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1

BSR/CSA C448-201x, Design and Installation of Earth Energy Bi  

E-print Network

BSR/CSA C448-201x, Design and Installation of Earth Energy ­ Bi national Standard ­ A CSA / ANSI? · About CSA Group · History · Committee members representing · Utilities · Drillers · Installers

2

Clouds and the earth's radiant energy system (CERES) - Instrument design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the earth's reflected shortwave and emitted longwave energy and of the effect of clouds on these quantities are planned using a refined version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning instrument. The CERES instruments are being designed to accumulate earth radiance measurements with a repeatability of better than 0.5 percent over their five year life. Beginning in 1996, flights are planned on both polar and low earth orbit satellites to obtain the required temporal and spatial coverage. The design and development of CERES are discussed.

Kopia, Leonard P.

1991-01-01

3

Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Crushable Energy Absorber for a Passive Earth Entry Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual study was performed to investigate the impact response of a crushable energy absorber for a passive Earth entry vehicle. The spherical energy-absorbing concept consisted of a foam-filled composite cellular structure capable of omni-directional impact-load attenuation as well as penetration resistance. Five composite cellular samples of hemispherical geometry were fabricated and tested dynamically with impact speeds varying from 30 to 42 meters per second. Theoretical crush load predictions were obtained with the aid of a generalized theory which accounts for the energy dissipated during the folding deformation of the cell-walls. Excellent correlation was obtained between theoretical predictions and experimental tests on characteristic cell-web intersections. Good correlation of theory with experiment was also found to exist for the more complex spherical cellular structures. All preliminary design requirements were met by the cellular structure concept, which exhibited a near-ideal sustained crush-load and approximately 90% crush stroke.

Kellas, Sotiris; Corliss, James M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

4

Towards Designing an Integrated Earth Observation System for the Provision of Solar Energy Resource and Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GEOSS strategic plan specifically targets the area of improved energy resource management due to the importance of these to the economic and social viability of every nation of the world. With the world s increasing demand for energy resources, the need for new alternative energy resources grows. This paper overviews a new initiative within the International Energy Agency that addresses needs to better manage and develop solar energy resources worldwide. The goal is to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information of the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface in easily-accessible formats and understandable quality metrics. The scope of solar resource assessment information includes historic data sets and currently derived data products using satellite imagery and other means. Thus, this new task will address the needs of the solar energy sector while at the same time will serve as a model that satisfies GEOSS objectives and goals.

Stackouse, Paul W., Jr.; Renne, D.; Beyer, H.-G.; Wald, L.; Meyers, R.; Perez, R.; Suri, M.

2006-01-01

5

BSR/CSA C448-201x, Design and Installation of Earth Energy Bi  

E-print Network

/ engineering · direct expansion (DX) systems · installation · testing and verification · documentationLinked Technologies · REHAU Construction · HydroGeoPro · Geo-Energie inc. · NGWA · Asheville Geothermal · GeoEnergy Solutions · IGSPHA · IGSPHA Canada 3 · Pretech · GEO · Geothermal NII · Groundheat International

6

Design of low-energy transfer from lunar orbit to asteroid in the Sun-Earth-Moon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroid exploration trajectories which start from a lunar orbit are investigated in this work. It is assumed that the probe departs from lunar orbit and returns to the vicinity of Earth, then escapes from the Earth by performing a perigee maneuver. A low-energy transfer in Sun-Earth-Moon system is adopted. First, the feasible region of low-energy transfer from lunar orbit to perigee within 5 000km height above the Earth surface in Sun-Earth-Moon system is calculated and analyzed. Three transfer types are found, i.e., large maneuver and fast transfers, small maneuver and fast transfers, and disordered and slow transfers. Most of feasibility trajectories belong to the first two types. Then, the low-energy trajectory leg from lunar orbit to perigee and a heliocentric trajectory leg from perigee to asteroid are patched by a perigee maneuver. The optimal full-transfer trajectory is obtained by exploiting the differential evolution algorithm. Finally, taking 4179 Toutatis asteroid as the target, some low-energy transfer trajectories are obtained and analyzed.

Wang, Ya-Min; Qiao, Dong; Cui, Ping-Yuan

2014-12-01

7

Intelligent Design and Earth History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.

Elders, W. A.

2001-05-01

8

Earth's Energy Cycle - Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students perform a lab to explore how the color of materials at the Earth's surface affect the amount of warming. Topics covered include developing a hypothesis, collecting data, and making interpretations to explain why dark colored materials become hotter.

National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

9

Modeling Earth's Energy Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use the STELLA box modeling software to determine Earth's temperature based on incoming solar radiation and outgoing terrestrial radiation. Starting with a simple black body model, the exercise gradually adds complexity by incorporating albedo, then a 1-layer atmosphere, then a 2-layer atmosphere, and finally a complex atmosphere with latent and sensible heat fluxes. With each step, students compare the modeled surface temperature to Earth's actual surface temperature, thereby providing a check on how well each increasingly complex model captures the physics of the actual system.

Kirsten Menking

10

Earth's Energy Imbalance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Global warming' from increased greenhouse gases really refers to a global energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA). TOA measurements of radiation from space can track changes over time but lack absolute accuracy. An inventory of energy shows that over 90% of the imbalance is manifested as ocean heat content (OHC). Here we use ORAS4 ocean reanalysis data and other OHC estimates to compare the OHC rates of change with model-based estimates of TOA energy imbalance (from CCSM4), and with TOA satellite measurements for the year 2000 onwards. Most of the ocean-only OHC analyses extend to only 700 m depth, have large discrepancies among the rates of change of OHC, and do not resolve interannual variability adequately to capture ENSO and volcanic eruption effects. For the first time we show that ORAS4 OHC quantitatively agrees with the radiative forcing estimates of impacts of the 3 major volcanic eruptions since 1960 (Mt. Agung 1963, El Chichn 1982, and Mt. Pinatubo 1991). The natural variability of the energy imbalance is substantial from month-to-month associated with cloud and weather variations, and interannually mainly associated with ENSO, while the sun affects 15% of the climate change signal on decadal timescales. All estimates (OHC and TOA) show that over the past decade the energy imbalance ranges between about 0.5 and 1 W m-2. By using the full-depth ocean, there is a better overall accounting for energy, but discrepancies remain at interannual timescales between OHC and TOA radiation measurements, notably in 2008-09.

Trenberth, K. E.; Fasullo, J.

2013-12-01

11

Earth's energy imbalance and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 0.15 W m-2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed

J. Hansen; M. Sato; P. Kharecha; K. von Schuckmann

2011-01-01

12

CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment 2013 Annual Faculty  

E-print Network

CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment 2013 Annual Faculty Conference Campus Update Terry Parker, Provost August 19, 2013 #12;CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment In Previous Years, we have discussed: · Campus budget on space overall and space location · Accreditation #12;CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment For this year, we

13

Earth Orbit Raise Design for the ARTEMIS Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ARTEMIS is a mission to send two spacecraft from Earth orbit to libration orbits around the Moon Lagrange points and then into lunar orbit. Lunar flybys were used early in the mission to send the spacecraft into low-energy lunar transfers which were designed libration orbits for minimal deltaV. ARTEMIS began by raising the Earth orbits of each spacecraft to achieve the planned lunar flybys. Spacecraft conguration and operation constraints made the Earth orbit raise phase of the mission a signicant mission design challenge by itself. This paper describes the process used to and trajectories that achieved mission goals and the resulting series of Earth orbits that culminated in successful lunar flybys.

Whiffen, Gregory J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

2012-01-01

14

Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications  

E-print Network

an indirect but precise quantification of Earth_s energy im- balance. We compare observed ocean heat storageEarth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications James Hansen,1,2 * Larissa Nazarenko,1 Tausnev3 Our climate model, driven mainly by increasing human-made greenhouse gases and aerosols, among

15

An earth station design for rural telecommunications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design for an earth station intended specifically for rural telephony applications is described with a discussion of overall system and satellite parameters. It is noted that higher satellite transfer gain and reduced receiver noise figure allow the use of more economical combinations of antenna size and HPA power in the rural terminal. Small-aperture earth terminals employing 3-meter antennas, 0.2 Watt transmitters, and 100-K low-noise amplifiers, designed using the integrated common equipment SCPC approach, provide substantial cost and power consumption savings over conventional designs. Specific objectives for a prototype development program are established. The integration of a satellite DAMA control system with a telephone exchange specifically designed for a small number of subscribers in a rural environment provides additional cost reduction.

Tustison, G. F.

16

Approach to rapid mission design and planning. [earth orbit missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and techniques are described for implementation in automated computer systems to assess parametric data, capabilities, requirements and constraints for planning earth orbit missions. Mission planning and design procedures are defined using two types of typical missions as examples. These missions were the high energy Astronomical Observatory Satellite missions, and Small Applications Technology Satellite missions.

Green, W. G.; Matthys, V. J.

1973-01-01

17

MURTHY, MURTY AND RAGHUPATHY Designing Earth Dams Optimally  

E-print Network

are also used in earth dams. Earth dams have been built by various human societies for centuries[ 91 ] MURTHY, MURTY AND RAGHUPATHY Designing Earth Dams Optimally G S R Murthy1 , Katta G Murty2 HES Infra Limited, Hyderabad, India Abstract : Engineering design of an earth dam is a crucial issue

Murty, Katta G.

18

CERES Detects Earth's Heat and Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, CERES, monitors solar energy reflected from the Earth and heat energy emitted from the Earth. In this image, heat energy radiated from the earth is shown in varying shades of yellow, red, blue and white. The brightest yellow areas, such as the Sahara Desert and Arabian Peninsula, are emitting the most energy out to space, while the dark blue polar regions and bright white clouds are the coldest areas on Earth, and are emitting the least energy. The animation (1.5MB) (high-res (4MB)) shows roughly a week of CERES data. For more information: CERES images through Visible Earth. CERES web site Image courtesy of the CERES instrument team

2002-01-01

19

Waste-to-Energy Design Proposal for  

E-print Network

Waste-to-Energy Design Proposal for Red Hook, Brooklyn Senior Design Project (EAEE 3999), Earth-2011) of the Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering of Columbia University. A Waste-to-Energy (WTE) facility municipal solid waste combustion power plant on this site would process 949,000 tons of New York City

Columbia University

20

Designing sustainable soils in Earth's critical zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demographic drivers of increasing human population and wealth are creating tremendous environmental pressures from growing intensity of land use, resulting in soil and land degradation worldwide. Environmental services are provided through multiple soil functions that include biomass production, water storage and transmission, nutrient transformations, contaminant attenuation, carbon and nitrogen storage, providing habitat and maintaining the genetic diversity of the land environment. One of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is to identify key risks to soil, and to design mitigation strategies to manage these risks and to enhance soil functions that can last into the future. The scientific study of Earth's Critical Zone (CZ), the thin surface layer that extends vertically from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of aquifers, provides an essential integrating scientific framework to study, protect and enhance soil functions. The research hypothesis is that soil structure, the geometric architecture of solids, pores and biomass, is a critical indicator and essential factor of productive soil functions. The experimental design selects a network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) as advanced field research sites along a gradient of land use intensity in order to quantify soil structure and soil processes that dictate the flows and transformations of material and energy as soil functions. The CZOs focus multidisciplinary expertise on soil processes, field observation and data interpretation, management science and ecological economics. Computational simulation of biophysical processes provides a quantitative method of integration for the range of theory and observations that are required to quantify the linkages between changes in soil structure and soil functions. Key results demonstrate that changes in soil structure can be quantified through the inputs of organic carbon and nitrogen from plant productivity and microbial activity, coupled with particle aggregation dynamics and organic matter mineralization. Simulation results show that soil structure is highly dynamic and is sensitive to organic matter production and minearlisation rates as influenced by vegetation, tillage and organic carbon amendments. These results point to a step-change in the capability to design soil management and land use through computational simulation. This approach of "sustainability by design" describes the mechanistic process linkages that exist between the above-ground inputs to the CZ and the internal processes that produce soil functions. This approach provides a rational, scientific approach to selecting points of intervention with the CZ in order to design methods to mitigate soil threats and to enhance and sustain vital soil functions. Furthermore, this approach provides a successful pilot study to the use of international networks of CZOs as a planetary-scale laboratory to test the response of CZ process rates along gradients of global environmental change - and to test adaptation strategies to manage the risks arising from the CZ impacts. Acknowledgements. The authors acknowledge the substantial contributions of the entire team of investigators and funding of the SoilTrEC project (EC FP7, agreement no. 244118; www.soiltrec.eu).

Banwart, Steven Allan; de Souza, Danielle Maia; Menon, Manoj; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Panagos, Panos; Vala Ragnardsdottir, Kristin; Rousseva, Svelta; van Gaans, Pauline

2014-05-01

21

Transforming Instructional Designs in Earth Science (TIDES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An enduring challenge in Earth system science education has been to prepare teachers to teach for deep understanding of subject matter. Standards and trade textbooks are often too broad to allow for in-depth treatment of specific topics, and many teachers have had limited exposure to how to plan instruction for the core concepts of Earth system science they are expected to teach. High-quality curriculum materials do exist that provide young people with opportunities to explore concepts in depth and to experience the inquiry process. At the same time, few programs provide teachers with the necessary skills and knowledge to enact and adapt those materials to the unique circumstances of their classrooms and schools. Our interdisciplinary team of curriculum and staff developers, researchers, and district personnel developed a program focused on preparing teachers to use a principled approach to curriculum adaptation in Earth system science. In this program, teachers learned how to use the Understanding by Design (UbD) approach developed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe to organize and adapt materials from an expert-designed curriculum. As part of the program, teachers learn to select or modify materials from the curriculum based on how likely the materials are to develop so-called "enduring understandings" of concepts in the district standards. Teachers also learn how to apply the approach in incorporating materials from other sources besides the expert-designed curriculum, which can include their textbook and materials they design on their own or with colleagues. Third, teachers learn how to collect and interpret evidence of student understanding by designing or adapting performance tasks that call for students to apply knowledge acquired during the unit to solve a problem or complete a project. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial indicates the program we created is effective in improving the quality of teacher assignments and in improving student achievement. From the point of view of district staff, the program is effective because it prepares teachers to become critical consumers of curriculum materials. In this presentation, we present the impacts of our program on teacher instructional planning, curriculum enactment, and student achievement.

McWilliams, H.; McAuliffe, C.; Penuel, W.

2008-12-01

22

Orbit Design of Earth-Observation Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to design a reliable orbit for a medium-resolution scientific satellite to observe Earth for developmental issues such as water resources, agricultural, and industrial. To meet this objective this study firstly, defines the mission, secondly, determines mission constraints, thirdly, design the attitude and orbit control system. As for the observation requirements, and the revisit time are provided as a function of the orbital parameters. Initial orbital parameters are obtained by optimal analysis between observation characteristics and attitude and orbit maintenance costs. Long term station-keeping strategies will be provided for the proposed solutions. Impulsive control will be investigated to provide a reliable and affordable attitude and orbit control system.

Owis, Ashraf

23

Designing and Creating Earth Science Lessons with Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide provides instructions on creating Earth science lessons using Google Earth software. The guide, which focuses on using the free version of the software, covers how to plan a lesson (what the software can do, what can be included in a lesson) and how to create a lesson (creating folders, placemarks, map layers; sharing lessons). There are also links to useful tools for image processing, text editing, and image hosting, and an appendix with instructions for downloading, installing, and using the software. A sample "tour" is provided, and a downloadable, printable version of the guide is included.

Steve Kluge (Fox Lane High School, Bedford, New York, and SUNY Purchase)

24

Earth integrated design: office dormitory facility  

SciTech Connect

The generation process of the design of the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is described. Architectural and energy considerations are discussed. The facility will contain living quarters for guest scientists who come to Oak Ridge to conduct short experiments and sleeping alcoves for local researchers on long experimental shifts as well as office space. (MHR)

Shapira, H.B.; Barnes, P.R.

1980-01-01

25

Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth  

SciTech Connect

For the North American hurricane season, in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and working with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, we have developed a capability that helps visualize the status of the electric transmission system infrastructure. The capability toolkit, called VERDE - Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth, takes advantage of the Google Earth platform to display spatiotemporally informed power grid and related data. Custom libraries describe the electrical transmission network in the Eastern United States and the dynamic status of each transmission line. Standard Google Earth layers provide additional spatial context. In addition to live status, VERDE provides a framework and mechanism to ingest and intuitively present predictive models, data from different sources, and response needs.

Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Stovall, John P [ORNL; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

2008-01-01

26

Earth radiation budget measurement from a spinning satellite: Conceptual design of detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design, sensor characteristics, sensor performance and accuracy, and spacecraft and orbital requirements for a spinning wide-field-of-view earth energy budget detector were investigated. The scientific requirements for measurement of the earth's radiative energy budget are presented. Other topics discussed include the observing system concept, solar constant radiometer design, plane flux wide FOV sensor design, fast active cavity theory, fast active cavity design and error analysis, thermopile detectors as an alternative, pre-flight and in-flight calibration plane, system error summary, and interface requirements.

Sromovsky, L. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Suomi, V. E.

1975-01-01

27

Energy design for architects  

SciTech Connect

This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

Shaw, A. (ed.)

1989-01-01

28

Harvesting renewable energy from Earths mid-infrared emissions  

PubMed Central

It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations. PMID:24591604

Byrnes, Steven J.; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

2014-01-01

29

Designing for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a description of the energy efficient designs for new schools in the Alief Independent School District of Houston, Texas. Exhibit A shows how four major school projects differ from conventional designs. Parameters and designs for heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and lighting are given. Twenty year projected energy costs and

Estes, R. C.

30

Energy Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

1986-01-01

31

Energy-Conscious Design. Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical energy-design elements adaptable for schools include building orientation and shape, inclusion of an energy-storage system, window placement, double or triple window glazing, air-curtain windows, and the use of earth berms and trees as wind breaks. (MLF)

Lawrence, Jerry

1984-01-01

32

Discover Earth: Earth's Energy Budget or Can You Spare a Sun?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction, and provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park.

Gates, Tom; Peters, Dale E.; Steeley, Jeanne

1999-01-01

33

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) - An Earth Observing System experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the CERES experiment that is designed not only to monitor changes in the earth's radiant energy system and cloud systems but to provide these data with enough accuracy and simultaneity to examine the critical climate/cloud feedback mechanisms which may play a major role in determining future changes in the climate system. CERES will estimate not only the flow of radiation at the top of the atmosphere, but also more complete cloud properties that will permit determination of radiative fluxes within the atmosphere and at the surface. The CERES radiation budget data is also planned for utilization in a wide range of other Earth Observing System interdisciplinary science investigations, including studies of land, biological, ocean and atmospheric processes.

Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

1991-01-01

34

Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions.  

PubMed

It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations. PMID:24591604

Byrnes, Steven J; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

2014-03-18

35

Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; McKibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

1991-12-01

36

Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

1991-01-01

37

Alternative energy design toolkit  

E-print Network

This thesis concerns the concepts, structure, and applications of the Alternative Energy Design Toolkit. The toolkit is aimed to provide a widely accessible, easy to use, flexible, yet powerful modeling environment for ...

Sukkasi, Sittha

2004-01-01

38

Dichroic Design for the Orbiting VLBI Earth Station Antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper the design and performance of a single screen frequency selective surface with gridded square loop patch elements are described for diplexing the X-and Ku-band signals in an Orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometer (OVLBI) earth station reflector antenna system.

Wu, T.; Shillue, W.

1993-01-01

39

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

40

Design of Landing PODS for Near Earth Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boeing has been developing design for a set of small landing PODS that could be deployed from a spacecraft bus orbiting a NEA to address the set of SKGs for investigation prior to crewed missions to Near Earth Asteroids or the moons of Mars.

Frampton, R. V.; Ball, J. M.; Pellz, L.

2014-06-01

41

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Ocean Heat Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's energy imbalance, i.e., the difference between solar energy absorbed and thermal energy emitted by the planet, is fundamental to global climate change, as it measures the net forcing acting on the climate system. The imbalance is now positive on decadal time scales, due to dominance of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, and, with canonical climate sensitivity, it yields an estimate of the amount of global warming that remains "in the pipeline" due to GHGs already in the atmosphere. The ocean is the largest sink for excess incoming energy. Inference of information from the energy imbalance is affected by a trade-off between decreasing accuracy of earlier data and the added information from longer time scales. We use two atmosphere-ocean models, with ocean heat and sea level measurements, to study the roles of different climate forcings, unforced climate variability including ocean- cloud interactions, and limitations of data sampling. We find that observed decrease in ocean heat content in the upper 750m in 2004-2005 does not significantly alter the estimate of ~0.5C global warming still "in the pipeline". Continuation and refinement of measurements of ocean heat, sea level, and ice sheet mass balance have the potential to greatly refine understanding of global warming, its practical implications, and important climate processes, but to be most useful they need to be supplemented by better measurements of deep ocean heat content changes and precise measurements of changing climate forcings such as tropospheric aerosols.

Hansen, J.; Willis, J.; Leuliette, E.; Bleck, R.; Lo, K.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Sun, S.

2006-12-01

42

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): algorithm overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), CERES objectives include the following. (1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) record of radiative fluxes at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same techniques as the existing ERBE data. (2) Double the accuracy of

Bruce A. Wielicki; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Bryan A. Baum; Thomas P. Charlock; Richard N. Green; David P. Kratz; Robert B. Lee; Patrick Minnis; G. Louis Smith; Takmeng Wong; David F. Young; Robert D. Cess; James A. Coakley; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Leo Donner; Robert Kandel; Michael D. King; Alvin J. Miller; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; David A. Randall; Larry L. Stowe; Ronald M. Welch

1998-01-01

43

Energy Budget: Earth's Most Important and Least Appreciated Planetary Attribute  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy budget involves more than one kind of energy. People can sense this energy in different ways, depending on what type of energy it is. We see visible light using our eyes. We feel infrared energy using our skin (such as around a campfire). We know some species of animals can see ultraviolet light and portions of the infrared spectrum. NASA satellites use instruments that can "see" different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to observe various processes in the Earth system, including the energy budget. The Sun is a very hot ball of plasma emitting large amounts of energy. By the time it reaches Earth, this energy amounts to about 340 Watts for every square meter of Earth on average. That's almost 6 60-Watt light bulbs for every square meter of Earth! With all of that energy shining down on the Earth, how does our planet maintain a comfortable balance that allows a complex ecosystem, including humans, to thrive? The key thing to remember is the Sun - hot though it is - is a tiny part of Earth's environment. Earth's energy budget is a critical but little understood aspect of our planetary home. NASA is actively studying this important Earth system feature, and sharing data and knowledge about it with the education community.

Chambers, Lin; Bethea, Katie

2013-01-01

44

Optimal Low Energy Earth-Moon Transfers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimality of a low-energy Earth-Moon transfer is examined for the first time using primer vector theory. An optimal control problem is formed with the following free variables: the location, time, and magnitude of the transfer insertion burn, and the transfer time. A constraint is placed on the initial state of the spacecraft to bind it to a given initial orbit around a first body, and on the final state of the spacecraft to limit its Keplerian energy with respect to a second body. Optimal transfers in the system are shown to meet certain conditions placed on the primer vector and its time derivative. A two point boundary value problem containing these necessary conditions is created for use in targeting optimal transfers. The two point boundary value problem is then applied to the ballistic lunar capture problem, and an optimal trajectory is shown. Additionally, the ballistic lunar capture trajectory is examined to determine whether one or more additional impulses may improve on the cost of the transfer.

Griesemer, Paul Ricord; Ocampo, Cesar; Cooley, D. S.

2010-01-01

45

Geothermal Energy--Clean Power From the Earth's Heat  

E-print Network

Geothermal Energy--Clean Power From the Earth's Heat Circular 1249 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;Geothermal Energy--Clean Power From the Earth's Heat By Wendell A-in-publication data are on file with the Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/). Cover--Coso geothermal plant, Navy

46

Lab Activity: Earth's Energy Budget and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth's Energy Budget and the Greenhouse Effect" is a lab activity in which students use computers and scientific applications software to access, display, describe, analyze, and interpret global, climate-related data sets related to the earth's energy budget and the greenhouse effect.

Dave Dempsey

47

Axial focusing of energy from a hypervelocity impact on earth  

SciTech Connect

We have performed computational simulations to determine how energy from a large hypervelocity impact on the Earth`s surface would couple to its interior. Because of the first-order axial symmetry of both the impact energy source and the stress-wave velocity structure of the Earth, a disproportionate amount of energy is dissipated along the axis defined by the impact point and its antipode (point opposite the impact). For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth model, all the impact energy that is radiated as seismic waves into the Earth at a given takeoff angle (ray parameter), independent of azimuthal direction, is refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Material on or near the axis of symmetry experiences more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere, and therefore experiences more irreversible heating. The focusing is most intense in the upper mantle, within the asthenosphere, where seismic energy is most effectively converted to heat. For a sufficiently energetic impact, this mechanism might generate enough local heating to create an isostatic instability leading to uplift, possibly resulting in rifting, volcanism, or other rearrangement of the interior dynamics of the planet. These simulations demonstrate how hypervelocity impact energy can be transported to the Earth`s interior, supporting the possibility of a causal link between large impacts on Earth and major internally-driven geophysical processes.

Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.

1994-12-01

48

Spacecraft Conceptual Design for Returning Entire Near-Earth Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ resource utilization (ISRU) in general, and asteroid mining in particular are ideas that have been around for a long time, and for good reason. It is clear that ultimately human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit will have to utilize the material resources available in space. Historically, the lack of sufficiently capable in-space transportation has been one of the key impediments to the harvesting of near-Earth asteroid resources. With the advent of high-power (or order 40 kW) solar electric propulsion systems, that impediment is being removed. High-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) would be enabling for the exploitation of asteroid resources. The design of a 40-kW end-of-life SEP system is presented that could rendezvous with, capture, and subsequently transport a 1,000-metric-ton near-Earth asteroid back to cislunar space. The conceptual spacecraft design was developed by the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team at the Glenn Research Center in collaboration with the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) team assembled to investigate the feasibility of an asteroid retrieval mission. Returning such an object to cislunar space would enable astronaut crews to inspect, sample, dissect, and ultimately determine how to extract the desired materials from the asteroid. This process could jump-start the entire ISRU industry.

Brophy, John R.; Oleson, Steve

2012-01-01

49

The Earth's Internal Heat Energy and Interior Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource identifies the sources of the Earth's internal heat energy as extraterrestrial impacts, gravitational contraction of the Earth's interior, and the radioactive decay of unstable isotopes, each of which is explained in detail. A discussion of melting and compositional differentiation of the early Earth is followed by a description of the present layers, including the inner and outer core, mantle, and crust. In addition, the asthenosphere and lithosphere are described and illustrated.

Victor Camp

50

Earth Science Markup Language: Transitioning From Design to Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the proposed Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) research is to transition from design to application. The resulting schema and prototype software will foster community acceptance for the "define once, use anywhere" concept central to ESML. Supporting goals include: 1. Refinement of the ESML schema and software libraries in cooperation with the user community. 2. Application of the ESML schema and software libraries to a variety of Earth science data sets and analysis tools. 3. Development of supporting prototype software for enhanced ease of use. 4. Cooperation with standards bodies in order to assure ESML is aligned with related metadata standards as appropriate. 5. Widespread publication of the ESML approach, schema, and software.

Moe, Karen; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul

2002-01-01

51

Ch.2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons  

E-print Network

Ch.2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons #12;Learning Objective One: The Solar System #12;Milky Aphelion ­ farthest, on July 4 152,083,000 km #12;Learning Objective Two: The Solar Energy #12;What is Solar Energy? Energy is the capacity of a physical system to do work. The unit is Joule (J). Solar

Pan, Feifei

52

Earth Science Week 2010 - Infrared Energy - Duration: 3:09.  

NASA Video Gallery

This video explores what infrared energy is and how NASA detects it to study our Earth's systems more completely. Satellite measurements over time allow scientists to study seasonal changes in loca...

53

Design and field testing of solar-assisted Earth coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nominal 1000-foot, 4-inch, PVC coil buried in a serpentine pattern is the heat source/sink for two commercial heat pump systems. This system is vented which allows the easy placement of thermocouples down its length to measure changes in temperature as well as changes in overall U values as a function of length. Integral to the earth coil is a 1000-gallon uninsulated water storage tank in which solar energy from 210 sq ft of solar collectors (single-glazed, metal absorber) can be added directly to the heat pump, circulated through the 1000-foot earth coil system, or added to an insulated storage tank for direct transfer. Temperature ranges for this type of system at the four-foot level are from a nominal range of 780F to a low of 420F in the absence of heat rejection of absorption. The second type of earth coil was a vertical coil approximately 240 feet in length. The vertical heat exchanger consists of a 5-inch PVC pipe which is capped at both ends and pressurized at approximately 15 PSIG. This sealed and pressurized heat exchanger allows a low power pump to circulate water through both the heat pump and vertical heat exchanger system.

Bose, J. E.

54

Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of

A. T. Y. Lui; Y. Kamide

2007-01-01

55

Earth observations informing energy management: a CEOS and GEOSS perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observations have played an increasing role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, spaceborne observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations for solar energy resource assessment. As one of the nine Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of policy and management decision making in the energy sector is receiving considerable attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). We describe current projects being conducted by CEOS member agencies to partner with end-user energy decision makers to enhance their decision support systems using space-based observations. These prototype projects have frequently been pursued through the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Energy Community of Practice and, more recently, in collaboration with the CEOS Energy societal benefit area (SBA). Several case studies exhibiting the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and optimize energy efficiency in the built environment are discussed.

Eckman, Richard S.; Killough, Brian D., Jr.; Hilsenrath, Ernest

2008-12-01

56

Earth observations informing energy management: a CEOS and GEOSS perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observations have played an increasing role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, spaceborne observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations for solar energy resource assessment. As one of the nine Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of policy and management decision making in the energy sector is receiving considerable attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). We describe current projects being conducted by CEOS member agencies to partner with end-user energy decision makers to enhance their decision support systems using space-based observations. These prototype projects have frequently been pursued through the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Energy Community of Practice and, more recently, in collaboration with the CEOS Energy societal benefit area (SBA). Several case studies exhibiting the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and optimize energy efficiency in the built environment are discussed.

Eckman, Richard S.; Killough, Brian D., Jr.; Hilsenrath, Ernest

2009-01-01

57

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 11971205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION AND ERROR  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 1197­1205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION of permeability estimates is illustrated. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth surf. process. landforms, 22, 1197

Chappell, Nick A

58

Design and Implementation of the Web-Enabled Sun, Earth, and Moon Systems (SEMS)  

E-print Network

Design and Implementation of the Web-Enabled Sun, Earth, and Moon Systems (SEMS) By Rahul Singh................................................................ 9 2.6 Background for the Sun, Earth, and Moon Systems (SEMS)........................... 14 III

Hu, Wen-Chen

59

Mother Earth's Museum for Children, Boulder Colorado : harmounious design, an identity with setting  

E-print Network

Natural phenomenons are conceived of the Earth and appropriate to their setting. Architecture designed harmoniously with its setting belong. to the Earth and, through this association, appropriately contributes to the ...

Williams, Charlotte Grojean

1996-01-01

60

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth  

E-print Network

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons #12;© 2015 Pearson of the solar wind. · Explain the characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiant energy. · Illustrate the interception of solar energy and its uneven distribution at the top of the atmosphere

Pan, Feifei

61

The energy balance of the earth' surface : a practical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to the energy balance of the earth's surface with a special emphasis on practical applications. A simple picture of the energy exchange processes that take place at the ground is the following. Per unit time and area an amount of radiant energy is supplied to the surface. This radiation originates partly from the sun, but an~

Bruin de H. A. R

1982-01-01

62

Conversion of solar energy in space for use on Earth  

SciTech Connect

[open quotes]The key to advance global development is to provide adequate supplies of energy at an affordable cost, and to place increasing reliance on renewable energy sources that are compatible with the environment. There is a window of opportunity that may be open for only a few decades to find solutions capable of maintaining the Earth as a liveable planet. There is a growing consensus that to achieve this goal, energy options will have to be developed that rely increasingly on solar energy conversion on earth and in space.[close quotes] Dr. Peter E. Glaser, Vice President Arthur D. Little, Inc. Cambridge, MA, discusses the progression of the technology.

Glaser, P.E. (Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-06-01

63

Earth's formations help transfer energy from earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was used to model the transfer of accumulated stresses along the San Andreas fault line. It was found that the Earth's upper mantle and lower crust regions play a significant role in reloading a fault zone after an earthquake and that post-seismic activity can provide up to 80 percent of the stress released during large earthquakes. These observations are consistent with activity prior to the powerful 1906 quake.

Shelley J. Kenner

64

Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth Science departments can blend the physical bricks and mortar facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; a river runs through it (a pebble tile stream inside the entrance); confluence lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting what Earth Scientists do. This approach can transform our Earth Science buildings into destinations for visitors, to show evoke inquiry. The building becomes a centerpiece, not another blank box on campus. Administrators at the University of Utah now want other new building structures to emulate our geoscience example. Done right, bricks and mortar can build stronger departments, infuse Earth Science into the community, and enhance our educational missions. LEED-certified Earth Science building with Eocene fossil fish wall, river pebble pattern in floor tile, displays, and student gathering areas.

Chan, M. A.

2009-12-01

65

On the gravitational energy associated with Earth's changing oblateness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative to the gravitational potential energy of the Earth's monopole, the multipole energy has received far less attention. In this paper, we recapitulate the basic physics from first principles and derive the formulas for multipole energies in analogy to classical electrostatic theory. We focus on the zonal quadrupole energy associated with the Earth's oblateness, the dominant term in Earth's gravity field apart from the monopole. We find the gravitational energy Eoblateness ? 10-6 |Emonopole| = +2.5 1026 J. We examine the implications of Eoblateness and its changes associated with long-term `secular' decreases in the oblateness parameter J2. We find the rate of loss of Eoblateness due to the Earth rounding induced by the present-day GIA is about -200 GW, an amount quite significant in the kinetic energy budget of the mantle heat engine that drives the plate tectonics that has been estimated to be 1 TW. We also assert that the tidal braking and the global earthquake dislocations, both resulting in Earth rounding on long-term geological timescales, are accompanied with a secular decrease of Eoblateness at nearly the same rate of several GW.

Chao, B. F.

2014-11-01

66

Near-Earth object intercept trajectory design for planetary defense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking the orbit of asteroids and planning for asteroid missions have ceased to be a simple exercise, and become more of a necessity, as the number of identified potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroids increases. Several software tools such as Mystic, MALTO, Copernicus, SNAP, OTIS, and GMAT have been developed by NASA for spacecraft trajectory optimization and mission design. However, this paper further expands upon the development and validation of an Asteroid Mission Design Software Tool (AMiDST), through the use of approach and post-encounter orbital variations and analytic keyhole theory. Combining these new capabilities with that of a high-precision orbit propagator, this paper describes fictional mission trajectory design examples of using AMiDST as applied to a fictitious asteroid 2013 PDC-E. During the 2013 IAA Planetary Defense Conference, the asteroid 2013 PDC-E was used for an exercise where participants simulated the decision-making process for developing deflection and civil defense responses to a hypothetical asteroid threat.

Vardaxis, George; Wie, Bong

2014-08-01

67

A new mix design concept for earth-moist concrete: A theoretical and experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses experiments on earth-moist concrete (EMC) based on the ideas of a new mix design concept. First, a brief introduction into particle packing and relevant packing theories is given. Based on packing theories for geometric packing, a new concept for the mix design of earth-moist concrete will be introduced and discussed in detail. Within the new mix design

G. Hsken; H. J. H. Brouwers

2008-01-01

68

Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1959, Miller and Urey (Science130, 245) published their classic compilation of energy sources for indigenous prebiotic organic synthesis on the early Earth. Much contemporary origins of life research continues to employ their original estimates for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges, 2 1019 J yr-1 and 6 1019 J yr-1, respectively. However, more recent work

Christopher Chyba; Carl Sagan

1991-01-01

69

Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two dozen energy-related earth science lessons comprise this guide for secondary school teachers. Intended to provide information about energy issues that exist in Pennsylvania and throughout the world, the activities cover topics such as coal mining, radioactivity, and the distribution of oil and gas in Pennsylvania. Lessons include objectives,

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

70

Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizens daily life, as well as the Nations economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness alternative energiesprimarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of not putting all eggs in one basket. This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nations vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earths natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopesprincipally of uranium, thorium, and potassiumthat occur in small amounts in all rocks. This heat then rises to and through the Earths surface, where it escapes into the atmosphere. The amount of heat that flows annually from the Earth into the atmosphere is enormousequivalent to ten times the annual energy consumption of the United States and more than that needed to power all nations of the world, if it could be fully harnessed. Even if only 1 percent of the thermal energy contained within the uppermost 10 kilometers of our planet could be tapped, this amount would be 500 times that contained in all oil and gas resources of the world. How might we benefit from this vast amount of thermal energy beneath our feet? Where, by what means, and how much of the Earths natural heat can be usefully harnessed? These are especially important questions to contemplate, because global population is expected to soon exceed seven billion and many scientists believe that the worlds fossilfuel resources may be substantially depleted within this century. Faced with such prospects, both the public and private sectors are working toward more fully utilizing the Earths abundant thermal energy and other alternative energy resources. A skeptic might question the wisdom of devoting much national effort to geothermal energy development, especially because many experts think that geothermal heat can contribute at most about 10 percent to the Nations energy supply using current technologies. However, ongoing advances in exploration and heat-extraction technologies are improving our ability to use the resource and may substantially increase the geothermal contribution to the Nations energy supply. In an attempt to help national planners and average citizens alike understand the nature and energy potential of geothermal resources, this book (1) describes the distribution and nature of geothermal energy, (2) reviews the common types of geothermal systems that provide useful energy with current technology, (3) considers potential geothermal resources that might someday be tapped with dev

Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

2003-01-01

71

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Research for Energy Management. Part 1; Overview of Energy Issues and an Assessment of the Potential for Application of NASA Earth Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective management of energy resources is critical for the U.S. economy, the environment, and, more broadly, for sustainable development and alleviating poverty worldwide. The scope of energy management is broad, ranging from energy production and end use to emissions monitoring and mitigation and long-term planning. Given the extensive NASA Earth science research on energy and related weather and climate-related parameters, and rapidly advancing energy technologies and applications, there is great potential for increased application of NASA Earth science research to selected energy management issues and decision support tools. The NASA Energy Management Program Element is already involved in a number of projects applying NASA Earth science research to energy management issues, with a focus on solar and wind renewable energy and developing interests in energy modeling, short-term load forecasting, energy efficient building design, and biomass production.

Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.

2005-01-01

72

Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

2007-02-01

73

Simulating earth core using high energy lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melting curve and equation of state of iron and iron alloys at the inner core boundary (330 GPa, about 5000 K) are still unknown. This severally limits current modelling of earth constitution and dynamics. In this paper, recent numerical and experimental studies performed using laser generated isentropic ramp compression on iron and aluminium samples are presented. On the experimental side, direct laser ramp compression was achieved on iron. Time-resolved measurements were compared to hydrodynamic computations accounting for the polymorphic phase transformations. Before studying iron that presents a solid-solid phase transition along the isentropic path, we studied the time evolution of the atomic structure of aluminium using molecular dynamics simulations at the same length and time scales as the experiment. Like many metals, aluminium presents an elasto-plastic phase transition and we studied, using this microscopic approach, the effect of plasticity on the backward integration technique used to extract equation of state information from the experimental VISAR signal.

Koenig, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Brambrink, E.; Nourou, A.; Ravasio, A.; Wei, H. G.; Vinci, T.; Mazevet, S.; Occelli, F.; Morard, G.; Guyot, F.; De Resseguier, T.; Lescoute, E.

2010-06-01

74

Energy principles in architectural design  

SciTech Connect

A foundation of basic information pertaining to design and energy use in buildings is presented with emphasis on principles and concepts rather than applications of particular solution. Energy impacts of landforms and topography, vegetation, wind and ventilation, and sun on planning and designing the site are discused. General design considerations involving passive heating, cooling, and lighting systems are detailed. For the design of active building systems, heating, cooling, lighting, and HVAC systems are described. (MCW)

Dean, E.

1981-01-01

75

ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Enhancing opportunities for learning using an Earth systems science framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.

Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.

2012-12-01

76

The Earth System's Missing Energy and Land Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy content of the Earth system is determined by the balance or imbalance between the incoming energy from solar radiation and the outgoing energy of terrestrial long wavelength radiation. Change in the Earth system energy budget is the ultimate cause of global climate change. Satellite data show that there is a small yet persistent radiation imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere such that Earth has been steadily accumulating energy, consistent with the theory of greenhouse effect. It is commonly believed [IPCC, 2001; 2007] that up to 94% of the energy trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is absorbed by the upper several hundred meter thick layer of global oceans, with the remaining to accomplish ice melting, atmosphere heating, and land warming, etc. However, the recent measurements from ocean monitoring system indicated that the rate of oceanic heat uptake has not kept pace with the greenhouse heat trapping rate over the past years [Trenberth and Fasullo, Science, 328: 316-317, 2010]. An increasing amount of energy added to the earth system has become unaccounted for, or is missing. A recent study [Loeb et al., Nature Geoscience, 5:110-113, 2012] suggests that the missing energy may be located in the deep ocean down to 1,800 m. Here we show that at least part of the missing energy can be alternatively explained by the land mass warming. We argue that the global continents alone should have a share greater than 10% of the global warming energy. Although the global lands reflect solar energy at a higher rate, they use less energy for evaporation than do the oceans. Taken into accounts the terrestrial/oceanic differences in albedo (34% vs. 28%) and latent heat (27% vs. 58% of net solar radiation at the surface), the radiative energy available per unit surface area for storage or other internal processes is more abundant on land than on ocean. Despite that the lands cover only about 29% of the globe, the portion of global warming energy stored in the lands is much greater than previously thought. The earth system is consisted of well-connected and interdependent atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. The lack of knowledge about or misrepresentation of the role of the heat capacity of the continental land masses will inevitably affect our ability to understand Earth's climate response to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Huang, S.; Wang, H.; Duan, W.

2013-05-01

77

Exceeding Energy Consumption Design Expectations  

E-print Network

case study new 'energy efficient' fully air conditioned office building has been monitored since occupation in June 2010 to observe the difference between operational energy consumption and design targets. In the first full year of operation (2011...

Castleton, H. F.; Beck, S. B. M.; Hathwat, E. A.; Murphy, E.

2013-01-01

78

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

79

Gibbs energies of formation of rare earth oxysulfides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard Gibbs energy change accompanying the conversion of rare earth oxides to oxysulfides by reaction of rare earth oxides with diatomic sulfur gas has been measured in the temperature range 870 to 1300 K using the solid state cell: Pt/Cu+Cu2S/R2O2S+R2O3?(CaO)ZrO2?Ni+NiO, Pt where R=La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy. The partial pressure of diatomic sulfur over a mixture of rare earth oxide (R2O3) and oxysulfide (R2O2S) is fixed by the dissociation of Cu2S to Cu in a closed system. The buffer mixture of Cu+Cu2S is physically separated from the rare earth oxide and oxysulfide to avoid complications arising from interaction between them. The corresponding equilibrium oxygen partial pressure is measured with an oxide solid electrolyte cell. Gibbs energy change for the conversion of oxide to the corresponding oxysulfide increases monotonically with atomic number of the rare earth element. Second law enthalpy of formation also shows a similar trend. Based on this empirical trend Gibbs energies of formation of oxysulfides of Pr, Eu, Ho, and Er are estimated as a function of temperature.

Akila, R.; Jacob, K. T.; Shukla, A. K.

1987-03-01

80

Gravitational potential energy of the earth - A spherical harmonic approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic expansion agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the crust and mantle of -2.77 x 10 to the 29th ergs, an order of magnitude below McKenzie's (1966) estimate. McKenzie's result stems from mathematical error. Our figure is almost identical with Kaula's (1963) estimate of the minimum shear strain energy in the mantle, a not unexpected result on the basis of the virial theorem. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 20th P is found by assuming that the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation of energy. This number is almost six orders of magnitude below MacDonald's (1966) estimate of the viscosity and removes his objection to convection. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at 1% efficiency, then the viscosity is 10 to the 22nd P, a number preferred by Cathles (1975) and Peltier and Andrew (1976) as the viscosity of the mantle.

Rubincam, D. P.

1979-01-01

81

Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008  

E-print Network

blue), the deep ocean (red) and energy absorbed in theand energy budgets from 1961 Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research and Wealth from Oceans?1 . Ocean warming (90% of the total of the Earths energy

2011-01-01

82

Solar energy system case study: Telex Communications, Blue Earth, Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

A study is made of a solar energy system for space heating a 97,000-square-foot office, factory, and warehouse building owned by Telex Communications, Inc. in Blue Earth, Minnesota. The solar system has 11,520 square feet of ground-oriented flat-plate collectors and a 20,000-gallon storage tank inside the building. Freeze protection is by drainback. Solar heated water from the storage tank circulates around the clock throughout the heating season to heating coils in the ducts. The system achieves its design solar fraction, is efficient, and generally reliable, but not cost-effective. Performance data for the solar system was collected by the National Solar Data Network for three heating seasons from 1978 to 1981. Because of a freeze-up of the collector array in December 1978, the solar system was only partially operational in the 1978 to 1979 heating season. The data in this report were collected in the 1979 to 1980 and 1980 to 1981 heating seasons.

Raymond, M.G.

1984-09-01

83

General Atmospheric Sciences Energy: Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere  

E-print Network

25 #12;Enhancement of Greenhouse effect CO2 Ch4 H2O N2O CFC #12;Air in the lower atmosphere Absorption, Emission, and Equilibrium #12; #12; #12;(greenhouse effect) (a) (b) 33 #12; #12; 15 10 20General Atmospheric Sciences Energy: Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere Reference Meteorology

Chen, Yang-Yuan

84

EARTH'S CLIMATE, THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT, AND ENERGY  

E-print Network

carbon emissions associated with deforestation (or uptake associated with afforestation). United States,ppm/yr 2000195019001850 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Carbondioxideemissions,PgC/yr Total United States Canada Latin America = +2.6 W m-2 #12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt per square

Schwartz, Stephen E.

85

The Sun: Earth's Primary Energy Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides elementary school teachers with background knowledge about science concepts needed to understand the first of seven essential principles of climate literacy--the sun is the primary source of energy for our climate system. Graphs, diagrams, and oneline resources provide more background for the teacher. The article appears in a free online magazine that focuses on the seven essential princples of the climate sciences.

Kimberly Lightle

86

Earth's Changing Energy and Water Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new assessment of the flows of energy through the climate system will be presented. It features an imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere owing to an enhanced greenhouse effect that produces global warming. Most of the surplus energy trapped increases ocean heat content. Large upwards surface thermal radiation is offset by back radiation from greenhouse gases and clouds in the atmosphere. At the surface, the net losses of energy are greatest through evapotranspiration, followed closely by net radiation, while sensible heat losses are much smaller. This highlights the vital role of the hydrological cycle and why direct changes in the water cycle are a consequence of climate change. Nonetheless, net changes in surface evaporation are fairly modest and a much larger percentage change occurs in the water-holding capacity as atmospheric temperatures increase (4% per F). A consequence is increased water vapor in the atmosphere which feeds all storms and thus leads to more intense precipitation; increased water vapor, heavier rains and stronger storms are already observed to be happening. However, the disparity between modestly enhanced evaporation and heavier rains means decreases in frequency of precipitation and enhanced droughts. With more precipitation per unit of upward motion in the atmosphere, the atmospheric circulation weakens, causing monsoons to falter. Observed changes in Atlantic hurricanes will be used to illustrate some of these aspects. Understanding these profound consequences of climate change is especially important for water managers. In reality that includes everyone.

Trenberth, K. E.

2008-05-01

87

Gamma rays made on Earth have unexpectedly high energies  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are the source of the highest-energy nonanthropogenic photons produced on Earth. Associated with thunder-storms - and in fact, with individual lightning discharges - they are presumed to be the bremsstrahlung produced when relativistic electrons, accelerated by the storms' strong electric fields, collide with air molecules some 10-20 km above sea level. The TGFs last up to a few milliseconds and contain photons with energies on the order of MeV.

Miller, Johanna

2011-01-15

88

Impact Test and Simulation of Energy Absorbing Concepts for Earth Entry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear dynamic finite element simulations have been performed to aid in the design of an energy absorbing concept for a highly reliable passive Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) that will directly impact the Earth without a parachute. EEV's are designed to return materials from asteroids, comets, or planets for laboratory analysis on Earth. The EEV concept uses an energy absorbing cellular structure designed to contain and limit the acceleration of space exploration samples during Earth impact. The spherical shaped cellular structure is composed of solid hexagonal and pentagonal foam-filled cells with hybrid graphite- epoxy/Kevlar cell walls. Space samples fit inside a smaller sphere at the center of the EEV's cellular structure. Comparisons of analytical predictions using MSC,Dytran with test results obtained from impact tests performed at NASA Langley Research Center were made for three impact velocities ranging from 32 to 40 m/s. Acceleration and deformation results compared well with the test results. These finite element models will be useful for parametric studies of off-nominal impact conditions.

Billings, Marcus D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Kellas, Sotiris

2001-01-01

89

Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005  

E-print Network

Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005 Scientists at Columbia University, NASA, and the Department of Energy have found that the Earth is out of energy balance: the Earth is absorbing more energy from sunlight than it is emitting back to space in the form of heat

Hansen, James E.

