system specifically satisfies the requirements of this first mission. However, EOS-A is expected to be the first of a series of earth observation missions. Thus the baseline design has been developed so as to accommodate these latter missions effectively as the transition is made from conventional, expendable launch vehicles and spacecraft to the Shuttle Space Transportation System era. Further, a subset of alternative missions requirements including Seasat, SEOS, SMM and MSS-5 have been analyzed to verify that the spacecraft design to serve a multi-mission role is economically sound. A key feature of the baseline system design is the concept of a modular observatory system whose elements are compatible with varying levels of launch vehicle capability. The design configuration can be used with either the Delta or Titan launch vehicles and will adapt readily to the space shuttle when that system becomes available in the early 1980's.

  14. Analyses of On-orbit Determinations of the Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometer Sensor Zero-radiance Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Smith, G. Louis; Al-hajjah, Aiman; Wilson, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) missions were designed to measure broadband earth-reflected shortwave solar (0.3 micrometers to less than 5.0 micrometers) and earth-emitted longwave (5.0 micrometers to greater than 100 micrometers) radiances as well as earth-emitted narrow-band radiances in the water vapor window region between 8 micrometers and 12 micrometers. However, the CERES scanning thermistor bolometer sensor zero-radiance offsets were found to vary as much as 1.0 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) with the scan angle measurement geometry due to gravitational forces and systematic electronic noise. To minimize the gravitational effects, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft CERES sensors' offsets were derived on-orbit as functions of scan elevation and azimuth angles from the January 7-8, 1998 radiometric observations of deep cold space, representative of a 3 K blackbody. In this paper, the TRMM/CERES six orbit data base of on-orbit derived offsets is presented and analyzed to define the sampling requirements for the CERES sensors located on the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Terra Spacecraft and on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon (PM-1) Spacecraft, scheduled for launches in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Analyses of the TRMM/CERES shortwave sensor earth radiance measurements indicate that offsets can be determined on-orbit at the plus or minus 0.02 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) precision level. Offset measuring techniques and sampling requirements are discussed for the TRMM and ESE missions. Ground, pre-launch Terra CERES cross-track scan offsets are presented and described which were measured as a function of scan angle.

  15. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  16. NASA Earth Observations Informing Renewable Energy Management and Policy Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program partners with domestic and international governmental organizations, universities, and private entities to improve their decisions and assessments. These improvements are enabled by using the knowledge generated from research resulting from spacecraft observations and model predictions conducted by NASA and providing these as inputs to the decision support and scenario assessment tools used by partner organizations. The Program is divided into eight societal benefit areas, aligned in general with the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) themes. The Climate Application of the Applied Sciences Program has as one of its focuses, efforts to provide for improved decisions and assessments in the areas of renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency, and climate change impacts. The goals of the Applied Sciences Program are aligned with national initiatives such as the U.S. Climate Change Science and Technology Programs and with those of international organizations including the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). Activities within the Program are funded principally through proposals submitted in response to annual solicitations and reviewed by peers.

  17. Systematics of 4f electron energies relative to host bands by resonant photoemission of rare earth doped optical materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Thiel; H. Cruguel; Y. Sun; G. J. Lapeyre; R. M. Macfarlane; R. W. Equall; R. L. Cone

    2001-01-01

    Relative energies of 4fn electronic states and crystal band states are important for a fundamental understanding of rare-earth-doped optical materials and a practical understanding of each material's potential performance in specific applications. With this motivation, the 4fn ground state binding energies of rare earth ions have been studied in the gallium garnets using resonant photoemission spectroscopy and compared with the

  18. The chemistry of the light rare-earth elements as determined by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J.A.; Buck, E.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The energy loss spectra of the rare earths are characterized by sharp {ital M}{sub 4,5} edges, the relative intensities of which are characteristic of the 4{ital f}-shell occupancy of the excited ion. For the light rare earths, the dependence of these relative peak heights on 4{ital f}-shell occupancy is quite pronounced. Thus they may be used to determine the oxidation state of the multivalent elements Ce and Pr. The second derivative of the spectrum is shown to be extremely sensitive to the chemical environment. Modern instrumentation and detection techniques allow the oxidation state of Ce and Pr to be determined even when they are present as only minor constituents. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  20. Monitoring the Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sky Using Earth Occultation with GLAST GBM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, G.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Cherry, M.; Kippen, M.; Ling, J.; Radocinski, R.; Wheaton, W.

    2007-01-01

    Long term all-sky monitoring of the 20 keV - 2 MeV gamma-ray sky using the Earth occultation technique was demonstrated by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The principles and techniques used for the development of an end-to-end earth occultation data analysis system for BATSE can be extended to the GLAST Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), resulting in multiband light curves and time-resolved spectra in the energy range 8 keV to above 1 MeV for known gamma-ray sources and transient outbursts, as well as the discovery of new sources of gamma-ray emission. In this paper we describe the application of the technique to the GBM. We also present the expected sensitivity for the GBM.

  1. [Transparent evolution of the energy/matter interactions on earth: from gas whirlwind to technogenic civilization].

    PubMed

    Pechurkin, N S; Shuvaev, A N

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the idea of transparent evolution through the long-term reaction of the planet Earth on the external flow of radiant energy from the Sun. Due to limitations of matter on Earth, as well as on any other planet, the continuous pumping flow of radiant energy was shown to lead to cyclization and transport of substance on emerging gradients. The evolution of energy-matter interaction follows the path of capturing and transferring more energy by the fewer matter, i.e., the path of growth of the amount of energy used by each unit mass. For this indicator, the least effective mass transfer is a simple mass transfer as vortices of gases, in the gradients of temperature and pressure, which occurred on the primary surface of the planet. A long-term natural selection related to the accumulation of water on the planet has played a special role in developing the interaction of energy and matter. Phase transformations (ice, water, vapor) and mechanical transfers are the most common energy-matter processes. Based on water cycles, cyclic transports and transformations, chemical transformation of substances became possible developing over time into a biological transformation. This kind of the interaction of energy and matter is most efficient. In particular, during photosynthesis the energy of our star "is captured and utilized" in the most active part of the spectrum of its radiation. In the process of biological evolution of heterotrophs, a rise (by a factor of hundreds) in the coefficient that characterizes the intensity of energy exchange from protozoa to mammals is most illustratory. The development and the current dominance of humans as the most energy-using active species in capturing the energy and meaningful organization of its new flows especially on the basis of organic debris of former biospheres is admirable, but quite natural from the energy positions. In the course of technological evolution of humankind, the measure of the intensity of energy for homoeothermic (warm-blooded) animals has increased 20 times, based on the process energy used by the "average" inhabitant of the world. Thus, the victory of our species in planetary evolution is easy to fit into the mainstream of evolution through energy-matter interactions: multiple growth of star energy was used to transform the matter on the surface of the irradiated planet. PMID:26016039

  2. Coloration Determination of Spectral Darkening Occurring on a Broadband Earth Observing Radiometer: Application to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Loeb, Norman G.; Loukachine, Konstantin; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth s climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) must remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. Such stability is beyond the specified accuracy of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband radiometric scanning channels: the shortwave 0.3 - 5microns, total 0.3. > 100microns, and window 8 - 12microns). It has been shown that when in low earth orbit, optical response to blue/UV radiance can be reduced significantly due to UV hardened contaminants deposited on the surface of the optics. Since typical onboard calibration lamps do not emit sufficient energy in the blue/UV region, this darkening is not directly measurable using standard internal calibration techniques. This paper describes a study using a model of contaminant deposition and darkening, in conjunction with in-flight vicarious calibration techniques, to derive the spectral shape of darkening to which a broadband instrument is subjected. Ultimately the model uses the reflectivity of Deep Convective Clouds as a stability metric. The results of the model when applied to the CERES instruments on board the EOS Terra satellite are shown. Given comprehensive validation of the model, these results will allow the CERES spectral responses to be updated accordingly prior to any forthcoming data release in an attempt to reach the optimum stability target that the climate community requires.

  3. Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    2015-02-01

    Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

  4. Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 5: The earth from orbit. [experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    Astronaut training in the recognition of various geological features from space is described as well as the cameras, lenses and film used in experiment MA-136 to measure their effectiveness in photographing earth structural features from orbit. Aerosols that affect climate and weather are discussed in relation to experiment Ma-007 which relied on infrared observations of the setting or rising sun, as seen from Apollo, to measure the amount of dust and droplets in the lower 150 km of earth's atmosphere. The line spectra of atomic oxygen and nitrogen and their densities at 22 km above the earth's surface are examined along with experiment MA-059 which measured ultraviolet absorption at that altitude.

  5. Proper Design Saves Energy for Molecular Sieve Dehydration Systems 

    E-print Network

    Barrow, J. A.; Veldman, R.

    1984-01-01

    The molecular sieve system is a significant energy user in the cryogenic gas plant. Designing and operating the system properly can save thousands of dollars in fuel each year. A poorly designed energy saving system can result in poor plant...

  6. Designing for Energy Conservation - The Cypress Fairbanks Medical Center Hospital 

    E-print Network

    Wiernik, L. B.; Ranzau, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of designing for energy conservation has long been a concern of Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P), culminating in the development of a local energy conservation design award competition in 1980. This competition sponsored by HL...

  7. Optical design of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Tilt (MODIS-T) for the Earth Observing System (Eos)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maymon, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is an Earth viewing sensor that is planned as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (Eos) scheduled to begin functioning in the late 1990's. The MODIS is composed of two mutually supporting sensors one of which is MODIS-T, where 'T' signifies a tiltable along-track field of view. MODIS-T is a 32 channel imaging spectrometer with a required 10 nm to 15 nm spectral resolution (FWHM) in the 400 nm to 880 nm spectral range with less than 2.3 percent instrument induced linear polarization. The instrument provides at nadir a 33 km by 1500 km swath with a 1.1 km spatial resolution and an along-track pointing capability of +/- 50 deg about nadir. The heart of the optical design consists of a f/3 grating-type reflecting Schmidt camera.

  8. High Energy Density Simulations for Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, Gregory A.; Santarius, John F. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2005-05-15

    The so-called 'threat spectra' of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) high gain target (neutron, x-ray, and ion energy fraction and particle spectra) are the usual starting point for IFE reactor conceptual design. The threat spectra are typically computed using the same radiation hydrodynamics and thermonuclear burn computer simulation codes used to compute implosion, ignition and burn. We analyze the validity of this model for simulating the expansion of the direct drive IFE target plasma and for computing threat spectra. Particular attention is paid to the collisionality of the expanding plasma.

  9. The Dark Energy Survey CCD imager design

    SciTech Connect

    Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Guarino, V.; Kuk, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schultz, K.; Schmitt, R.L.; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U. /Argonne

    2008-06-01

    The Dark Energy Survey is planning to use a 3 sq. deg. camera that houses a {approx} 0.5m diameter focal plane of 62 2kx4k CCDs. The camera vessel including the optical window cell, focal plate, focal plate mounts, cooling system and thermal controls is described. As part of the development of the mechanical and cooling design, a full scale prototype camera vessel has been constructed and is now being used for multi-CCD readout tests. Results from this prototype camera are described.

  10. Visible and near-IR luminescence via energy transfer in rare earth doped mesoporous titania thin films with nanocrystalline walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frindell, Karen L.; Bartl, Michael H.; Robinson, Matthew R.; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Popitsch, Alois; Stucky, Galen D.

    2003-04-01

    Selected photoluminescence in the wavelength range of 600-1540 nm is generated by energy transfer from a light-gathering mesostructured host lattice to an appropriate rare earth ion. The mesoporous titania thin films, which have a well-ordered pore structure and two-phase walls made of amorphous titania and TiO 2 nanocrystallites, were doped with up to 8 mol% lanthanide ions, and the ordered structure of the material was preserved. Exciting the titania in its band gap results in energy transfer and it is possible to observe photoluminescence from the crystal field states of the rare earth ions. This process is successful for certain rare earth ions (Sm 3+, Eu 3+, Yb 3+, Nd 3+, Er 3+) and not for others (Tb 3+, Tm 3+). A mechanism has been proposed to explain this phenomenon, which involves energy transfer through surface states on titania nanocrystals to matching electronic states on the rare earth ions.

  11. Design Challenges of Power Systems for Instrumented Spacecraft with Very Low Perigees in the Earth's Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Vickie Eakin; Manzer, Dominic D.; Pfaff, Robert E.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Gervin, Jan C.

    1999-01-01

    Designing a solar array to power a spacecraft bus supporting a set of instruments making in situ plasma and neutral atmosphere measurements in the ionosphere at altitudes of 120km or lower poses several challenges. The driving scientific requirements are the field-of-view constraints of the instruments resulting in a three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the need for an electromagnetically unperturbed environment accomplished by designing an electrostatically conducting solar array surface to avoid large potentials, making the spacecraft body as small and as symmetric as possible, and body-mounting the solar array. Furthermore, the life and thermal constraints, in the midst of the effects of the dense atmosphere at low altitude, drive the cross-sectional area of the spacecraft to be small particularly normal to the ram direction. Widely varying sun angles and eclipse durations add further complications, as does the growing desire for multiple spacecraft to resolve spatial and temporal variations packaged into a single launch vehicle. Novel approaches to insure adequate orbit-averaged power levels of approximately 250W include an oval-shaped cross section to increase the solar array collecting area during noon-midnight orbits and the use of a flywheel energy storage system. The flywheel could also be used to help maintain the spacecraft's attitude, particularly during excursions to the lowest perigee altitudes. This paper discusses the approaches used in conceptual power designs for both the proposed Dipper and the Global Electrodynamics Connections (GEC) Mission currently being studied at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  12. On the hot-electron energy distribution in the electroluminescence of rare-earth-doped zinc chalcogenides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Bryant; W. E. Hagston; A. Krier

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that the very large variation in the electroluminescence emission intensities from a given type of rare-earth ion indicates a hot-electron energy distribution in which the probability of finding an electron of energy E has an exponential dependence on E. Means of ascertaining the precise nature of this energy dependence are briefly described.

  13. 16 Colorado School of Mines Energy and the earth 17 The cluster is currently being assembled in the Center for

    E-print Network

    16 Colorado School of Mines Energy and the earth 17 The cluster is currently being assembled in the Center for Technology and Learning Media building on the Mines campus. Provided by Dell Inc., the cluster sources of energy," says Lusk. In order to achieve a balanced energy portfolio, GECO has four priority

  14. Design and Implementation of Components in the Earth System Modeling Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Collins; Gerhard Theurich; Cecelia Deluca; Max Suarez; Atanas Trayanov; V. Balaji; Peggy Li; Weiyu Yang; Chris Hill; Arlindo Da Silva

    2005-01-01

    The Earth System Modeling Framework is a component-based architecture for developing and assembling climate and related models. A virtual machine underlies the component-level constructs in ESMF, providing both a foundation for performance portability and mechanisms for resource allocation and component sequencing.

  15. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  16. Orion CEV Earth Landing Impact Attenuating Airbags - Design Challenges And Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Smith; J. S. Ware; C. E. Willey; C. R. Sandy; J. Welch; D. Wilson

    2007-01-01

    Airbags are currently being evaluated by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a candidate impact attenuation system technology for earth landing of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The purpose of the system is to limit landing loads and provide stability, to protect the crew and to allow vehicle reuse. Other candidate technologies include retro-rockets, crushables, and hybrid approaches. In

  17. Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the Earth and Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B

    2005-01-01

    The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source--the Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (> or = 100 keV) and proton (> or = 1 MeV) populations--the dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4th largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are -0.1 krad(Si) d(-1) at the geosynchronous orbit and -30 krad(Si) d((-1) at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield--a factor of -300 between the two planets. PMID:16604595

  18. Low-energy description of the metal-insulator transition in the rare-earth nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Alaska; Peil, Oleg E.; Georges, Antoine

    2015-02-01

    We propose a simple theoretical description of the metal-insulator transition of rare-earth nickelates. The theory involves only two orbitals per nickel site, corresponding to the low-energy antibonding eg states. In the monoclinic insulating state, bond-length disproportionation splits the manifold of eg bands, corresponding to a modulation of the effective on-site energy. We show that, when subject to a local Coulomb repulsion U and Hund's coupling J , the resulting bond-disproportionated state is a paramagnetic insulator for a wide range of interaction parameters. Furthermore, we find that when U -3 J is small or negative, a spontaneous instability to bond disproportionation takes place for large enough J . This minimal theory emphasizes that a small or negative charge-transfer energy, a large Hund's coupling, and a strong coupling to bond disproportionation are the key factors underlying the transition. Experimental consequences of this theoretical picture are discussed.

  19. Conduction of thermal energy in the neighborhood of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohlfeld, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The Rankine-Hugoniot equations for MHD shocks are generalized by the addition of a term to the energy conservation equation representing a nonzero heat flow in the plasma in the neighborhood of the shock. This generalization is found to be compatible with the assumption of infinite electrical conductivity. The effects of plasma waves in this treatment are of the order of the reciprocal Alfvenic Mach number squared and hence are neglected. The effect of alpha particles in the solar wind is discussed. Seven crossings of the earth's bow shock by Explorer 35 in lunar orbit are analyzed. Sufficient data are available so that the determination of a dimensionless parameter, psi, characterizing the heat-flow difference across the bow shock is possible. The values of psi indicate energy-flux densities due to heat flow which are a nonnegligible fraction of the total energy flux. Two possible interpretations of psi are discussed.

  20. Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A. Supporting analyses and tradeoffs, book 2. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Attitude reference systems for use with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are described. The systems considered are fixed and gimbaled star trackers, star mappers, and digital sun sensors. Covariance analyses were performed to determine performance for the most promising candidate in low altitude and synchronous orbits. The performance of attitude estimators that employ gyroscopes which are periodically updated by a star sensor is established by a single axis covariance analysis. The other systems considered are: (1) the propulsion system design, (2) electric power and electrical integration, (3) thermal control, (4) ground data processing, and (5) the test plan and cost reduction aspects of observatory integration and test.

  1. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix C: EOS program requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system specifications is presented. The analysis consists of requirements obtained from existing documentation and those derived from functional analysis. The requirements follow the hierarchy of program, mission, system, and subsystem. The code for designating specific requirements is explained. Among the subjects considered are the following: (1) the traffic model, (2) space shuttle related performance, (3) booster related performance, (4) the data collection system, (5) spacecraft structural tests, and (6) the ground support requirements.

  2. Design for Process Integration and Efficient Energy Utilization 

    E-print Network

    James, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Today's energy availability and pricing structure has focused attention upon those design techniques which result in an improvement in the level of energy utilisation. Energy integration is one such technique, where this refers to the matching...

  3. New retaining wall design criteria based on lateral earth pressure measurements

    E-print Network

    Wright, William Vincent

    1975-01-01

    on full scale retaining walls. The first year ( 3 ) was devoted to selecting earth pressure cells which would provide both accuracy and long term reliability. Nine cell types were considered. Four types were field tested. Two types, Terra Tec... and Geonor, were selected for installa- tion in the cantilever test wall during the second year ( 4 ) of the study. Terra Tec cells were selected for installation in the precast panel wall during the third year ( 7 ) of the study. The instrumenta- tion...