90

Active Debris Removal mission design in Low Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active Debris Removal (ADR) aims at removing large sized intact objects ? defunct satellites, rocket upper-stages ? from space crowded regions. Why? Because they constitute the main source of the long-term debris environment deterioration caused by possible future collisions with fragments and worse still with other intact but uncontrolled objects. In order to limit the growth of the orbital debris population in the future (referred to as the Kessler syndrome), it is now highly recommended to carry out such ADR missions, together with the mitigation measures already adopted by national agencies (such as postmission disposal). At the French Space Agency, CNES, and in the frame of advanced studies, the design of such an ADR mission in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is under evaluation. A two-step preliminary approach has been envisaged. First, a reconnaissance mission based on a small demonstrator (500 kg) rendezvousing with several targets (observation and in-flight qualification testing). Secondly, an ADR mission based on a larger vehicle (inherited from the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept) being able to capture and deorbit several preselected targets by attaching a propulsive kit to these targets. This paper presents a flight dynamics level tradeoff analysis between different vehicle and mission concepts as well as target disposal options. The delta-velocity, times, and masses required to transfer, rendezvous with targets and deorbit are assessed for some propelled systems and propellant less options. Total mass budgets are then derived for two end-to-end study cases corresponding to the reconnaissance and ADR missions mentioned above.

Martin, Th.; Prot, E.; Desjean, M.-Ch.; Bitetti, L.

2013-03-01

91

Designing to Save Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While tripling the campus size of Alvin Community College in Texas, architects and engineers cut back on nonessential lighting, recaptured waste heat, insulated everything possible, and let energy considerations dictate the size and shape of the building. (Author/MLF)

Santamaria, Joseph W.

1977-01-01

92

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

93

User-based Resource Design in Earth Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reform in the classroom, and certainly in academic publishing, is greatly influenced not only by educational research, but also by direct surveys of students and instructors. This presentation looks at changes to Columbia Earthscape, www.earthscape.org, based on an ongoing series of evaluation and testing measures. Two years ago, the Earthscape project was introduced as a central online resource. It aimed to select and make available authoritative materials from all the disciplines that constitute Earth-system science. Its design harnessed the dynamics of the Web and the interrelatedness of research, education, and public policy. In response to substantial class tests, involving five universities in the United States and abroad, three focus groups of geoscience faculty and librarians, user feedback, internal editorial-board review, and extensive consultation with colleagues in commercial and nonprofit educational publishing, Earthscape is implementing broad changes in design and content. These include arranging the site into sections that correspond to user profiles (scientist, policy-maker, teacher, and student), providing easier search or browsing (by research area, policy content, or lesson concept), and streamlining the presentation of links among our resources. These changes are implemented through more advanced searching capabilities, greater specificity of content metatags, and an overall increase in content from journals, books, and original material. The metatags now include all core geoscience disciplines or a range of pertinent issues (such as climate change, geologic hazards, and pollution). Reflecting the evaluation by librarians, Earthscape's revised interface will permit users to begin with a primary area of interest based on who they are, their "profile." They can then either browse the site's entire holdings in that area, perform searches within each area, or follow the extensive hyperlinks to explore connections to other areas and user needs. Another two focus groups consisting of undergraduate geoscience teaching faculty brought about a rearrangement of hyperlinked resources within course-module pages. This involved less-cluttered hot-linking in running text and uniform lists of video and images links and research links at the end of all modules. Finally, after analyzing the results of a survey questionnaire administered to hundreds of students, we increased and revised content metatags to produce more specific search returns and redistributed lists of annotated links throughout the site. We are also are continuing to seek more full-text content, including original student research and exposition.

Luby, M.; Haber, J.; Wittenberg, K.

2001-12-01

94

Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob

2012-01-01

95

Design strategies for human & earth systems modeling to meet emerging multi-scale decision support needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of coupled human and earth systems models promises immense potential and grand challenges as they transition toward new roles as core tools for defining and living within planetary boundaries. New frontiers in community model development include not only computational, organizational, and geophysical process questions, but also the twin objectives of more meaningfully integrating the human dimension and extending applicability to informing policy decisions on a range of new and interconnected issues. We approach these challenges by posing key policy questions that require more comprehensive coupled human and geophysical models, identify necessary model and organizational processes and outputs, and work backwards to determine design criteria in response to these needs. We find that modular community earth system model design must: * seamlessly scale in space (global to urban) and time (nowcasting to paleo-studies) and fully coupled on all component systems * automatically differentiate to provide complete coupled forward and adjoint models for sensitivity studies, optimization applications, and 4DVAR assimilation across Earth and human observing systems * incorporate diagnostic tools to quantify uncertainty in couplings, and in how human activity affects them * integrate accessible community development and application with JIT-compilation, cloud computing, game-oriented interfaces, and crowd-sourced problem-solving We outline accessible near-term objectives toward these goals, and describe attempts to incorporate these design objectives in recent pilot activities using atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere-human models (WRF-Chem, IBIS, UrbanSim) at urban and regional scales for policy applications in climate, energy, and air quality.

Spak, S.; Pooley, M.

2012-12-01

96

75 FR 34515 - American Energy Services, Inc., Dynacore Patent Litigation Trust, Earth Sciences, Inc., Empiric...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Energy Services, Inc., Dynacore Patent Litigation Trust, Earth Sciences, Inc., Empiric Energy, Inc., Future Carz, Inc...current and accurate information concerning the securities of Earth Sciences, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

2010-06-17

97

Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that much of the contemporary origin-of-life research uses the original estimates of Miller and Urey (1959) for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges being equal to 2 x 10 to the 19th J/yr and 6 x 10 to the 19th J/yr, respectively. However, data from experiments that provide analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges indicate that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole/J) are about one order of magnitude higher than the coronal discharge yields. This suggests that, on early earth, organic production by lightning may have dominated that due to coronal emission. New values are recommended for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early earth, 1 x 10 to the 18th J/yr and 5 x 10 to the 17th J/yr, respectively.

Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

1991-01-01

98

Space - A solution to the energy problems on earth?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of developing space-based methods and technologies for the production of energy for consumption on earth is examined emphasizing the use of nuclear fusion and a lunar base. The present global demand for energy and existing sources are reviewed, and the development of nuclear fusion as an alternative energy source is described including the Joint European Torus. Space-based means of energy production are examined, and references are made to the results of the Lunar Energy Enterprise Case Study conducted by NASA in 1989. The requirements of a lunar-based solar-energy plant include the deployment of the required infrastructure and the use of microwave transmitters to send the energy to earth. The availability of helium-3 on the moon suggests that the element can be extracted and processed with lunar facilities. A lunar base developed for the Space Exploration Initiative and satellite power systems are needed for the development of the lunar facility. Emphasis is placed on the advantages of the lunar facility which include the protection of the terrestrial environment from contamination.

Collet, J.

1992-02-01

99

Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana  

E-print Network

pipe embedded in the earth, and gains or rejects heat before returning to the heat pump. Three earth heat exchanger configurations have been field tested, and a design method for sizing these to water-source heat pumps for residential and commercial...

Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

1985-01-01

100

Energy gases of abiogenic origin in the Earth's crust  

SciTech Connect

Overwhelming evidence supports the belief that the world's natural-gas resources come from the decomposition of organic matter in sedimentary rock formations. Yet alternative arguments supporting an abiogenic origin have been advanced for more than 100 years. In recent years these arguments have centered on the concept that large quantities of primordial methane were trapped in the Earth during planetary accretion and that this gas is migrating into the Earth's crust and accumulating in reservoirs in sedimentary rock. The economic implications of these arguments could be profound and merit a thorough review of all evidence that might clarify this issue. The likelihood that methane might be migrating from the Earth's interior is explored. Abiogenic hydrogen and methane are generated in the Earth's crust through hydrolysis by ultramafic and mafic rocks at temperatures below 500[degrees]C. The quantities of gas that could form from bodies of such rocks can be of the same order of magnitude as those of typical gas fields. Commercial reservoirs of abiogenic energy gases have, however, never been found. It appears that most sites were hydrogen and methane can be generated abiogenically are also those where no structural traps are present, where water access is limited, or where the presence of other substances such as sulfate inhibit hydrolysis. We therefore conclude that resources of abiogenic energy gases in the Earth's crust are probably small and of little or no commercial interest. Exploration strategies for such resources should be critically evaluated in the light of currently available evidence to assess the potential risks involved. 301 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Apps, J.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Kamp, P.C. van de (Cornelis Corp., St. Helena, CA (United States))

1993-01-01

101

Materials and Energy Flows in the Earth Science Century  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Circular, "Materials and Energy Flows in the Earth Science Century -- A Summary of a Workshop Held by the USGS in November 1998," takes a "thorough and holistic view of the materials flow cycle, wherein materials are tracked throughout their life cycle from extraction, through manufacturing, consumer use, reuse, recycling, and disposition." The circular ends with selected references and appendixes including a list of speakers and participants and their contact information.

102

Solar energy system case study: Telex Communications, Blue Earth, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of a solar energy system for space heating a 97,000-square-foot office, factory, and warehouse building owned by Telex Communications, Inc. in Blue Earth, Minnesota. The solar system has 11,520 square feet of ground-oriented flat-plate collectors and a 20,000-gallon storage tank inside the building. Freeze protection is by drainback. Solar heated water from the storage tank circulates

1984-01-01

103

The Design and Evaluation of a HighPerformance Earth Science Carter T. Shock, Chialin Chang, Bongki Moon, Anurag Acharya,  

E-print Network

The Design and Evaluation of a High­Performance Earth Science Database Carter T. Shock, Chialin the design of an earth science database as well as our early experiences with it. The primary design goal amount of earth science research is devoted to developing correlations between raw sensor readings from

Moon, Bongki

104

Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Baldwin, C. J. (principal investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

1972-01-01

105

Earth Science Contexts for Teaching Physics. Part 2: Contexts Relating to the Teaching of Energy, Earth and Beyond and Radioactivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how physics teaching can be more relevant for elementary and secondary students by integrating physics and earth science content that students can relate to and understand. Identifies and explains Earth contexts that can be appropriately implemented into the physics curriculum such as energy resources and radioactivity. (Author/YDS)

King, Chris; Kennett, Peter

2002-01-01

106

Attributes of Indoor Environmental Quality to Earth-sheltered Building Design  

E-print Network

and sustainability of present earth sheltered building design and development. To attain its goals, the study develops a conceptual micro-framework of healthy buildings' parameters and economic aspects for evaluating links between sustainable construction...

Sheta, S.

2010-01-01

107

A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

1984-01-01

108

A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

1984-01-01

109

New retaining wall design criteria based on lateral earth pressure measurements  

E-print Network

NEW RETAINING WALL DESIGN CRITERIA BASED ON LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS A Thesis by William V. ' Wright Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1975 Major Subject: Civil Engineering NEW RETAINING WALL DESIGN CRITERIA BASED ON LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS A thesi s by William V. Wright (Chairman of Commi ttee) (M ber) (Head of Department) 0'( (Member) August 1975...

Wright, William Vincent

1975-01-01

110

Linking Humans to Data: Designing an Enterprise Architecture for EarthCube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Science Foundation (NSF)'s EarthCube is a strategic initiative towards a grand enterprise that holistically incorporates different geoscience research domains. The EarthCube as envisioned by NSF is a community-guided cyberinfrastructure (NSF 2011). The design of EarthCube enterprise architecture (EA) offers a vision to harmonize processes between the operations of EarthCube and its information technology foundation, the geospatial cyberinfrastructure. (Yang et al. 2010). We envision these processes as linking humans to data. We report here on fundamental ideas that would ultimately materialize as a conceptual design of EarthCube EA. EarthCube can be viewed as a meta-science that seeks to advance knowledge of the Earth through cross-disciplinary connections made using conventional domain-based earth science research. In order to build capacity that enables crossing disciplinary chasms, a key step would be to identify the cornerstones of the envisioned enterprise architecture. Human and data inputs are the two key factors to the success of EarthCube (NSF 2011), based upon which three hypotheses have been made: 1) cross disciplinary collaboration has to be achieved through data sharing; 2) disciplinary differences need to be articulated and captured in both computer and human understandable formats; 3) human intervention is crucial for crossing the disciplinary chasms. We have selected the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF, CIO Council 2013) as the baseline for the envisioned EarthCube EA, noting that the FEAF's deficiencies can be improved upon with inputs from three other popular EA frameworks. This presentation reports the latest on the conceptual design of an enterprise architecture in support of EarthCube.

Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Meyer, C. B.

2013-12-01

111

The definition and specification of the near earth environmental criteria for spacecraft thermal design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variation of the earth's thermal and albedo radiation received by a near-earth orbiting space vehicle or space payload as a result of temporal variation of the earth atmosphere is discussed. A statistical study of current satellite data for determining probability distributions is proposed. With these distributions the thermal designer can define confidence levels on predicted temperature ranges which are compatible with engineering models for use in design, failure probabilities, and spacecraft cost estimates. Use of the distributions in environmental criteria guidelines is also considered.

Gary, G. A.; Craven, P. D.

1974-01-01

112

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

113

Recent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatoriesRecent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm andPart 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and  

E-print Network

observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm andPart 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and SeisComPSeisComP Jean-Marie SAUREL (2,1), Frdric RANDRIAMORA (3 observatories community : EarthWorm and SeisComP. The first is renowned for its ability to process real time

Beauducel, Franois

114

TPS design for aerobraking at Earth and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of using an aerobrake system for manned and unmanned missions to Mars, and to Earth from Mars and lunar orbits. A preliminary thermal protection system (TPS) was examined for five unmanned small nose radius, straight bi-conic vehicles and a scaled up Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle aerocapturing at Mars. Analyses were also conducted for the scaled up AFE and an unmanned Sample Return Cannister (SRC) returning from Mars and aerocapturing into Earth orbit. Also analyzed were three different classes of lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's): an expendable scaled up modified Apollo Command Module (CM), a raked cone (modified AFT), and three large nose radius domed cylinders. The LTV's would be used to transport personnel and supplies between Earth and the moon in order to establish a manned base on the lunar surface. The TPS for all vehicles analyzed is shown to have an advantage over an all-propulsive velocity reduction for orbit insertion. Results indicate that TPS weight penalties of less than 28 percent can be achieved using current material technology, and slightly less than the most favorable LTV using advanced material technology.

Williams, S. D.; Gietzel, M. M.; Rochelle, W. C.; Curry, D. M.

1991-01-01

115

Skylab Earth Resource Experiment Package critical design review. [conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline of the conference for reviewing the design of the EREP is presented. Systems design for review include: tape recorder, support equipment, view finder/tracking, support hardware, and control and display panel.

1973-01-01

116

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha  

E-print Network

1 Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025, USA Columbia University Earth Institute, New York that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during

Hansen, James E.

117

Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

1975-01-01

118

Window design to conserve energy  

SciTech Connect

Describes how windows can be made more energy efficient. Outlines exterior window strategies, outlines frames and glazing, and describes interior strategies. Each strategy is designed to maximize at least one of the attributes of windows: passive solar heat, daylighting, shading, insulation, air tightness, and ventilation. Primary audience: architects, contractors, builders, and students.

NONE

1994-12-31

119

Solar Photoelectrochemical Energy Conversion using Earth-Abundant Nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the vast majority of energy consumed worldwide is derived from fossil fuels, the growing interest in making cleaner alternative energies more economically viable has motivated recent research efforts aimed to improve photovoltaic, wind, and biomass power generation. Clean power generation also requires clean burning fuels, such as H2 and O2, so that energy can still be provided on demand at all times, despite the intermittent nature inherent to solar or wind power. My research has focused on the rational approach to synthesizing earth-abundant nanomaterials with applications in the generation of clean alternative fuels and understanding the structure-property relationships which directly influence their performance. Herein, we describe the development of low-cost, earth-abundant layered metal chalcogenides as high-performance electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution, and hematite photoanodes for photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution. This work has revealed a particularly interesting concept where catalytic performance can be enhanced by controlling the phase behavior of the material and taking advantage of previously unexploited properties to overcome the challenges traditionally limiting the performance of these layered materials for hydrogen evolution catalysis.

Lukowski, Mark A.

120

10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND...RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy...

2013-01-01

121

10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND...RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy...

2011-01-01

122

10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND...RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy...

2010-01-01

123

10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND...RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy...

2012-01-01

124

10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND...RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy...

2014-01-01

125

Earth  

E-print Network

As in his original cosmology proposal 1,2 and in subsequent writings in its defence, 3,4 so also in New vistas of space-time rebut the critics, 5 Dr Humphreys makes sweeping physical claims without backing them up with the simple mathematical calculations which would demonstrate their truth or falsity. It is straightforward, using only undergraduate-level differential calculus, to show that Humphreys claim of a timeless zone in the Klein metric is false. In order for a timeless zone to exist, there must be a region of spacetime within which there are no spacetime trajectories which have the property ds 2> 0. However, it is easy to verify that every comoving clock in Humphreys bounded matter sphere cosmology traverses a timelike trajectory (ds 2> 0), even in the region of (?,?) space which Humphreys alleges is timeless. Consider, for example, the trajectory of the Earth, which Humphreys hypothesizes is at the center of the matter sphere. The Earths spatial trajectory in Schwarzschild coordinates is given by d?

unknown authors

126

Design of experiment for earth rotation and baseline parameter determination from very long baseline interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of recovering earth rotation and network geometry (baseline) parameters are emphasized. The numerical simulated experiments performed are set up in an environment where station coordinates vary with respect to inertial space according to a simulated earth rotation model similar to the actual but unknown rotation of the earth. The basic technique of VLBI and its mathematical model are presented. The parametrization of earth rotation chosen is described and the resulting model is linearized. A simple analysis of the geometry of the observations leads to some useful hints on achieving maximum sensitivity of the observations with respect to the parameters considered. The basic philosophy for the simulation of data and their analysis through standard least squares adjustment techniques is presented. A number of characteristic network designs based on present and candidate station locations are chosen. The results of the simulations for each design are presented together with a summary of the conclusions.

Dermanis, A.

1977-01-01

127

Major Map: Earth & Space Exploration (Exploration Systems Design) Bachelor of Science (B.S.)  

E-print Network

Major Map: Earth & Space Exploration (Exploration Systems Design) ­ Bachelor of Science (B Engineering for Space Missions 3 Grade of C CLAS Upper Division Science and Society 3 Grade of C Upper & Space Exploration (Exploration Systems Design) ­ Bachelor of Science (B.S.) College of Liberal Arts

Rhoads, James

128

Concept design, modeling and station-keeping attitude control of an earth observation platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratosphere airship provides a unique and promising platform for earth observation. Researches on the project design and control scheme for earth observation platforms are still rarely documented. Nonlinear dynamics, model uncertainties, and external disturbances contribute to the difficulty in maneuvering the stratosphere airship. A key technical challenge for the earth observation platform is station keeping, or the ability to remain fixed over a geo-location. This paper investigates the conceptual design, modeling and station-keeping attitude control of the near-space earth observation platform. A conceptual design of the earth observation platform is presented. The dynamics model of the platform is derived from the Newton-Euler formulation, and the station-keeping control system of the platform is formulated. The station-keeping attitude control approach for the platform is proposed. The multi-input multi-output nonlinear control system is decoupled into three single-input single-output linear subsystems via feedback linearization, the attitude controller design is carried out on the new linear systems using terminal sliding mode control, and the global stability of the closed-loop system is proven by using the Lyapunov theorem. The performance of the designed control system is simulated by using the variable step Runge-Kutta integrator. Simulation results show that the control system tracks the commanded attitude with an error of zero, which verify the effectiveness and robustness of the designed control system in the presence of parametric uncertainties. The near-space earth observation platform has several advantages over satellites, such as high resolution, fast to deploy, and convenient to retrieve, and the proposed control scheme provides an effective approach for station-keeping attitude control of the earth observation platform.

Yang, Yueneng; Wu, Jie; Zheng, Wei

2012-11-01

129

Distributed Space Mission Design for Earth Observation Using Model-Based Performance Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth observation missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in multiple dimensions. DSM design is a complex problem with many design variables, multiple objectives determining performance and cost and emergent, often unexpected, behaviors. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables, minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool that can multiple DSM architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and size those architectures in terms of predefined science and cost metrics. The tool will help a user select Pareto optimal DSM designs based on design of experiments techniques. The tool will be applied to some earth observation examples to demonstrate its applicability in making some key decisions between different performance metrics and cost metrics early in the design lifecycle.

Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Cervantes, Ben; DeWeck, Oliver

2015-01-01

130

Requirements and concept design for large earth survey telescope for SEOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efforts of a one year program of Requirements Analysis and Conceptual Design for the Large Earth Survey Telescope for the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite is summarized. A 1.4 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with 0.6 deg field of view is shown to do an excellent job in satisfying the observational requirements for a wide range of earth resources and meteorological applications. The telescope provides imagery or thermal mapping in ten spectral bands at one time in a field sharing grouping of linear detector arrays. Pushbroom scanning is accomplished by spacecraft slew.

Mailhot, P.; Bisbee, J.

1975-01-01

131

Ultrahigh energy tau neutrino flux regeneration while skimming the Earth  

SciTech Connect

The detection of Earth-skimming tau neutrinos has turned into a very promising strategy for the observation of ultra-high-energy cosmic neutrinos. The sensitivity of this channel crucially depends on the parameters of the propagation of the tau neutrinos through the terrestrial crust, which governs the flux of emerging tau leptons that can be detected. One of the characteristics of this propagation is the possibility of regeneration through multiple {nu}{sub {tau}}{r_reversible}{tau} conversions, which are often neglected in the standard picture. In this paper, we solve the transport equations governing the {nu}{sub {tau}} propagation and compare the flux of emerging tau leptons obtained allowing regeneration or not. We discuss the validity of the approximation of neglecting the {nu}{sub {tau}} regeneration using different scenarios for the neutrino-nucleon cross sections and the tau energy losses.

Bigas, Oscar Blanch [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Paris VI-VIIbb, Paris (France); Deligny, Olivier [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Payet, Kevin [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France); Van Elewyck, Veronique [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Orsay (France); AstroParticules et Cosmologie (UMR 7165) and Universite Paris 7, Paris (France)

2008-09-15

132

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Sensors and Preflight Calibration Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft sensors are designed to measure broadband earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and earth-emitted longwave (5- > 100 microns) radiances at the top of the atmosphere as part of the Mission to Planet Earth program. The scanning thermistor bolometer sensors respond to radiances in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and total-wave (0.3- > 100 microns) spectral regions, as well as to radiances in the narrowband water vapor window (8-12 microns) region. 'ne sensors are designed to operate for a minimum of 5 years aboard the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System AM-1 spacecraft platforms that are scheduled for launches in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The flight sensors and the in-flight calibration systems will be calibrated in a vacuum ground facility using reference radiance sources, tied to the international temperature scale of 1990. The calibrations will be used to derive sensor gains, offsets, spectral responses, and point spread functions within and outside of the field of view. The shortwave, total-wave, and window ground calibration accuracy requirements (1 sigma) are +/-0.8, +/-0.6, and +/-0.3 W /sq m/sr, respectively, while the corresponding measurement precisions are +/-O.5% and +/-1.0% for the broadband longwave and shortwave radiances, respectively. The CERES sensors, in-flight calibration systems, and ground calibration instrumentation are described along with outlines of the preflight and in-flight calibration approaches.

Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, R. Wes; Thomas, Susan; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.

1996-01-01

133

Earth Observations and the Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Water-Energy-Food (W-E-F) Security Nexus has received a great deal of attention internationally since 2011 when the World Economic Forum identified it as one of the three largest threats to the global economy. Since then several international conferences and research initiatives have focused on the linkages and synergies between these sectors. In addition, it has been recognized that land and/or ecosystems must also be considered as part of this nexus to fully understand the linkages between the sectors. The Global Water System Project carried out a preliminary assessment of the role of basin management on W-E-F security in a number of transboundary basins to determine the factors that drive this nexus, to understand how W-E-F security is perceived; to evaluate the degree to which data are used in making decisions related to this nexus; and to identify opportunities for enhancing the role of Earth Observations in making decisions relevant to W-E-F security. This assessment which relied on expert surveys is supplemented by a more in-depth case study in the Lake Winnipeg Basin which includes the basin of the Red River of the North. This paper provides a summary of the results of this assessment with an emphasis on the actual and potential roles of Earth Observations. In particular, their possible role is discussed in both national and transboundary basin contexts. Recommendations arising from the study deal with data sets and information systems, the need for targets related to the W-E-F Nexus, and possible new approaches for enhancing W-E-F resilience through the use Earth Observations to better plan and monitor the movement of water on the landscape.

Lawford, R. G.; Marx, S.