  4. Maximal Energy of Solar Accelerators: evidence from space born and Earth's surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Bostanjyan, N.; Rostomyan, H.

    2013-05-01

    On January 20, 2005, 7:02-7:04 UT the Aragats Multidirectional Muon Monitor (AMMM) located at 3200 m registered enhancement of the high energy secondary muon flux (threshold ~5 GeV). The enhancement, lasting 3 min has statistical significance of ~4? and was related to the X7.1 flare seen by the GOES, and very fast (>2500 km/s) CME seen by SOHO. Worldwide network of neutron monitors detects Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) #69 arriving very fast after flare; recovered energies of solar protons demonstrate rather hard spectra prolonged up to 10 GeV. The solar proton spectrum incident on the Earth's atmosphere was simulated and transport till AMMM detector located under 14 m of soil and concrete. The most probable minimal solar proton energy corresponding to the measured 5 GeV muon flux is within 20-25 GeV. On March 7, 2012 Large aperture telescope of Fermi gamma-ray observatory detected the ever highest energy gamma rays from the Sun with energy about 4 GeV. The minimal energy of the solar protons accelerated during the flare and producing 4 GeV gamma rays should be ~25 GeV. Thus, both measurements with secondary means and gamma rays prove the maximal energy of solar accelerators not smaller than 25 GeV.

  5. Climate-induced tree mortality: earth system consequences for carbon, energy, and water exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, H. D.; Macalady, A.; Breshears, D. D.; Allen, C. D.; Luce, C.; Royer, P. D.; Huxman, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere that could present hazards to current earth system function. Terrestrial ecosystems, and in particular forests, exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets. Widespread, rapid, drought- and infestation-triggered tree mortality is now emerging as a phenomenon affecting forests globally and may be linked to increasing temperatures and drought frequency and severity. We demonstrate the link between climate-sensitive tree mortality and risks of altered earth system function though carbon, water, and energy exchange. Tree mortality causes a loss of carbon stocks from an ecosystem and a reduction sequestration capacity. Recent research has shown that the 2000s pinyon pine die-off in the southwest US caused the loss of 4.6 Tg of aboveground carbon stocks from the region in 5 years, far exceeding carbon loss from other disturbances. Widespread tree mortality in British Columbia resulted in the loss of 270 Tg of carbon, shifting affected forestland from a carbon sink to a source, and influenced Canadian forest policy on carbon stocks. Tree mortality, as an immediate loss of live tree cover, directly alters albedo, near-ground solar radiation, and the relative contributions of evaporation and transpiration to total evapotranspiration. Near-ground solar radiation, an important ecosystem trait affecting soil heating and water availability, increased regionally following the pinyon pine die-off. Conversely, forest canopy loss with tree mortality, is expected to increase regional albedo, especially for forests which experience winter snow cover, potentially offsetting the climate forcing of terrestrial carbon releases to the atmosphere. Initial hydrological response to die-off is likely a reduction in evapotranspiration, which can increase subsurface flow, runoff, groundwater recharge, and streamflow. Under some circumstances there may also be increased flood risks. We hypothesized thresholds of mean annual precipitation and canopy cover reduction identified from the forest harvesting literature as minima that must be exceeded for die-off to noticeably affect hydrologic processes. We note exceptions to these thresholds when snowmelt dominates the watershed hydrology and when mortality affects a single species with a unique hydrologic role. Management options for mitigating die-off effects on ecosystem and earth system processes and implementing post-die-off restoration will likely be limited and costly, requiring ecological and societal adaptation in many areas. As such, climate-induced tree mortality poses a significant risk to the current earth system function through altered exchanges of carbon, energy, and water between the land surface and atmosphere.

  6. Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Tim

    2010-05-01

    In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews, J., Kneale, P., Sougnez, Y., Stewart, M., and Stott, T. A. (2003). Carrying out Pedagogic research into the Constructive Alignment of Fieldwork. Planet Special Edition 5: Linking Teaching and Research and undertaking Pedagogic Research in Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 51-52. Carmichael, P. (2008) ‘The Semantic Web and ‘Web 3.0' in: Selwyn, N. (ed.) Education 2.0? Designing the web for teaching and learning. London: ESRC Teaching and Learning Research Programme. Fletcher, S., France, D., Moore, K. and Robinson, G. (2002). Fieldwork education and technology: A GEES perspective, Planet 4, 17-19. Fletcher, S., France, D., Moore, K. and Robinson, G. (2007). Putting technology into fieldwork education: A pedagogic evaluation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 31, 2, 319 - 330 Maskall, J., Stokes, A., Truscott, J. B., Bridge, A., Magnier, K. and Calderbank, V. (2007) Supporting fieldwork using information technology, Planet 18, 18-21. Stott, TA., Nuttall, AM. and McCloskey, J. (2009a) Design, Development and Student Evaluation of a Virtual Alps Field Guide www.virtualalps.co.uk. Planet 22, 64-71. Publication of the Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Learning & Teaching Support Network www.gees.ac.uk/planet/. Stott, TA, Clark, H., Milson, C., McCloskey, J. and Crompton, K. (2009b) The Ingleton Waterfalls Virtual Field Trip: Design, Development and Preliminary Evaluation, Teaching Earth Sciences 34 (1), 13-19, Magazine of the Earth Science Teachers Association.

  7. On-orbit solar calibrations using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

    2010-09-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx. Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. However, in their first year of operation the Terra and Aqua MAMs showed shifts in their calibrations larger than expected. Shifts of this nature have been seen in other Solar viewing instruments in the past. A possible explanation has attributed the changes to pre-orbit or on-orbit contamination combined with solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen induced chemical changes to the contaminant during solar exposure. In the subsequent year of operation all instruments begin to stabilize within the .5 percent precision range. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the nine years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than an elevation scan will be discussed. The implementation of a thermal correction to the shortwave channel will also be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra CERES instruments and the Aqua instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

  8. AEDOT technology. [Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT)

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, D.L.

    1993-03-01

    Most commercial buildings designed today will use more energy and cost more to operate and maintain than necessary. If energy performance were considered early in building design, 30% to 60% of the energy now used in new commercial buildings could be saved cost-effectively. However, most building design teams do not adequately consider the energy impacts of design decisions to achieve these savings; the tools for doing so simply do not yet exist. Computer technology can help design teams consider energy performance as an integral part of the design process. This technology could enable designers to produce much more energy-efficient buildings without increasing the costs of building design. Recognizing this, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The aim of the project is to develop advanced computer-based technologies that will help designers take advantage of these potentially large energy savings. The success of the AEDOT project depends largely on the ability to develop energy design-support tools that can be integrated into comprehensive building design environments so that all parts of the design process willbe supported. Energy, just one consideration among many in building design, must be considered in a context that includes visual, acoustic, and structural aspects; accessibility; thermal comfort; indoor air quality; cost; and other factors associated with the quality, acceptability, and performance of a building. Advanced computer-aided design support environments will need to integrate tools from many different domains and provide access to the vast amounts of data that designers need to apply these tools and to make informed decisions.

  9. Waste-to-Energy Facilities in Taiwan by Shang-Hsiu Lee, WTERT/Earth Engineering Center

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    of Taiwan6 Composition wt (%) Water wt (%) Dry Weight Heating Value (Kcal/kg) Food Wastes 45 85 6.8 11001 Waste-to-Energy Facilities in Taiwan by Shang-Hsiu Lee, WTERT/Earth Engineering Center National Plan for Waste-to-Energy (WTE) facilities The total area of Taiwan is nearly 14000 sq. mi (36,000 sq

  10. Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

    Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are a promising class of emerging devices that offer zero off-state leakage and behave like an ideal switch. Recent advances in planar fabrication technology have demonstrated that microelectromechanical (MEMS) scale miniature relays could be manufactured reliably and could be used to build fully functional, complex integrated circuits. The zero leakage operation of relays has renewed the interest in relay based low power logic design. This dissertation explores circuit architectures using NEM relays and NEMS-CMOS heterogeneous integration. Novel circuit topologies for sequential logic, memory, and power management circuits have been proposed taking into consideration the NEM relay device properties and optimizing for energy efficiency and area. In nanoscale electromechanical devices, dispersion forces like Van der Waals' force (vdW) affect the pull-in stability of the relay devices significantly. Verilog-A electromechanical model of the suspended gate relay operating at 1V with a nominal air gap of 5 - 10nm has been developed taking into account all the electrical, mechanical and dispersion effects. This dissertation explores different relay based latch and flip-flop topologies. It has been shown that as few as 4 relay cells could be used to build flip-flops. An integrated voltage doubler based flip flop that improves the performance by 2X by overdriving Vgb has been proposed. Three NEM relay based parallel readout memory bitcell architectures have been proposed that have faster access time, and remove the reliability issues associated with previously reported serial readout architectures. A paradigm shift in design of power switches using NEM relays is proposed. An interesting property of the relay device is that the ON state resistance (Ron) of the NEM relay switch is constant and is insensitive to the gate slew rate. This coupled with infinite OFF state resistance (Roff ) offers significant area and power advantages over CMOS. This dissertation demonstrates NEM relay based charge pump and NEM-CMOS heterogeneous discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) buck regulator and the results are compared against a standard commercial 0.35?m CMOS implementation. It is shown that NEM-CMOS heterogeneous DC-DC converter has an area savings of 60% over CMOS and achieves an overall higher efficiency over CMOS, with a peak efficiency of 94.3% at 100mA. NEM relays offers unprecedented 10X-30X energy efficiency improvement in logic design for low frequency operation and has the potential to break the CMOS efficiency barrier in power electronic circuits as well. The practical aspects of NEM Relay integration are evaluated and algorithms for synthesis and development of large NEM relay based logic circuits are explored.

  11. Experimental study of earth batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Khan; Z. Saleem; N. Abas

    2008-01-01

    We report successful design, construction and operation of an earth battery as an alternate energy source for low power electric supply applications. Different combinations of metallic and non-metallic solid, liquid and gas electrodes were investigated for maximum potential difference. In view of robust and cost effective use of this natural power technology by unskilled village consumers most suitable combinations of

  12. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 2: Earth to Mars ballistic mission opportunities, 1990-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.; Cunniff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Mars are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Mars arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1990 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Mars probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  13. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 1: Earth to Venus ballistic mission opportunities, 1991-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Yin, N. H.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Venus is presented. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and arrival parameters, are presented in launch data/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1991 through 2005. An extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Venus probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  14. Energy-saving Based Innovative Product Design Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Li; Hong-chao Zhang; D. Tate

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a research on the development of an innovative product design method with an aim to consider the energy-saving issue throughout the entire product life cycle. The research is based on a comprehensive analysis of regular product design procedures to extract the design information that correlates with energy consumption, itemize and quantify the information, and eventually build up

  15. Energy-Efficient Design for Florida Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral.

    This manual provides a detailed simulation analysis of a variety of energy conservation measures (ECMs) with the intent of giving educational facility design teams in Florida a basis for decision making. The manual's three sections cover energy efficiency design considerations that appear throughout the following design processes: schematic…

  16. Community Design for Optimal Energy and Resource Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilenky, Stephen; And Others

    Presented is a study which investigated the energy and resource dynamics of a semi-autonomous domestic system for 30 people. The investigation is organized on three levels: (1) developing a preliminary design and design parameters; (2) development and quantification of the energy and resource dynamics; and (3) designing a model to extrapolate…

  17. Towards an Earth System Knowledge Environment Designed to Promote More Usable Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killeen, T. L.

    2006-12-01

    It is abundantly clear that fundamental decisions about how to manage future human society will need to be informed by quantitative scientific analyses of processes, options, impacts, and responses. In fact, one could argue that the human experience into the foreseeable future will increasingly be tied to the integrating of information, understanding, and experiences to create knowledge and with it solutions to emerging problems as well as opportunities for further progress. This is particularly true for the Geosciences. Our scientific field, and by extension our Union, has a special responsibility for informing policy makers and the public about how the earth system functions and about the relationship between environmental stressors and human activities. In this regard, a greatly improved working interface between natural and social scientists is needed. In this talk, I argue that something like an "Earth System Knowledge Environment" or "Earth System Collaboratory" should be developed using modern information technologies to encapsulate and make accessible existing and emerging interdisciplinary knowledge of particular use to decision makers. Such a "work place" should be open to all and could provide access to observations, models and theories in ways that more easily allow for credible scientific understanding to be translated into policy options at all levels. Examples of fledgling efforts along these lines will be cited in areas such as severe weather impacts and climate change. The challenges involved in creating more usable scientific knowledge are, of course, quite significant and include major issues such as: institutional impediments to interdisciplinary research, the role of proprietary interests, the difficulties involved in working across the natural/social science boundary, and the challenge of developing the kind of human capital needed to effectively close the gap between good science and public policy.

  18. Improvements in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Products Based on Instrument Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. M.; Priestley, K.; Loeb, N. G.; Thomas, S.; Shankar, M.; Walikainen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) mission is instrumental in providing highly accurate radiance measurements that are critical for monitoring the Earth's radiation budget. Two identical CERES instruments are deployed aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites Terra and Aqua. Each CERES instrument consists of scanning thermistor bolometer sensors that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5 micron), total (0.3 to < 100 micron) and water vapor window (8 to 12 micron) regions. CERES instruments have the capability of scanning in either the cross-track or rotating azimuth plane (RAP) scan mode. Cross-track scanning, the primary mode of CERES operation, allows for the geographical mapping of the radiation fields while RAP scanning enables the acquisition of data over a more extensive combination of viewing configurations, needed for developing vastly improved angular distribution models used in radiance to flux conversion. To evaluate, achieve and maintain radiometric stability, a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol is implemented. Calibrations and validation studies have indicated spectral changes in the reflected solar spectral regions of the shortwave and total sensors. Spectral darkening is detected in the shortwave channel optics, which is more prominent while the instrument operates in RAP mode. In the absence of a climatological explanation for this darkening, this likely occurs during part of the RAP scan cycle when the scan plane is aligned with the direction of motion, making the optics more susceptible to increased UV exposure and molecular contamination. Additionally, systematic daytime-nighttime longwave top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux inconsistency was also detected during validation, which highlights the changes in the shortwave region of the total sensor. This paper briefly describes the strategy to correct for the sensor response changes and presents the improvements in CERES Edition 4 data products, which incorporates these sensor response changes in the computation of radiances.

  19. Free Energy: Alternative Designs for Awareness and Choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margot Jacobs; Ulrika Löfgren; Ramia Mazé

    Energy is an invisible and increasingly valuable resource. However in the design of everyday environments and things, electricity and energy use is not often made explicit - wiring, electrical meters, outlets and batteries are hidden away in boxes, inside walls and in distant basements. We have been investigating design as both a means of enquiry into perceptions of energy and

  20. The BS degree in Earth and Space Exploration, Concentration in Exploration Systems Design requires the following core courses

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    the following core courses: SES 100 Introduction to Exploration (3) SES 101 Earth, Solar System, and Universe I (3) SES 102 Earth, Solar System, and Universe II (3) SES 103 Earth, Solar System, and Universe Laboratory I (1) SES 104 Earth, Solar System, and Universe Laboratory II (1) SES 210 Engineering Systems (3

  1. Optimal design of micro flywheel energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Yoo; H. C. Lee; M. D. Noh

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a micro flywheel energy storage system in which the flywheel stores electrical energy in terms of kinetic energy and converts this kinetic energy into electrical energy when necessary. The flywheel is supported by two radial permanent magnet passive bearings. Permanent magnet passive bearings use the repulsive forces between two sets of permanent magnets so that contact free

  2. Design Drivers of Energy-Efficient Transport Aircraft

    E-print Network

    Drela, Mark

    The fuel energy consumption of subsonic air transportation is examined. The focus is on identification and quantification of fundamental engineering design tradeoffs which drive the design of subsonic tube and wing transport ...

  3. Design of Energy-Efficient Approximate Arithmetic Circuits 

    E-print Network

    Shao, Botang

    2014-07-29

    Energy consumption has become one of the most critical design challenges in integrated circuit design. Arithmetic computing circuits, in particular array-based arithmetic computing circuits such as adders, multipliers, ...

  4. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  5. Juno Earth Flyby as a Sensitive Detector of Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Jordan, J. F.; Campbell, J. K.; Ekelund, J. E.; Bordi, J. J.; Abrahamson, M.; Ardalan, S. M.; Thompson, P. F.

    2013-12-01

    The fact that unexplained energy changes occur in some Earth flybys, but not all, was reported in 2008 by Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102. The anomaly is detected by analyzing radio Doppler and ranging data used for space navigation. It is most significant for the closest flybys at altitudes of 539 km for the NEAR spacecraft, 960 km for the first Galileo flyby, and 1956 km for the first Rosetta flyby, with anomalous total changes in the hyperbolic excess velocity at infinity of 13.5 mm/s, 3.9 mm/s and 1.8 mm/s, respectively. There is also a correlation with the amount of asymmetry of the flyby trajectory with respect to the Earth's equator. As it turns out, the Juno flyby is well suited for another detection of this anomaly, with an altitude of about 500 km, and a declination of the incoming hyperbolic asymptote of 14.6 deg and an outgoing asymptote of 40.4 deg. Further, the control sequence for the spacecraft introduces no significant translational forces for an interval of plus and minus four days of perigee. Based on eight flybys analyzed previously, and an empirical formula given in the 2008 paper, the expected size of the Juno anomaly is about 7 mm/s. The standard error of the measurement is about 0.01 mm/s. We report first results of the data analysis.

  6. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 4: Earth to Saturn ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Saturn are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements as well as many other launch and Saturn arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Saturn probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations elating various parameters. This is the first of a planned series of mission design documents which will apply to all planets and some other bodies in the solar system.

  7. Energy efficient building design: Guidelines for local government

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balon

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop an effective, in-house energy review process for County building design, covering new buildings and major renovations of existing buildings. Montgomery County enacted regulations for energy efficient design of buildings in July 1986. In essence, the regulation sets energy consumption limits for buildings and calls for life-cycle-cost analysis of design choices. In the

  8. Toward an Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explore (EarthCARE) thermal flux determination: Evaluation using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) true along-track data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech, C.; Wehr, T.; Fischer, J.

    2011-03-01

    The Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission developed by the European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency addresses the need to improve the understanding of the interactions between cloud, aerosol, and radiation processes. The broadband radiometer (BBR) instrument on board the EarthCARE spacecraft provides measurements of broadband reflected solar and emitted thermal radiances at the top of atmosphere (TOA) over the along-track satellite path at three fixed viewing zenith angles. The multiangular information provided by the BBR, combined with the spectral information from the EarthCARE's multispectral imager (MSI) can be exploited to construct accurate thermal radiance-to-flux conversion algorithms on the basis of radiative transfer modeling. In this study, the methodology to derive longwave (LW) fluxes from BBR and MSI data is described, and the performance of the LW BBR angular models is compared with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Terra flux retrievals in order to evaluate the reliability of the BBR synthetic models when applied to satellite-based radiances. For this purpose, the BBR methodology proposed in this work is adapted to the CERES and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument specifications, and new LW angular models for CERES are developed. According to plane-parallel simulations, the BBR LW flux uncertainty caused by flux inversion could be reduced up to 0.4 W m-2. The intercomparison between CERES BBR-like adapted and CERES original angular models is performed over a BBR-like database of CERES true along track, and the averaged instantaneous retrievals agree to within 2 W m-2.