2013-12-01

134

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha  

E-print Network

1 Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025, USA Columbia University Earth Institute, New York, hosted by Ifremer, Brest, France Abstract. Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth

Hansen, James E.

135

The optical antenna system design research on earth integrative network laser link in the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth integrated information network can be real-time acquisition, transmission and processing the spatial information with the carrier based on space platforms, such as geostationary satellites or in low-orbit satellites, stratospheric balloons or unmanned and manned aircraft, etc. It is an essential infrastructure for China to constructed earth integrated information network. Earth integrated information network can not only support the highly dynamic and the real-time transmission of broadband down to earth observation, but the reliable transmission of the ultra remote and the large delay up to the deep space exploration, as well as provide services for the significant application of the ocean voyage, emergency rescue, navigation and positioning, air transportation, aerospace measurement or control and other fields.Thus the earth integrated information network can expand the human science, culture and productive activities to the space, ocean and even deep space, so it is the global research focus. The network of the laser communication link is an important component and the mean of communication in the earth integrated information network. Optimize the structure and design the system of the optical antenna is considered one of the difficulty key technologies for the space laser communication link network. Therefore, this paper presents an optical antenna system that it can be used in space laser communication link network.The antenna system was consisted by the plurality mirrors stitched with the rotational paraboloid as a substrate. The optical system structure of the multi-mirror stitched was simulated and emulated by the light tools software. Cassegrain form to be used in a relay optical system. The structural parameters of the relay optical system was optimized and designed by the optical design software of zemax. The results of the optimal design and simulation or emulation indicated that the antenna system had a good optical performance and a certain reference value in engineering. It can provide effective technical support to realize interconnection of earth integrated laser link information network in the future.

Liu, Xianzhu; Fu, Qiang; He, Jingyi

2014-11-01

136

The design of a concentrator solar array for use in low earth orbit  

E-print Network

highly developed material systems of their type. The design of the array will begin with the backplane. A backplane composed of an aluminum honeycomb core with CFRA face sheets will provide stiffness and thermal control. The type of CFRA used... in mechanical and thermal properties due to the orbital environment are required. The solar array is designed for use in low earth orbit (LEO). LEO consists of an altitude between 100 km to 1000 km above the surface of the earth. There are several potential...

Kish, Guy Leslie

1990-01-01

137

Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

Talens Peir, Laura; Villalba Mndez, Gara

2013-10-01

138

Design of an unmanned, reusable vehicle to de-orbit debris in Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space debris problem is becoming more important because as orbital missions increase, the amount of debris increases. It was the design team's objective to present alternative designs and a problem solution for a deorbiting vehicle that will alleviate the problem by reducing the amount of large debris in earth orbit. The design team was asked to design a reusable, unmanned vehicle to de-orbit debris in earth orbit. The design team will also construct a model to demonstrate the system configuration and key operating features. The alternative designs for the unmanned, reusable vehicle were developed in three stages: selection of project requirements and success criteria, formulation of a specification list, and the creation of alternatives that would satisfy the standards set forth by the design team and their sponsor. The design team selected a Chain and Bar Shot method for deorbiting debris in earth orbit. The De-orbiting Vehicle (DOV) uses the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) as the propulsion and command modules with the deorbiting module attached to the front.

Aziz, Shahed; Cunningham, Timothy W.; Moore-Mccassey, Michelle

1990-01-01

139

Design considerations for ocean energy resource systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceans occupy nearly three-quarters of the Earth's surface and represent an enormous source of renewable energy. While many of the world's industrialized nations have conducted exploratory research and development, the total power currently available from ocean energy systems, with the exception of the French tidal power plant, is less than one hundred megawatts (MW). An increasing number of ocean

R. Bregman; R. H. Knapp; P. K. Takahashi

1995-01-01

140

Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and NREL are developing target energy budgets and design guides to achieve 30% energy savings. This paper focuses the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing.

Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

2008-08-01

141

Designing dark energy afterglow experiments  

E-print Network

Chameleon fields, which are scalar field dark energy candidates, can evade fifth force constraints by becoming massive in high-density regions. However, this property allows chameleon particles to be trapped inside a vacuum chamber with dense walls. Afterglow experiments constrain photon-coupled chameleon fields by attempting to produce and trap chameleon particles inside such a vacuum chamber, from which they will emit an afterglow as they regenerate photons. Here we discuss several theoretical and systematic effects underlying the design and analysis of the GammeV and CHASE afterglow experiments. We consider chameleon particle interactions with photons, Fermions, and other chameleon particles, as well as with macroscopic magnetic fields and matter. The afterglow signal in each experiment is predicted, and its sensitivity to various properties of the experimental apparatus is studied. Finally, we use CHASE data to exclude a wide range of photon-coupled chameleon dark energy models.

Amol Upadhye; Jason H. Steffen; Aaron S. Chou

2012-04-24

142

Design and field testing of solar-assisted earth coils. Final report, August 1, 1978-January 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Two types of earth coils were designed, constructed, and are operational on the Oklahoma State University campus. A nominal 1000-foot, 4-inch, PVC coil buried in a serpentine pattern is the heat source/sink for two commercial heat pump systems. This system is vented which allows the easy placement of thermocouples down its length to measure changes in temperature as well as changes in overall U values as a function of length. Integral to the earth coil is a 1000-gallon uninsulated water storage tank in which solar energy from 210 ft/sup 2/ of solar collectors (single-glazed, metal absorber) can be added directly to the heat pump, circulated through the 1000-foot earth coil system, or added to an insulated storage tank for direct transfer. Temperature ranges for this type of system at the four-foot level are from a nominal range of 78/sup 0/F in mid-September to a low of 42/sup 0/F in mid-February in the absence of heat rejection or absorption. The second type of earth coil under study was a vertical coil approximately 240 feet in length. Placement of the coil is with a conventional water well drilling machine. The vertical heat exchanger consists of a 5-inch PVC pipe which is capped at both ends and pressurized at approximately 15 PSIG. This sealed and pressurized heat exchanger allows a low power pump to circulate water through both the heat pump and vertical heat exchanger system.

Bose, J E

1981-01-01

143

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the sense of place each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

144

Parallel Computing Aided Design of Earthing Systems for Electrical Substations in Non-Homogeneous Soil Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate design of grounding systems is essential to assure the safety of the persons, to protect the equipment and to avoid interruptions in the power supply. In order to attain these targets, it is necessary to compute the equivalent electrical resistance of the system and the potential distribution on the earth surface in fault conditions. In this paper, a

J. Gmez-calvio; I. Colominas; F. Navarrina; M. Casteleiro; Jos M. Cela

2000-01-01

145

Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect

Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

2009-01-01

146

System design and specifications. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design summary of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The systems considered in the summary are: (1) the spacecraft structure, (2) electrical power modules, (3) communications and data handling module, (4) attitude determination module, (5) actuation module, and (6) solar array and drive module. The documents which provide the specifications for the systems and the equipment are identified.

1974-01-01

147

Optimal hydraulic design of earth dam cross section using saturatedunsaturated seepage flow model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal hydraulic design problem regarding an earth dam cross section is formulated as an inverse problem for the steady model of saturatedunsaturated seepage flows in porous media. In the problem formulation, the choice of soil material to be used in each point of the dam cross sectional domain is considered as the control variable to be identified. The performance

Y.-Q. Xu; K. Unami; T. Kawachi

2003-01-01

148

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 3: Design cost trade-off studies and recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the design and cost tradeoff aspects of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) development is presented. The design/cost factors that affect a series of mission/system level concepts are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) spacecraft subsystem cost tradeoffs, (2) ground system cost tradeoffs, and (3) program cost summary. Tables of data are provided to summarize the results of the analyses. Illustrations of the various spacecraft configurations are included.

1974-01-01

149

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key issues in the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program which are subject to configuration study and tradeoff are identified. The issue of a combined operational and research and development program is considered. It is stated that cost and spacecraft weight are the key design variables and design options are proposed in terms of these parameters. A cost analysis of the EOS program is provided. Diagrams of the satellite configuration and subsystem components are included.

1974-01-01

150

Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 2: Cryogenic design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed designs were made for three earth orbital propulsion systems; (1) the space shuttle (integrated) OMS/RCS, (2) the space shuttle (dedicated) OMS (LO2), and (3) the space tug. The preferred designs from the integrated OMS/RCS were used as the basis for the flight test article design. A plan was prepared that outlines the steps, cost, and schedule required to complete the development of the prototype DSL tank and feedline (LH2 and LO2) systems. Ground testing of a subscale model using LH2 verified the expulsion characteristics of the preferred DSL designs.

1973-01-01

151

Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main purpose of the Small Space-Based Geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellite is to provide a space link to the user mission spacecraft for relaying data through ground networks to user Mission Control Centers. The Small Space Based Satellite (SSBS) will provide services comparable to those of a NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) for the same type of links. The SSBS services will keep the user burden the same or lower than for TDRS and will support the same or higher data rates than those currently supported by TDRS. At present, TDRSS provides links and coverage below GEO; however, SSBS links and coverage capability to above GEO missions are being considered for the future, especially for Human Space Flight Missions (HSF). There is also a rising need for the capability to support high data rate links (exceeding 1 Gbps) for imaging applications. The communication payload on the SSBS will provide S/Ka-band single access links to the mission and a Ku-band link to the ground, with an optical communication payload as an option. To design the communication payload, various link budgets were analyzed and many possible operational scenarios examined. To reduce user burden, using a larger-sized antenna than is currently in use by TDRS was considered. Because of the SSBS design size, it was found that a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket could deliver three SSBSs to GEO. This will greatly reduce the launch costs per satellite. Using electric propulsion was also evaluated versus using chemical propulsion; the power system size and time to orbit for various power systems were also considered. This paper will describe how the SSBS will meet future service requirements, concept of operations, and the design to meet NASA users' needs for below and above GEO missions. These users' needs not only address the observational mission requirements but also possible HSF missions to the year 2030. We will provide the trade-off analysis of the communication payload design in terms of the number of links looking above and below GEO; the detailed design of a GEO SSBS spacecraft bus and its accommodation of the communication payload, and a summary of the trade study that resulted in the selection of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle to deploy the SSBS and its impact on cost reductions per satellite. ======================================================================== Several initiatives have taken place within NASA1 and international space agencies2 to create a human exploration strategy for expanding human presence into the solar system; these initiatives have been driven by multiple factors to benefit Earth. Of the many elements in the strategy one stands out: to send robotic and human missions to destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), including cis-lunar space, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), the Moon, and Mars and its moons.3, 4 The time frame for human exploration to various destinations, based on the public information available,1,4 is shown in Figure 1. Advance planning is needed to define how future space communications services will be provided in the new budget environment to meet future space communications needs. The spacecraft for these missions can be dispersed anywhere from below LEO to beyond GEO, and to various destinations within the solar system. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program office provides communication and tracking services to space missions during launch, in-orbit testing, and operation phases. Currently, SCaN's space networking relay satellites mainly provide services to users below GEO, at Near Earth Orbit (NEO), below LEO, and in deep space. The potential exists for using a space-based relay satellite, located in the vicinity of various solar system destinations, to provide communication space links to missions both below and above its orbit. Such relays can meet the needs of human exploration missions for maximum connectivity to Earth locations and for reduced latency. In the past, several studies assessed the ability of satellite-based relays working above GEO in conjunction with Earth gro

Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James

2014-01-01

152

Advanced Energy Conversion Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. There is a need to produce "proof-ofconcept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space surface sites. Space surface receiving sites of particular interest include the areas of permanent shadow near the moon s North and South poles, where WPT technologies could enable access to ice and other useful resources for human exploration. This paper discusses work addressing a promising approach to solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) applied to both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components (only the photovoltaic cells need to be different), economies of manufacturing and scale may be realized by using SLA on both ends of the laser power beaming system in a space solar power application. Near-term uses of this SLA-laser-SLA system may include terrestrial and space exploration in near Earth space. Later uses may include beamed power for bases or vehicles on Mars. Strategies for developing energy infrastructures in space which utilize this technology are presented. This dual use system produces electrical energy efficiently from either coherent light, such as from a highly coherent laser, or from conventional solar illumination. This allows, for example, supplementing solar energy with energy provided by highly coherent laser illumination during periods of low solar illumination or no illumination. This reduces the need for batteries and alternate sources of power. The capability of using laser illumination in a lowest order Gaussian laser mode provides means for transmitting power optically with maximum efficiency and precision over the long distances characteristic of space. A preliminary receiving system similar to that described here, has been produced and tested under solar and laser illumination. A summary of results is given.

Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Phillips, Dane J.; Laycock, Rustin L.; ONeill, Mark; Henley, Mark W.; Fork, Richard L.

2006-01-01

153

Education, energy, toilets, and Earth: The Operators' Manual  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid science shows the unsustainability of relying on fossil fuels for long-term future energy supply, with increasingly strong evidence that a measured shift to renewable sources will be economically beneficial while improving employment and national security, providing insurance against catastrophes, and more. Yet despite notable advances in renewable energy and related issues, the transition does not appear to be occurring at the economically optimal rate. Analogy may be useful. In biological evolution and business, successful innovation is met by competitors, but also by predators, parasites, and diseases. Trees must handle the competition, but also termites, bark beetles, fungal diseases, strangling vines, and more, while new software meets competitors plus viruses, worms, Trojan horses and other malware. By analogy, the emergence of a "denialsphere" as well as competitors may be a predictable response to the threat posed to business-as-usual by the success of the National Academies and the IPCC in defining the climate-energy problem with the best science, and the growing success of inventors and policy-makers in developing advantageous and increasingly cost-effective solutions. Real questions exist about the best way forward, but the discussion of the important issues is sometimes confused by arguments that are not especially forward-going. Success of beneficial innovations against such problems is not guaranteed but surely has occurred, with transitions as large as that to a low-carbon energy system-we did switch from chamber pots and night-soil haulers to modern sanitation and clean water, for example. Analogy suggests that education and outreach are integral in such a transition, not a job to be completed but a process to be continued. Our attempt to contribute to this large effort, the NSF-supported Earth: The Operators' Manual, emphasizes diverse, interlocking approaches to show the large benefits that are ultimately available, relying on assessed science and not recommending particular policies.

Alley, R. B.; Haines-stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

2011-12-01

154

Low-energy Earth-Moon transfers involving manifolds through isomorphic mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis and design of low-energy transfers to the Moon has been a subject of great interest for decades. Exterior and interior transfers, based on the transit through the regions where the collinear libration points are located, have been studied for a long time and some space missions have already taken advantage of the results of these studies. This paper is concerned with a geometrical approach for low-energy Earth-to-Moon mission analysis, based on isomorphic mapping. The isomorphic mapping of trajectories allows a visual, intuitive representation of periodic orbits and of the related invariant manifolds, which correspond to tubes that emanate from the curve associated with the periodic orbit. Two types of Earth-to-Moon missions are considered. The first mission is composed of the following arcs: (i) transfer trajectory from a circular low Earth orbit to the stable invariant manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1 (corresponding to a specified energy level) and (ii) transfer trajectory along the unstable manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1, with final injection in a periodic orbit around the Moon. The second mission is composed of the following arcs: (i) transfer trajectory from a circular low Earth orbit to the stable invariant manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1 (corresponding to a specified energy level) and (ii) transfer trajectory along the unstable manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1, with final injection in a capture (non-periodic) orbit around the Moon. In both cases three velocity impulses are needed to perform the transfer: the first at an unknown initial point along the low Earth orbit, the second at injection on the stable manifold, the third at injection in the final (periodic or capture) orbit. The final goal is in finding the optimization parameters, which are represented by the locations, directions, and magnitudes of the velocity impulses such that the overall delta-v of the transfer is minimized. This work proves how isomorphic mapping (in two distinct forms) can be profitably employed to optimize such transfers, by determining in a geometrical fashion the desired optimization parameters that minimize the delta-v budget required to perform the transfer.

Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo

2013-10-01

155

Satellite mapping of solar energy reaching the earth`s surface  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the equations and technical procedures used to map solar radiation reaching the earth`s surface in Pakistan and presents examples of the results obtained plus conclusions drawn from these. The research has been conducted jointly by the University of Miami in the US and in the National institute of silicon Technology of Pakistan. Digital data in the visible spectrum from the Indian Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, INSAT-1B, were used for input to the computer model. Pyranometer stations in Pakistan were used for ground truth checks of the results.

Hiser, H.W. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

1996-05-01

156

Solar Sailing Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) Mission for Impacting/Deflecting Near-Earth Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar sailing mission architecture, which requires a t least ten 160-m, 300-kg solar sail spacecraft with a characteristic acceleration of 0.5 mm/sqs, is proposed as a realistic near- term option for mitigating the threat posed by near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Its mission feasibility is demonstrated for a fictional asteroid mitigation problem created by AIAA. This problem assumes that a 200-m asteroid, designated 2004WR, was detected on July 4, 2004, and that the expected impact will occur on January 14, 2015. The solar sailing phase of the proposed mission for the AIAA asteroid mitigation problem is comprised of the initial cruise phase from 1 AU t o 0.25 AU (1.5 years), the cranking orbit phase (3.5 years), and the retrograde orbit phase (1 year) prior to impacting the target asteroid at its perihelion (0.75 AU from the sun) on January 1, 2012. The proposed mission will require at least ten kinetic energy interceptor (KEI) solar sail spacecraft. Each KEI sailcraft consists of a 160- m, 150-kg solar sail and a 150-kg microsatellite impactor. The impactor is to be separated from a large solar sail prior to impacting the 200-m target asteroid at its perihelion. Each 150-kg microsatellite impactor, with a relative impact velocity of at least 70 km/s, will cause a conservatively estimated AV of 0.3 cm/s in the trajectory of the 200-m target asteroid, due largely to the impulsive effect of material ejected from the newly-formed crater. The deflection caused by a single impactor will increase the Earth-miss-distance by 0.45Re (where Re denotes the Earth radius of 6,378 km). Therefore, at least ten KEI sailcraft will be required for consecutive impacts, but probably without causing fragmentation, to increase the total Earth-miss-distance by 4.5Re. This miss-distance increase of 29,000 km is outside of a typical uncertainty/error of about 10,000 km in predicting the Earth-miss- distance. A conventional Delta I1 2925 launch vehicle is capable of injecting at least two KEI sailcraft into an Earth escaping orbit. A 40-m solar sail is currently being developed by NASA and industries for a possible flight validation experiment within 10 years, and a 160-m solar sail is expected to be available within 20 years.

Wie, Bong

2005-01-01

157

Design a Net-Zero Energy Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students create a concept design of their very own net-zero energy classroom by pasting renewable energy and energy-efficiency items into and around a pretend classroom on a sheet of paper. They learn how these items (such as solar panels, efficient lights, computers, energy meters, etc.) interact to create a learning environment that produces as much energy as it uses.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

158

Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion

Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

159

The design of a low energy FPGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT This work presents the design of an energy efllcient FPGA architecture. Significant reduction in the energy consumption is achieved by tackling both circuit design and architecture optimization issues concurrently. A hybrid interconnect structure incorporating Nearest Neighbor Connections, Symmetric Mesh Architecture, and Hierarchical connectivity is used. The energy of the interconnect is also reduced by employing low-swing circuit techniques.

Varghese George; Hui Zhang; Jan M. Rabaey

1999-01-01

160

CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

Eckman, Richard S.

2009-01-01

161

Designing for Emotional Attachment to Energy Approaching energy as materiality Design exploration: Energy Mementos  

E-print Network

be with and through energy in everyday life. Designing for individuals to be emotionally connected to their energy one's self and community. James Pierce Eric Paulos Living Environments Lab Human-Computer Interaction Institute Carnegie Mellon University In order to begin to materially explore emotional attachment to energy

Paulos, Eric

162

Navigation Design and Analysis for the Orion Earth-Moon Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details the design of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. The unmodeled accelerations and their characterization are detailed. It also presents the analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the delta-V performance.

DSouza, Christopher; Zanetti, Renato

2014-01-01

163

Design and optimization of a trajectory for Moon departure Near Earth Asteroid exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar probe often has some remaining fuel on completing the predefined Moon exploration mission and may carry out some additional tasks from the Moon orbit using the fuel. The possibility for the lunar probe to escape from the Moon and the Earth is analyzed. Design and optimization of the trajectory from the Moon orbit to the Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) using the spacecraft's residual fuel is studied. At first, the semi-major axis, inclinations and the phase relations with the Earth of all the numbered NEAs are investigated to preliminarily select the possible targets. Based on the Sun-centered two-body problem, the launch window and the asteroid candidates are determined by calculating the minimum delta-v for two-impulse rendezvous mission and one-impulse flyby mission, respectively. For a precise designed trajectory, a full ephemeris dynamical model, which includes gravities of the Sun, the planets and the Moon, is adopted by reading the JPL ephemeris. The departure time, arrival time, burning time duration and thrust angles are set as variables to be designed and optimized. The optimization problem is solved via the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Moreover, two feasible NEA flyby missions are presented.

Chen, Yang; Baoyin, HeXi; Li, JunFeng

2011-04-01

164

External Resource: How Volcanoes Work: The Earth's Internal Heat Energy and Interior Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web page with background information about how volcanoes work. The Earth's internal heat source provides the energy for our dynamic planet, supplying it with the driving force for plate-tectonic motion, and for on-going catastrophic events such as earth

1900-01-01

165

Solar Influences Light from the Sun is the largest source of energy for Earth's  

E-print Network

Solar Influences Light from the Sun is the largest source of energy for Earth's atmosphere. The Solar Influences group at LASP studies the light from the Sun and how it interacts with the Earth) · How and why light from the Sun varies in time from seconds to months to years to centuries · How solar

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

166

HVAC Energy Recovery Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-print Network

ENRECO has prepared this paper on HVAC energy recovery to provide the engineer with an overview of the design engineering as well as the economic analysis considerations necessary to evaluate the potential benefits of energy recovery....

Kinnier, R. J.

1979-01-01

167

Energy-Conscious Design: Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many design features that can be used to achieve an energy-efficient building. Described are task lighting, unoccupied space shutoff, onsite well with heat pump, wide-band thermostats, and solar energy. (MLF)

Lawrence, Jerry

1984-01-01

168

Earth Shelter Buildings Coupled with the Sun: Opportunities and Constraints in Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Civil/Mineral Engineering Building on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus is a demonstration design in energy conservation and innovation in active and passive solar energy applications. Its antecedents at the university represent contributory steps in the identification of issues and the development of design principles. (MLW)

Bennett, David J.

1982-01-01

169

Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy

Knapp, Henry H., III

170

Design of an energy conservation building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concepts in designing and predicting energy consumption in a low energy use building are summarized. The building will use less than 30,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. of boarder energy. The building's primary energy conservation features include heavy concrete walls with external insulation, a highly insulated ceiling, and large amounts of glass for natural lighting. A solar collector air system is integrated into the south wall. Calculations for energy conservation features were performed using NASA's NECAP Energy Program.

Jensen, R. N.

1981-01-01

171

Design and performance of the International Sun-Earth Explorer power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launches of the International Sun-Earth Explorers in October 1977 (ISEE-A) and August 1978 (ISEE-C) marked the first successful implementation of an electrostatically clean spacecraft design on a US-built satellite. The power subsystem design selected was required to operate without induced or coupled electromagnetic interference while meeting the criteria of low cost, low weight (with the resulting removal of almost all redundancy), modular construction techniques, long life (more than 3 years), and maximum utilization of previously qualified/flown designs. To save money, both the ISEE-A and -C power subsystem designs had to be identical even though the two missions are flown in vastly different orbits. Additionally, the requirement for a three year mission utilizing a single silver-cadmium battery had never been imposed before. A power subsystem configuration which met all of the specified requirements was developed. Excellent correlation between preflight and actual flight performance is demonstrated.

Obenschain, A. F.; Ruitberg, A. P.

1980-01-01

172

Point response function of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System scanning radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of work related to the point response function (PRF) of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer is presented. The aspects of the CERES design that affect the PRF are described, and then the design of the PRF is explained. The PRF was designed by shaping the field of view so as to minimize the blur plus alias errors of the radiance field reconstructed from the CERES measurements. The design is conducted in the Fourier domain. The PRF can then be computed by transforming the resulting transfer function to the physical domain. Alternatively, the PRF can be computed in the physical plane. The PRF of each model of the CERES instrument has been tested in the Radiation Calibration Facility by use of a PRF source and compared well with prediction. CERES instruments are aboard the Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP spacecraft. In orbit, lunar observations are used to validate the PRF. These results showed nominal performance except for the longwave window channel of flight model 2, for which a region of anomalously high sensitivity was found.