  9. The quiet-time low energy nucleon spectrum in the vicinity of earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Kohl, J. W.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of the low energy quiet-time interplanetary nucleon spectrum obtained by Explorer 47 are examined for March 9-12, 1973, the quietest period from Sept. 26, 1972 through Feb. 15, 1975. The quiet-time energy spectrum may be represented by a power law with an index of about -3.1. The H/He ratio below 2 MeV is about 10. The ratio of antisunward to sunward intensities is about 2.6, increasing to about 8.55 in a frame moving with the solar wind. The angular distributions show that in the 0.3-0.5 MeV range most of the proton intensity originates in the earth's magnetosphere. The spectral behavior and enhancement of proton counting rates during microbursts suggest that the magnetosphere is a significant source at energies up to 2 MeV. The observed intensities are lower than those reported by Simpson and Tuzzolino (1973) by factors of 3 to 10. It is suggested that the low energy upturn in the quiet-time interplanetary proton spectrum may be related to particle emissions from planetary magnetospheres, such as that of Jupiter.

  10. New retaining wall design criteria based on lateral earth pressure measurements 

    E-print Network

    Wright, William Vincent

    1975-01-01

    EMBANKMENT 2. 25 oOPO. , &P ~ o Q. (&, OP" (g '~ 'Q 0 I2 BP 53 PI L IN 6 2. 5 1. 5' SCALE IN FEET FIG. 2 ? C ROSS SECTION OF CANTILEVER WALL (I ft =0. 305 m) 15' 2' 30' 2' TERR TEC NO. 570 GEONOR NO. I 16. 60' I6 3' T. T. NO. T. T. NO. 578... HEIGHT OF BACKFILL BACKFILL COMPLETE X=0. 88 / K=O 91 TIME ( DAYS) a 4 uJ uJ Jr 2 CELL604 CELL 578 K=0. 60 ELL 580 KI0. 62 ELL 570 l2 APRIL 72 TIME (DAYS) K = Earth Pressure Coef =? d h Ir v FIG. 6 ? PRESSURE CELL CHANGES DURING...

  11. Linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W. Jr

    1990-01-01

    Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the Cosmos 1887 mission.

  12. Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the COSMOS 1887 mission.

  13. Constraints on Energy Dissipation in the Earth's Body Tide From Satellite Tracking and Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Eanes, Richard J.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    1992-01-01

    The phase lag by which the earth's body tide follows the tidal potential is estimated for the principal lunar semidiurnal tide M(sub 2). The estimate results from combining recent tidal solutions from satellite tracking data and from Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. Each data type is sensitive to the body-tide lag: gravitationally for the tracking data, geometrically for the altimetry. Allowance is made for the lunar atmospheric tide. For the tidal potential Love number kappa(sub 2) we obtain a lag epsilon of 0.20 deg +/- 0.05 deg, implying an effective body-tide Q of 280 and body-tide energy dissipation of 110 +/- 25 gigawatts.

  14. Spaceship Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-09-10

    In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

  15. Galileo: Earth avoidance study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    The 1989 Galileo mission to Jupiter is based on a VEEGA (Venus Earth Earth-Gravity Assist) trajectory which uses two flybys of Earth and one of Venus to achieve the necessary energy and shaping to reach Jupiter. These encounters are needed because the Centaur upper stage is not now being used on this mission. Since the Galileo spacecraft uses radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for electrical power, the question arises as to whether there is any chance of an inadvertent atmospheric entry of the spacecraft during either of the two Earth flybys. A study was performed which determined the necessary actions, in both spacecraft and trajectory design as well as in operations, to insure that the probability of such reentry is made very small, and to provide a quantitative assessment of the probability of reentry.

  16. Design and assessment of a geographic visualization tool to support earth science learning

    E-print Network

    Klippel, Alexander

    , geographic visualization, interactive cartography, cartographic design, legends, spatiotemporal analysis;2 ABSTRACT This paper reports on the development and assessment of an animated and interactive: temporal brushing and temporal focusing and (2) to determine whether an interactive geovisualization

  17. CubeSat design for LEO-based Earth science missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Waydo; Daniel Henry; Mark Campbell

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 University of Washington Space Design class designed and developed a CubeSat platform to accomplish science objectives related to ionospheric modeling. Small satellites (between 1 and 15 kg) show great promise as a low-cost option to perform limited LEO science missions. This paper describes a CubeSat bus that supports two mission architectures based on two instrument packages. Both architectures

  18. Design considerations for energy storage power electronics interfaces for high penetration of renewable energy sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junseok Song; Ruichen Zhao; Alexis Kwasinski

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses design considerations of power electronics interfaces between renewable energy sources and energy storage. When renewable energy sources—including photovoltaic modules, wind generators, and fuel cells—are used to generate power, there are certain electrical properties of each source that need to be considered for the design of energy storage power electronics interface. In addition, energy storage's charging and discharging

  19. Energy Transfer in Rare Earth Ion Clusters and Fluorescence from Rare Earth Doped LANTHANUM(1.85)STRONTIUM(0.15)COPPER -OXYGEN(4) Superconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissue, Brian Max

    1988-12-01

    Laser spectroscopy of rare earth ions in solids was used to study mechanisms of non-resonant energy transfer within rare earth clusters, and to detect insulating, impurity phases in rare earth doped La_{1.85 }Sr_{0.15}CuO _4 superconductors. The mechanisms of phonon-assisted, non-resonant energy transfer were studied in well-defined dimer sites in Er^{3+ }:SrF_2 and Pr ^{3+}:CaF_2. Application of a magnetic field to Er^{3+} :SrF_2 greatly increased the energy transfer rate. The magnetic field dependence in Er^{3+}:SrF _2 indicates that the mechanism of non-resonant energy transfer is a two-phonon, resonant process (Orbach process). Application of a magnetic field to Pr ^{3+}:CaF_2 had no effect on the energy transfer rate because no significant Zeeman splittings occurred. The temperature dependence of the energy transfer rate in Pr^{3+ }:CaF_2 showed the mechanism to be a one-phonon-assisted process at low temperatures and predominantly an Orbach process above 10 K. In the second part of this thesis, laser spectroscopy of a Eu ^{3+} probe ion is developed to detect impurity phases in La_{1.85 }Sr_{0.15}CuO _4 superconductors. Two impurity phases were found in polycrystalline La_ {1.85}Sr_{0.15} CuO_4: unreacted La _2O_3 starting material, and a La-silicate phase, which formed from contamination during sintering. The spectroscopic technique was found to be more than 100 times more sensitive than powder x -ray diffraction to detect minor impurity phases. In preparing the superconductors, several studies were made on the effect of Pr^{3+}, Eu ^{3+}, Bi^{3+ }, and fluorine dopants on the superconducting properties of La_{1.85}Sr _{0.15}CuO_4 and La_2Cuo_4 . Pr^{3+}, Eu ^{3+}, Bi^ {3+}, and F_2 doping all decreased the superconductivity in La_ {1.85}Sr^{0.15} CuO_4. Treating semi-conducting La_2CuO_4 in F_2 gas converted it to a superconductor with an onset T_{rm c} of 30-35 K.

  20. Earth’s Earliest Atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713

  1. Energies of backstreaming protons in the foreshock. [of cislunar solar wind region outside earth bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    At least some part of the cislunar solar wind region outside the earth's bow shock is continuously populated by particles and waves of shock or magnetospheric origin. The varying precursor region, or foreshock, is divided into several subregions, not all geometrically distinct, which are defined by differing particle species and wavemodes. A first-order examination is presented of the way in which the geometry of the foreshock wave boundary of Diodato et al. (1976) can be translated into a geometry of return proton energies. A predicted pattern of energy versus detector location in the cislunar region is displayed for proton guiding-centers traveling upstream away from the quasi-parallel bow shock. Only the simplest case of gyrationless particles is considered. Important contributors to the spread in energies to be expected of ions coming from each segment are discussed. The actual pattern of return particles will be somewhat different from the idealized one discussed, because foreshock boundary-protons will be neither unidirectional nor monoenergetic.

  2. A Methodology for Evaluating Technical Performance Parameter Design Margins to Control Earth and Space Science Instrument Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones-Selden, Felicia L.

    Costs of aerospace missions have increased over the last twenty years, placing the future of the space program in jeopardy. A potential source for such growth can be attributed to the complex multidisciplinary and challenging nature of earth and space science instrument development. Design margins are additional resources carried in technical performance parameters to mitigate uncertainties throughout the product lifecycle. Margins are traditionally derived and allocated based upon historical experience intrinsic to organizations, as opposed to quantitative methods, jeopardizing the development of low-cost space-based instruments. This dissertation utilizes a methodology to evaluate the interrelationships between pre-launch and actual launch margins for the key technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate to identify the extent to which excessive or insufficient margins are used in the design of space-based instruments in an effort to control instrument cost growth. The research examined 62 space-based instruments from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Federally Funded Research and Development Centers, and universities. Statistical analysis consisting of paired t-tests and multiple linear regression were utilized to determine the degree to which space-based instruments are over or under designed by the use of excessive or insufficient design margins and to determine the effect of design margins for the technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate on the percentage instrument cost growth from the preliminary design phase to launch. Findings confirm, that in the implementation of space-based instruments, design margins are allocated to technical performance parameters above suggested government/industry standards, impacting the development of low-cost space-based instruments. The findings provide senior leadership, systems engineers, project managers, and resource managers with the ability to determine where opportunities exist to make trade-offs to reduce risk and to make informed decisions regarding achieving technical and programmatic requirements. The research forges a paradigm towards statistical analysis as a means to change existing design margin principles in an effort to reduce uncertainties in the design of the space-based instruments, improve the probability of the instruments performing to requirements, and to control cost growth.

  3. Conceptual designs and computer models of imaging radiometers for earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Harry E.; Ressler, Gerald M.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical model is developed based on engineering principles which can be used to predict the performance of spaceborne electro-optical remote sensors. Computer simulations and trade-off studies can be performed with this model to determine optimal sensor performance and design parameters. Computer algorithms were developed from which LOTUS spreadsheet macros were written. Computer simulations were performed to determine the performance characteristics and design parameters for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Nadir (MODIS-N) currently under development at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  4. Beam-waveguide antenna servo design issues for tracking low earth-orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, W. K.; Mellstrom, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Upcoming NASA missions will require tracking of low-orbit satellites. As a consequence, NASA antennas will be required to track satellites at higher rates than for the current deep space missions. This article investigates servo design issues for the 34-m beam-waveguide antennas that track low-orbit satellites. This includes upgrading the servo with a feedforward loop, using a monopulse controller design, and reducing tracking errors through either proper choice of elevation pinion location, application of a notch filter, or adjustment of the elevation drive amplifier gain. Finally, improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio through averaging of the over-sampled monopulse signal is described.

  5. High energy-intensity atomic oxygen beam source for low earth orbit materials degradation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.B.; Blais, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    A high intensity (10/sup 19/O-atoms/s-sr) high energy (5 eV) source of oxygen atoms has been developed that produces a total fluence of 10/sup 22/ O-atoms/cm/sup 2/ in less than 100 hours of continuous operation at a distance of 15 cm from the source. The source employs a CW CO/sub 2/ laser sustained discharge to form a high temperature (15,000 K) plasma in the throat of a 0.3-mm diameter nozzle using 3--8 atmospheres of rare gas/O/sub 2/ mixtures. Visible and infrared photon flux levels of 1 watt/cm/sup 2/ have been measured 15 cm downstream of the source while vacuum UV (VUV) fluxes are comparable to that measured in low earth orbit. The reactions of atomic oxygen with kapton, Teflon, silver, and various coatings have been studied. The oxidation of kapton (reaction efficiency = 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/24/ cm /+-/ 50%) has an activation energy of 0.8 Kcal/mole over the temperature range of 25/degree/C to 100/degree/C at a beam energy of 1.5 eV and produces low molecular weight gas phase reaction products (H/sub 2/O, NO, CO/sub 2/). Teflon reacts with approx.0.1--0.2 efficiency to that of kapton at 25/degree/C and both surfaces show a rug-like texture after exposure to the O-atom beam. Angular scattering distribution measurements of O-atoms show a near cosine distribution from reactive surfaces indicating complete accommodation of the translational energy with the surface while a nonreactive surface (nickel oxide) shows specular-like scattering with 50% accommodation of the translational energy with the surface. A technique for simple on orbit chemical experiments using resistance measurements of coated silver strips is described. 9 figs.

  6. Use of excess solar array power by regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems in low Earth orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Hoberecht; Robert D. Green

    1997-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) are a competing energy storage system technology for a number of low-Earth-orbit space power applications. The system is comprised of an electrolyzer which utilizes solar array power to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen reactants. A fuel cell that recombines the reactants back into water and produces power during eclipse, and associated controls and reactant storage.

  7. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 3: Earth to Jupiter ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Jupiter are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Jupiter arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Jupiter probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  8. Masters Project Integrated Optical Microsystems Group (IOMS) Design and Optical Characterization of Rare Earth Doped On-chip Waveguide

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    of Rare Earth Doped On-chip Waveguide Laser Components Introduction Active micro and nano-photonic devices materials doped with rare earth elements, in particular Er:Al2O3, are potentially very useful

  9. Experimental design methods and flowsheet synthesis of energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tor-Martin Tveit

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a discussion of how to utilise well known methods from the field of experimental design in the flowsheet synthesis of energy systems. The work is based on an earlier work, where a methodology for improving large scale energy systems using a combination of simulation, experimental design and mathematical programming was presented. The methodology is suitable for synthesis

  10. Designing energy efficient commercial buildings—A systems framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Kanagaraj; Ashwin Mahalingam

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a means for improving the effectiveness of energy related decision-making during the design phase of a building. A review of the literature and discussions with experts revealed that several approaches for an Integrated Design Process for energy efficient buildings exist. However, most of these approaches are relatively abstract and philosophical in nature, and do not prescribe procedures

  11. Landscape Design and Nursery Operation for Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Richard C.; Glazener, Dennis

    Landforms, vegetation, water bodies, climate and solar radiation can be analyzed and used to design an energy-conserving landscape and horticulture operation. Accordingly, this course instructor's manual covers the use of the elements of the environment to make landscaping and nursery design and operation more energy-efficient. Five sections…

  12. The World's Largest Experiment Manipulating Solar Energy Input To Earth Resumed In 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    Small amounts of solar-ultraviolet-energy absorbing gases such as ozone, SO2, and NO2 play an unusually large role warming the atmosphere. A mere 3 to 8 ppmv ozone at elevations of 15 to 50 km and associated exothermic chemical reactions warm the atmosphere >50oC, forming the stratosphere. All three molecules have an asymmetric top shape that, unlike linear molecules of CO2, forms a permanent electromagnetic dipole enhancing interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Planck’s postulate (Energy = a constant times frequency) implies that solar ultraviolet energy strongly absorbed by SO2 is 43 times greater than infrared energy radiated by earth and strongly absorbed by CO2. Solar energy in the blue visible spectrum and ultraviolet causes electronic transitions and an absorption spectrum that is a continuum, absorbing far more energy per unit gas than spectral line absorption of infrared energy caused by rotational and vibrational transitions. Absorption of electromagnetic energy by atmospheric gases increases rapidly with increasing frequency, an observation not accounted for by the use of specific heat in atmospheric models to link energy flux with temperature. While SO2 in the stratosphere is oxidized to a sulfuric acid aerosol that reflects sunlight, cooling the earth, SO2 in the troposphere is oxidized much more slowly than commonly assumed. Well-documented concentrations of tens of ppbv SO2 emitted by humans burning fossil fuels, especially coal, in northern mid-latitudes are contemporaneous, with suitable time delays for warming the ocean, with increased global warming during the 20th century, greatest by nearly a factor of two in the northern hemisphere. A decrease by 18% of anthropogenic SO2 emissions between 1979 and 2000 aimed at reducing acid rain had the unintended effect of reducing the global mean rate of temperature increase to zero by 1998. By 2003, global SO2 emissions began to rise sharply due to the rapid increase in number of new coal-burning power plants in Asia. The 20th century rate of increase in tropospheric methane also approached zero by 1998 but began to increase in 2007 as explained by SO2 reducing the oxidizing capacity and thus the troposphere’s ability to remove methane. SO2 does not last long in the atmosphere, but a continual and increasing flux causes increased concentrations. SO2 from China is traceable across the Pacific Ocean even to eastern America, perhaps playing a major role in the unusually high air temperatures in 2010. Atmospheric circulation in the northern hemisphere moves SO2 towards the pole where it is the primary cause of Arctic Haze. In polar regions, solar radiation travels longer path lengths through the atmosphere during longer summer days than in equatorial regions, contributing to the well-documented excessive global warming in the Arctic. The resumed increase in SO2 emissions since 2003 provides the world’s largest geoengineering experiment and an excellent chance to measure, especially in China and India, the effects of SO2 and NO2 on global warming. Technology exists to reduce SO2 emissions economically. The time has come to control this large geoengineering experiment in the hopes that we can minimize continued global warming.

  13. Developing an energy design tool: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Heidell, J.A.; Deringer, J.D.

    1987-02-01

    This report documents the planning phase of a proposed four-phase project for creating computer software to provide energy expertise in a manageable form to architects and engineers - thereby decreasing energy use in new buildings. The government sponsored software would be integrated with commercially developed software for use in the design of buildings. The result would be an integrated software package to aid the designer in the building design process and to provide expert insight into the energy related implications of a proposed design.

  14. Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Revised Eros Orbit Phase Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, J; Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. G.; Carranza, E.; Williams, B. G.; Dunham, D. W.; Farquhar, R. W.; McAdams, J. V.

    1999-01-01

    Trajectory design of the orbit phase of the NEAR mission involves a new process that departs significantly from those procedures used in previous missions. In most cases, a precise spacecraft ephemeris is designed well in advance of arrival at the target body. For NEAR, the uncertainty in the dynamic environment around Eros does not allow the luxury of a precise spacecraft trajectory to be defined in advance. The principal cause of this uncertainty is the limited knowledge oi' the gravity field a,-id rotational state of Eros. As a result, the concept for the NEAR trajectory design is to define a number of rules for satisfying spacecraft, mission, and science constraints, and then apply these rules to various assumptions for the model of Eros. Nominal, high, and low Eros mass models are used for testing the trajectory design strategy and to bracket the ranges of parameter variations that are expected upon arrival at the asteroid. The final design is completed after arrival at Eros and determination of the actual gravity field and rotational state. As a result of the unplanned termination of the deep space rendezvous maneuver on December 20, 1998, the NEAR spacecraft passed within 3830 km of Eros on December 23, 1998. This flyby provided a brief glimpse of Eros, and allowed for a more accurate model of the rotational parameters and gravity field uncertainty. Furthermore, after the termination of the deep space rendezvous burn, contact with the spacecraft was lost and the NEAR spacecraft lost attitude control. During the subsequent gyrations of the spacecraft, hydrazine thruster firings were used to regain attitude control. This unplanned thruster activity used Much of the fuel margin allocated for the orbit phase. Consequently, minimizing fuel consumption is now even more important.

  15. Earth to space dc to dc power transmission system utilizing a microwave beam as source of energy for electric propelled interorbital vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The paper contributes to the credibility of an electric propelled interorbital transportation system by introducing a new low-mass source of continuous dc power for electric propulsion and illustrating how the source can be economically tied to an electric utility on earth by an electronically steered microwave beam. The new thin-film rectenna, which functions as the receiving end of an earth-to-space microwave power transmission system is described. It is easily fabricated, is over 80 percent efficient, has a specific mass of no more than 2 kilograms per kilowatt of continuous dc power output, and is well adapted for deployment in space. The paper then describes a complete system consisting of the interorbital vehicle and the microwave power transmission system that supplies it with power. A design scenario is used to obtain performance data from the system in terms of vehicle transfer times, payload fractions, and costs. Electric energy costs are found to be less than $1000 per kilogram of payload delivered to geosynchronous orbit from low-earth orbit.

  16. Design, microstructure, and high-temperature behavior of silicon nitride sintered with rate-earth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ciniculk, M.K. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

    1991-08-01

    The processing-microstructure-property relations of silicon nitride ceramics sintered with rare-earth oxide additives have been investigated with the aim of improving their high-temperature behavior. The additions of the oxides of Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, or Yb were compositionally controlled to tailor the intergranular phase. The resulting microstructure consisted of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and a crystalline secondary phase of RE{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with a thin residual amorphous phase present at grain boundaries. The lanthanide oxides were found to be as effective as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in densifying Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, resulting in identical microstructures. The crystallization behavior of all six disilicates was similar, characterized by a limited nucleation and rapid growth mechanism resulting in large single crystals. Complete crystallization of the intergranular phase was obtained with the exception of a residual amorphous, observed at interfaces and believed to be rich in impurities, the cause of incomplete devitrification. The low resistance to oxidation of these materials was attributed to the minimization of amorphous phases via devitrification to disilicates, compatible with SiO{sub 2}, the oxidation product of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The strength retention of these materials at 1300{degrees}C was found to be between 80% and 91% of room-temperature strength, due to crystallization of the secondary phase and a residual but refractory amorphous grain-boundary phase. The creep behavior was found to be strongly dependent on residual amorphous phase viscosity as well as on the oxidation behavior, as evidenced by the nonsteady-state creep rates of all materials. 122 refs., 51 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Home Sweet Earth. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Meaney Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Marie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The emphasis of the 10 lessons in this unit is on energy, the earth's resources, and the use of earth resources, by man and other living things. The materials are designed for use at grade 1, but could be used in higher grades. Each lesson…

  18. Inertial Confinement Fusion, High Energy Density Plasmas and an Energy Source on Earth

    E-print Network

    be tested at the National Ignition Facility(NIF) · NIF is scheduled for completion by 2009 ­ Physics (DPSSL or KrF) Heavy Ions Z-pinch Needs to produce low cost targets rapidly Extract energy from target explosions and breed tritium Driver To heat and compress target to fusion conditions #12;Tabak Snowmass

  19. Destination Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA has a number of sites devoted to disseminating material about its various scientific expeditions and discoveries, and the Destination Earth is one of the clearinghouse-style sites that will be of great interest to the general public. From the site's homepage, visitors can choose overviews of the different epochs of NASA discovery (ranging from 1958 to 1997) or by looking through the "Today in Earth Science" section, which contains important news updates on various topics related to the earth sciences such as the discovery of new fault lines. In the "Vision For the Future" area, users can learn about upcoming NASA expeditions and also about the potential benefits of such missions. Of course, no such website would be complete without a section for young people, and the "For Kids Only", provides access to a number of educational resources designed to help them learn about the solar system and the universe.

  20. Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research Strategic Data Roadmap for Earth System Science

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Palanisamy, Giri [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boden, Thomas A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Voyles, Jimmy W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-04-25

    Rapid advances in experimental, sensor, and computational technologies and techniques are driving exponential growth in the volume, acquisition rate, variety, and complexity of scientific data. This wealth of scientifically meaningful data has tremendous potential to lead to scientific discovery. However, to achieve scientific breakthroughs, these data must be exploitable—they must be analyzed effectively and efficiently and the results shared and communicated easily within the wider Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) community. The explosion in data complexity and scale makes these tasks exceedingly difficult to achieve, particularly given that an increasing number of disciplines are working across techniques, integrating simulation and experimental or observational results (see Table 5 in Appendix 2). Consequently, we need new approaches to data management, analysis, and visualization that provide research teams with easy-to-use and scalable end-to-end solutions. These solutions must facilitate (and where feasible, automate and capture) every stage in the data lifecycle (shown in Figure 1), from collection to management, annotation, sharing, discovery, analysis, and visualization. In addition, the core functionalities are the same across climate science communities, but they require customization to adapt to specific needs and fit into research and analysis workflows. To this end, the mission of CESD’s Data and Informatics Program is to integrate all existing and future distributed CESD data holdings into a seamless and unified environment for the acceleration of Earth system science.

  1. Design of a 12-GHz multicarrier earth-terminal for satellite-CATV interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, B. A.; Singh, J. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1971-01-01

    The design and development of the front-end for a multi-carrier system that allows multiplex signal transmission from satellite-borne transponders is described. Detailed systems analyses provided down-converter specifications. The 12 GHz carrier down-converter uses waveguide, coaxial, and microstrip transmission line elements in its implementation. Mixing is accomplished in a single-ended coaxial mixer employing a field-replacable cartridge style diode.

  2. Material Characterization and Design Recommendations for Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Walls 

    E-print Network

    Dantal, Vishal

    2013-12-04

    Failure Modes AASHTO (2002) .................... 5 Table 2. Material Parameters Used by TxDOT Yoon (2011). ........................................... 8 Table 3. Unit Weights for Select Backfill TxDOT (2012... (Adams et al. 2011). 2 This research encompasses different aspects of MSE wall components required in selection of materials and assumption of design parameters. In the following section- 2, it includes a literature review on materials used by Tx...

  3. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

  4. The Next Generation Energy Management System Design

    E-print Network

    .E. Eugene E. Webb Professor Texas A&M University Department of Electrical Engineering College Station, TX. This section identifies the need for new EMS design with the following desirable features (a) integration

  5. Total energy calculations using DFT+DMFT: Computing the pressure phase diagram of the rare earth nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyowon; Millis, Andrew J.; Marianetti, Chris A.

    2014-06-01

    A full implementation of the ab initio density functional plus dynamical mean field theory (DFT+DMFT) formalism to perform total energy calculations and structural relaxations is proposed and implemented. The method is applied to the structural and metal-insulator transitions of the rare earth nickelate perovskites as a function of rare earth ion, pressure, and temperature. In contrast to previous DFT and DFT+U theories, the present method accounts for the experimentally observed structure of LaNiO3 and the insulating nature of the other perovskites, and quantitatively reproduces the metal-insulator and structural phase diagram in the plane of pressure and rare earth element. The temperature dependence of the energetics of the phase transformation indicates that the thermal transition is driven by phonon entropy effects.

  6. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; McWilliams, Brett; Koontz, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    The design estimate for the materials for the International Space Station (ISS) specified in SSP 30512 was a conservative estimate. The environment dose was over estimated. The materials originally qualified for approximately 10-15 years are anticipated to be acceptable for periods of up to 20-30 years based on SSP-30512 or 40-60 years based on 2x SSP-30512. This viewgraph presentation shows charts and graphs that review the altitude, the solar minimum and maximum, and the radiation exposure of other satellite, among other graphics.

  7. Initial Investigation of Reaction Control System Design on Spacecraft Handling Qualities for Earth Orbit Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Ragsdale, W. Al; Neuhaus, Jason; Barnes, Jim

    2008-01-01

    A program of research, development, test, and evaluation is planned for the development of Spacecraft Handling Qualities guidelines. In this first experiment, the effects of Reaction Control System design characteristics and rotational control laws were evaluated during simulated proximity operations and docking. Also, the influence of piloting demands resulting from varying closure rates was assessed. The pilot-in-the-loop simulation results showed that significantly different spacecraft handling qualities result from the design of the Reaction Control System. In particular, cross-coupling between translational and rotational motions significantly affected handling qualities as reflected by Cooper-Harper pilot ratings and pilot workload, as reflected by Task-Load Index ratings. This influence is masked but only slightly by the rotational control system mode. While rotational control augmentation using Rate Command Attitude Hold can reduce the workload (principally, physical workload) created by cross-coupling, the handling qualities are not significantly improved. The attitude and rate deadbands of the RCAH introduced significant mental workload and control compensation to evaluate when deadband firings would occur, assess their impact on docking performance, and apply control inputs to mitigate that impact.

  8. Space shuttle seal material and design development for earth storable propellant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results of a program to investigate and characterize seal materials suitable for space shuttle storable propellant systems are given. Two new elastomeric materials were identified as being potentially superior to existing state-of-the art materials for specific sealing applications. These materials were AF-E-124D and AF-E-411. AF-E-124D is a cured perfluorinated polymer suitable for use with dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizer, and hydrazine base fuels. AF-E-411 is an ethylene propylene terpolymer material for hydrazine base fuel service. Data are presented relative to low and high temperature characteristics as well as propellant exposure effects. Types of data included are: mechanical properties, stress strain curves, friction and wear characteristics, compression set and permeability. Sealing tests with a flat poppet-seal valve were conducted for verification of sealing capability. A bibliography includes over 200 references relating to seal design or materials and presents a concise tabulation of the more useful seal design data sources.

  9. Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, John A.; White, Neil J.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Domingues, Catia M.; Cogley, J. Graham; Rignot, Eric; Gregory, Jonathan M.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Velicogna, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    We review the sea-level and energy budgets together from 1961, using recent and updated estimates of all terms. From 1972 to 2008, the observed sea-level rise (1.8 0.2 mm yr-1 from tide gauges alone and 2.1 0.2 mm yr -1 from a combination of tide gauges and altimeter observations) agrees well with the sum of contributions (1.8 0.4 mm yr-1) in magnitude and with both having similar increases in the rate of rise during the period. The largest contributions come from ocean thermal expansion (0.8 mm yr-1) and the melting of glaciers and ice caps (0.7 mm yr -1), with Greenland and Antarctica contributing about 0.4 mm yr -1. The cryospheric contributions increase through the period (particularly in the 1990s) but the thermosteric contribution increases less rapidly. We include an improved estimate of aquifer depletion (0.3 mm yr -1), partially offsetting the retention of water in dams and giving a total terrestrial storage contribution of-0.1 mm yr-1. Ocean warming (90% of the total of the Earth's energy increase) continues through to the end of the record, in agreement with continued greenhouse gas forcing. The aerosol forcing, inferred as a residual in the atmospheric energy balance, is estimated as-0.8 0.4 W m-2 for the 1980s and early 1990s. It increases in the late 1990s, as is required for consistency with little surface warming over the last decade. This increase is likely at least partially related to substantial increases in aerosol emissions from developing nations and moderate volcanic activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Earth Observations of the Water and Energy Cycle and the GEWEX Regional Hydroclimate Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, S.; van Oevelen, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    In order to predict and manage changes in our environment it is necessary to make accurate observations of the energy and water cycle at various scales. Changes will have direct impacts on our natural and social environment e.g. for our water resources. Within GEWEX, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the global energy and water cycle is a main focus of attention. Changes at the global scale will have consequences at the regional scale and vice versa. To better discern the various processes over the entire range of spatial and temporal scales the Regional Hydroclimate Projects (RHP's) are established as the part of the GEWEX Hydroclimatology Panel that links the regional observations and process understanding to the global scale. This is done through exchange of observations, data, modeling, transferability studies etc. In this presentation an overview is given of the various RHP's, the reasons for their establishment and how they are likely to evolve in the future. Each of the RHP's is a collection of individual researchers, research institutes, academia and national agencies which have a common goal related to our environment and in which association with GEWEX helps to reach that goal. In the next few years the emphasis will be placed on stronger collaboration between the various RHP's as well as the intercomparison and evaluation of the GEWEX global datasets with the regional data sets. Crucial to success in this endeavor is the linkage between in-situ observations, modeling data and earth observational data.

  11. Integrating Energy-saving Concept into General Product Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Li; Hong-chao Zhang; J. Carrell; D. Tate

    2007-01-01

    Currently, Energy and Environmental issues are worldwide concerns. Energy savings is also without doubt the most effective strategy for environmental protection. This paper introduces a new general product design method. Our research effort will be directed towards the following three primary objectives: (1) investigating all the aspects related to energy-saving issues throughout the entire product life cycle; (2) developing a

  12. Design and Power Management of Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems

    E-print Network

    Chou, Pai H.

    Design and Power Management of Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems Vijay Raghunathan NEC Labs phchou@uci.edu ABSTRACT Harvesting energy from the environment is a desirable and increas- ingly, biomedical implants, etc. While energy harvesting has the potential to enable near-perpetual system operation

  13. Energy-quality system design for in-body communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuwei Zhang; Ye Li; Dengyu Qiao; Yuanting Zhang

    2009-01-01

    With the explosive development of wireless communication technology, more and more implanted medical devices appear in everyday life. Because of the limited energy resource in implanted devices, the energy-quality wireless system design is the biggest challenge. In this paper, we update our former system level energy model and make it suitable for implantable medical communication system. In the new model,

  14. Climate politics: Designing energy policy under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Countries need to cut greenhouse-gas emissions from the energy sector if the world is to avoid the worst impacts of climate change. But no one is sure of the best path. New research highlights the key uncertainties driving energy policy debate in the UK.

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN AND THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Morofsky

    This chapter discusses the potential for cost-effectively reducing the energy intensity of office buildings by applying proven technologies, especially the use of ground source systems with thermal energy storage. It is shown that significant energy use reductions are possible without increases in capital costs and that reductions of more than 50% are possible within normal investment criteria. Energy storage techniques

  16. Five year research plan, 1988--1992: Energy from the earth: Geothermal energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    Consistent with national energy policy guidance, the plan concentrates on research and development (R and D) and limits system experiments to only those necessary to stimulate industrial confidence in the validity of research findings. A key strategy element is the continuation of the government/industry partnership which is critical to successful development of geothermal technology. The primary near-term research emphasis is the extension of hydrothermal technology options for reservoir identification, reservoir analysis, hard rock penetration, and flash and binary electric plants. The advanced geothermal resources--geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma--are longer-term and higher-risk focal points, and research in these areas centers on establishing a technology base that will allow industry to make prudent and timely investment decisions with respect to the use of these resources. 13 figs.

  17. Earth's Viscosity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L

    1966-01-21

    Seismic methods are now being used to determine not only Earth's elastic properties, but also by how much it departs from a perfectlyelastic body. The seismic anelasticity (Q) varies by several orders of magnitude throughout the mantle, the main feature being an extremely dissipative zone in the upper mantle above 400 kilometers. Recent determinations of viscosity by McConnell show a similar trend. The two sets of data indicate that the ratio of viscosity to Q is roughly a constant, at least in the upper mantle of Earth. On the assumption that this relation is valid for the rest of Earth, viscosities are estimated in regions that are inaccessible for direct measurement. The implied presence of a low-viscosity zone in the upper mantle, overlying a more viscous, less deformable, lower mantle, reconciles viscosites calculated from the shape of Earth and from postglacial uplift. The mismatch of the deformational characteristics at various levels in Earth, coupled with the changing rate of rotation, may be pertinent to the rate of release of seismic energy as a function of depth. PMID:17799980

  18. Rare-earth contribution to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in R/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B

    SciTech Connect

    Radwan-acute-accentski, R.J.; Franse, J.J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The zero-temperature value of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) energy of trivalent rare-earth ions and its temperature dependence have been calculated for the whole series of the R/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds. The computations, performed with a single-ion origin of the anisotropy and within a molecular-field approximation, reveal a large local anisotropy of the rare-earth ion, 2 orders of magnitude larger than the iron anisotropy. The crystal field acting on the rare-earth ions is of comparable magnitude as the molecular field. As a consequence, the internal ferro- and ferrimagnetic structures are very sensitive to applied external magnetic fields leading to large bending angles between the rare-earth and iron sublattice magnetizations. The calculated values for the intrinsic anisotropy constants of Dy/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B reproduce, within a two-sublattice model, the observed value of 20 T for the apparent anisotropy field at 4.2 K. The calculated values of the local MCA energy at zero temperature and room temperature are in good agreement with the experimentally determined data.

  19. Design of a Computerized Energy Management System for Marine Applications 

    E-print Network

    Russell, B. D.; Perry, L. W.; Gerloff, G. W.; Heller, R. P.; Pankonien, G.

    1982-01-01

    A computer-based energy management system for marine applications is presented. The problem of fuel-management for large diesel engines on board ship is discussed. The design of the computer hardware and software are presented including...

  20. Process Integration: Designing for Energy, Capital and Operability 

    E-print Network

    Linnhoff, B.

    1985-01-01

    Over the last five years, significant energy savings have been achieved by several international companies using the pinch concept for heat integration. New concepts are now being added to help the designer deal with capital cost minimization...

  1. Advances in Energy Reduction in Methanol Plant Design

    E-print Network

    Huggins, P. J.; Griffiths, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    in process design, new control strategies are being developed which enable the latest microprocessor-based systems to play their part in energy conservation. Advanced control is discussed in this context using multivariable control of reformer furnaces...

  2. Design of test bench apparatus for piezoelectric energy harvesters

    E-print Network

    Yoon, You C. (You Chang)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and analysis of an experimental test bench for the characterization of piezoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS) energy harvester being developed by the Micro & Nano Systems Laboratory ...

  3. Modeling and design of a MEMS piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

    E-print Network

    Du Toit, Noël Eduard

    2005-01-01

    The modeling and design of MEMS-scale piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvesters (MPVEH) are presented. The work is motivated by the need for pervasive and limitless power for wireless sensor nodes that have application ...

  4. Process Integration: Designing for Energy, Capital and Operability

    E-print Network

    Linnhoff, B.

    Over the last five years, significant energy savings have been achieved by several international companies using the pinch concept for heat integration. New concepts are now being added to help the designer deal with capital cost minimization...