Louis Smith, G.; Daniels, Janet L.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan

2014-01-01

173

Spacecraft Design-for-Demise implementation strategy & decision-making methodology for low earth orbit missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space missions designed to completely ablate upon an uncontrolled Earth atmosphere reentry are likely to be simpler and cheaper than those designed to execute controlled reentry. This is because mission risk (unavailability) stemming from controlled reentry subsystem failure(s) is essentially eliminated. NASA has not customarily implemented Design-for-Demise meticulously. NASA has rather approached Design-for-Demise in an ad hoc manner that fails to entrench Design-for-Demise as a mission design driver. Thus, enormous demisability challenges at later formulation stages of missions aspired to be demisable are evident due to these perpetuated oversights in entrenching Design-for-Demise practices. The investigators hence propose a strategy for a consistent integration of Design-for-Demise practices in all phases of a space mission lifecycle. Secondly, an all-inclusive risk-informed, decision-making methodology referred to as Analytic Deliberative Process is proposed. This criterion facilitates in making a choice between an uncontrolled reentry demisable or controlled reentry. The authors finally conceive and synthesize Objectives Hierarchy, Attributes, and Quantitative Performance Measures of the Analytical Deliberative Process for a Design-for-Demise risk-informed decision-making process.

Waswa, Peter M. B.; Elliot, Michael; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

2013-05-01

174

Design of Round-trip Trajectories to Near-Earth Asteroids Utilizing a Lunar Flyby  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are currently over 7,700 known Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and more are being discovered on a continual basis. Current models predict that the actual order of magnitude of the NEA population may range from 10' to 10 6 . The close proximity of NEA orbits to Earth's orbit makes it possible to design short duration round-trip trajectories to NEAs under the proper conditions. In previous work, 59 potentially accessible NEAs were identified for missions that depart Earth between the years 2016 and 2050 and have round-trip flight times of a year or less. We now present a new method for designing round-trip trajectories to NEAs in which the Moon's gravity aids the outbound trajectory via a lunar flyby. In some cases this gravity assist can reduce the overall spacecraft propellant required for the mission, which in turn can allow NEAs to be reached which would otherwise be inaccessible to a given mission architecture. Results are presented for a specific case study on NEA 2003 LN6.

Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.

2011-01-01

175

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY UTILITY DESIGN: OPTIONS  

E-print Network

........................................................................................12 2.3 Vermont A Third Party-led Model ..................................................................25 3.4.3 Green Energy Fund

Delaware, University of

176

Energy requirements and payload masses for near-Earth objects hazard mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of various high energy density sources and their coupling coefficients are evaluated in terms of the required payload mass necessary to change the orbit of a Earth-threatening near-Earth object (NEO) by 6m\\/s. Included in the analysis are high explosive, high speed projectiles, nuclear explosives and their radiations, high intensity lasers and concentrated solar energy. It is shown that

J. L Remo

2000-01-01

177

The EOS Aqua/Aura Experience: Lessons Learned on Design, Integration, and Test of Earth-Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and NOAA earth observing satellite programs are flying a number of sophisticated scientific instruments which collect data on many phenomena and parameters of the earth's environment. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Program originated the EOS Common Bus approach, which featured two spacecraft (Aqua and Aura) of virtually identical design but with completely different instruments. Significant savings were obtained by the Common Bus approach and these lessons learned are presented as information for future program requiring multiple busses for new diversified instruments with increased capabilities for acquiring earth environmental data volume, accuracy, and type.

Nosek, Thomas P.

2004-01-01

178

Design Guide for Earth System Science Education: Common Student Learning Objectives and Special Pedagogical Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NASA-supported undergraduate Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program, fifty-seven institutions have developed and implemented a wide range of Earth system science (ESS) courses, pedagogies, and evaluation tools. The Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation section of USRA's online ESSE Design Guide showcases these ESS learning environments. This Design Guide section also provides resources for faculty who wish to develop ESS courses. It addresses important course design issues including prior student knowledge and interests, student learning objectives, learning resources, pedagogical approaches, and assessments tied to student learning objectives. The ESSE Design Guide provides links to over 130 ESS course syllabi at introductory, senior, and graduate levels. ESS courses over the past 15 years exhibit common student learning objectives and unique pedagogical approaches. From analysis of ESS course syllabi, seven common student learning objectives emerged: 1) demonstrate systems thinking, 2) develop an ESS knowledge base, 3) apply ESS to the human dimension, 4) expand and apply analytical skills, 5) improve critical thinking skills, 6) build professional/career skills, and 7) acquire an enjoyment and appreciation for science. To meet these objectives, ESSE often requires different ways of teaching than in traditional scientific disciplines. This presentation will highlight some especially successful pedagogical approaches for creating positive and engaging ESS learning environments.

Baker, D.

2006-12-01

179

Energy Design Reviews: The End of the Energy Audit?  

E-print Network

It is much more cost effective to design an industrial plant upfront for optimum energy efficiency rather than retrofit an existing plant, yet typically design engineers and project managers continue to focus on capital costs, not lifecycle costs...

Corthat, E. T.; Griesbach, R.

2013-01-01

180

Energy Efficient Architectural Design and Model Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed for middle to high school level math teachers who want to illustrate the principles of scaling, ratio, and proportion in a concrete way through model building, and for science teachers who want to teach practical energy efficient design principles, with particular emphasis on passive solar design. Recommended for 7th-12th grade basic math and science.

Kass, Stephen

181

Guidelines for the Selection of Near-Earth Thermal Environment Parameters for Spacecraft Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal analysis and design of Earth orbiting systems requires specification of three environmental thermal parameters: the direct solar irradiance, Earth's local albedo, and outgoing longwave radiance (OLR). In the early 1990s data sets from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment were analyzed on behalf of the Space Station Program to provide an accurate description of these parameters as a function of averaging time along the orbital path. This information, documented in SSP 30425 and, in more generic form in NASA/TM-4527, enabled the specification of the proper thermal parameters for systems of various thermal response time constants. However, working with the engineering community and SSP-30425 and TM-4527 products over a number of years revealed difficulties in interpretation and application of this material. For this reason it was decided to develop this guidelines document to help resolve these issues of practical application. In the process, the data were extensively reprocessed and a new computer code, the Simple Thermal Environment Model (STEM) was developed to simplify the process of selecting the parameters for input into extreme hot and cold thermal analyses and design specifications. In the process, greatly improved values for the cold case OLR values for high inclination orbits were derived. Thermal parameters for satellites in low, medium, and high inclination low-Earth orbit and with various system thermal time constraints are recommended for analysis of extreme hot and cold conditions. Practical information as to the interpretation and application of the information and an introduction to the STEM are included. Complete documentation for STEM is found in the user's manual, in preparation.

Anderson, B. J.; Justus, C. G.; Batts, G. W.

2001-01-01

182

Energy conservation in new-plant design  

Microsoft Academic Search

New plant designs will now include new energy-conservation design ; features, more-stringent safety features, and environmental-protection devices. ; U. S. process plants have been designed for low capital cost, but with higher ; operating costs. Nine methods described that engineers are now using to cope ; with the higher energy costs of the 1975-1980 period are furnace efficiency; ; power-recovery

J. B. Fleming; J. R. Lambrix; M. R. Smith

1974-01-01

183

Axial focusing of impact energy in the earth`s interior: A possible link to flood basalts and hotspots  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of shock physics and seismological computational simulations that show how energy from a large impact can be coupled to the interior of the Earth. The radially-diverging shock wave generated by the impact decays to linearly elastic seismic waves. These waves reconverge (minus attenuation) along the axis of symmetry between the impact and its antipode. The locations that experience the most strain cycles with the largest amplitudes will dissipate the most energy and have the largest increases in temperature (for a given attenuation efficiency). We have shown that the locus of maximum energy deposition in the mantle lies along the impact axis. Moreover, the most intense focusing is within the asthenosphere at the antipode, within the range of depths where mechanical energy is most readily converted to heat. We propose that if large impacts on the Earth leave geological evidence anywhere other than the impact site itself, it will be at the antipode. We suggest that the most likely result of the focusing for a sufficiently large impact, consistent with features observed in the geological record, would be a flood basalt eruption at the antipode followed by hotspot volcanism. A direct prediction of this model would be the existence of undiscovered impact structures whose reconstructed locations would be antipodal to flood basalt provinces. One such structure would be in the Indian Ocean, associated with the Columbia River Basalts and Yellowstone; another would be a second K/T impact structure in the Pacific Ocean, associated with the Deccan Traps and Reunion.

Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.; Campbell, D.L.

1994-12-01

184

Geothermal Energy: Harnessing the Power of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video describes how geothermal heat resources in California have been tapped to supply 850 MW of electricity. Images and animations show how the area known as The Geysers has been developed to capture steam, produced from trapped rainwater and heated by the earth. Major challenges include finding suitable geothermal resources to develop, and ensuring that underground water is replenished.

KQED

185

Energy position of 4f levels in rare-earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy position of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels relative to the Fermi energy is studied for the rare-earth metals. This is done by treating the excited state as an impurity in an otherwise perfect crystal. This picture is first considered in the complete screening approximation. In this approximation thermochemical data can be used directly to give energy values

Brje Johansson

1979-01-01

186

INITIAL OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-ENERGY ELECTRONS IN THE EARTH'S MAGNETOSPHERE WITH OGO 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial observations of electrons over the energy range extending from 100 ev to 50 key at geocentric radial distances 8-20 RE in the dark hemisphere of the earth's magnetosphere with electrostatic analyzers borne on OGO 3 are presented for June 12-13, 1966. The electron differential energy spectrums typically are characterized by a single peak in intensities occurring in the energy

L. A. Frank

1967-01-01

187

ENVIR 202: EARTH, AIR, WATER 22 Jan 2003 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION FOR THE SCIENCE CORE: ENERGY  

E-print Network

and convection (thermal energy flow in solids and fluids) E7 A Solar Pond (energy conversion and storage, solar10 The World's Simplest Electric Motor: a solar powered motor based on simplicity. #12;2 E1 SOLAR') are stored solar energy. The intensity of sunlight is about 1390 watts per square meter, outside the Earth

188

50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box retail buildings, (4) Large hospital buildings.

Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Liu, B.; Wang, W.; Thornton, B.; Williams, J.

2012-07-01

189

Design description report for a photovoltaic power system for a remote satellite earth terminal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photovoltaic (PV) power system has been installed as an adjunct to an agricultural school at Wawatobi on the large northern island of the Republic of Indonesia. Its purpose is to provide power for a satellite earth station and a classroom. The renewable energy developed supports the video and audio teleconferencing systems as well as the facility at large. The ground station may later be used to provide telephone service. The installation was made in support of the Agency for International Development's Rural Satellite Program, whose purpose is to demonstrate the use of satellite communications for rural development assistance applications. The objective of this particular PV power system is to demonstrate the suitability of a hybrid PV engine-generator configuration for remote satellite earth stations.

Marshall, N. A.; Naff, G. J.

1987-01-01

190

Effect of the shrinking dipole on solar-terrestrial energy input to the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global average temperature of the Earth is rising rapidly. This rise is primarily attributed to the release of greenhouse gases as a result of human activity. However, it has been argued that changes in radiation from the Sun might play a role. Most energy input to the Earth is light in the visible spectrum. Our best measurements suggest this power input has been constant for the last 40 years (the space age) apart from a small 11-year variation due to the solar cycle of sunspot activity. Another possible energy input from the Sun is the solar wind. The supersonic solar wind carries the magnetic field of the Sun into the solar system. As it passes the Earth it can connect to the Earth's magnetic field whenever it is antiparallel t the Earth's field. This connection allows mass, momentum, and energy from the solar wind to enter the magnetosphere producing geomagnetic activity. Ultimately much of this energy is deposited at high latitudes in the form of particle precipitation (aurora) and heating by electrical currents. Although the energy input by this process is miniscule compared to that from visible radiation it might alter the absorption of visible radiation. Two other processes affected by the solar cycle are atmospheric entry of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic protons (SEP). A weak solar magnetic field at sunspot minimum facilitates GCR entry which has been implicated in creation of clouds. Large coronal mass ejections and solar flares create SEP at solar maximum. All of these alternative energy inputs and their effects depend on the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently the Earth's field is decreasing rapidly and conceivably might reverse polarity in 1000 years. In this paper we describe the changes in the Earth's magnetic field and how this might affect GCR, SEP, electrical heating, aurora, and radio propagation. Whether these effects are important in global climate change can only be determined by detailed physical models.

McPherron, R. L.

2011-12-01

191

Designing Energy-Efficient Fetch Engines  

E-print Network

Designing Energy-Efficient Fetch Engines Michele Co Department of Computer Science University Results Summary #12;3 Introduction Energy efficiency Balance power and performance (runtime) Fetch & Ranganathan] #12;7 Why Study Fetch Engine Energy Efficiency? High fetch bandwidth mechanisms Rotenberg, et

Co, Michele

192

Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Design Study for Cargo Transfer to Earth-moon L1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design study for a cargo transfer vehicle using solar electric propulsion was performed for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts program. Targeted for 2016, the solar electric propulsion (SEP) transfer vehicle is required to deliver a propellant supply module with a mass of approximately 36 metric tons from Low Earth Orbit to the first Earth-Moon libration point (LL1) within 270 days. Following an examination of propulsion and power technology options, a SEP transfer vehicle design was selected that incorporated large-area (approx. 2700 sq m) thin film solar arrays and a clustered engine configuration of eight 50 kW gridded ion thrusters mounted on an articulated boom. Refinement of the SEP vehicle design was performed iteratively to properly estimate the required xenon propellant load for the out-bound orbit transfer. The SEP vehicle performance, including the xenon propellant estimation, was verified via the SNAP trajectory code. Further efforts are underway to extend this system model to other orbit transfer missions.

Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Falck, Robert D.; Dudzinski, Leonard J.; Oleson, Steven R.

2002-01-01

193

Low-earth-orbit Satellite Internet Protocol Communications Concept and Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a design concept for a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end Internet-Protocol- (IP-) based mission. The goal is to maintain an up-to-date communications infrastructure that makes communications seamless with the protocols used in terrestrial computing. It is based on the premise that the use of IPs will permit greater interoperability while also reducing costs and providing users the ability to retrieve data directly from the satellite. However, implementing an IP-based solution also has a number of challenges, since wireless communications have different characteristics than wired communications. This report outlines the design of a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end IP-based mission; the ideas and concepts of Space Internet architectures and networks are beyond the scope of this document. The findings of this report show that an IP-based mission is plausible and would provide benefits to the user community, but the outstanding issues must be resolved before a design can be implemented.

Slywezak, Richard A.

2004-01-01

194

Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.

1982-01-01

195

Energy manager design for microgrids  

SciTech Connect

On-site energy production, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as bill savings and predictability, improved system efficiency, improved reliability, control over power quality, and in many cases, greener electricity. Additionally, DER systems can benefit electric utilities by reducing congestion on the grid, reducing the need for new generation and transmission capacity, and offering ancillary services such as voltage support and emergency demand response. Local aggregations of distributed energy resources (DER) that may include active control of on-site end-use energy devices can be called microgrids. Microgrids require control to ensure safe operation and to make dispatch decisions that achieve system objectives such as cost minimization, reliability, efficiency and emissions requirements, while abiding by system constraints and regulatory rules. This control is performed by an energy manager (EM). Preferably, an EM will achieve operation reasonably close to the attainable optimum, it will do this by means robust to deviations from expected conditions, and it will not itself incur insupportable capital or operation and maintenance costs. Also, microgrids can include supervision over end-uses, such as curtailing or rescheduling certain loads. By viewing a unified microgrid as a system of supply and demand, rather than simply a system of on-site generation devices, the benefits of integrated supply and demand control can be exploited, such as economic savings and improved system energy efficiency.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01

196

Computational materials design for energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General adoption of sustainable energy technologies depends on the discovery and development of new high-performance materials. For instance, waste heat recovery and electricity generation via the solar thermal route require bulk thermoelectrics with a high figure of merit (ZT) and thermal stability at high-temperatures. Energy recovery applications (e.g., regenerative braking) call for the development of rapidly chargeable systems for electrical energy storage, such as electrochemical supercapacitors. Similarly, use of hydrogen as vehicular fuel depends on the ability to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract it at ambient temperatures at sufficiently rapid rates. We will discuss how first-principles computational methods based on quantum mechanics and statistical physics can drive the understanding, improvement and prediction of new energy materials. We will cover prediction and experimental verification of new earth-abundant thermoelectrics, transition metal oxides for electrochemical supercapacitors, and kinetics of mass transport in complex metal hydrides.

Ozolins, Vidvuds

2013-03-01

197

Explaining Earths Energy Budget: CERES-Based NASA Resources for K-12 Education and Public Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Among atmospheric scientists, the importance of the Earth radiation budget concept is well understood. Papers have addressed the topic for over 100 years, and the large Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (among others), with its multiple on-orbit instruments, is working hard to quantify the details of its various parts. In education, Earth's energy budget is a concept that generally appears in middle school and Earth science curricula, but its treatment in textbooks leaves much to be desired. Students and the public hold many misconceptions, and very few people have an appreciation for the importance of this energy balance to the conditions on Earth. More importantly, few have a correct mental model that allows them to make predictions and understand the effect of changes such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. As an outreach element of the core CERES team at NASA Langley, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, educators, graphic artists, writers, and web developers has been developing and refining graphics and resources to explain the Earth's Energy budget over the last few decades. Resources have developed through an iterative process involving ongoing use in front of a variety of audiences, including students and teachers from 3rd to 12th grade as well as public audiences.

Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K.; Marvel, M. T.; Ruhlman, K.; LaPan, J.; Lewis, P.; Madigan, J.; Oostra, D.; Taylor, J.

2014-01-01

198

Design of a Representative Low Earth Orbit Satellite to Improve Existing Debris Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the process and methodologies used in the design of a small-satellite, DebriSat, that represents materials and construction methods used in modern day Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. This satellite will be used in a future hypervelocity impact test with the overall purpose to investigate the physical characteristics of modern LEO satellites after an on-orbit collision. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy Transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960 s. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques from a satellite built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. The design of DebriSat will focus on designing and building a next-generation satellite to more accurately portray modern satellites. The design of DebriSat included a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 10 kg to 5000 kg. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions, and helped direct the design of DebriSat.

Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Werremeyer, M.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.

2012-01-01

199

Constraining the gravitational wave energy density of the Universe using Earth's ring  

E-print Network

The search for gravitational waves is one of today's major scientific endeavors. A gravitational wave can interact with matter by exciting vibrations of elastic bodies. Earth itself is a large elastic body whose so-called normal-mode oscillations ring up when a gravitational wave passes. Therefore, precise measurement of vibration amplitudes can be used to search for the elusive gravitational-wave signals. Earth's free oscillations that can be observed after high-magnitude earthquakes have been studied extensively with gravimeters and low-frequency seismometers over many decades leading to invaluable insight into Earth's structure. Making use of our detailed understanding of Earth's normal modes, numerical models are employed for the first time to accurately calculate Earth's gravitational-wave response, and thereby turn a network of sensors that so far has served to improve our understanding of Earth, into an astrophysical observatory exploring our Universe. In this article, we constrain the energy density of gravitational waves to values in the range 0.035 - 0.15 normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe at frequencies between 0.3mHz and 5mHz, using 10 years of data from the gravimeter network of the Global Geodynamics Project that continuously monitors Earth's oscillations. This work is the first step towards a systematic investigation of the sensitivity of gravimeter networks to gravitational waves. Further advance in gravimeter technology could improve sensitivity of these networks and possibly lead to gravitational-wave detection.

Michael Coughlin; Jan Harms

2014-06-04

200

Constraining the gravitational wave energy density of the Universe using Earth's ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for gravitational waves is one of today's major scientific endeavors. A gravitational wave can interact with matter by exciting vibrations of elastic bodies. Earth itself is a large elastic body whose so-called normal-mode oscillations ring up when a gravitational wave passes. Therefore, precise measurement of vibration amplitudes can be used to search for the elusive gravitational-wave signals. Earth's free oscillations that can be observed after high-magnitude earthquakes have been studied extensively with gravimeters and low-frequency seismometers over many decades leading to invaluable insight into Earth's structure. Making use of our detailed understanding of Earth's normal modes, numerical models are employed for the first time to accurately calculate Earth's gravitational-wave response, and thereby turn a network of sensors that so far has served to improve our understanding of Earth, into an astrophysical observatory exploring our Universe. In this paper, we constrain the energy density of gravitational waves to values in the range 0.035-0.15 normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe at frequencies between 0.3 and 5 mHz, using ten years of data from the gravimeter network of the Global Geodynamics Project that continuously monitors Earth's oscillations. This work is the first step towards a systematic investigation of the sensitivity of gravimeter networks to gravitational waves. Further advances in gravimeter technology could improve sensitivity of these networks and possibly lead to gravitational-wave detection.

Coughlin, Michael; Harms, Jan

2014-08-01

201

Design of rare-earth-ion doped chalcogenide photonic crystals for enhancing the fluorescence emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth-ion doped chalcogenide glass is a promising material for developing mid-infrared light sources. In this work, Tm3+-doped chalcogenide glass was prepared and photonic crystal structures were designed to enhance its fluorescence emission at approximately 3.8 ?m. By employing the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, the emission characteristics of the luminescent centers in the bulk material and in the photonic crystals were worked out. Utilizing analysis of the photon excitation inside the sample and the photon extraction on the sample surface, it was found that fluorescence emission can be significantly enhanced 260-fold with the designed photonic crystal structure. The results of this work can be used to realize high-efficiency mid-infrared light sources.

Zhang, Peiqing; Dai, Shixun; Niu, Xueke; Xu, Yinsheng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yuehao; Xu, Tiefeng; Nie, Qiuhua

2014-07-01

202

AEOSS design guide for system analysis on Advanced Earth-Orbital Spacecraft Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced Earth Orbital Spacecraft System (AEOSS) enables users to project the requried power, weight, and cost for a generic earth-orbital spacecraft system. These variables are calculated on the component and subsystem levels, and then the system level. The included six subsystems are electric power, thermal control, structure, auxillary propulsion, attitude control, and communication, command, and data handling. The costs are computed using statistically determined models that were derived from the flown spacecraft in the past and were categorized into classes according to their functions and structural complexity. Selected design and performance analyses for essential components and subsystems are also provided. AEOSS has the feature permitting a user to enter known values of these parameters, totally and partially, at all levels. All information is of vital importance to project managers of subsystems or a spacecraft system. AEOSS is a specially tailored software coded from the relational database program of the Acius; 4th Dimension with a Macintosh version. Because of the licensing agreement, two versions of the AEOSS documents were prepared. This version AEOSS Design Guide, is for users to exploit the full capacity of the 4th Dimension. It is for a user who wants to alter or expand the program structures, the program statements, and the program procedures. The user has to possess a 4th Dimension first.

Lee, Hwa-Ping

1990-01-01

203

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

2013-01-01

204

Power inversion design for ocean wave energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The needs for energy sources are increasing day by day because of several factors, such as oil depletion, and global climate change due to the higher level of CO2, so the exploration of various renewable energy sources is very promising area of study. The available ocean waves can be utilized as free source of energy as the water covers 70% of the earth surface. This thesis presents the ocean wave energy as a source of renewable energy. By addressing the problem of designing efficient power electronics system to deliver 5 KW from the induction generator to the grid with less possible losses and harmonics as possible and to control current fed to the grid to successfully harvest ocean wave energy. We design an AC-DC full bridge rectifier converter, and a DC-DC boost converter to harvest wave energy from AC to regulated DC. In order to increase the design efficiency, we need to increase the power factor from (0.5-0.6) to 1. This is accomplished by designing the boost converter with power factor correction in continues mode with RC circuit as an input to the boost converter power factor correction. This design results in a phase shift between the input current and voltage of the full bridge rectifier to generate a small reactive power. The reactive power is injected to the induction generator to maintain its functionality by generating a magnetic field in its stator. Next, we design a single-phase pulse width modulator full bridge voltage source DC-AC grid-tied mode inverter to harvest regulated DC wave energy to AC. The designed inverter is modulated by inner current loop, to control current injected to the grid with minimal filter component to maintain power quality at the grid. The simulation results show that our design successfully control the current level fed to the grid. It is noteworthy that the simulated efficiency is higher than the calculated one since we used an ideal switch in the simulated circuit.

Talebani, Anwar N.

205

Earth-Science Research for Addressing the Water-Energy Nexus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coming decades, the United States will face two significant and sometimes competing challenges: preserving sustainable supplies of fresh water for humans and ecosystems, and ensuring available sources of energy. This presentation provides an overview of the earth-science data collection and research needed to address these challenges. Uncertainty limits our understanding of many aspects of the water-energy nexus. These aspects include availability of water, water requirements for energy development, energy requirements for treating and delivering fresh water, effects of emerging energy development technologies on water quality and quantity, and effects of future climates and land use on water and energy needs. Uncertainties can be reduced with an integrated approach that includes assessments of water availability and energy resources; monitoring of surface water and groundwater quantity and quality, water use, and energy use; research on impacts of energy waste streams, hydraulic fracturing, and other fuel-extraction processes on water quality; and research on the viability and environmental footprint of new technologies such as carbon capture and sequestration and conversion of cellulosic material to ethanol. Planning for water and energy development requires consideration of factors such as economics, population trends, human health, and societal values; however, sound resource management must be grounded on a clear understanding of the earth-science aspects of the water-energy nexus. Information gained from an earth-science data-collection and research program can improve our understanding of water and energy issues and lay the ground work for informed resource management.

Healy, R. W.; Alley, W. M.; Engle, M.; McMahon, P. B.; Bales, J. D.

2013-12-01

206

Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

1997-01-01

207

Earth, water, wind, and sun: our energy alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author does not see any of the alternative energy sources as magic substitutes for fossil fuels like oil, coal, and gas. Instead, these alternatives--geothermal power, water power, wind and solar energy-- together can help provide an energy solution. For each alternative, a history of its development and use is presented; its actual power contribution as well as its potential,

Halacy; D. S. Jr

1977-01-01

208

The Design of Mars on Earth, a Biospheric Closed System Testing Facility for Long-Term Space Habitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design for a prototype Mars base simulating an inhabited Mars mission on Earth to determine the feasibility of maintaining humans in a self-sustaining system providing food, air and water regeneration. The system will be initially designed for a team of four, but the biosphere modules will be constructed so that they can be replicated and the

A. Allen; A. Alling

2002-01-01

209

Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)

Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

1988-01-01

210

Energy shifted level densities in the rare earth region  

E-print Network

The density of accessible levels at low spin in the (3-He,alpha gamma) reaction has been extracted for the 161,162-Dy and 171,172-Yb nuclei. The energy shift between the level densities of the even-odd and even-even isotopes is measured as a function of excitation energy. The results are compared with predictions from various semi-empirical models. The energy shift procedure works well for excitation energies between 3.5 and 7 MeV in the even-even nucleus, provided that a proper level density function is used. The experimental energy shift is close to the pairing gap parameter Delta.

M. Guttormsen; M. Hjorth-Jensen; E. Melby; J. Rekstad; A. Schiller; S. Siem

2000-01-27

211

Systematic approach in designing rare-Earth-free hybrid semiconductor phosphors for general lighting applications.  

PubMed

As one of the most rapidly evolving branches of solid-state lighting technologies, light emitting diodes (LEDs) are gradually replacing conventional lighting sources due to their advantages in energy saving and environmental protection. At the present time, commercially available white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) are predominantly phosphor based (e.g., a yellow-emitting phosphor, such as cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet or (YAG):Ce(3+), coupled with a blue-emitting InGaN/GaN diode), which rely heavily on rare-earth (RE) metals. To avoid potential supply risks of these elements, we have developed an inorganic-organic hybrid phosphor family based on I-VII binary semiconductors. The hybrid phosphor materials are totally free of rare-earth metals. They can be synthesized by a simple, low-cost solution process and are easily scalable. Their band gap and emission energy, intensity, and color can be systematically tuned by incorporating ligands with suitable electronic properties. High quantum efficiency is achieved for some of these compounds. Such features make this group of materials promising candidates as alternative phosphors for use in general lighting devices. PMID:25216125

Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Wei; Wei, George Z; Banerjee, Debasis; Hu, Zhichao; Li, Jing

2014-10-01

212

The opto-mechanical design of the GMT-consortium large earth finder (G-CLEF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is a fiber fed, optical echelle spectrograph that has been selected as a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) currently under construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile's Atacama desert region. We designed G-CLEF as a general-purpose echelle spectrograph with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability used for exoplanet detection. The radial velocity (RV) precision goal of GCLEF is 10 cm/sec, necessary for detection of Earth-sized planets orbiting stars like our Sun in the habitable zone. This goal imposes challenging stability requirements on the optical mounts and the overall spectrograph support structures. Stability in instruments of this type is typically affected by changes in temperature, orientation, and air pressure as well as vibrations caused by telescope tracking. For these reasons, we have chosen to enclose G-CLEF's spectrograph in a thermally insulated, vibration isolated vacuum chamber and place it at a gravity invariant location on GMT's azimuth platform. Additional design constraints posed by the GMT telescope include: a limited space envelope, a thermal emission ceiling, and a maximum weight allowance. Other factors, such as manufacturability, serviceability, available technology and budget are also significant design drivers. All of the previously listed considerations must be managed while ensuring that performance requirements are achieved. In this paper, we discuss the design of G-CLEF's optical mounts and support structures including technical choices made to minimize the system's sensitivity to thermal gradients. A more general treatment of the properties of G-CLEF can be found elsewhere in these proceedings1. We discuss the design of the vacuum chamber which houses the irregularly shaped optical bench and optics while conforming to a challenging space envelope on GMT's azimuth platform. We also discuss the design of G-CLEF's insulated enclosure and thermal control systems which maintain the spectrograph at milli-Kelvin level stability while simultaneously limiting the maximum thermal emission into the telescope dome environment. Finally, we discuss G-CLEF's front-end assembly and fiber-feed system as well as other interface challenges presented by the telescope, enclosure and neighboring instrumentation.

Mueller, Mark; Baldwin, Daniel; Bean, Jacob; Bergner, Henry; Bigelow, Bruce; Chun, Moo-Young; Crane, Jeffrey; Foster, Jeff; F?rsz, Gabor; Gauron, Thomas; Guzman, Dani; Hertz, Edward; Jordn, Andrs.; Kim, Kang-Min; McCracken, Kenneth; Norton, Timothy; Ordway, Mark; Park, Chan; Park, Sang; Podgorski, William A.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Uomoto, Alan; Yuk, In-Soo

2014-08-01

213

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design  

SciTech Connect

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

Monty Lehmann

2011-07-01

214

A method to detect ultra high energy electrons using earth's magnetic field as a radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the detection of electrons with energies exceeding a few TeV, which lose energy rapidly through synchrotron and inverse Compton processes, would provide valuable information on the distribution of sources and on the propagation of cosmic rays in the solar neighborhood. However, it would not be possible to measure the energy spectrum beyond a few TeV with any of the existing experimental techniques. The present investigation is, therefore concerned with the possibility of detecting electrons with energies exceeding a few TeV on the basis of the photons emitted through synchrotron radiation in the earth's magnetic field. Attention is given to the synchrotron radiation of electrons in the earth's magnetic field, detector response and energy estimation, and the characteristics of an ideal detector, capable of detecting photons with energies equal to or greater than 20 keV.

Stephens, S. A.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

1983-01-01

215

High Earth orbit design for lunar assisted small Explorer class missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small Expendable launch vehicles are capable of injecting modest payloads into high Earth orbits having apogee near the lunar distance. However, lunar and solar perturbations can quickly lower perigee and cause premature reentry. Costly perigee raising maneuvers by the spacecraft are required to maintain the orbit. In addition, the range of inclinations achievable is limited to those of launch sites unless costly spacecraft maneuvers are performed. This study investigates the use of a lunar swingby in a near-Hohmann transfer trajectory to raise perigee into the 8 to 25 solar radius range and reach a wide variety of inclinations without spacecraft maneuvers. It is found that extremely stable orbits can be obtained if the postencounter spacecraft orbital period is one-half of a lunar sidereal revolution and the Earth-vehicle-Moon geometry is within a specified range. Criteria for achieving stable orbits with various perigee heights and ecliptic inclinations are developed, and the sensitivity of the resulting mission orbits to transfer trajectory injection (TTI) errors is examined. It is shown that carefully designed orbits yield lifetimes of several years, with excellent ground station coverage characteristics and minimal eclipses. A phasing loop error correction strategy is considered with the spacecraft propulsion system delta V demand for TTI error correction and a postlunar encounter apogee trim maneuver typically in the 30 to 120 meters per second range.

Mathews, M.; Hametz, M.; Cooley, J.; Skillman, D.

1994-01-01

216

Design and development of a gossamer sail system for deorbiting in low earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of space debris in low Earth orbits poses an increasing threat of collisions and damage to spacecraft. As a low-cost solution to the space debris problem the Gossamer Deorbiter proposed herein is designed as a scalable stand-alone system that can be attached to a low-to-medium mass host satellite for end-of-life disposal from low Earth orbit. It consists of a 5 m by 5 m square solar/drag sail that uses four bistable carbon fiber booms for deployment and support. Prior to deployment of the gossamer structure, a telescopic enclosure system is used to displace the sail from the host craft in order to extend the sail without hindrance from the host peripherals, and also provide passive stabilization. The principal advantage of an entirely passive operational mode allows the drag augmentation system to act as a fail-safe device that would activate if the spacecraft suffers a catastrophic failure. Several scenarios are analyzed to study the potential application and performance of the system to current and future missions. A detailed breakdown of the mechanical subsystems of the Gossamer Deorbiter is presented, as well as the characterization process of the deployable booms and sail membrane and the full qualification testing campaign at component and system levels. Finally, the performance scalability of the concept is analyzed.

Fernandez, Juan M.; Visagie, Lourens; Schenk, Mark; Stohlman, Olive R.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Lappas, Vaios J.; Erb, Sven

2014-10-01

217

Core, Mantle, Crust: Imaging the Earth's Interior with Ultra-High Energy Neutrino Tomography  

E-print Network

We report on the feasibility of using an isotropic flux of cosmic neutrinos in the energy range of 10 to 10,000 TeV to study the interior geophysical structure of the Earth. The angular distribution of events in a $\\sim {\\rm km}^3$-scale neutrino telescope can be inverted to yield the Earth's nucleon density distribution. The approach is independent of previous seismic methods. The energy spectrum of the neutrino primaries can also be determined from consistency with the angular distribution. Depending on neutrino flux, a reasonable density determination can be obtained with a few hundred receivers operating for a few years.

John P. Ralston; Pankaj Jain; George M. Frichter

1999-09-02

218

Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires federal facilities to be built to achieve 30% energy savings over the 2004 International Energy Code or American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004, as appropriate. The Engineer Research and Development Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing target energy budgets and design guides with a prescriptive path to achieve 30% energy savings over a baseline built to the minimum requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This project covers eight building types in 15 U.S. climate zones. The building types include barracks, administrative buildings, a maintenance facility, a dining facility, a child development center, and an Army reserve center. All the design guides will be completed by the end of 2008. This paper focuses on the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing (UEPH). The UEPH buildings are similar to apartment buildings with double occupancy units. For each building type, a baseline was established following typical Army construction and ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix G modeling rules. Improvements in energy performance were achieved for the envelope using the NREL optimization platform for commercial buildings and previous ASHRAE design guides. Credit was also taken for tightening the building envelope by using proposed envelope leakage rates from ASHRAE and the Army. Two HVAC systems, including a dedicated outdoor air system, were considered. The final results achieved 29% site energy savings in two climates and greater than 30% site energy savings in all other climates. Results of this study were implemented in the Army's standard RFP process for new UEPH barracks construction in late 2007. New UEPH design/construction begun in 2008 and beyond will require the contractor to design and construct a UEPH facility that meets the target energy budget developed in this study using either a custom design or the design guide's prescriptive path developed as part of this study.

Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

2008-01-01

219

Design + energy: results of a national student design competition  

SciTech Connect

A national competition for students in schools of architecture was conducted during the Spring of 1980. The competition was the first of a series of competitions that emphasized the integration of architectural design and energy considerations in medium-scale building projects, and specifically applying passive solar design strategies and the appropriate use of brick masonry materials. Some 300 faculty members and over 2200 students representing 80 of the 92 US architecture schools participated in the program. A summary is presented of the program and the range of submissions grouped by problem types and general climatic region.

Not Available

1980-01-01

220

Phased array feed design technology for Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Earth observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the potential and limitations of phased array antennas in space-based geophysical precision radiometry is described. Mathematical models exhibiting the dependence of system and scene temperatures and system sensitivity on phased array antenna parameters and components such as phase shifters and low noise amplifiers (LNA) are developed. Emphasis is given to minimum noise temperature designs wherein the LNA's are located at the array level, one per element or subarray. Two types of combiners are considered: array lenses (space feeds) and corporate networks. The result of a survey of suitable components and devices is described. The data obtained from that survey are used in conjunction with the mathematical models to yield an assessment of effective array antenna noise temperature for representative geostationary and low Earth orbit systems. Practical methods of calibrating a space-based, phased array radiometer are briefly addressed as well.

Schuman, H. K.

1992-01-01

221

Co-Seismic Energy Changes Induced by Earthquakes on a Rotating, Gravitating Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Besides operating its own energy budget, an earthquake acts as an agent transferring a much greater amount of energy among the Earth's rotation, elastic field, gravitational field and internal heat. We compute the co-seismic, globally integrated gravitational and rotation changes induced by some 20,000 large earthquakes that occurred in the last quarter century, according to Chao et al. (1995, GJI, 122,776- 783,784-789) and using the Harvard CMT catalog. The result confirms an extremely strong tendency for the earthquakes to decrease the global gravitational energy and to increase the spin energy. It is found that energy is being extracted from the Earth's gravitational field by the action of earthquakes at an average rate of about approx. 2 TeraW during the studied period, larger by far than the approx. 7 GigaW for the average rate of the earthquake-induced rotational energy increase and the approx. 5 GigaW for the seismic energy release. Based on energetics considerations and assuming the inability of the Earth to build up elastic energy continuously over time, it is argued that earthquakes, by converting gravitational energy, may make a significant contribution to the global hedflow.

Chao, Benjamin F.; Gross, Richard S.

2003-01-01

222

Diagnosing ocean energy transports from earth radiation budget measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The maximum energy production (MEP) principle suggested by Paltridge (1975) is applied to separate the satellite-inferred required total transports into the atmospheric and the oceanic components within a two-dimensional (2D) framework. For this purpose, the required 2D energy transports (Sohn and Smith, 1991) are imposed on Paltridge's energy balance model which is then solved as a variational problem. The results provide separated atmospheric and oceanic transports on a 2D basis such that the total divergence is equal to the net radiation measured from a satellite.

Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

1992-01-01

223

Earth Science Week 2010 - Hurricane Energy - Duration: 3:04.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA hurricane scientist Dr. Jeff Halverson explains how hurricanes draw energy from the ocean surface. The video also provides an example of a classroom activity that allows students to map the ch...

224

Star Power on Earth: Path to Clean Energy Future  

ScienceCinema

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's "Science on Saturday" lecture series presents Ed Moses, Director of the National Ignition Facility, discussing the world's largest laser system and its potential impact on society's upcoming energy needs.

Ed Moses

2010-09-01

225

ESAS-Derived Earth Departure Stage Design for Human Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration has set the nation on a course to have humans on Mars as early as 2030. To reduce the cost and risk associated with human Mars exploration, NASA is planning for the Mars architecture to leverage the lunar architecture as fully as possible. This study takes the defined launch vehicles and system capabilities from ESAS and extends their application to DRM 3.0 to design an Earth Departure Stage suitable for the cargo and crew missions to Mars. The impact of a propellant depot in LEO was assessed and sLzed for use with the EDS. To quantitatively assess and compare the effectiveness of alternative designs, an initial baseline architecture was defined using the ESAS launch vehicles and DRM 3.0. The baseline architecture uses three NTR engines, LH2 propellant, no propellant depot in LEO, and launches on the Ares I and Ares V. The Mars transfer and surface elements from DRM 3.0 were considered to be fixed payloads in the design of the EDS. Feasible architecture alternatives were identified from previous architecture studies and anticipated capabilities and compiled in a morphological matrix. ESAS FOMs were used to determine the most critical design attributes for the effectiveness of the EDS. The ESAS-derived FOMs used in this study to assess alternative designs are effectiveness and performance, affordability, reliability, and risk. The individual FOMs were prioritized using the AHP, a method for pairwise comparison. All trades performed were evaluated with respect to the weighted FOMs, creating a Pareto frontier of equivalently ideal solutions. Additionally, each design on the frontier was evaluated based on its fulfillment of the weighted FOMs using TOPSIS, a quantitative method for ordinal ranking of the alternatives. The designs were assessed in an integrated environment using physics-based models for subsystem analysis where possible. However, for certain attributes such as engine type, historical, performance-based mass estimating relations were more easily employed. The elements from the design process were integrated into a single loop, allowing for rapid iteration of subsystem analyses and compilation of resulting designs.

Flaherty, Kevin; Grant, Michael; Korzun, Ashley; Malo-Molina, Faure; Steinfeldt, Bradley; Stahl, Benjamin; Wilhite, Alan

2007-01-01

226

Design of a Surface Albedo Modification Payload for Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Mitigation  

E-print Network

The development of the Surface Albedo Treatment System (SATS) onboard a spacecraft mission to the near earth asteroid (NEA) Apophis in 2012 is an innovative concept of deflecting NEAs from possible impact with the Earth through altering...

Ge, Shen

2011-10-21

227

Spacecraft design-for-demise strategy, analysis and impact on low earth orbit space missions  

E-print Network

Uncontrolled reentry into the Earth atmosphere by LEO space missions whilst complying with stipulated NASA Earth atmospheric reentry requirements is a vital endeavor for the space community to pursue. An uncontrolled reentry ...

Waswa, M. B. Peter (Peter Moses Bweya)

2009-01-01

228

Low-energy neutrino factory design  

SciTech Connect

The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

Ankenbrandt, C.; /Fermilab /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Bogacz, S.A.; /Jefferson Lab; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

2009-07-01

229

Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth science industry through a student satellite development program is one of the best methods of developing the next generation of space and earth science engineers and scientists.

Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

2011-12-01

230

High-energy cosmic ray muons in the Earth's atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

We present the calculations of the atmospheric muon fluxes at energies 10-10{sup 7} GeV based on a numerical-analytical method for solving the hadron-nucleus cascade equations. It allows the non-power-law behavior of the primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum, the violation of Feynman scaling, and the growth of the total inelastic cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions with increasing energy to be taken into account. The calculations have been performed for a wide class of hadron-nucleus interaction models using directly the PCR measurements made in the ATIC-2 and GAMMA experiments and the parameterizations of the primary spectrum based on a set of experiments. We study the dependence of atmospheric muon flux characteristics on the hadronic interaction model and the influence of uncertainties in the PCR spectrum and composition on the muon flux at sea level. Comparison of the calculated muon energy spectra at sea level with the data from a large number of experiments shows that the cross sections for hadron-nucleus interactions introduce the greatest uncertainty in the energy region that does not include the knee in the primary spectrum.

Kochanov, A. A., E-mail: kochanov@iszf.irk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (Russian Federation); Sinegovskaya, T. S. [Irkutsk State Railway University (Russian Federation)] [Irkutsk State Railway University (Russian Federation); Sinegovsky, S. I., E-mail: sinegovsky@api.isu.ru [Irkutsk State University (Russian Federation)

2013-03-15

231

Novel nanostructured rare-earth-free magnetic materials with high energy products.  

PubMed

Novel nanostructured Zr2 Co11 -based magnetic materials are fabricated in a single step process using cluster-deposition method. The composition, atomic ordering, and spin structure are precisely controlled to achieve a substantial magnetic remanence and coercivity, as well as the highest energy product for non-rare-earth and Pt-free permanent-magnet alloys. PMID:24038456

Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Das, Bhaskar; Skomski, Ralph; Zhang, Wenyong Y; Sellmyer, David J

2013-11-13

232

Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can be addressed through careful module design with aligned assessments and feedback. By providing an overview of the teaching project, I will highlight the importance of introducing interdisciplinary research at undergraduate levels (Tong, Nature, 2010). Main project outcomes with student feedback will also be assessed and explored for better teaching practices. References: Tong, C. H., Let interdisciplinary research begin in undergraduate years, Nature, v. 463, p. 157, 2010. Tong, C. H., Approaching research literature: Module design with Electronic feedback package on written assignment (Project report), 2009. (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA/vtong)

Tong, Vincent C. H.

2010-05-01

233

Design of a Formation of Earth Orbiting Satellites: The Auroral Lites Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has proposed a set of spacecraft flying in close formation around the Earth in order to measure the behavior of the auroras. The mission, named Auroral Lites, consists of four spacecraft configured to start at the vertices of a tetrahedron, flying over three mission phases. During the first phase, the distance between any two spacecraft in the formation is targeted at 10 kilometers (km). The second mission phase is much tighter, requiring satellite interrange spacing targeted at 500 meters. During the final phase of the mission, the formation opens to a nominal 100-km interrange spacing. In this paper, we present the strategy employed to initialize and model such a close formation during each of these phases. The analysis performed to date provides the design and characteristics of the reference orbit, the evolution of the formation during Phases I and II, and an estimate of the total mission delta-V budget. AI Solutions' mission design tool, FreeFlyer(R), was used to generate each of these analysis elements. The tool contains full force models, including both impulsive and finite duration maneuvers. Orbital maintenance can be fully modeled in the system using a flexible, natural scripting language built into the system. In addition, AI Solutions is in the process of adding formation extensions to the system facilitating mission analysis for formations like Auroral Lites. We will discuss how FreeFlyer(R) is used for these analyses.

Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.; Richon, Karen

1999-01-01

234

Design of a Formation of Earth-Orbiting Satellites: The Auroral Lites Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has proposed a set of spacecraft flying in close formation around the Earth in order to measure the behavior of the auroras. The mission, named Auroral Lites, consists of four spacecraft configured to start at the vertices of a tetrahedron, flying over three mission phases. During the first phase, the distance between any two spacecraft in the formation is targeted at 10 kilometers (km). The second mission phase is much tighter, requiring satellite interrange spacing targeted at 500 meters. During the final phase of the mission, the formation opens to a nominal 100-km interrange spacing. In this paper, we present the strategy employed to initialize and model such a close formation during each of these phases. The analysis performed to date provides the design and characteristics of the reference orbit, the evolution of the formation during Phases I and II, and an estimate of the total mission delta-V budget. AI Solutions' mission design tool, FreeFlyer, was used to generate each of these analysis elements. The tool contains full force models, including both impulsive and finite duration maneuvers. Orbital maintenance can be fully modeled in the system using a flexible, natural scripting language built into the system. In addition, AI Solutions is in the process of adding formation extensions to the system facilitating mission analysis for formations like Auroral Lites. We will discuss how FreeFlyer is used for these analyses.

Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.; Richon, Karen

1999-01-01

235

Computational efficiences for calculating rare earth f^n energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RecentlyootnotetextD. R. Beck and E. J. Domeier, Can. J. Phys. Walter Johnson issue, Jan. 2009., we have used new computational strategies to obtain wavefunctions and energies for Gd IV 4f^7 and 4f^65d levels. Here we extend one of these techniques to allow efficent inclusion of 4f^2 pair correlation effects using radial pair energies obtained from much simpler calculationsootnotetexte.g. K. Jankowski et al., Int. J. Quant. Chem. XXVII, 665 (1985). and angular factors which can be simply computedootnotetextD. R. Beck and C. A. Nicolaides, Excited States in Quantum Chemistry, C. A. Nicolaides and D. R. Beck (editors), D. Reidel (1978), p. 105ff.. This is a re-vitalization of an older ideaootnotetextI. Oksuz and O. Sinanoglu, Phys. Rev. 181, 54 (1969).. We display relationships between angular factors involving the exchange of holes and electrons (e.g. f^6 vs f^8, f^13d vs fd^9). We apply the results to Tb IV and Gd IV, whose spectra is largely unknown, but which may play a role in MRI medicine as endohedral metallofullerenes (e.g. Gd3N-C80ootnotetextM. C. Qian and S. N. Khanna, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 09E105 (2007).). Pr III results are in good agreement (910 cm-1) with experiment. Pu I 5f^2 radial pair energies are also presented.

Beck, Donald R.

2009-05-01

236

Design of Energy-Friendly Glass Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incumbent fiberglass compositions rely on decades of commercial experience. From a compositional point of view, many of these melts require more energy than needed in their production, or emit toxic effluents into the environment. This chapter reviews the design of energy- and/or environmentally friendly E-glass, HT-glass, ECR-glass, A-glass, and C-glass compositions, which have lower viscosities or fiber-forming temperatures and therefore require less energy in a commercial furnace than the respective incumbent compositions and/or do not contain ingredients which are of environmental concern.

Wallenberger, Frederick T.