  5. Conceptual design and engineering studies of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (CAES) with thermal energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hobson

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a conceptual engineering design and evaluation study and to develop a design for an adiabatic CAES system using water-compensated hard rock caverns for compressed air storage. The conceptual plant design was to feature underground containment for thermal energy storage and water-compensated hard rock caverns for high pressure air storage. Other design constraints

  6. Conceptual design and engineering studies of adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) with thermal energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Hobson

    1981-01-01

    An adiabatic CAES system using water compensated hard rock caverns for compressed air storage was designed. The conceptual plant design features underground containment for thermal energy storage and water compensated hard rock caverns for high pressure air storage. Other design constraints include the selection of turbomachinery designs that require little development and therefore are available for near term plant construction

  7. Low Energy Office: Design and Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Schrag, T.; Waldhoff, C.; Radler, J.; Lenzen, B.

    . The type of the airflow between surroundings, buildings and atrium was varied as well as the thermal quality of the glazing. The aim was to quantify the lowering of the heating energy and the resulting temperatures in an atrium. For an energetic...-E) and Glazing (1,2) Through glass atria that are integrated carefully into a building system, the energy consumption of a building can be lowered and the application of different ventilation concepts is enabled. However, a purely energetic approach still...

  8. Design Considerations for a Universal Smart Energy Module for Energy Harvesting in Wireless

    E-print Network

    Turau, Volker

    Design Considerations for a Universal Smart Energy Module for Energy Harvesting in Wireless Sensor. It supports a wide range of energy harvesters and energy storage systems. The focus is on the efficient to a few years at most. Energy harvesting is a suitable solution for a potentially unlimited lifetime

  9. New window design options for CEBAF energy upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.; Mammosser, J.; Nguyen, V.

    1997-07-01

    As the Jefferson Laboratory upgrades the existing CEBAF electron accelerator to operate at higher energies, the fundamental power coupler windows will be required to operate with lower RF dissipation and increased immunity to radiation from cavity field emission. New designs and modifications to existing designs which can achieve these goals are described.

  10. Statement of Secretary of Energy-Designate

    E-print Network

    , we face immediate threats to our economy and our national security that stem from our dependence prices are now lower, providing some relief to American consumers, we know that our economy remains scientists at the Berkeley lab to turn their attention to the energy and climate change problem and to bridge

  11. ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEM DESIGN AND UTILIZATION

    E-print Network

    Simunic, Tajana

    the battery lifetime in portable systems, as well as to reduce the operational costs (e.g. cost of electricity by scaling processor frequency and voltage depending on the needs of the system. Finally, I develop a modular power management (DPM) algorithms aim to reduce the energy consumption at the system level

  12. Energy-Efficient Graphical User Interface Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith S. Vallerio; Lin Zhong; Niraj K. Jha

    2004-01-01

    Mobile computers, such as cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs), have dramatically increased in sophisti- cation. At the same time, the desire of consumers for portability limits battery size. As a result, many researchers have targeted hardware and software energy optimization. However, most of these techniques focus on compute-intensive applications, rather than interactive applications, which are dominant in mobile

  13. Energy-Efficient Graphical User Interface Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith S. Vallerio; Lin Zhong; Niraj K. Jha

    2006-01-01

    Mobile computers, such as cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs), have dramatically increased in sophistication. At the same time, the desire of consumers for portability limits batters size. As a result, many researchers have targeted hardware and software energy optimization. However, most of these techniques focus on compute-intensive applications rather than interactive applications, which are dominant in mobile computers.

  14. Ocean circulation plays a key role in distributing solar energy and maintaining climate, by moving heat from Earth's equator to the poles. At

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Ocean circulation plays a key role in distributing solar energy and maintaining climate, by moving heat from Earth's equator to the poles. At the ocean surface, currents are primarily driven by wind of "overturning circulation" occurs in all ocean basins and helps to regulate Earth's climate. Aquarius

  15. Combustor design tool for a gas fired thermophotovoltaic energy converter

    SciTech Connect

    Lindler, K.W.; Harper, M.J. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering Dept.

    1995-07-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. A TPV device converts radiant energy from a high temperature incandescent emitter directly into electricity by photovoltaic cells. The current Department of Energy sponsored research involves the design, construction and demonstration of a prototype TPV converter that uses a hydrocarbon fuel (such as natural gas) as the energy source. As the photovoltaic cells are designed to efficiently convert radiant energy at a prescribed wavelength, it is important that the temperature of the emitter be nearly constant over its entire surface. The US Naval Academy has been tasked with the development of a small emitter (with a high emissivity) that can be maintained at 1,756 K (2,700 F). This paper describes the computer spreadsheet model that was developed as a tool to be used for the design of the high temperature emitter.

  16. Combustor design tool for a gas fired thermophotovoltaic energy converter

    SciTech Connect

    Lindler, K.W.; Harper, M.J. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. A TPV device converts radiant energy from a high temperature incandescent emitter directly into electricity by photovoltaic cells. The current Department of Energy sponsored research involves the design, construction and demonstration of a prototype TPV converter that uses a hydrocarbon fuel (such as natural gas) as the energy source. As the photovoltaic cells are designed to efficiently convert radiant energy at a prescribed wavelength, it is important that the temperature of the emitter be nearly constant over its entire surface. The U. S. Naval Academy has been tasked with the development of a small emitter (with a high emissivity) that can be maintained at 1756 K (2700 F). This paper describes the computer spreadsheet model that was developed as a tool to be used for the design of the high temperature emitter.

  17. The Earth-Moon CR3BP: A full Atlas of low-energy fast periodic transfer orbits

    E-print Network

    Alejandro M. Leiva; Carlos B. Briozzo

    2006-12-14

    In the framework of the planar CR3BP for mass parameter mu=0.0121505, corresponding to the Earth-Moon system, we identify and describe 80 families of periodic orbits encircling both the Earth and the Moon ("transfer" orbits). All the orbits in these families have very low energies, most of them corresponding to values of the Jacobi constant C for which the Hill surface is closed at the Lagrangian point L2. All of these orbits have also short period T, generally under six months. Most of the families are composed of orbits that are asymmetric with respect to the Earth-Moon axis. The main results presented for each family are: (i) the characteristic curves T(h), y(h), v_y(h), and v_x(h) on the Poincare section Sigma_1={x=0.836915310,y,v_x>0,v_y} normal to the Earth-Moon axis at the Lagrangian point L1, parameterized by their energy h=-C/2 in the synodic coordinate system; (ii) the stability parameter along each family; (iii) the intersections x_i(h) of the orbits with the Earth-Moon axis, on the Poincare section Sigma_2={x,y=0,v_x},v_y>0}; (iv) plots of some selected orbits and details of their circumlunar region; and (v) numerical data for the intersection of an orbit with Sigma_1 at a reference value of h. Some possible extensions and applications of this work are also discussed.

  18. Modeling of dielectric elastomers: Design of actuators and energy harvesting devices

    E-print Network

    Modeling of dielectric elastomers: Design of actuators and energy harvesting devices David L Keywords: Dielectric elastomers Large deformations Actuators Energy harvesting devices Finite and energy harvesting devices that convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Numerically based design

  19. Use of thulium-sensitized rare earth-doped low phonon energy crystalline hosts for IR sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline hosts with low phonon energies enable novel energy transfer processes when doped with rare earth ions. Two applications of energy transfer for rare earth ions in thulium-sensitized low phonon energy crystals that result in infrared luminescence are discussed. One application is an endothermic, phonon-assisted cross-relaxation process in thulium-doped yttrium chloride that converts lattice phonons to infrared emission, which raises the possibility of a fundamentally new method for achieving solid-state optical cooling. The other application is an optically pumped mid-IR phosphor using thulium-praseodymium-doped potassium lead chloride that converts 805-nm diode light to broadband emission from 4,000 to 5,500 nm. These two applications in chloride crystals are discussed in terms of critical radii calculated from Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory. It is found that the critical radii for electric dipole-dipole interactions in low phonon energy chloride crystals are comparable to those in conventional oxide and fluoride crystals. It is the reduction in multi-phonon relaxation rates in chloride crystals that enable these additional energy transfer processes and infrared luminescence. PMID:24180684

  20. NASA Now: Earth Science Week: Exploring Energy - Duration: 7 minutes, 32 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    During this installment of NASA Now, youâ??ll see some of the ways NASA studies Earth. Youâ??ll meet Eric Brown de Colstoun, a physical scientist at NASAâ??s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbel...

  1. A design guide for energy-efficient research laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Wishner, N.; Chen, A.; Cook, L. [eds.; Bell, G.C.; Mills, E.; Sartor, D.; Avery, D.; Siminovitch, M.; Piette, M.A.

    1996-09-24

    This document--A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories--provides a detailed and holistic framework to assist designers and energy managers in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide fills an important void in the general literature and compliments existing in-depth technical manuals. Considerable information is available pertaining to overall laboratory design issues, but no single document focuses comprehensively on energy issues in these highly specialized environments. Furthermore, practitioners may utilize many antiquated rules of thumb, which often inadvertently cause energy inefficiency. The Guide helps its user to: introduce energy decision-making into the earliest phases of the design process, access the literature of pertinent issues, and become aware of debates and issues on related topics. The Guide does focus on individual technologies, as well as control systems, and important operational factors such as building commissioning. However, most importantly, the Guide is intended to foster a systems perspective (e.g. right sizing) and to present current leading-edge, energy-efficient design practices and principles.

  2. Design of a novel optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter using alkaline earth sulfides doped with SrS:Eu,Sm materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanping Liu; Zhaoyang Chen; Yanwei Fan; Weizhen Ba; Wu Lu; Qi Guo; Shilie Pan; Aimin Chang; Xinqiang Tang

    2008-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is the luminescence emitted from an irradiated insulator or semiconductor during exposure to light. The OSL intensity is a function of the dose of radiation absorbed by the sample and thus can be used as the basis of a radiation dosimetry method. Alkaline earth sulfides doped with rare-earth elements such as Ce, Sm and Eu are

  3. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    PubMed Central

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300?mAh·g?1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4?V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide–triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

  4. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-07-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh.g-1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

  5. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 Ah · g(-1) at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

  6. Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

  7. Energy Management Method for solar race car design and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ustun; M. Yilmaz; C. Gokce; U. Karakaya; R. N. Tuncay

    2009-01-01

    The energy management method for designing a solar-cell supplied electrical vehicle is described and its implementation on Istanbul Technical University (ITU) race cars is discussed. The effectiveness of the method has been tested and proved during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 races organized by the Scientific and Technical Council of Turkey. The ldquoenergy management model (EMS)rdquo, which computes the energy

  8. Spatiotemporal correlations in Earth's temperature field from fractional stochastic-diffusive energy balance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Rypdal, Martin; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate

    2015-04-01

    In the Earth temperature field, spatiotemporal long-range dependence is usually explained as a result of nonlinear cross-scale coupling and cascading. In this contribution we challenge that paradigm, demonstrating that the observed correlation structure can arise from simple, linear, conceptual models. A two-dimensional stochastic-diffusive energy balance model (EBM) formulated on a sphere by G. R. North et al., J. Climate, 24:5850-5862, 2011, is explored and generalized. We compute instantaneous and frequency-dependent spatial autocorrelation functions, and local temporal power spectral densities for local sites and for spatially averaged signal up to the global scale. On time scales up to the relaxation time scale given by the effective heat capacities of the ocean mixed layer and land surface, respectively, we obtain scaling features reminiscent of what can be derived from the observed temperature field. On longer time scales, however, the EBM predicts a transition to a white-noise scaling, which is not reflected in the observed records. We propose and explore a fractional generalization (FEBM), which can be considered as a spatiotemporal version of the zero-dimensional, long-memory EBM of M. Rypdal and K. Rypdal, J. Climate, 27:5240-5258, 2014. The fractional equation introduces a power-law (rather than exponential) impulse response representing the delayed action due to the slow heat exchange between the mixed layer and the deep ocean. It is demonstrated that this generalized model describes qualitatively the main spatiotemporal correlation characteristics of the temperature field derived from instrumental data and from a 500 yr control run of the Nor-ESM model. For instance, the FEBM implies temporal power-law spectra where the spectral exponent for globally averaged temperature is twice that of local temperatures, and spatial autocorrelation lengths increases with time scale, in good agreement with the Nor-ESM simulations. It also reproduces the long-time response to a step-function forcing in the Nor-ESM model.

  9. Low Energy Office: Design and Evaluation 

    E-print Network

    Schrag, T.; Waldhoff, C.; Radler, J.; Lenzen, B.

    2008-01-01

    losses and benefits the natural ventilation of the offices. The halls are equipped with a heat protection glazing (U-Value of the glass: 1.1 W/m?K, g-value: 0.62) as well towards the building as toward the outside. Therefore the temperature in winter.... The type of the airflow between surroundings, buildings and atrium was varied as well as the thermal quality of the glazing. The aim was to quantify the lowering of the heating energy and the resulting temperatures in an atrium. For an energetic...

  10. HVAC Energy Recovery Design and Economic Evaluation 

    E-print Network

    Kinnier, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Cash Flow = Net Operating Savings - Taxes For Year 1 Net Cash $3,347 - $1,760 Flow $1,587 382 ESL-IE-79-04-42 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 Chart 11 - Yearly Net Cash Flow... Acquisition Year Sum of the Years-Digits Depreciation $ -91 Taxes @ 50% $ -45 Investment Tax Credit Net Cash Flow $ 955 1 $ -173 $-1760 Not Applicable $1587 1 2 -155 -1834 1680 2 3 -136 -1912 1776 3 4 -U8 -1995 1877 4 5 -100 -2082 1982 5...

  11. EnergyGauge USA: A Residential Building Energy Simulation Design Tool

    E-print Network

    Fairey, P.; Vieira, R. K.; Parker, D. S.; Hanson, B.; Broman, P. A.; Grant, J. B.; Fuehrlein, B.; Gu, L.

    2002-01-01

    ENERGYGAUGEg210 USA: A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ENERGY SIMULATION DESIGN TOOL Philip Fairey, Robin K. Vieira, Danny S. Parker, Brian Hanson, Paul A. Broman, John B. Grant, Brian Fuehrlein, and Lixing Gu Florida Solar Energy Center Cocoa, FL...

  12. The Dark Energy Survey instrument design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaugher, B.

    2006-06-01

    We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of ~5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27"/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R&D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009.

  13. The Dark Energy Survey instrument design

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx}5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R&D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009.

  14. Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Simunic; Luca Benini; G. de Micheli

    1999-01-01

    Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems demands optimizations in both hardware and software. In this work we leverage cycle-accurate energy consumption models to explore compiler and source code optimizations aimed at reducing energy consumption. In addition, we extend cycle-accurate architectural power simulation with battery models that provide battery lifetime estimates. The enhanced simulator and software optimizations are used to study

  15. Target earth - It will happen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D.; Chapman, C. R.

    1990-03-01

    Cosmic impacts of the earth by asteroids and comets are examined. The impact history of the moon is discussed and compared with that of the earth. Theoretical and laboratory simulation experiments to evaluate the consequences of a collision between the earth and an asteroid or comet are reviewed. Earth crossing asteroids are listed and the probability of impacts with various equivalent energies is estimated.

  16. Earth-station size vs. error-correction coding in the design of Ku-band satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangulis, V.

    1984-12-01

    A Ku-band satellite transponder capacity is evaluated for a PCM/QPSK/FDMA system in which many carriers are transmitted in an SCPC mode. The capacity depends on earth-station sizes, error-correction coding, required signal-to-noise ratio and required availability in rain; for simplicity all of these parameters are assumed to be the same for all carriers in the transponder. A method of accounting for the effects of rain is developed; it is assumed that the earth-stations do not adjust their output power when it rains. Trade-offs between earth-station sizes and error-correction code rates are examined.

  17. Design of a grid-independent energy efficient building: Sustainable Energy Research Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Soysal; H. Soysal; J. Spears; D. Posson; K. O'Hearn; B. Charles; B. Harwick

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes architectural and engineering design features of the “Sustainable Energy Research Facility (SERF)” to be constructed on Frostburg State University campus located in Western Maryland, USA. SERF will be an off-grid, energy efficient, residential size building supplied by clean renewable energy sources. When completed, SERF will be used by the FSU Renewable Energy Center to offer research, education,

  18. Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

    2001-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

  19. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Satellite Collectors of Solar Energy for Earth and Colonized Planet Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusiolek, Richard

    Summary An array of 55,000 40-foot antennas can generate from the rays of the Sun enough electrical power to replace 50 The economic potential is huge. There are new industries that will only grow and there are different ways to collect solar energy, including wind power. The energy sources we rely on for the most part are finite - fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas are all limited in supply. The cost will only continue to rise as demand increases. The time of global economic crossover between the EU, Asia Pacific and North America is coming within less than five years. The biggest opportunity for solar energy entrepreneurs would seem to be in municipal contracting where 1500 40-foot stacking antennas can be hooked into a grid to power an entire city. The antenna can generate 45 kilowatts of energy, enough to satisfy the electrical needs 7x24 of ten to twenty homes. It is possible to design and build 35-by-80-foot pedestals that track the sun from morning until night to provide full efficiency. A normal solar cell looks in the sky for only four or five hours of direct sunlight. Fabrication of these pedestals would sell for USD 50, 000-70,000 each. The solar heat collected by the antennas can be bounced into a Stirling engine, creating electricity at a focal point. Water can be heated by running through that focal point. In addition, salt water passing through the focal point can be desalinated, and since the antenna can generate up to 2,000 degrees of heat at the focal point. The salt water passing through the focal point turns to steam, which separates the salt and allows the steam to be turned into fresh drinking water. Collector energy can be retained in betavoltaics which uses semiconductors to capture energy from radioactive materials and turn it into usable electricity for automobiles. In a new battery, the silicon wafers in the battery are etched with a network of deep pores. These pores vastly increase the exposure surface area of the silicon, allowing it to absorb more energy and making the antenna collector 20 times more efficient than planar designs. A tracking pedestal powered by betavoltaics can follow the sun. With a 500-sun photovoltaic cell underneath a Fresnal lens magnifies and distributes the sun's energy at 500 times. Primary results and the main conclusions This idea is revolutionary and utilizes satellite tracking abilities to follow the sun, maintaining a constant energy source that can reach 700 to 800 degrees. This technology will have many applications, from instant fresh water in the form of steam to the use of fiber optics to filter natural light through a building. With the direction of the oil and energy costs continuing to spiral upward, there has been recent emphasis on alternative energy that is transmitted from space. Satellite antenna manufacturers can move quickly to production and create a revolution in sustainable energy that was never thought of before. The efforts of the United States, Russia, China, and India to colonize the Moon and Mars would be greatly enhanced by use of satellite solar collectors and betavoltaics electrical energy technologies for the colonies' habitats. Introduction This study was undertaken for the Global environment is in a crisis. The rich oil producing countries of Russia, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and Africa, have been at war to gain monopoly power and to restrict the space based explorations of the solar system. The physics of solar energy transmission to electrical mechanical energy is unique in improving the economies of the entire community of Nations. It is easy to produce satellite antennas, thus, satellite antennas can now be used as solar panels which can generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity. Solar Panels require no moving parts; have zero emissions, and no maintenance. These antennas will revolutionize the use of solar rays from the sun to benefit a global grid. These "collectors of free energy" are able to harness solar energy for thermal heating, desalination, lighting, and electricity. Further,

  1. Earth, soil and environmental science research facility at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source. I. Sector layout and optical design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Eng; Yifei R. Jaski; Nancy Lazarz; Paul Murray; Joseph Pluth; Harvey Rarback; Mark Rivers; Stephen Sutton

    1996-01-01

    The earth, soil and environmental science component (GSECARS) of the Consortium of Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS), is designing a national research facility to be built at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source. The bending magnet beam will be split to allow simultaneous operation of two stations, a monochromatic (8–15 keV) side station and a multipurpose, white beam\\/monochromatic end station.

  2. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 3: General purpose spacecraft segment and module specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The specifications for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) general purpose aircraft segment are presented. The satellite is designed to provide attitude stabilization, electrical power, and a communications data handling subsystem which can support various mission peculiar subsystems. The various specifications considered include the following: (1) structures subsystem, (2) thermal control subsystem, (3) communications and data handling subsystem module, (4) attitude control subsystem module, (5) power subsystem module, and (6) electrical integration subsystem.

  3. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G. [CD & W Inc., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  4. Axial focusing of impact energy in the Earth's interior: Proof-of-principle tests of a new hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Chael, E. P.; Trucano, T. G.; Kipp, M. E.; Crawford, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    A causal link between major impact events and global processes would probably require a significant change in the thermal state of the Earth's interior, presumably brought about by coupling of impact energy. One possible mechanism for such energy coupling from the surface to the deep interior would be through focusing due to axial symmetry. Antipodal focusing of surface and body waves from earthquakes is a well-known phenomenon which has previously been exploited by seismologists in studies of the Earth's deep interior. Antipodal focusing from impacts on the Moon, Mercury, and icy satellites has also been invoked by planetary scientists to explain unusual surface features opposite some of the large impact structures on these bodies. For example, 'disrupted' terrains have been observed antipodal to the Caloris impact basis on Mercury and Imbrium Basin on the Moon. Very recently there have been speculations that antipodal focusing of impact energy within the mantle may lead to flood basalt and hotspot activity, but there has not yet been an attempt at a rigorous model. A new hypothesis was proposed and preliminary proof-of-principle tests for the coupling of energy from major impacts to the mantle by axial focusing of seismic waves was performed. Because of the axial symmetry of the explosive source, the phases and amplitudes are dependent only on ray parameter (or takeoff angle) and are independent of azimuthal angle. For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth, all the seismic energy radiated by the impact at a given takeoff angle will be refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Mantle material near the axis of symmetry will experience more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere and will therefore experience more irreversible heating. The situation is very different than for a giant earthquake, which in addition to having less energy, has an asymmetric focal mechanism and a larger area. Two independent proof-of-principle approaches were used. The first makes use of seismic simulations, which are being performed with a realistic Earth model to determine the degree of focusing along the axis and to estimate the volume of material, if any, that experiences significant irreversible heating. The second involves two-dimensional hydrodynamic code simulations to determine the stress history, internal energy, and temperature rise as a function of radius along the axis.

  5. Energy density of ionospheric and solar wind origin ions in the near-Earth magnetotail during substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daglis, Loannis A.; Livi, Stefano; Sarris, Emmanuel T.; Wilken, Berend

    1994-01-01

    Comprehensive energy density studies provide an important measure of the participation of various sources in energization processes and have been relatively rare in the literature. We present a statistical study of the energy density of the near-Earth magnetotail major ions (H(+), O(+), He(++), He(+)) during substorm expansion phase and discuss its implications for the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling. Our aim is to examine the relation between auroral activity and the particle energization during substorms through the correlation between the AE indices and the energy density of the major magnetospheric ions. The data we used here were collected by the charge-energy-mass (CHEM) spectrometer on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Trace Explorer (AMPTE)/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) satellite in the near-equatorial nightside magnetosphere, at geocentric distances approximately 7 to 9 R(sub E). CHEM provided the opportunity to conduct the first statistical study of energy density in the near-Earth magnetotail with multispecies particle data extending into the higher energy range (greater than or equal to 20 keV/E). the use of 1-min AE indices in this study should be emphasized, as the use (in previous statistical studies) of the (3-hour) Kp index or of long-time averages of AE indices essentially smoothed out all the information on substorms. Most distinct feature of our study is the excellent correlation of O(+) energy density with the AE index, in contrast with the remarkably poor He(++) energy density - AE index correlation. Furthermore, we examined the relation of the ion energy density to the electrojet activity during substorm growth phase. The O(+) energy density is strongly correlated with the pre-onset AU index, that is the eastward electrojet intensity, which represents the growth phase current system. Our investigation shows that the near-Earth magnetotail is increasingly fed with energetic ionospheric ions during periods of enhanced dissipation of auroral currents. The participation of the ionosphere in the substorm energization processes seems to be closely, although not solely, associated with the solar wind/magnetosphere coupling. That is, the ionosphere influences actively the substorm energization processes by responding to the increased solar wind/magnetosphere coupling as well as to the unloading dissipation of stored energy, with the increased feeding of new material into the magnetosphere.

  6. Communications via the radio artificial earth satellite: Design of the tracking diagram and features for conducting QSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrozhanskiy, V.; Rybkin, V.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the operation of a transmitting artifical Earth satellite. A tracking diagram for the satellite is constructed. The zone of radio visibility can be determined based on the techniques proposed.

  7. Earth Flyby Anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    In a reference frame fixed to the solar system's center of mass, a satellite's energy will change as it is deflected by a planet. But a number of satellites flying by Earth have also experienced energy changes in the Earth-centered frame -- and that's a mystery.

  8. Earth flyby anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D.

    In a reference frame fixed to the solar system's center of mass, a satellite's energy will change as it is deflected by a planet. But a number of satellites flying by Earth have also experienced energy changes in the Earth-centered frame -- and that's a mystery.

  9. Earth Flyby Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

    2009-10-07

    In a reference frame fixed to the solar system's center of mass, a satellite's energy will change as it is deflected by a planet. But a number of satellites flying by Earth have also experienced energy changes in the Earth-centered frame -- and that's a mystery.

  10. Energy Design Plugin: An EnergyPlus Plugin for SketchUp; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P. G.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D. B.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the Energy Design Plugin, a new software plugin that aims to integrate simulation as a tool during the earliest phases of the design process. The plugin couples the EnergyPlus whole-building simulation engine to the Google SketchUp drawing program.

  11. Design of low energy bunch compressors with space charge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, A.; Willeke, F.; Yu, L. H.; Yang, L.; Shaftan, T.; Wang, G.; Li, Y.; Hidaka, Y.; Qiang, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a method to manipulate low energy electron bunches in a space charge dominated regime, and we use this method to design low energy linac bunch compressors to compress electron bunches in a space charge dominated regime. In the method, we use the space charge effects instead of avoiding them; i.e., we use the space charge forces to generate the required energy chirp instead of the ordinary method which uses the rf accelerating system to generate the chirp. We redefine the concepts of the dispersion function and beta functions in a space charge dominated regime to guide the optimization. Using this method, we study the low energy (5-22 MeV) linac bunch compressor design to produce short (˜150 fs ) and small size (˜30 ? m ) bunches for the electron beam slicing project. The low energy linac bunch compressors work in a space charge dominated regime, and the bunches at the downstream of the gun have a negative energy chirp due to the space charge effects. To provide compression for the negative energy chirped bunch, we design a positive R56 dispersive section using a four-dipole chicane with several quadrupole magnets. We have designed low energy linac bunch compressors with different photocathode rf guns. For example, one linac bunch compressor with the BNL photocathode electron rf gun has achieved a low energy bunch with the 166 fs rms bunch length, 28 and 31 ? m rms beam size in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, at 5 MeV with 50 pC charge. Another example with LBNL's very-high frequency gun has achieved a low energy bunch with the 128 fs rms bunch length, 42 and 25 ? m rms beam size in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, at 22 MeV with 200 pC charge.

  12. Radiative Energy Budget Studies Using Observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, R.; Shie, M.; Olson, R.; Collimore, C.; Friedman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Our research activities under this NASA grant have focused on two broad topics associated with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE): (1) the role of clouds and the surface in modifying the radiative balance; and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of the earth's radiation budget. Each of these broad topics is discussed separately in the text that follows. The major points of the thesis are summarized in section 3 of this report. Other dissertation focuses on deriving the radiation budget over the TOGA COARE region.

  13. Photosynthetically active radiation from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wenying; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David

    2007-06-01

    We describe a method that retrieves surface photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and its direct and diffuse components from the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) product of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The shortwave spectrum in the SARB Edition 2 is calculated in 15 bands, 4 of which are used to develop the PAR, in conjunction with the look-up tables described in this paper. We apply these look-up tables to existing CERES Terra Edition 2 products. The new retrieved surface PAR is validated with LI-COR PAR measurements at seven Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) sites using data from March 2000 to June 2005. The relative bias of retrieved all-sky PAR at the SURFRAD sites is 4.6% (positive sign indicating retrieval exceeds measurement), and 54% of the all-sky samples are within the ±10% uncertainty of the LI-COR PAR measurements. The satellite field-of-view (FOV) is more representative of the ground instrument FOV under clear conditions, so 89% of clear-sky retrievals are within the uncertainty of the LI-COR PAR measurements at SURFRAD sites with positive biases at most sites. The retrieved PAR is also validated at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains Central Facility (CF) site using data from October 2003 to June 2004 for those FOVs having both LI-COR and Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) ground measurements; for this small domain, all-sky relative biases are again positive (1.9%) for LI-COR but negative (-4.2%) for RSS. The direct-to-diffuse ratio derived from CERES is smaller than that from RSS for both clear and cloudy conditions. CERES also retrieves the broadband shortwave insolation, and the relative biases for the broadband retrievals are much less than those for PAR at the above sites. It appears that some of the ground-based measurements of PAR do not have the fidelity of those for broadband shortwave insolation.

  14. Fluid manifold design for a solar energy storage tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Hewitt, H. C.; Griggs, E. I.

    1975-01-01

    A design technique for a fluid manifold for use in a solar energy storage tank is given. This analytical treatment generalizes the fluid equations pertinent to manifold design, giving manifold pressures, velocities, and orifice pressure differentials in terms of appropriate fluid and manifold geometry parameters. Experimental results used to corroborate analytical predictions are presented. These data indicate that variations in discharge coefficients due to variations in orifices can cause deviations between analytical predictions and actual performance values.

  15. Earth plasmas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Science Institute

    2005-01-01

    Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  16. Earth Energy Resources Inc. 2010 ICSE CONFERENCE, April 28, 2010 FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    on information currently available to it, they may prove to be incorrect. By their very nature, forward complications with patent applications or patent protection on technology; fluctuations in foreign currency by government or regulatory agencies, including changes in tax laws; changes in law or regulations; and Earth

  17. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Martin; J. Garow; K. B. Michaels

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study

  18. A high-energy sample return Earth re-entry demonstrator to address planetary protection issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Phipps; Alex da Silva Curiel; Martin Sweeting; Arthur Smith; Steve Lingard

    2007-01-01

    For many of the proposed planetary exploration missions, robotically collected sample materials must be returned to the Earth for more detailed analysis. For the more interesting locations in the solar system, full planetary protection guidelines must be taken into account to prevent cross contamination. So far, few missions have demonstrated re-entry from interplanetary space, which requires a considerably greater velocity

  19. Novel High Energy Synthetic Jet Actuator Conceptual Design and Tendency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Z. B.; Xia, Z. X.; Wang, L.; Wang, D. P.

    2011-09-01

    An idea of designing novel high energy synthetic jet actuator is put forward in this paper. The cavity pressure of the synthetic jet actuator can be rising by three methods, compressing volume, rising temperature, and increasing mass. The novel synthetic jet actuators can be designed by using the three methods and a novel hybrid method. The temperature actuator and hybrid actuator are the main tendencies of the high energy synthetic jet actuators, and the temperature actuators are limited to the lower temperature and higher density environments, hybriding the temperature actuator with gas supplying may be a solution.

  20. Personal Inquiry in the Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, W. Paul

    Designed as a basic workbook using the inquiry process or as a supplementary text in the classroom, this 129 page booklet is divided into five units: Moving in on the Earth From Space, The Earth's Great Bodies of Water, Composition of the Solid Earth, The Earth's Crust is Constantly Changing, and Studying the Earth's History. The exercises are…

  1. Energy Efficient Engine combustor test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D. L.; Chahrour, C. A.; Foltz, H. L.; Sabla, P. E.; Seto, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Combustor Development effort was conducted as part of the overall NASA/GE E3 Program. This effort included the selection of an advanced double-annular combustion system design. The primary intent was to evolve a design which meets the stringent emissions and life goals of the E3 as well as all of the usual performance requirements of combustion systems for modern turbofan engines. Numerous detailed design studies were conducted to define the features of the combustion system design. Development test hardware was fabricated, and an extensive testing effort was undertaken to evaluate the combustion system subcomponents in order to verify and refine the design. Technology derived from this development effort will be incorporated into the engine combustion system hardware design. This advanced engine combustion system will then be evaluated in component testing to verify the design intent. What is evolving from this development effort is an advanced combustion system capable of satisfying all of the combustion system design objectives and requirements of the E3. Fuel nozzle, diffuser, starting, and emissions design studies are discussed.

  2. Preliminary design of the energy system for the ZTH experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boenig, H.; Gribble, R.; Hammer, C.; Huddleston, S.; Kewish, R.; Konkel, H.; Melton, J.; Reass, W.; Rosev, B.; Thullen, P.

    1987-10-01

    A 4 MA reversed field pinch experiment, called ZTH, is being designed and built at Los Alamos. The first plasma discharges are scheduled to take place in FY 1991. Major electrical power equipment components, such as a pulsed generator, controlled power supplies, isolation and opening switches, current interrupters and capacitor banks are being designed and procured for this experiment. In this paper the requirements and the design philosophy of the components for the energy system are described, and a status report on the component acquisition is given. 7 figs.

  3. The Combination of Renewable Energy Effective Use and Architecture Design

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Y.

    2006-01-01

    ingenious design (Figure 8). It is using the effect of the chimney. Fig.8 The sketch map of Berlin Congress building 2.3The using of the water resource The using of the water resource in architecture is on everywhere (living water, drinking water... insufficient, for example: the petroleum, the electric power, the land and the water resources and so on. However, China?s energy consumption of construction is extremely astonishing. Recently from the Ministry of Construction noted that the energy...

  4. Design and implementation of low-energy turbo decoders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jagadeesh Kaza; Chaitali Chakrabarti

    2004-01-01

    Turbo codes have been chosen in the third generation cellular standard for high-throughput data communication. These codes achieve remarkably low bit error rates at the expense of high-computational complexity. Thus for hand held communication devices, designing energy efficient Turbo decoders is of great importance. In this paper, we present a suite of MAP-based Turbo decoding algorithms with energy-quality tradeoffs for

  5. Designing and Implementing Monitoring Based Energy Cost Reduction Programs

    E-print Network

    McMullan, A. S.; Pretty, B. L.; Hart, D.

    2006-01-01

    Designing and Implementing Monitoring Based Energy Cost Reduction Programs Andrew S. McMullan Bruce L. Pretty David Hart Director Technical Director Energy Intelligent Solutions Veritech Inc. Veritech Inc. Rallywood House 1123... cost savings. However to realize these savings one has to know what ‘best performance’ is, when performance has deviated from ‘best’, and what to do if it has. In many cases performance information is available from existing monitoring equipment...

  6. Earth's Three

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-11-17

    Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

  7. Earth's Atmosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  8. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) and among the most research-intensive in Europe. Features * The Department of Earth and Environmental

  9. Empowering Users To Become Designers: Using Meta-Design Environments to Enable and Motivate Sustainable Energy Decisions

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Gerhard

    , supporting rich ecologies of participation enabling people to become active designers of their energy1 Empowering Users To Become Designers: Using Meta-Design Environments to Enable and Motivate. Author Keywords: meta-design, cultures of participation, rich ecologies of participation, design

  10. Thermochemical Energy Storage Systems: Modelling, Analysis and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Abedin, Ali

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an advanced technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. Thermochemical TES is an emerging method with the potential for high energy density storage. Where space is limited, therefore, thermochemical TES has the highest potential to achieve the required compact TES. Principles of thermochemical TES are presented and thermochemical TES is critically assessed and compared with other TES types. The integration of TES systems with heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) applications is examined and reviewed accounting for various factors, and recent advances are discussed. Thermodynamics assessments are presented for general closed and open thermochemical TES systems. Exergy and energy analyses are applied to assess and compare the efficiencies of the overall thermochemical TES cycle and its charging, storing and discharging processes. Examples using experimental data are presented to illustrate the analyses. Some important factors related to design concepts of thermochemical TES systems are considered and preliminary design conditions for them are investigated. Parametric studies are carried out for the thermochemical storage systems to investigate the effects of selected parameters on the efficiency and behavior of thermochemical storage systems. Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage; Thermochemical Energy Storage; Energy Efficiency; Exergy Efficiency, First Law Efficiency; Second Law Efficiency; Exergy

  11. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  12. Sweet Grass Elementary School: A Study in Energy Conservation. Energy Conservation: School Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonton Public Schools (Alberta).

    The results of building a new school in Edmonton (Alberta) in accordance with energy efficient principles are described in this report, the third and last in a series describing three projects utilizing different approaches to energy conservation. The Sweet Grass Elementary School project consisted in designing, building, and monitoring an energy…

  13. New Instrumental Facilities to study High Energy Processes in the Sun, Interplanetary Space and their Effects in the Earth Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Makhmutov, Vladimir

    We present a new instrumental facility to study the physical mechanisms of high-energy releases taking place in solar quiet and explosive active regions, and their signatures in the Earth's atmosphere. These facilities will be installed in the CASLEO (2550 m asl) observatory, and complement solar flare diagnostic obtained there at millimeter waves (45 and 90 GHZ), submillimeter waves (212 and 405 GHz), IR (30 THz), as well as X-ray radiation imprints in the ionosphere (VLF subionospheric propagation), and of energetic charged particles in Earth's atmosphere (Cosmic Ray CARPET sensor).Specifically, we propose to complement these existing instrumental facilities with a new detector of solar and atmospheric neutrons, a gamma-ray scintillation device, and ELF/VLF wave sensors. The main objectives are: (i) to better characterize the high-frequency radio and high-energy photon flare spectra, in order to provide new clues on the emission mechanism resulting in submillimeter and THz radiation which are still unexplained; (ii) to provide a continuous monitoring of solar energetic phenomena and investigate if they are more frequent than what we do observe nowadays; (iii) to investigate the causal relationship between atmospheric phenomena as lightning occurrence, high-energy photon and neutron production, Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes, and cosmic ray fluxes.

  14. Testing Skyrme energy-density functionals with the QRPA in low-lying vibrational states of rare-earth nuclei

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, J

    2011-01-01

    Although nuclear energy density functionals are determined primarily by fitting to ground state properties, they are often applied in nuclear astrophysics to excited states, usually through the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). Here we test the Skyrme functionals SkM* and SLy4 along with the self-consistent QRPA by calculating properties of low-lying vibrational states in a large number of well-deformed even-even rare-earth nuclei. We reproduce trends in energies and transition probabilities associated with gamma-vibrational states, but our results are not perfect and indicate the presences of multi-particle-hole correlations that are not included in the QRPA. The Skyrme functional SkM* performs noticeably better than SLy4. In a few nuclei, changes in the treatment of the pairing energy functional have a significant effect. The QRPA is less successful with "beta-vibrational" states than with the gamma-vibrational states.

  15. Business with Birmingham Re-designing the `designer' drug p3

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    Business with Birmingham issue four Re-designing the `designer' drug p3 The rare earth challenge p4, leads research on modified form of Ecstasy think energy The rare earth challenge Using hydrogen through the development of the first mobile medical research facility in the UK, the pioneering Health

  16. The Bohr Model of the Earth-Sun System* Data for the earth-sun system assuming a circular earth orbit

    E-print Network

    Rioux, Frank

    energy expression below. The potential energy of the earth-sun interaction is wellThe Bohr Model of the Earth-Sun System* Data for the earth-sun system assuming a circular earth orbit: Mass of the earth: Me 5.974 10 24 kg Mass of the sun: Ms 1.989 10 30 kg Earth orbit radius: r 1

  17. NEW MOTOR DESIGN CONCEPT FOR ENERGY SAVING APPLIED TO

    E-print Network

    SHARK, NEW MOTOR DESIGN CONCEPT FOR ENERGY SAVING APPLIED TO SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR by Ana of the cylindrical and Shark air gap Switched Reluctance Motors and their assistance during the experimental work in the development of the analytical model of Shark Switched Reluctance Machine, during the three months spent

  18. Flywheel energy storage system design for distribution network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiancheng Zhang; Zhiye Chen; Lijun Cai; Yuhua Zhao

    2000-01-01

    It is necessary to install flywheel energy storage (FES) systems in distribution networks, which can improve the quality and supplying reliability of electric power. In this paper, a 10 MJ FES system is designed, the power of which can reach 10 kW. The FES system is composed of four parts: (1) flywheel; (2) bearing; (3) motor\\/generator; and (4) AC power

  19. Design of energy-efficient wireless communication networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Fang; R. J. P. de Figueiredo

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent research on the optimal power control at the physical layer, and scheduling at the medium access control (MAC) layer under energy-constraints. In our approach, first, by use of Nash game theory, the physical and link layer designs are jointly minimized to provide an optimal power control solution for multi-carrier (MC) direct sequence (DS) CDMA to

  20. MAC New Approach to Design Energy Consumption Minimized

    E-print Network

    Bahk, Saewoong

    MAC , O , , New Approach to Design Energy Consumption Minimized Wireless sensor network MAC Protocols Wooguil Pak, Seongsu Lim O , and Saewoong Bahk School of Electrical Engineering}@netlab.snu.ac.kr duty cycle . MAC duty cycle 0.1~5% duty cycle . MAC

  1. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ADAPTIVE ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (R-BAEMS) DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected outcomes from Phase I included 1) a set of guidelines for implementing R-BAEMS in residential structures from both a retrofit and original design perspective and 2) a cost and energy analysis of R-BAEMS impact on the environment. The status of each of the outcomes...

  2. Design for a High Energy Density Kelvin-Helmholtz Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O A

    2007-10-29

    While many high energy density physics (HEDP) Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments have been fielded as part of basic HEDP and astrophysics studies, not one HEDP Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) experiment has been successfully performed. Herein, a design for a novel HEDP x-ray driven KH experiment is presented along with supporting radiation-hydrodynamic simulation and theory.

  3. Trajectory design for formations of robots by kinetic energy shaping

    E-print Network

    Belta, Calin A.

    Trajectory design for formations of robots by kinetic energy shaping Calin Belta and Vijay Kumar.cis.upenn.edu Abstract We develop a method for generating smooth trajectories for a set of mobile robots. Given two end configurations, by tuning one parameter, the user can choose an inter- polating trajectory from a continuum

  4. Energy Efficient Engine core design and performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, E. Marshall

    1982-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to develop fuel saving technology for future large transport aircraft engines. Testing of the General Electric E3 core showed that the core component performance and core system performance necessary to meet the program goals can be achieved. The E3 core design and test results are described.

  5. A System Design Approach for Unattended Solar Energy Harvesting Supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan W. Kimball; Brian T. Kuhn; Robert S. Balog

    2009-01-01

    Remote devices, such as sensors and communications devices, require continuously available power. In many applications, conventional approaches are too expensive, too large, or unreliable. For short-term needs, primary batteries may be used. However, they do not scale up well for long-term installations. Instead, energy harvesting methods must be used. Here, a system design approach is introduced that results in a

  6. Design and Application of Low Compaction Energy Concrete for

    E-print Network

    Design and Application of Low Compaction Energy Concrete for Use in Slip-form Concrete Paving increasing compressive stress. Results are compared to green strength tests performed on concrete mixes of cement pastes and the green strength of concretes Slipform self-consolidating concrete (SFSCC) requires

  7. Design challenges for energy-constrained ad hoc wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREA J. GOLDSMITH; STEPHEN B. WICKER

    2002-01-01

    Ad hoc wireless networks enable new and exciting applications, but also pose significant technical challenges. In this article we give a brief overview of ad hoc wireless networks and their applications with a particular emphasis on energy constraints. We then discuss advances in the link, multiple access, network, and application protocols for these networks. We show that cross-layer design of

  8. A simple optical design for a space Dark Energy Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, Robert; Milliard, Bruno; Kneib, Jean Paul; Ealet, Anne

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the nature of the dark energy responsible of the apparent acceleration of the Universe is one of the most challenging questions of our modern Cosmology and Fundamental Physics. On both side of the Atlantic a great deal of effort has been spent to design and optimize space missions able to probe the nature of this dark energy. These missions generally use two or three of the major cosmological probes: Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO), Weak Lensing (WL) and Type Ia Supernovae (SNe). Many of the proposed missions concept rely on having different instruments sharing a common optical interface and thus leading to a highly complex system. By adopting a different conceptual approach we studied a fully integrated optical design yielding to a simple and more cost effective mission. The survey strategy will also benefit from this design which offers a better time sharing between the different probes.

  9. Energy efficient engine combustor test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeisser, M. H.; Greene, W.; Dubiel, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The combustor for the Energy Efficient Engine is an annular, two-zone component. As designed, it either meets or exceeds all program goals for performance, safety, durability, and emissions, with the exception of oxides of nitrogen. When compared to the configuration investigated under the NASA-sponsored Experimental Clean Combustor Program, which was used as a basis for design, the Energy Efficient Engine combustor component has several technology advancements. The prediffuser section is designed with short, strutless, curved-walls to provide a uniform inlet airflow profile. Emissions control is achieved by a two-zone combustor that utilizes two types of fuel injectors to improve fuel atomization for more complete combustion. The combustor liners are a segmented configuration to meet the durability requirements at the high combustor operating pressures and temperatures. Liner cooling is accomplished with a counter-parallel FINWALL technique, which provides more effective heat transfer with less coolant.

  10. Sun-perturbed earth-to-moon transfers with low energy and moderate flight time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyuki Yagasaki

    2004-01-01

    We construct a spacecraft transfer with low cost and moderate flight time from the Earth to the Moon. The motion of the spacecraft\\u000a is modeled by the planar circular restricted three-body problem including a perturbation due to the solar gravitation. Our\\u000a approach is to reduce computation of optimal transfers to a non-linear boundary value problem. Using a computer software called

  11. Controlled pattern retrieval in a designed energy landscape

    E-print Network

    Kaluza, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    We construct a network of N globally coupled phase oscillators with a designed energy landscape. The oscillator dynamics is derived as gradient dynamics of this energy function. The network can store N-component binary patterns in cluster partitions of oscillators that synchronize to phase-locked motion. The phase relations of the cluster partitions correspond to the minima of the energy landscape. We can modulate the energy landscape via suitably chosen external fields in a way that the selected pattern for retrieval becomes the only minimum of the energy function. The phase oscillator dynamics then evolves the system to this minimum and retrieves the required pattern independently of the initial condition, one pattern at a time. When, in addition, our network of phase oscillators is driven by a suitably coupled pacemaker, the whole system performs in analogy to a central pattern generator of neural networks, provided that the time dependence of the external fields is accordingly tuned.

  12. "Gaa-Noodin-Oke" (Alternative Energy/Wind Power): A Curriculum Implementation on the White Earth Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzey, Siddika Selcen; Nyachwaya, James; Moore, Tamara J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2014-01-01

    A wind energy focused curriculum for grades 4-8 was designed and implemented to promote the understanding of wind energy concepts with American Indian students. 57 students who participated in the 2009 summer program of the "Reach for the Sky" (RFTS) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) received the curriculum. The…

  13. Systematics of 4f electron energies relative to host bands by resonant photoemission of rare-earth ions in aluminum garnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Thiel; H. Cruguel; H. Wu; Y. Sun; G. J. Lapeyre; R. L. Cone; R. W. Equall; R. M. Macfarlane

    2001-01-01

    The energies of trivalent rare-earth ions relative to the host valence band were measured for a series of rare-earth-doped yttrium aluminum garnets RxY3-xAl5O12 (R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu and 0<=x<=3), using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. The 4f photoemission spectra were acquired using synchrotron radiation, exploiting the 4d to 4f ``giant resonance'' in the 4f electron photoemission cross

  14. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 5: System design and specifications. Part 2: Ground system element specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Ground System requirements for the Land Resources Management (LRM) type-A and type-B missions of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program are presented. Specifications for the Thematic Mapper data processing are provided (LRM A mission). The specifications also cover the R and D instruments (Thematic Mapper and High Resolution Pointable Imager) data processing for the LRM type-B mission.

  15. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores--50% Energy Savings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. T. Hale; D. L. Macumber; N. L. Long; B. T. Griffith; K. S. Benne; S. D. Pless; P. A. Torcellini

    2008-01-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of grocery store buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  16. Computer aided optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1980-07-01

    An automated procedure for the design of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The procedure relies upon modern nonlinear programming algorithms, decomposition theory, and numerical models of the various system components. Two modern optimization methods are employed; BIAS, a Method of Multipliers code and OPT, a Generalized Reduced Gradient code. The procedure is demonstrated by the design of a CAES facility employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer as the reservoir. The methods employed produced significant reduction in capital and operating cost, and in number of aquifer wells required.

  17. Optical system design for high-energy particle beam diagnostics.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B. X. Y.

    2002-08-29

    Radiation generated by high-energy particle beams is widely used to characterize the beam properties. While the wavelengths of radiation may vary from visible to x-rays, the physics underlying the engineering designs are similar. In this tutorial, we discuss the basic considerations for the optical system design in the context of beam instrumentation and the constraints applied by high-radiation environments. We cover commonly used optical diagnostics: fluorescence flags, visible and x-ray synchrotron radiation imaging. Emphases will be on achieving desired resolution, accuracy, and reproducibility.

  18. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations for the Baltic Sea 1960-2100 • Outreach and Communication • Education The issue of anthropogenic changes and impacts on the Earth system of the Baltic Sea region is recognized as a major topic, and shall receive special attention. The intention of the "Outreach and Communication" and "Education" groups will be to initiate and design potential outreach activities and to provide an arena for scientific exchange and discussion around the Baltic Sea, to communicate findings and exchange views within the Baltic Earth research community internally and to other researchers and society, both professionals and non-professionals. A regular international Baltic Earth Summer School shall be established from 2015. There will be a strong continuity related to BALTEX in infrastructure (secretariat, conferences, publications) and the network (people and institutions).

  19. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  20. The Earth's Dynamic Magnetotail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nishida

    2000-01-01

    Geomagnetic field lines that are stretched on the nightside of the Earth due to reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field constitute the Earth's magnetotail. The magnetotail is a dynamic entity where energy imparted from the solar wind is stored and then released to generate disturbance phenomena such as substorms. This paper gives an updated overview on the physics of the

  1. On the impact of energy pricing on low energy design of buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Papadopoulos; A. Stylianou

    Implementing low energy design principles and measures in buildings depends on a series of architectural, structural and legal parameters. A building's design, as well as its operational pat- terns, has increasingly to comply with tighten- ing comfort, health and aesthetic requirements. And all this in view of the fact that the applica- tion of techniques like natural and evaporative cooling,

  2. Efficient manganese luminescence induced by Ce3+-Mn2+ energy transfer in rare earth fluoride and phosphate nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Manganese materials with attractive optical properties have been proposed for applications in such areas as photonics, light-emitting diodes, and bioimaging. In this paper, we have demonstrated multicolor Mn2+ luminescence in the visible region by controlling Ce3+-Mn2+ energy transfer in rare earth nanocrystals [NCs]. CeF3 and CePO4 NCs doped with Mn2+ have been prepared and can be well dispersed in aqueous solutions. Under ultraviolet light excitation, both the CeF3:Mn and CePO4:Mn NCs exhibit Mn2+ luminescence, yet their output colors are green and orange, respectively. By optimizing Mn2+ doping concentrations, Mn2+ luminescence quantum efficiency and Ce3+-Mn2+ energy transfer efficiency can respectively reach 14% and 60% in the CeF3:Mn NCs. PMID:21711641

  3. Formation of partial energy gap below the structural phase transition and the rare-earth element-substitution effect on infrared phonons in ReFeAsO (Re=La, Nd, and Sm)

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Formation of partial energy gap below the structural phase transition and the rare-earth element phonon modes display systematic shifts toward high frequency upon rare-earth element Nd and Sm temperature Tc was raised beyond 50 K through the substitution of La by rare-earth elements. Tc is found

  4. Estimation of Characteristic Period for Energy Based Seismic Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hancloglu, Baykal; Polat, Zekeriya; Kircil, Murat Serdar [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Besiktass 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-07-08

    Estimation of input energy using approximate methods has been always a considerable research topic of energy based seismic design. Therefore several approaches have been proposed by many researchers to estimate the energy input to SDOF systems in the last decades. The characteristic period is the key parameter of most of these approaches and it is defined as the period at which the peak value of the input energy occurs. In this study an equation is proposed for estimating the characteristic period considering an extensive earthquake ground motion database which includes a total of 268 far-field records, two horizontal components from 134 recording stations located on both soft and firm soil sites. For this purpose statistical regression analyses are performed to develop an equation in terms of a number of structural parameters, and it is found that the developed equation yields satisfactory results comparing the characteristic periods calculated from time history analyses of SDOF systems.

  5. Variable Sun-Earth energy coupling function: dependence on solar cycle strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    Correlation between monthly geomagnetic activity and monthly sunspot numbers for more than 50 years revealed that the geomagnetic activity during the current solar maximum is lower than what can be expected from the sunspot numbers. This is valid for both one station (Kiruna K index, since 1962) and world-wide average (Kp index, since 1932). The Kp data with more than 80 years record also revealed that monthly Kp for given sunspot numbers are lower during solar cycles with small amplitude than those with large amplitude when we define the cycle from the end of solar maximum to the end of next solar maximum. The result suggests that the Sun-Earth coupling function itself (including the multiplication constant) might be different between different solar cycles when the amplitude is different, and therefore that there might be unknown solar parameter that should contribute to the Sun-Earth coupling. Such a hidden parameter might bridge missing physical link between the solar effect and the terrestrial environment such as the global temperature. Acknowledgement: Kp is an official IAGA endorsed index that is provided by GFZ, Adolf-Schmidt-Observatory Niemegk, Germany. The sunspot numbers are provided by Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels.

  6. Newfoundland Greenhome: energy efficient design for a cold foggy climate

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.W.; Mellin, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    St. John's Newfoundland has a cold, ocean moderated climate. During much of the September to May heating season cloud cover and fog reduce possible sunshine by 70%. This was important in determining design strategy. First priority was given to energy conservation, second to solar gain and third to thermal mass. The living space is super-insulated with a small area of south facing windows and other energy conserving features. Most solar gain takes place outside the living space in the large attached Greenhouse and solar attic. Solar heated air is transferred from the Attic to the cement and rock thermal storage under level 1 by a thermostatically controlled fan.

  7. Design principles for a flywheel energy store for road vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Acarnley, P.P.; Mecrow, B.C.; Burdess, J.S.; Fawcett, J.N.; Kelly, J.G.; Dickinson, P.G. [Univ. of Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper introduces a flywheel energy storage device capable of enhancing the fuel economy of a hybrid-type road vehicle. A number of possible drive types is considered and the permanent magnet machine drive is shown to provide the best solution. Reasons for selecting a device using an axial-field configuration with single rotor and double stator sections are described. Electrical, magnetic and mechanical design data are presented for a full-scale prototype device with 240 kJ of usable energy storage and 25 kW of power transfer, operating at speeds up to 50,000 revs per minute, with a 10% duty cycle.

  8. Energy efficient engine high-pressure turbine detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thulin, R. D.; Howe, D. C.; Singer, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    The energy efficient engine high-pressure turbine is a single stage system based on technology advancements in the areas of aerodynamics, structures and materials to achieve high performance, low operating economics and durability commensurate with commercial service requirements. Low loss performance features combined with a low through-flow velocity approach results in a predicted efficiency of 88.8 for a flight propulsion system. Turbine airfoil durability goals are achieved through the use of advanced high-strength and high-temperature capability single crystal materials and effective cooling management. Overall, this design reflects a considerable extension in turbine technology that is applicable to future, energy efficient gas-turbine engines.

  9. Nanotechnology Invention and Design: Phase Changes, Energy, and Crystals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lab, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, students will "explore how energy exchanges lead to solid-state phase changes at the macroscale and explore the applications of this nanotechnology." Additionally, students will have the opportunity to examine "various energy inputs on the crystal lattice of a smart material, Nitinol, and then invites students to become nanotechnology inventors" themselves. Included in this lab are: Teachers guide, Student prelab worksheet w/ answers, Student worksheet with answers, Student prelab worksheet, Student Worksheet, Evaluation form for design project.

  10. Design principles for a flywheel energy store for road vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Acarnley, P.P.; Mecrow, B.C.; Burdess, J.S.; Fawcett, J.N.; Kelly, J.G.; Dickinson, P.G. [Univ. of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    This paper introduces a flywheel energy storage device capable of enhancing the fuel economy of a hybrid-type road vehicle. A number of possible drive types are considered and the permanent magnet machine drive is shown to provide the best solution. Reasons for selecting a device using an axial-field configuration with single-rotor and double-stator sections are described. Electrical, magnetic, and mechanical design data are presented for a full-scale prototype device with 240 KJ of usable energy storage and 25 kW of power transfer, operating at speeds up to 50,000 r/min, with a 10% duty cycle.

  11. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  12. Distributing many points on spheres: minimal energy and designs

    E-print Network

    Johann S. Brauchart; Peter J. Grabner

    2014-11-07

    This survey discusses recent developments in the context of spherical designs and minimal energy point configurations on spheres. The recent solution of the long standing problem of the existence of spherical $t$-designs on $\\mathbb{S}^d$ with $\\mathcal{O}(t^d)$ number of points by A. Bondarenko, D. Radchenko, and M. Viazovska attracted new interest to this subject. Secondly, D. P. Hardin and E. B. Saff proved that point sets minimising the discrete Riesz energy on $\\mathbb{S}^d$ in the hypersingular case are asymptotically uniformly distributed. Both results are of great relevance to the problem of describing the quality of point distributions on $\\mathbb{S}^d$, as well as finding point sets, which exhibit good distribution behaviour with respect to various quality measures.

  13. DESIGN AND CONTROL OF FORMATIONS NEAR THE LIBRATION POINTS OF THE SUN-EARTH\\/MOON EPHEMERIS SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Howell; B. G. Marchand

    ABSTRACT The concept of formation ,flight of multiple spacecraft near the libration points of the ,Sun-Earth\\/Moon (SEM) system, offers as many possibilities for space exploration as technical challenges. The initial focus of this research effort was the dynamics ,and control of formation ,flight in the ,circular restricted three-body problem ,(CR3BP). Presently, these results are transitioned into the more complete n-body

  14. Optimal constellation design of low earth orbit (LEO) EO\\/IR sensor platforms for space situational awareness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zatezalo; A. El-Fallah; R. Mahler; R. K. Mehra; K. Pham

    2009-01-01

    Constellations of EO\\/IR space based sensors can be extremely valuable for space situational awareness. In this paper, we present trade-off analysis and comparisons of different Low Earth Orbit (LEO) EO\\/IR sensor platform constellations for space situational awareness tasks. These tasks include early observation of changing events, and localization and tracking of changing LEO orbits. We derive methods and metrics for

  15. Energy efficient engine fan component detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halle, J. E.; Michael, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    The fan component which was designed for the energy efficient engine is an advanced high performance, single stage system and is based on technology advancements in aerodynamics and structure mechanics. Two fan components were designed, both meeting the integrated core/low spool engine efficiency goal of 84.5%. The primary configuration, envisioned for a future flight propulsion system, features a shroudless, hollow blade and offers a predicted efficiency of 87.3%. A more conventional blade was designed, as a back up, for the integrated core/low spool demonstrator engine. The alternate blade configuration has a predicted efficiency of 86.3% for the future flight propulsion system. Both fan configurations meet goals established for efficiency surge margin, structural integrity and durability.

  16. Energy conservation and building design: the environmental legislation push and pull factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kemi Adeyeye; Mohamed Osmani; Claire Brown

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold; to investigate the potential impact of energy conservation policies and legislation on building design; examine energy conservation practices in the building industry; and identify associated barriers to an integrated low energy architectural design process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey of UK architectural design practices was conducted to assess the impact of current

  17. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gray

    1978-01-01

    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally

  18. Conceptual design of compressed air energy storage electric power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert J. Giramonti; Robert D. Lessard; William A. Blecher; Edward B. Smith

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies have been conducted to identify Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems which are technically feasible and potentially attractive for future electric utility load-levelling applications. The CAES concept consists of compressing air during off-peak periods and storing it in underground facilities for later use. During peak-load periods the air would be withdrawn, heated by recuperation and combustion and

  19. Design and operation of the high energy physics information server

    SciTech Connect

    Dingbaum, J.J.; Martin, D.E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    HEPIC an information {open_quotes}center of centers{close_quotes} for the HEP community, is a 24 hour online location where a HEP researcher can start her/his search for information. Operated by the HEP Network Research Center, HEPIC is accessible via WWW, gopher, anonymous FTP, DECnet, and AFS. This paper describes HEPIC`s design and future plans, and the HEPNRC`s efforts to collect information and link high energy physics researchers world-wide.

  20. Energy-absorbing-beam design for composite aircraft subfloors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Kellas, Sotiris

    1993-01-01

    Data have been presented from the design support testing of composite energy absorbing (EA) aircraft subfloor structures. The focus of the current study is the design and testing of subfloor structural concepts that would limit the loads transmitted to occupants to less than 20 g at crush speeds of approximately 30 fps. The EA composite subfloor is being designed to replace an existing noncrashworthy metallic subfloor in a composite aircraft prior to a full-scale crash test. A sandwich spar construction of a sine wave beam was chosen for evaluation and was found to have excellent energy absorbing characteristics. The design objective of obtaining sustained crushing loads of the spar between 200-300 lbf/inch were achieved for potentially limiting occupants loads to around 20 g's. Stroke efficiency of up to 79 percent of the initial spar height under desired sustained crushing loads was obtained which is far greater than the level provided by metal structure. Additionally, a substantial residual spar stiffness was retained after impact, and the flange integrity, which is critical for seat retention, was maintained after crushing of the spars.

  1. Energy conservation through building design. Citations from the engineering index data base

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Hundemann

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography contains 72 abstracts. Energy conservation through design of both residential and nonresidential buildings is discussed. Topic areas cover solar radiation considerations in building planning and design, daylighting and window design, use of computer graphics for building energy analysis, design of ventilation and air flow systems in new buildings, and architectural design concepts. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred

  2. The rate of solar wind energy input into the earth's magnetosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Pudovkin; V. S. Semenov; M. F. Heyn; H. Birnat

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the Poynting vector flux entering the reconnection region is generated in the transition region between the front of a bow shock wave and the magnetopause. This is due to solar wind deceleration and the partial conversion of kinetic energy into magnetic energy. The energy conversion coefficient is dependent on the IMF intensity and its orientation.

  3. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. Volume 1; Overviews (subsystem 0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Cess, Robert D.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Coakley, James A.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 1 provides both summarized and detailed overviews of the CERES Release 1 data analysis system. CERES will produce global top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere by using the combination of a large variety of measurements and models. The CERES processing system includes radiance observations from CERES scanning radiometers, cloud properties derived from coincident satellite imaging radiometers, temperature and humidity fields from meteorological analysis models, and high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite radiances to account for unobserved times. CERES will provide a continuation of the ERBE record and the lowest error climatology of consistent cloud properties and radiation fields. CERES will also substantially improve our knowledge of the Earth's surface radiation budget.

  4. Solar total energy system: Large scale experiment. Phase 2: Conceptual design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Hartman

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design of a solar total energy system for a Knitwear factory in Shenandoah, Georgia was completed. A key design objective was to maximize the cost effectiveness of collected solar energy while using it to supply at least 60 percent of the total annual energy requirements of the plant. The design features a distributed solar energy receiver system with

  5. A comparison of Latin hypercube and grid ensemble designs for the multivariate emulation of an Earth system model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan M. Urban; Thomas E. Fricker

    2010-01-01

    A statistical emulator is a fast proxy for a complex computer model which predicts model output at arbitrary parameter settings from a limited ensemble of training data. Regular grid designs for the training set are commonly used for their simplicity. However, Latin hypercube designs have well known theoretical advantages in the design of computer experiments, especially as the dimension of

  6. Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Investigating Renewable Energy Data from Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Panels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using renewable sources of energy benefits the environment and contributes to more sustainable energy use. The burning of fossil fuels generates air pollution and increased CO2 in the atmosphere. CO2 is the major greenhouse gas warming our planet. Using more renewable sources of energy not only reduces pollution, but also conserves the current limited supply of fossil fuels. This chapter looks at how much solar energy is generated using photovoltaic panels on rooftops or exposed ground locations at installations around the U.S. The focus is on three different websites that monitor and report solar energy production from panels at a few hundred locations.

  7. Modification of Earth-satellite orbits using medium-energy pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.

    1993-05-01

    Laser impulse space propulsion (LISP) has become an attractive concept, due to recent advances in gas laser technology, high-speed segmented mirrors, and improved coefficients for momentum coupling to targets in pulsed laser ablation. There are numerous specialized applications of the basic concept to space science -- ranging from far-future and high capital cost to the immediate and inexpensive, such as: LEO-LISP (launch of massive objects into low-Earth-orbit at dramatically improved cost-per-kg relative to present practice); LEGO-LISP (LEO to geosynchronous transfers); LO-LISP (periodic re-boost of decaying LEO orbits); and LISK (geosynchronous satellite station-keeping). It is unlikely that one type of laser will be best for all scenarios. In this paper, we discuss these most immediate applications, leaving LEO-LISP -- the application requiring the longest reach -- for another venue.

  8. Modification of Earth-satellite orbits using medium-energy pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, C. R.

    Laser Impulse Space Propulsion (LISP) has become an attractive concept, due to recent advances in gas laser technology, high-speed segmented mirrors and improved coefficients for momentum coupling to targets in pulsed laser ablation. There are numerous specialized applications of the basic concept to space science - ranging from far-future and high capital cost to the immediate and inexpensive, such as: LEO-LISP (launch of massive objects into low-Earth-Orbit at dramatically improved cost-per-kg relative to present practice); LEGO-LISP (LEO to geosynchronous transfers); LO-LISP (periodic re-boost of decaying LEO orbits); and LISK (geosynchronous satellite station-keeping). It is unlikely that one type of laser will be best for all scenarios. In this paper, we will focus on the last two applications.

  9. Modification of earth-satellite orbits using medium-energy pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, C.R.

    1992-10-01

    Laser Impulse Space Propulsion (LISP) has become an attractive concept, due to recent advances in gas laser technology, high-speed segmented mirrors and improved coeffici-ents for momentum coupling to targets in pulsed laser ablation. There are numerous specialized applications of the basic concept to space science-ranging from far-future and high capital cost to the immediate and inexpensive, such as: LEO-LISP (launch of massive objects into low-Earth-Orbit at dramatically improved cost-per-kg relative to present practice); LEGO-LISP (LEO to geosynchronous transfers); LO-LISP) (periodic re-boost of decaying LEO orbits); and LISK (geosynchronous satellite station-keeping). It is unlikely that one type of laser will be best for all scenarios. In this paper, we will focus on the last two applications.

  10. Modification of earth-satellite orbits using medium-energy pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Laser Impulse Space Propulsion (LISP) has become an attractive concept, due to recent advances in gas laser technology, high-speed segmented mirrors and improved coeffici-ents for momentum coupling to targets in pulsed laser ablation. There are numerous specialized applications of the basic concept to space science-ranging from far-future and high capital cost to the immediate and inexpensive, such as: LEO-LISP (launch of massive objects into low-Earth-Orbit at dramatically improved cost-per-kg relative to present practice); LEGO-LISP (LEO to geosynchronous transfers); LO-LISP) (periodic re-boost of decaying LEO orbits); and LISK (geosynchronous satellite station-keeping). It is unlikely that one type of laser will be best for all scenarios. In this paper, we will focus on the last two applications.

  11. Integration of energy analyses in design through the use of microcomputers

    E-print Network

    Krinkel, David L

    1983-01-01

    Social, economic, and professional forces are compelling architectural designers to evaluate the effects of design decisions upon environmental comfort and energy efficiency in buildings. Siting, massing, locations of ...

  12. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  13. Investigation of design options for improving the energy efficiency of conventionally designed refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Several design options for improving the energy efficiency of conventionally-designed, domestic refrigerator freezers (RFs) were incorporated into two 1990 production RF cabinets and refrigeration systems. The baseline performance of the original units and unit components were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. A detailed refrigerator system computer model which could simulate cycling behavior was used to evaluate the daily energy use impacts for each modification, and modeled versus experimental results are compared. The model was shown to track measured RF performance improvement sufficiently well that it was used with some confidence to investigate additional options that could not be experimentally investigated. Substantial improvements in RF efficiency were demonstrated with relatively minor changes in system components and refrigeration circuit design. However, each improvement exacts a penalty in terms of increased cost or system complexity/reliability. For RF sizes typically sold in the United States (18-22 ft{sup 3} [510--620 1]), alternative, more-elaborate, refrigeration cycles may be required to achieve the program goal (1.00 Kilowatt-hour per day for a 560 l, top mount RF.

  14. Ultra high-energy neutrino at GZK energy: Z-WW showering in dark halo and tau airshowers emerging from the Earth

    E-print Network

    D. Fargion

    2002-09-13

    Relic neutrino nu_r light masses clustering in Galactic and Local Hot Dark Halos act as a beam dump calorimeter. Ultra High Energy nu, above ZeV, born by AGNs, GRBs at cosmic edges, overcoming (GZK) cut-off, may hit near Z resonance and WW-ZZ channels energies: their showering into UHECR fit observed data . Any tiny neutrino mass splitting may reflect into a twin bump at highest GZK energy cut-off. The Z or WW,ZZ showering explain a peculiar clustering in observed UHECR spectra at 10^19, 210^19, 4 10^19 eV found by AGASA. Coincidence of clustered UHECR with highest gamma BLac sources is well tuned to Z-Showering Scenario. Additional prompt TeVs signals occur offering a natural solution of growing Infrared-TeV cut-off paradoxes related to distant TeV BLac sources and a GRB at TeV energy. Electromagnetic Cascades tail explain correlation found between GeV-EGRET Sources and UHECR. Such UHE nu Astrophysics might trace into Horizontal Tau Air-Showers originated by the UHE nu_tau Earth-Skimming in wide Corona Earth Crust around the observer. These Upward and Horizontal tau Air-Showers UPTAUS, HORTAUS, monitor huge volumes from high mountains as well as observing from planes, balloons and satellites. HORTAUS from mountains observe corona masses at UHE neutrino at EeVs energies comparable to few km^3, while from satellites at orbit altitudes, at GZK energies, their corresponding Horizontal Corona Masses may even exceed 150 km^3. The expected event rate may exceed a dozen of event a year in Z-WW Showering model from satellite.

  15. Design of a Protein Potential Energy Landscape by Parameter Optimization

    E-print Network

    Julian Lee; Seung-Yeon Kim; Jooyoung Lee

    2003-09-29

    We propose an automated protocol for designing the energy landscape of a protein energy function by optimizing its parameters. The parameters are optimized so that not only the global minimum energy conformation becomes native-like, but also the conformations distinct from the native structure have higher energies than those close to the native one. We successfully apply our protocol to the parameter optimization of the UNRES potential energy, using the training set of betanova, 1fsd, the 36-residue subdomain of chicken villin headpiece (PDB ID 1vii), and the 10-55 residue fragment of staphylococcal protein A (PDB ID 1bdd). The new protocol of the parameter optimization shows better performance than earlier methods where only the difference between the lowest energies of native-like and non-native conformations was adjusted without considering various degrees of native-likeness of the conformations. We also perform jackknife tests on other proteins not included in the training set and obtain promising results. The results suggest that the parameters we obtained using the training set of the four proteins are transferable to other proteins to some extent.

  16. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  17. Energy transfer kinetics in oxy-fluoride glass and glass-ceramics doped with rare-earth ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sontakke, Atul D.; Annapurna, K. [Glass Science and Technology Section, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)

    2012-07-01

    An investigation of donor-acceptor energy transfer kinetics in dual rare earths doped precursor oxy-fluoride glass and its glass-ceramics containing NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals is reported here, using three different donor-acceptor ion combinations such as Nd-Yb, Yb-Dy, and Nd-Dy. The precipitation of NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals in host glass matrix under controlled post heat treatment of precursor oxy-fluoride glasses has been confirmed from XRD, FESEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Further, the incorporation of dopant ions inside fluoride nano-crystals has been established through optical absorption and TEM-EDX analysis. The noticed decreasing trend in donor to acceptor energy transfer efficiency from precursor glass to glass-ceramics in all three combinations have been explained based on the structural rearrangements that occurred during the heat treatment process. The reduced coupling phonon energy for the dopant ions due to fluoride environment and its influence on the overall phonon assisted contribution in energy transfer process has been illustrated. Additionally, realization of a correlated distribution of dopant ions causing clustering inside nano-crystals has also been reported.

  18. Design of Community Resource Inventories as a Component of Scalable Earth Science Infrastructure: Experience of the Earthcube CINERGI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Grethe, J. S.; Hsu, L.; Malik, T.; Bermudez, L. E.; Gupta, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Whitenack, T.; Ozyurt, I. B.; Condit, C.; Calderon, R.; Musil, L.

    2014-12-01

    EarthCube is envisioned as a cyberinfrastructure that fosters new, transformational geoscience by enabling sharing, understanding and scientifically-sound and efficient re-use of formerly unconnected data resources, software, models, repositories, and computational power. Its purpose is to enable science enterprise and workforce development via an extensible and adaptable collaboration and resource integration framework. A key component of this vision is development of comprehensive inventories supporting resource discovery and re-use across geoscience domains. The goal of the EarthCube CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability) project is to create a methodology and assemble a large inventory of high-quality information resources with standard metadata descriptions and traceable provenance. The inventory is compiled from metadata catalogs maintained by geoscience data facilities, as well as from user contributions. The latter mechanism relies on community resource viewers: online applications that support update and curation of metadata records. Once harvested into CINERGI, metadata records from domain catalogs and community resource viewers are loaded into a staging database implemented in MongoDB, and validated for compliance with ISO 19139 metadata schema. Several types of metadata defects detected by the validation engine are automatically corrected with help of several information extractors or flagged for manual curation. The metadata harvesting, validation and processing components generate provenance statements using W3C PROV notation, which are stored in a Neo4J database. Thus curated metadata, along with the provenance information, is re-published and accessed programmatically and via a CINERGI online application. This presentation focuses on the role of resource inventories in a scalable and adaptable information infrastructure, and on the CINERGI metadata pipeline and its implementation challenges. Key project components are described at the project's website (http://workspace.earthcube.org/cinergi), which also provides access to the initial resource inventory, the inventory metadata model, metadata entry forms and a collection of the community resource viewers.

  19. Earth's magnetic field as a radiator to detect cosmic ray electrons of energy greater than 10 to the 12th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, S. A.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

    1983-01-01

    The synchrotron emission by electrons of energy greater than a few TeV in Earth's magnetic field was examined. An omnidirectional detector, it is shown, can be satisfactorily used to estimate the energy. The collecting power of the detector, it is also shown, is a sensitive function of the area of the detector, the energy of electron, and the number of photons required to identify an electron. The event rate expected was calculated using an ideal balloon-borne detector.

  20. Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A. Supporting analyses and tradeoffs, book 1. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A listing of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) candidate missions is presented for use as a baseline in describing the EOS payloads. The missions are identified in terms of first, second, and third generation payloads. The specific applications of the EOS satellites are defined. The subjects considered are: (1) orbit analysis, (2) space shuttle interfaces, (3) thematic mapping subsystem, (4) high resolution pointable imager subsystem, (5) the data collection system, (6) the synthetic aperture radar, (7) the passive multichannel microwave radiometer, and (8) the wideband communications and handling equipment. Illustrations of the satellite and launch vehicle configurations are provided. Block diagrams of the electronic circuits are included.