237

Energy efficiency: the challenges of policy design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about the choice of policy instruments to promote electricity-efficient household appliances and office equipment. We analyse the design process of the energy-efficiency policies implemented by Canada, Denmark, the United States, Sweden and Switzerland from 1973 to 1996. The results of this comparative study suggest that a policy instrument is adopted (1) if the degree of coercion involved

Frdric Varone; Bernard Aebischer

2001-01-01

238

Design, Delivery, and Results of the Earth and Space Science Partnership Teacher Professional Development Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth and Space Science Partnership (ESSP) is a collaboration among Penn State scientists and science educators with seven school districts across Pennsylvania. Part of the multi-faceted ESSP effort includes long-term professional development that is built around annual summer workshops for middle grades teachers in several content areas, including Solar System astronomy. Our project was initially funded for five years (we are in year 3 now), so teachers remain engaged with the ESSP for longer than many professional development programs. This project duration allows us to implement several methods for building on the summer workshops: (1) Teachers are able to repeat workshops in a content area more than once, which means that in most of our workshops we have a mix of veteran teachers and those new to the program, (2) three meetings are held throughout the school year where all partners revisit the content and pedagogy from the summer, and (3) the teachers are encouraged and supported in their own efforts to create learning communities in their districts that meet more frequently. In this poster, we report on our efforts to impact the teaching of Earth and Space Science by offering a professional development program designed around coherent content storylines and a claims/evidence/reasoning (CER) framework. We will present the storyline from our summer 2012 astronomy workshop and samples of the CER activities that were developed to align with pieces of the storyline. Finally, we will discuss how aspects of the storyline / CER approach are being implemented in the sixth grade curriculum of one of our partner school districts, the Bellefonte Area School District. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF from a Targeted Math Science Partnership award DUE#0962792.

Palma, Christopher; Flarend, A.; Petula, J.; Richards, M. T.; Spotts, H.; McDonald, S.; Furman, T.

2013-01-01

239

Global Change Research Related in the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle is to enhance the scientific knowledge and educational benefits obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). This paper presents the final technical report on this collaborative effort. Various appendices include: A) Staff Travel Activities years one through three; B) Publications and Presentations years one through three; C) Education Activities; D) Students year one through three; E) Seminars year one through three; and F) Center for Applied Optics Projects.

Berry, Linda R.

2002-01-01

240

Determining the optimal design of a closed loop earth to air heat exchanger for greenhouse heating by using exergoeconomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation deals with an exergoeconomic evaluation of the earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) application for determining the optimal design greenhouse heating in Izmir, Turkey. The exergy destructions in the system are quantified and illustrated using tables for a reference temperature of 6C. The results indicate that the exergy destructions in the system occur primarily as a result of

Onder Ozgener; Leyla Ozgener

2011-01-01

241

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 5: System design and specifications. Part 1: Observatory system element specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance, design, and quality assurance requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Observatory and Ground System program elements required to perform the Land Resources Management (LRM) A-type mission are presented. The requirements for the Observatory element with the exception of the instruments specifications are contained in the first part.

1974-01-01

242

Designating Earth's Moon as a United Nations World Heritage Site - Permanently Protected from Commercial or Military Uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes that Earth's Moon, in its entirety, be designated a United Nations World Heritage Site (WHS), permanently protected from any and all commercial or military utilization and reserved exclusively for scientific and aesthetic purposes. The paper discusses: 1) the extraordinary importance of the Moon for science, culture, and religion - past, present and future; 2) the history of

R. G. Steiner

2002-01-01

243

Methods and Trajectory Design for the Placement of Humans and Resources into the Earth-Moon Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trajectory design of missions to the moon and to Earth-moon libration orbits can be found to have many similar objectives and problems. Through the use of direct transfers and weak stability boundary (WSB) orbits, one can achieve the required flight time, payload mass, and rendezvous conditions. We explore the use of WSB and direct transfers using low and high

D. A. Folta; M. A. Mesarch; R. M. Beckman; G. C. Marr; D. S. Cooley

2002-01-01

244

Ballistic design of transfer trajectories from artificial-satellite earth orbit to halo orbit in the neighborhood of the L 2 point of the Sun-Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers the ballistic design of spacecraft (SC) transfer to the neighborhood of the L 2 point and subsequent entry of the SC into the halo orbit. Trajectory calculations of one-impulse Earth-halo orbit transfers with and without using a lunar gravitational maneuver are presented. For the calculation of one-impulse trajectories of Earth-halo-orbit transfers, an algorithm for constructing initial approximations is applied. These approximations are constructed by calculating and analyzing the isolines as a function of two variables. This function is represented by the pericenter height of the outgoing orbit over the Earth's surface. The arguments of the function are special parameters that characterize the halo orbit. The mentioned algorithm allows one to obtain halo orbits with specified geometrical characteristics both in the ecliptic plane, and in the plane orthogonal to it. The estimates of the characteristic velocity expenses for maintaining SC in the selected halo orbit are obtained. The described technique was used to search for working orbits of the Spectr-RG and Millimetron spacecraft. Examples of orbits obtained are presented.

Il'in, I. S.; Zaslavsky, G. S.; Lavrenov, S. M.; Sazonov, V. V.; Stepanyantz, V. A.; Tuchin, A. G.; Tuchin, D. A.; Yaroshevsky, V. S.

2014-11-01

245

An enhanced model of land water and energy for global hydrologic and earth-system studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

LM3 is a new model of terrestrial water, energy, and carbon, intended for use in global hydrologic analyses and as a component of earth-system and physical-climate models. It is designed to improve upon the performance and to extend the scope of the predecessor Land Dynamics (LaD) and LM3V models by better quantifying the physical controls of climate and biogeochemistry and by relating more directly to components of the global water system that touch human concerns. LM3 includes multilayer representations of temperature, liquid water content, and ice content of both snowpack and macroporous soilbedrock; topography-based description of saturated area and groundwater discharge; and transport of runoff to the ocean via a global river and lake network. Sensible heat transport by water mass is accounted throughout for a complete energy balance. Carbon and vegetation dynamics and biophysics are represented as in LM3V. In numerical experiments, LM3 avoids some of the limitations of the LaD model and provides qualitatively (though not always quantitatively) reasonable estimates, from a global perspective, of observed spatial and/or temporal variations of vegetation density, albedo, streamflow, water-table depth, permafrost, and lake levels. Amplitude and phase of annual cycle of total water storage are simulated well. Realism of modeled lake levels varies widely. The water table tends to be consistently too shallow in humid regions. Biophysical properties have an artificial stepwise spatial structure, and equilibrium vegetation is sensitive to initial conditions. Explicit resolution of thick (>100 m) unsaturated zones and permafrost is possible, but only at the cost of long (?300 yr) model spinup times.

Milly, Paul C.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Dunne, Krista A.; Findell, Kirsten L.; Gleeson, Tom; Liang, Zhi; Phillips, Peter; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Swenson, Sean

2014-01-01

246

Equilibrium deformations and excitation energies of single-quasiproton band heads of rare-earth nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noncollective single-proton states in odd- Z (Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Lu, Ta, Ir and Au) rare-earth nuclei have been calculated using the shell correction method with an average Woods-Saxon potential and a monopole pairing residual interaction. Calculated equilibrium deformations of the lowest single-proton states are presented, and calculated band head excitation energies are compared with experimental proton band heads for odd- Z rare-earth nuclei. Good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated band heads. We find that strong polarisation effects due to the odd proton explain many of the systematic trends of known band heads. Different deformation driving forces of the odd-proton orbitals can also partly explain deviations seen in high-spin data. Shape co-existence effects in Ir and Au isotopes are discussed. In addition, equilibrium deformations of even-even rare-earth nuclei are computed and compared with experimental values.

Nazarewicz, W.; Riley, M. A.; Garrett, J. D.

1990-05-01

247

Design and analysis of an extended mission of CE-2: From lunar orbit to Sun-Earth L2 region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chang'E-2 (CE-2) has firstly successfully achieved the exploring mission from lunar orbit to Sun-Earth L2 region. In this paper, we discuss the design problem of transfer trajectory and at the same time analyze the visible segment of Tracking, Telemetry & Control (TT&C) system for this mission. Firstly, the four-body problem of Sun-Earth-Moon and Spacecraft can be decoupled in two different three-body problems (Sun-Earth + Moon Restricted Three-Body Problems (RTBPs) and Earth-Moon ephemeris model). Then, the transfer trajectory segments in different model are computed, respectively, and patched by Poincar sections. The full-flight trajectory including transfer trajectory from lunar orbit to Sun-Earth L2 region and target Lissajous orbit is obtained by the differential correction method. Finally, the visibility of TT&C system at the key time is analyzed. Actual execution of CE-2 extended mission shows that the trajectory design of CE-2 mission is feasible.

Qiao, Dong; Cui, Pingyuan; Wang, Yamin; Huang, Jiangchuan; Meng, Linzhi; Jie, Degang

2014-11-01

248

Differential neutron energy spectra measured on spacecraft low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods for measuring neutrons in the range from thermal energies to dozens of MeV were used. In the first method, alpha-particles emitted from the (sup 6) Li(n.x)T reaction are detected with the help of plastic nuclear track detectors, yielding results on thermal and resonance neutrons. Also, fission foils are used to detect fast neutrons. In the second method, fast neutrons are recorded by nuclear photographic emulsions (NPE). The results of measurements on board various satellites are presented. The neutron flux density does not appear to correlate clearly with orbital parameters. Up to 50% of neutrons are due to albedo neutrons from the atmosphere while the fluxes inside the satellites are 15-20% higher than those on the outside. Estimates show that the neutron contribution to the total equivalent radiation dose reaches 20-30%.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Dudkin, E. V.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.

1995-01-01

249

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed around three Earth-orbiting satellites: the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and two NOAA satellites. ERBE has helped scientists world-wide better understand how clouds and aerosols, as well as some chemical compounds in the atmosphere ("greenhouse" gases), affect the Earth's daily and long-term weather.The data from these satellites is being used to study the energy exchanged between the Sun, the Earth and space. This site is one of NASA's Fact Sheets, and features a textual description of ERBE.

250

Analysis of The Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed in Spacecraft Flybys of Earth  

E-print Network

In March 2008 anomalous behavior in spacecraft flybys of Earth was reported in Physical Review Letters, Volume 100, Issue 9, March 7, 2008, in an article entitled "Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed during Spacecraft Flybys of Earth". The data indicate unaccounted for changes in spacecraft speed, both increases and decreases, for six different spacecraft involved in Earth flybys from December 8, 1990 to August 2, 2005. The article states that, "All ... potential sources of systematic error .... [have been] modeled. None can account for the observed anomalies.... Like the Pioneer anomaly ... the Earth flybys anomaly is a real effect .... Its source is unknown." In the present article it is shown that the Earth flybys anomaly would be caused by a very small acceleration [in addition to that of natural gravitation], centrally directed and independent of distance, the same effect as that which the Pioneer anomaly exhibits. How that effect operates to produce the observed results is analyzed. A cause of the centrally directed accelerations is presented.

Roger Ellman

2008-12-01

251

Energy design for protein-protein interactions  

PubMed Central

Proteins bind to other proteins efficiently and specifically to carry on many cell functions such as signaling, activation, transport, enzymatic reactions, and more. To determine the geometry and strength of binding of a protein pair, an energy function is required. An algorithm to design an optimal energy function, based on empirical data of protein complexes, is proposed and applied. Emphasis is made on negative design in which incorrect geometries are presented to the algorithm that learns to avoid them. For the docking problem the search for plausible geometries can be performed exhaustively. The possible geometries of the complex are generated on a grid with the help of a fast Fourier transform algorithm. A novel formulation of negative design makes it possible to investigate iteratively hundreds of millions of negative examples while monotonically improving the quality of the potential. Experimental structures for 640 protein complexes are used to generate positive and negative examples for learning parameters. The algorithm designed in this work finds the correct binding structure as the lowest energy minimum in 318 cases of the 640 examples. Further benchmarks on independent sets confirm the significant capacity of the scoring function to recognize correct modes of interactions. PMID:21842951

Ravikant, D. V. S.; Elber, Ron

2011-01-01

252

Optimization methods for alternative energy system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study reports both new experimental data from the case studies and the benefits of using modified linear programming methods to account for the real nature of alternative energy design problems.

Reinhardt, Michael Henry

253

An investigation of ESSA 7 radiation data for use in long-term earth energy experiments, phases 1 and 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of an investigation of ESSA 7 satellite radiation data for use in long-term earth energy experiments. Satellite systems for performing long-term earth radiation balance measurements over geographical areas, hemispheres, and the entire earth for periods of 10 to 30 years are examined. The ESSA 7 satellite employed plate and cone radiometers to measure earth albedo and emitted radiation. Each instrument had a black and white radiometer which discriminated the components of albedo and emitted radiation. Earth measurements were made continuously from ESSA 7 for ten months. The ESSA 7 raw data is processed to a point where it can be further analyzed for: (1) development of long-term earth energy experiments; and (2) document climate trends.

House, F. B.

1974-01-01

254

Advanced Spacecraft Designs in Support of Human Missions to Earth's Neighborhood  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by The NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the LTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the LTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP.

Fletcher, David

2002-01-01

255

Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

2011-01-01

256

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

2012-01-01

257

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

2013-01-01

258

Mechanical Aspects of Design, Analysis and Testing of the Nanosatellite for Earth Monitoring and Observation -- Aerosol Monitor (NEMO-AM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A next generation nanosatellite bus is under development at the University of Toronto's Space Flight Laboratory (SFL), and is being used for the first time in an ambitious Earth observation mission to identify and monitor atmospheric aerosol species. The spacecraft system brings together novel advanced designs that expand the capability envelope of nanosatellites, with heritage SFL technology that is presently defining the state-of-the-art in microspace applications. The work presented in this thesis pertains primarily to the development of the structural subsystem of the Nanosatellite for Earth Monitoring and Observation -- Aerosol Monitor (NEMO-AM). Described extensively are the design and analysis efforts made by the author to validate and finalize the structural design in order to bring it to a manufacturing-ready stage. Subsequent work to meet the mechanical requirements of ground operations during the assembly and testing of the spacecraft is also presented.

Diaconu, Dumitru

259

Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials  

ScienceCinema

Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-05-30

260

Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials  

SciTech Connect

Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-05-28

261

Enhancing Decision Making in the Energy Sector Using Space-Based Earth Observations: A GEO and CEOS Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observations from space are playing an increasing role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, spaceborne observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations to improve solar energy resource assessment globally. As one of the nine Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of policy and management decision making in the energy sector employing Earth observations and related models is being conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS supports the space-based activities of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), contributing directly to GEO work plan tasks supporting the energy societal benefit area. We describe several projects being conducted by CEOS member agencies, including NASA, to engage and partner with end-user energy decision makers to enhance their decision support systems using space-based observations. These prototype projects have been pursued through the GEO Energy Community of Practice and, more recently, in collaboration with the CEOS Energy societal benefit area. Several case studies exhibiting the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment, improve the forecast of space-weather impacts on the power grid, and augment integrated assessment modeling studies for energy technology scenario evaluation are discussed. In addition, ongoing activities to engage stakeholders in other Federal agencies, industry, and academia are described.

Eckman, R. S.; Stackhouse, P. W.

2009-12-01

262

Optimum design of substation grounding in a two layer earth structure: Part I?Analytical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a computer program which calculates the potential in earth, the resistance and the required potential probe position in field resistance measurements [1], for any complex electrode in a two layer earth structure. The first part of the study describes the theoretical basis of the programs and compares the two analytical methods of potential calculations, the summation

F. Dawalibi; D. Mukhedkar

1975-01-01

263

The Design and Evaluation of a High-Performance Earth Science Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth scientists have encountered two major obstacles in their attempts to use remotely sensed imageryto analyze the earth's land cover dynamics. First, the volume of data involved is very large and second,significant preprocessing is needed before the data can be used. This is particularly so for studies that analyzeglobal trends using data sets that cover multiple years. In this paper,

Carter T. Shock; Chialin Chang; Bongki Moon; Anurag Acharya; Larry S. Davis; Joel H. Saltz; Alan Sussman

1998-01-01

264

Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion 1.The engineering theory of slide processes, existing practice (slides that have occurred on constructed earth dams), and also the existing standards and recommendations are unanimous in that for earth dams having a soft ground foundation, rotational slip along a cylindrical surface of sliding is the potentially most dangerous. Furthermore, the theory of slide processes and existing practice note that

N. A. Krasil'nikov

1987-01-01

265

The Design of Mars on Earth, a Biospheric Closed System Testing Facility for Long-Term Space Habitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a design for a prototype Mars base simulating an inhabited Mars mission on Earth to determine the feasibility of maintaining humans in a self-sustaining system providing food, air and water regeneration. The system will be initially designed for a team of four, but the biosphere modules will be constructed so that they can be replicated and the numbers increased to support more occupants over time. In addition to the basic layout of the closed system, a comprehensive approach to the design of such a long- term sustainable space biosphere will be presented. Levels of structures include components of the geosphere, biosphere, ethnosphere, technosphere, cybersphere, &noosphere.

Allen, A.; Alling, A.

2002-01-01

266

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), Magsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) and Seasat land and ocean observation systems is being thoroughly tested, and some of these systems are now approaching operational use. Landsat multispectral images provide views of large areas of the Earth under uniform lighting conditions and can be obtained at a variety of scales and formats. Not only do the Landsat data provide highly useful images showing surficial materials and structures such as folds and faults, but also measurements and computer-derived ratios of the brightness of different rock types, alteration zones, and mineral associations. These data have led to the finding of a variety of new ore deposits. In addition, the combination of Landsat digital data and aeromagnetic data has extended the use of Landsat as an exploration tool which can be used to readily relate surface features to subsurface anomalies. Magsat data, now being collected, are helping refine information on major crustal anomalies that were first recognized during the analysis of POGO data. The more nearly circular orbit, lower altitude, and increased sophistication of its vector magnetometer enable Magsat to provide more precise information than POGO. Information of this type is required to develop crustal models. Although Magsat is designed to operate for only 4-8 months, the number of orbits that it should be able to make will be sufficient to accomplish its mission and to record a major magnetic storm expected in 1980. HCMM is a two-band visible to near-IR (0.55-1.1 ?m) and thermal infrared (10.2-12.5 ?m) system designed to measure reflected solar energy, determine the heat capacity of rocks and to monitor soil moisture, thermal effluents, plant canopy temperatures and snow cover. Launched in April 1978, it is in sun-synchronous, circular orbit at an altitude of 620 km. It is a relatively low-resolution system with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 500-600 m and a swath width of 716 km. However, the system is designed to detect objects in the range of 260-340 K with a sensitivity (NE?T) of 0.4K at 280. Recording the thermal radiation of urban heat islands and high thermal inertia of quartzite strata in the Appalachian region are two examples of its land applications. Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

Carter, W. D.

267

Optimized energy harvesting materials and generator design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroactive polymers are soft capacitors made of thin elastic and electrically insulating films coated with compliant electrodes offering a large amount of deformation. They can either be used as actuators by applying an electric charge or they can be used as energy converters based on the electrostatic principle. These unique properties enable the industrial development of highly efficient and environmentally sustainable energy converters, which opens up the possibility to further exploit large renewable and inexhaustible energy sources like wind and water that are widely unused otherwise. Compared to other electroactive polymer materials, polyurethanes, whose formulations have been systematically modified and optimized for energy harvesting applications, have certain advantages over silicones and acrylates. The inherently higher dipole content results in a significantly increased permittivity and the dielectric breakdown strength is higher, too, whereby the overall specific energy, a measure for the energy gain, is better by at least factor ten, i.e. more than ten times the energy can be gained out of the same amount of material. In order to reduce conduction losses on the electrode during charging and discharging, a highly conductive bidirectional stretchable electrode has been developed. Other important material parameters like stiffness and bulk resistivity have been optimized to fit the requirements. To realize high power energy harvesting systems, substantial amounts of electroactive polymer material are necessary as well as a smart mechanical and electrical design of the generator. In here we report on different measures to evaluate and improve electroactive polymer materials for energy harvesting by e.g. reducing the defect occurrence and improving the electrode behavior.

Graf, Christian; Hitzbleck, Julia; Feller, Torsten; Clauberg, Karin; Wagner, Joachim; Krause, Jens; Maas, Jrgen

2013-04-01

268

Energy Conscious Design: Educational Facilities. [Brief No.] 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An energy task group of the American Institute of Architects discusses design features and options that educational facility designers can use to create an energy efficient school building. Design elements cover the building envelope, energy storage system, hydronic heating/cooling systems, solar energy collection, building orientation and shape,

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

269

Design approaches to more energy efficient engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1976 NASA initiated the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program to assist in the development of technology for more fuel-efficient aircraft for commercial airline use. The Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project of the ACEE program is intended to lay the advanced-technology foundation for a new generation of turbofan engines. This project, planned as a seven-year cooperative government-industry effort, is aimed at developing and demonstrating advanced component and systems technologies for engines that could be introduced into airline service by the late 1980s or early 1990s. In addition to fuel savings, new engines must offer potential for being economically attractive to the airline users and environmentally acceptable. A description is presented of conceptual energy-efficient engine designs which offer potential for achieving all of the goals established for the EEE Project.

Saunders, N. T.; Colladay, R. S.; Macioce, L. E.

1978-01-01

270

Microscopic energy correction to the ground states of some rare-earth nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The total microscopic correction to the deformation energy of the rare-earth even-even nuclei is evaluated by a method that takes simultaneously into account the shell and pairing effects. The single-particle basis used is the Woods-Saxon potential. The results are in good agreement with experiments and represent an improvement as compared to the usual Strutinsky and BCS methods.

Allal, N.H.; Fellah, M. (Centre de Developpement des Techniques Nucleaires, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP1017 Alger-Gare (Algeria))

1994-09-01

271

Performance of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to provide accurate measurements for the long-term monitoring of Earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Model 5, the sixth of the CERES instrument was launched aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011 and it has started the Earth-viewing measurements on January 26, 2012. The CERES instrument with the three scanning sensors measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to <100 microns with Total sensor and 8 to 12 micron region with Window sensor. The pre-launch accuracy goal for the CERES instrument measurements is to have the emitted longwave radiances within 0.5% and the shortwave radiances within 1.0%. An accurate determination of the radiometric gains and spectral responsivity of CERES FM5 sensors was accomplished through rigorous calibrations using the primary sources. Post-launch evaluation of the sensor performance consists of sensor calibrations with the on-board sources and the solar diffuser called Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The calibration results using onboard sources are also compared to pre-launch values which serve as a traceability standard to carry the ground determined sensor radiometric gains to orbit. Several validation studies utilising targets such as tropical ocean and deep convective clouds are performed as part of the Cal/Val protocol. The scan elevation offset in the sensor measurement will be determined from the spacecraft pitch manuveur activity viewing the deep space. This paper covers the early-orbit checkout activities and the overall performance of the CERES-FM5 instrument. The postlaunch calibration and the validation results from the instrument are presented.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Hess, Phillip C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Smith, Nathaniel P.; Timcoe, Mark G.; Shankar, Mohan; Walikainen, Dale R.

2012-09-01

272

Fluoride technology for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth metals  

SciTech Connect

Unique specific properties of rare-earth metals (REMs) are to a large extent responsible for the technical progress in many branches of industry, science, and technology. A new fluoride procedure for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth and transition metals has been proposed.

Buinovskii, A.S.; Sofronov, V.L.; Chizhikov, V.S.; Shtefan, Yu.P. [and others

1995-10-20

273

Surface interactions with compartmentalized cellular phosphates explain rare earth oxide nanoparticle hazard and provide opportunities for safer design.  

PubMed

Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1? release, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use. PMID:24417322

Li, Ruibin; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dunphy, Darren R; Cai, Xiaoming; Meng, Huan; Zhang, Haiyuan; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Dong, Juyao; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Nel, Andre; Xia, Tian

2014-02-25

274

Surface Interactions with Compartmentalized Cellular Phosphates Explain Rare Earth Oxide Nanoparticle Hazard and Provide Opportunities for Safer Design  

PubMed Central

Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1? release, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use. PMID:24417322

2014-01-01

275

Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

Maund, D. H.

1981-01-01

276

16 Colorado School of Mines Energy and the earth 17 The cluster is currently being assembled in the Center for  

E-print Network

of the priority areas is itself divided into two challenges. Photo-production of hydrogen and biomass energy16 Colorado School of Mines Energy and the earth 17 The cluster is currently being assembled, administered by the Golden Energy Computing Organization (GECO), is dedicated to advancing energy

277

A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

278

Photovoltaic power system for satellite Earth stations in remote areas: Project status and design description  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photovoltaic power system which will be installed at a remote location in Indonesia to provide power for a satellite Earth station and a classroom for video and audio teleconferences are described. The Earth station may also provide telephone service to a nearby village. The use of satellite communications for development assistance applications and the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic engine generator power system for remote satellite Earth stations are demonstrated. The Indonesian rural satellite project is discussed and the photovoltaic power system is described.

Delombard, R.

279

Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

Messerschmitt, David G.

2015-02-01

280

Initial observations of low energy charged particles near the earth's bow shock on ISEE-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial measurements from the ULECA sensor of the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland experiment on ISEE 1 are reported. ULECA is an electrostatic deflection - total energy sensor consisting of a collimator, a deflection analyzer, and an array of solid-state detectors. The position of a given detector, which determines the energy per charge of an incident particle, together with the measured energy, determines the particle's charge state. It is found that a rich variety of phenomena are operative in the transthermal energy regime (about 10 keV/Q to 100 keV/Q) covered by ULECA. Specifically, observations are presented of locally accelerated protons, alpha particles, and heavier ions in the magnetosheath and upstream of earth's bow shock. Preliminary analysis indicates that the behavior of these locally accelerated particles is most similar at the same energy per charge.

Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Fan, C. Y.; Fisk, L. A.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Ogallagher, J. J.

1979-01-01

281

Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiments (ERBE) data from S4 data (monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo). Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained for the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used along with four surface types: ocean, vegetation, desert, snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates compare well with the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. Our values are generally higher than Esbensen and Kushnir's by as much as 80 W m[sup [minus]2] in the tropical oceans. The difference between clear-sky and actual irradiances normalized to top-of-atmosphere clear-sky irradiance is higher in the midlatitude regions of storm tracks than in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), suggesting the higher cloud coverage in midlatitudes is more effective at reducing surface shortwave irradiance than opaque, convective, sparser clouds in the ITCZ. Surface albedo estimates are realistic, generally not exceeding 0.06 in the ocean, as high as 0.9 in polar regions, and reaching 0.5 in the Sahara and Arabian deserts. 33 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Breon, F.M.; Frouin, R. (California Space Institute, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)); Gautier, C. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

1994-02-01

282

Baffle design for earth radiation rejection in the Cryogenic Limb-Scanning Interferometer\\/Radiometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cryogenic Limb-Scanning Interferometer\\/Radiometer (CLIR) is being developed to observe infrared emissions of the earth's upper atmosphere from space. The earth's surface is an extended source of intense background radiation with a small angular separation from the desired scene. The CLIR employs an off-axis Gregorian Telescope whose primary mirror and baffles are cooled by an open-cycle cryogen system. A system

J. C. Bremer

1980-01-01

283

The Dark Energy Survey CCD imager design  

SciTech Connect

The Dark Energy Survey is planning to use a 3 sq. deg. camera that houses a {approx} 0.5m diameter focal plane of 62 2kx4k CCDs. The camera vessel including the optical window cell, focal plate, focal plate mounts, cooling system and thermal controls is described. As part of the development of the mechanical and cooling design, a full scale prototype camera vessel has been constructed and is now being used for multi-CCD readout tests. Results from this prototype camera are described.

Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Guarino, V.; Kuk, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schultz, K.; Schmitt, R.L.; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U. /Argonne

2008-06-01

284

Geology and Earth Sciences Sourcebook for Elementary and Secondary Schools, Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This earth science resource book, designed for use by elementary and secondary school teachers, presents aspects of earth science which illustrate the significance of matter, energy, forces, motion, time, and space in the dynamics and history of the earth. The major content of this resource manual consists of authoritative information about earth

Heller, Robert L.

285

Proper Design Saves Energy for Molecular Sieve Dehydration Systems  

E-print Network

The molecular sieve system is a significant energy user in the cryogenic gas plant. Designing and operating the system properly can save thousands of dollars in fuel each year. A poorly designed energy saving system can result in poor plant...

Barrow, J. A.; Veldman, R.

1984-01-01

286

Deep dielectric charging effects due to high-energy electrons in Earth's outer magnetosphere  

SciTech Connect

Many spacecraft operational problems in Earth's outer magnetosphere appear to be due to intense, transient radiation phenomena. Three types of naturally occurring, and highly variable, hostile-particle radiation environments are encountered at, or near, the geostationary orbit: (1) high-energy protons due to solar flares; (2) energetic ions and electrons produced by magnetospheric substorms; and (3) very-high-energy electrons of uncertain origin. In this report, particular emphasis is given to highly relativistic electrons, (approximately 10 MeV). Electron fluxes and energy spectra are shown that were measured by two high-energy electron sensor systems at 6.6 earth radii from 1979 through 1984. Large, persistent increases in this population were found to be relatively infrequent and sporadic in 1979-81 around solar maximum. During the approach to solar minimum (1981 - present), it is observed that the highly relativistic electrons occur with a regular 27-day periodicity and are well associated with the re-established solar-wind-stream structures. Through a superposed epoch analysis technique, it is shown that an energetic-electron enhancement typically rises on a 2- to 3-day time scale and decays on a 3- to 4-day time scale at essentially all energies above approximately 3 MeV. The analysis suggests that these electrons have a very deleterious influence on spacecraft systems due to deep dielectric charging and low-dose susceptibility effects.

Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.; Higbie, P.R.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Blake, J.B.

1988-02-05

287

NASA Earth Observations Informing Renewable Energy Management and Policy Decision Making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Applied Sciences Program partners with domestic and international governmental organizations, universities, and private entities to improve their decisions and assessments. These improvements are enabled by using the knowledge generated from research resulting from spacecraft observations and model predictions conducted by NASA and providing these as inputs to the decision support and scenario assessment tools used by partner organizations. The Program is divided into eight societal benefit areas, aligned in general with the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) themes. The Climate Application of the Applied Sciences Program has as one of its focuses, efforts to provide for improved decisions and assessments in the areas of renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency, and climate change impacts. The goals of the Applied Sciences Program are aligned with national initiatives such as the U.S. Climate Change Science and Technology Programs and with those of international organizations including the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). Activities within the Program are funded principally through proposals submitted in response to annual solicitations and reviewed by peers.

Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

2008-01-01

288

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

289

Theoretical design of an energy recovering divertor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An energy recovering divertor (ERD) is a device for converting thermal to electrical energy in the divertor channel of a tokamak. Because ERD's are a type of heat engine operating at plasma temperatures, they have the thermodynamic potential for extremely high efficiencies. An ERD offers several important benefits to a tokamak fusion reactor. First, any energy recovered by the ERD is subtracted from divertor heat load, thus circumventing materials limitations. Second, energy recovered by the ERD is available for auxiliary heating, thus allowing the reactor to break even at a lower Lawson parameter. Third, an ERD can be used to power auxiliary current drive, thus reducing dependence on bootstrap current. We will present a design for an ERD based on amplification of Alfven waves in a manner analogous to a free-electron laser. While its projected efficiency falls short of the thermodynamic potential for this class of device, it nonetheless demonstrates the theoretical viability of direct power conversion in a tokamak divertor. We will also present potential approaches towards higher efficiency devices of this type. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under grant DE-FG02-97ER54392.

Baver, D. A.

2010-11-01

290

Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-01-01

291

Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

1998-01-01

292

Monitoring the Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sky Using Earth Occultation with GLAST GBM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long term all-sky monitoring of the 20 keV - 2 MeV gamma-ray sky using the Earth occultation technique was demonstrated by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The principles and techniques used for the development of an end-to-end earth occultation data analysis system for BATSE can be extended to the GLAST Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), resulting in multiband light curves and time-resolved spectra in the energy range 8 keV to above 1 MeV for known gamma-ray sources and transient outbursts, as well as the discovery of new sources of gamma-ray emission. In this paper we describe the application of the technique to the GBM. We also present the expected sensitivity for the GBM.

Case, G.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Cherry, M.; Kippen, M.; Ling, J.; Radocinski, R.; Wheaton, W.

2007-01-01

293

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 1: Baseline system description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system baseline design oriented to the requirements of the next generation of Earth Observatory Satellite missions is presented. The first mission (EOS-A) is envisioned as a two-fold mission which (1) provides a continuum of data of the type being supplied by ERTS for the emerging operational applications and also (2) expands the research and development activities for future instrumentation and analysis techniques. The baseline system specifically satisfies the requirements of this first mission. However, EOS-A is expected to be the first of a series of earth observation missions. Thus the baseline design has been developed so as to accommodate these latter missions effectively as the transition is made from conventional, expendable launch vehicles and spacecraft to the Shuttle Space Transportation System era. Further, a subset of alternative missions requirements including Seasat, SEOS, SMM and MSS-5 have been analyzed to verify that the spacecraft design to serve a multi-mission role is economically sound. A key feature of the baseline system design is the concept of a modular observatory system whose elements are compatible with varying levels of launch vehicle capability. The design configuration can be used with either the Delta or Titan launch vehicles and will adapt readily to the space shuttle when that system becomes available in the early 1980's.

1974-01-01

294

Coloration Determination of Spectral Darkening Occurring on a Broadband Earth Observing Radiometer: Application to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth s climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) must remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. Such stability is beyond the specified accuracy of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband radiometric scanning channels: the shortwave 0.3 - 5microns, total 0.3. > 100microns, and window 8 - 12microns). It has been shown that when in low earth orbit, optical response to blue/UV radiance can be reduced significantly due to UV hardened contaminants deposited on the surface of the optics. Since typical onboard calibration lamps do not emit sufficient energy in the blue/UV region, this darkening is not directly measurable using standard internal calibration techniques. This paper describes a study using a model of contaminant deposition and darkening, in conjunction with in-flight vicarious calibration techniques, to derive the spectral shape of darkening to which a broadband instrument is subjected. Ultimately the model uses the reflectivity of Deep Convective Clouds as a stability metric. The results of the model when applied to the CERES instruments on board the EOS Terra satellite are shown. Given comprehensive validation of the model, these results will allow the CERES spectral responses to be updated accordingly prior to any forthcoming data release in an attempt to reach the optimum stability target that the climate community requires.

Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Loeb, Norman G.; Loukachine, Konstantin; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale; Wielicki, Bruce A.

2006-01-01

295

Assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument performance and stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer is designed to measure the solar radiation reflected by the Earth and thermal radiation emitted by the Earth. Four CERES instruments are supporting the EOS missions; two aboard the Terra spacecraft, launched in 1999 and two aboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in 2002. A fifth instrument, Flight Model 5 (FM5), launched in October 2011 aboard the S-NPP satellite, began taking radiance measurements on January 27th, 2012. The CERES FM5 instrument uses three scanning thermistor bolometers to make broadband radiance measurements in the shortwave (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers), total (0.3 - <100 micrometers) and water vapor window (8 - 12 micrometer) regions. An internal calibration module (ICM) used for in-flight calibration is built into the CERES instrument package consisting of an anodized aluminum blackbody source for calibrating the total and window sensors, and a shortwave internal calibration source (SWICS) for the shortwave sensor. The ICM sources, along with a solar diffusor called the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM), are used to define shifts or drifts in the sensor response over the life of the mission. In addition, validation studies are conducted to assess the pointing accuracy of the instrument and understand any spectral changes that may occur with the sensors allowing for corrections to be made to the radiance calculations in later CERES data products. This paper summarizes the on-orbit behavior of the CERES FM5 instrument by outlining trends in the internal calibration data and discussing the various validation studies used to assess the performance and stability of the instrument.

Smith, Nathaniel P.; Thomas, Susan; Shankar, Mohan; Szewczyk, Z. P.; Wilson, Robert S.; Walikainen, Dale R.; Daniels, Janet L.; Hess, Phillip C.; Priestley, Kory J.

2014-09-01

296

Radiometric stability results of clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) instrument sensors aboard EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. CERES instrument has three scanning thermistor bolometers that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to >100 micrometer) and 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. Four CERES instruments (Flight Models1 through 4) are flying aboard EOS Terra and Aqua platforms with two instruments aboard each spacecraft. The pre-launch accuracy requirements for CERES were 1.0% in the shortwave and 0.5% in longwave regions. The in-flight calibration of CERES sensors are carried out using the internal calibration module (ICM) comprising of blackbody sources and tungsten lamp, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM and MAM calibration results are instrumental in understanding the ground to flight shift and in-flight drifts in CERES sensors' gains. Inter and intra instrument validation studies are conducted on the CERES measurements to monitor the behavior of the sensors in various spectral regions. Targets such as deep convective clouds and tropical ocean are used to evaluate the sensors' stability within an instrument. With two CERES instruments on same platform, inter comparison of similar sensor measurements viewing the same geolocation are also conducted. The results from these individual studies have collectively given an understanding of each CERES sensor's behavior in different spectral regions. This paper discusses the results from each of these studies which facilitated the correction of CERES data products with a calibration stability better than 0.2%. Keywords: CERES, EOS Instrument, Radiometry, Calibration, Validationt

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Wilson, R. S.; Matthews, G. M.; Walikainen, D. R.; Cooper, D. L.; Hess, P. C.

2006-12-01

297

Analyses of On-orbit Determinations of the Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometer Sensor Zero-radiance Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) missions were designed to measure broadband earth-reflected shortwave solar (0.3 micrometers to less than 5.0 micrometers) and earth-emitted longwave (5.0 micrometers to greater than 100 micrometers) radiances as well as earth-emitted narrow-band radiances in the water vapor window region between 8 micrometers and 12 micrometers. However, the CERES scanning thermistor bolometer sensor zero-radiance offsets were found to vary as much as 1.0 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) with the scan angle measurement geometry due to gravitational forces and systematic electronic noise. To minimize the gravitational effects, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft CERES sensors' offsets were derived on-orbit as functions of scan elevation and azimuth angles from the January 7-8, 1998 radiometric observations of deep cold space, representative of a 3 K blackbody. In this paper, the TRMM/CERES six orbit data base of on-orbit derived offsets is presented and analyzed to define the sampling requirements for the CERES sensors located on the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Terra Spacecraft and on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon (PM-1) Spacecraft, scheduled for launches in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Analyses of the TRMM/CERES shortwave sensor earth radiance measurements indicate that offsets can be determined on-orbit at the plus or minus 0.02 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) precision level. Offset measuring techniques and sampling requirements are discussed for the TRMM and ESE missions. Ground, pre-launch Terra CERES cross-track scan offsets are presented and described which were measured as a function of scan angle.

Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Smith, G. Louis; Al-hajjah, Aiman; Wilson, Robert S.

1999-01-01

298

Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the slope stability and landslide propensity of several hydroelectric plant earth dams throughout the Soviet Union from the standpoint of slide theory and compares the research of several Soviet institutions into this problem with existing standards and recommendations on dam stability and reliability. The comparisons are made for earth dams having a soft ground foundation under static loading conditions. Applicable properties are discussed for a wide range of soils and rocks including clays, loams, sands, alluvials, and soft and hard gravels. Seismic effects are not discussed.

Krasil'nikov, N.A.

1987-11-01

299

Design Challenges of Power Systems for Instrumented Spacecraft with Very Low Perigees in the Earth's Ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a solar array to power a spacecraft bus supporting a set of instruments making in situ plasma and neutral atmosphere measurements in the ionosphere at altitudes of 120km or lower poses several challenges. The driving scientific requirements are the field-of-view constraints of the instruments resulting in a three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the need for an electromagnetically unperturbed environment accomplished by designing an electrostatically conducting solar array surface to avoid large potentials, making the spacecraft body as small and as symmetric as possible, and body-mounting the solar array. Furthermore, the life and thermal constraints, in the midst of the effects of the dense atmosphere at low altitude, drive the cross-sectional area of the spacecraft to be small particularly normal to the ram direction. Widely varying sun angles and eclipse durations add further complications, as does the growing desire for multiple spacecraft to resolve spatial and temporal variations packaged into a single launch vehicle. Novel approaches to insure adequate orbit-averaged power levels of approximately 250W include an oval-shaped cross section to increase the solar array collecting area during noon-midnight orbits and the use of a flywheel energy storage system. The flywheel could also be used to help maintain the spacecraft's attitude, particularly during excursions to the lowest perigee altitudes. This paper discusses the approaches used in conceptual power designs for both the proposed Dipper and the Global Electrodynamics Connections (GEC) Mission currently being studied at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

Moran, Vickie Eakin; Manzer, Dominic D.; Pfaff, Robert E.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Gervin, Jan C.

1999-01-01

300

Energy Mobility Network : system design, interfaces, and future interactions  

E-print Network

The Energy Mobility Network is a mobile, networked energy production, consumption and sharing system that is designed to motivate users to be more aware of their energy consumption. In particular, the system provides a ...

Cheung, Natalie Wen Yua

2011-01-01

301

Spatial sampling considerations of the CERES (Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System) instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CERES (Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System) instrument is a scanning radiometer with three channels for measuring Earth radiation budget. At present CERES models are operating aboard the Terra, Aqua and Suomi/NPP spacecraft and flights of CERES instruments are planned for the JPSS-1 spacecraft and its successors. CERES scans from one limb of the Earth to the other and back. The footprint size grows with distance from nadir simply due to geometry so that the size of the smallest features which can be resolved from the data increases and spatial sampling errors increase with nadir angle. This paper presents an analysis of the effect of nadir angle on spatial sampling errors of the CERES instrument. The analysis performed in the Fourier domain. Spatial sampling errors are created by smoothing of features which are the size of the footprint and smaller, or blurring, and inadequate sampling, that causes aliasing errors. These spatial sampling errors are computed in terms of the system transfer function, which is the Fourier transform of the point response function, the spacing of data points and the spatial spectrum of the radiance field.

Smith, G. L.; Manalo-Smith, Natividdad; Priestley, Kory

2014-10-01

302

Low-energy description of the metal-insulator transition in the rare-earth nickelates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple theoretical description of the metal-insulator transition of rare-earth nickelates. The theory involves only two orbitals per nickel site, corresponding to the low-energy antibonding eg states. In the monoclinic insulating state, bond-length disproportionation splits the manifold of eg bands, corresponding to a modulation of the effective on-site energy. We show that, when subject to a local Coulomb repulsion U and Hund's coupling J , the resulting bond-disproportionated state is a paramagnetic insulator for a wide range of interaction parameters. Furthermore, we find that when U -3 J is small or negative, a spontaneous instability to bond disproportionation takes place for large enough J . This minimal theory emphasizes that a small or negative charge-transfer energy, a large Hund's coupling, and a strong coupling to bond disproportionation are the key factors underlying the transition. Experimental consequences of this theoretical picture are discussed.

Subedi, Alaska; Peil, Oleg E.; Georges, Antoine

2015-02-01

303

Earth-Moon low energy trajectory optimization in the real system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the Earth-Moon low energy trajectory optimization in the real system (the model defined by the JPL ephemeris DE405) is considered in this paper. First, this problem is investigated in the model of circular restricted three-body problem, since the fuel consumption is closely related to the Jacobi integral of the transfer trajectory, a method based on Jacobi integral is proposed and eight optimal trajectories are obtained. These optimal trajectories provide initial information (the flight time and the braking velocity impulse) to search the optimal low energy trajectories in the real system through optimization techniques. Considering the merit and drawback of particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithm in solving the space trajectory problem, an improved cooperative evolutionary algorithm is put forward. Result shows that the low energy trajectories in the real system are more fuel-efficient than the corresponding ones under the circular restricted three-body problem.

Lei, Hanlun; Xu, Bo; Sun, Yisui

2013-03-01

304

Conceptual design of rotary magnetostrictive energy harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the conceptual design of a rotary magnetostrictive energy harvester (RMEH), which consists of one coil-wound Galfenol cantilever, with two PMs adhered onto the each end, and one permanent magnet (PM) array sandwiched between two wheels. Modeling and simulation are used to validate the concept. The proof-of-concept RMEH is fabricated by using the simulation results, and subjected to the experimental characterization. The experimental setup for the simulated characterization uses the motor-driven PM array to induce a forced vibration. It can be concluded that the theoretical prediction on the induced voltage agrees well with the experimental results and that induced voltage increases with rpm and with number of PMs. Future work includes optimization of RMEH performance via PM array configuration and development of prototype.

Park, Young-Woo; Kang, Han-Sam; Wereley, Norman M.

2014-05-01

305

GeoWall: Stereo Projection Systems Designed for Earth Science Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past year, advances in projection technology and consumer-grade computer game technology have reduced the cost of stereo projection systems to a level that allows this technology to be used in the classroom. Stereo projection systems have remarkable potential for any educational discipline that deals with complex spatial relationships (engineering, physics, astronomy, etc.), but the implications for earth science

P. Morin; K. C. Kirkby; P. Van Keken; J. Leigh; S. J. Reynolds; B. Davis; R. Burdick; L. Schumann

2001-01-01

306

Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of

Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

2010-01-01

307

Design and Implementation of Components in the Earth System Modeling Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Modeling Framework is a component-based architecture for developing and assembling climate and related models. A virtual machine underlies the component-level constructs in ESMF, providing both a foundation for performance portability and mechanisms for resource allocation and component sequencing.

Nancy Collins; Gerhard Theurich; Cecelia Deluca; Max Suarez; Atanas Trayanov; V. Balaji; Peggy Li; Weiyu Yang; Chris Hill; Arlindo Da Silva

2005-01-01

308

FPGA design for constrained energy minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM) has been widely used for hyperspectral detection and classification. The feasibility of implementing the CEM as a real-time processing algorithm in systolic arrays has been also demonstrated. The main challenge of realizing the CEM in hardware architecture in the computation of the inverse of the data correlation matrix performed in the CEM, which requires a complete set of data samples. In order to cope with this problem, the data correlation matrix must be calculated in a causal manner which only needs data samples up to the sample at the time it is processed. This paper presents a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) design of such a causal CEM. The main feature of the proposed FPGA design is to use the Coordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm that can convert a Givens rotation of a vector to a set of shift-add operations. As a result, the CORDIC algorithm can be easily implemented in hardware architecture, therefore in FPGA. Since the computation of the inverse of the data correlction involves a series of Givens rotations, the utility of the CORDIC algorithm allows the causal CEM to perform real-time processing in FPGA. In this paper, an FPGA implementation of the causal CEM will be studied and its detailed architecture will be also described.

Wang, Jianwei; Chang, Chein-I.; Cao, Mang

2004-02-01

309

Pairing Essential Climate Science with Sustainable Energy Information: the "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social science research on the effective communication of climate science suggests that today's audiences may be effectively engaged by presenting information about Earth's climate in the context of individual and community actions that can be taken to increase energy efficiency and to reduce carbon emissions. "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) is an informal science education and outreach project supported by NSF, comprising three related components: a 3-part broadcast television mini-series; on-site outreach at 5 major science centers and natural history museums strategically located across the USA; and a website with innovative social networking tools. A companion tradebook, written by series presenter and Penn State glaciologist Richard Alley, is to be published by W. W. Norton in spring 2011. Program 1, THE BURNING QUESTION, shows how throughout human history our need for energy has been met by burning wood, whale oil and fossil fuels, but notes that fossil fuels produce carbon dioxide which inevitably change the composition of Earth's atmosphere. The program uses little known stories (such as US Air Force atmospheric research immediately after WW2, looking at the effect of CO2 levels on heat-seeking missiles, and Abraham Lincoln's role in the founding of the National Academy of Sciences and the Academy's role in solving navigation problems during the Civil War) to offer fresh perspectives on essential but sometimes disputed aspects of climate science: that today's levels of CO2 are unprecedented in the last 400,000 and more years; that human burning of fossil fuel is the scientifically-proven source, and that multiple lines of evidence show Earth is warming. Program 2, TEN WAYS TO KEEP TEN BILLION SMILING, offers a list of appealing strategies (such as "Get Rich and Save the World": Texas & wind energy, and "Do More with Less": how glow worms make cool light without waste heat, suggesting a role for organic LEDs) to motivate positive responses to the considerable challenge of supplying clean energy to a growing population. Additional scenes have been filmed in Brazil, Spain, China, Morocco, Scotland, and across America, including at the National Renewable Energy Lab. in Denver, CO, and New Orleans. Program 3 (presently untitled and targeted for 2012) will feature American communities seeking to increase energy efficiency and minimize carbon emissions. The Fall 2010 AGU presentation will include video clips from the series, initial findings from focus groups (coordinated by project evaluator, Rockman Et Al) as to what information has been found most compelling to potential audiences, and a description of plans being developed by the project's science center partners in San Diego CA, Portland OR, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Fort Worth TX and Raleigh NC. "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" is an experiment to determine the effectiveness of these activities to reach audiences who, according to surveys, have actually become less convinced of anthropogenic climate change, while remaining supportive of investments in advancing clean energy opportunities.

Akuginow, E.; Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.

2010-12-01

310

Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span,

Penuel, William R.; McWilliams, Harold; McAuliffe, Carla; Benbow, Ann E.; Mably, Colin; Hayden, Margaret M.

2009-01-01

311

Geothermal Energy Utilization via Effective Design of Ground-Coupled  

E-print Network

the earth (geo): soil, fluid, rock, and magma ­ Clean ­ Renewable ­ Reliable (average system availability column well #12;Typical Vertical Geothermal Heat Exchangers U-Tubes Others (Florides & Kalogirou, 2007) #12;More on Geothermal Heat Pump · EPA on GHP (1993) ­ GeoExchange (GHP) systems are the most energy

Tennessee, University of

312

Performance assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard Terra and Aqua spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometer sensors on CERES measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to <100 micrometer) and in 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. Of the five CERES instruments that are currently in operation, four of the CERES instruments (Flight Models1 through 4) fly aboard Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua platforms with two instruments aboard each spacecraft, in 705 KM sun-synchronous orbits of 10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equatorial crossing time. A rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol comprising of various studies was developed to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the CERES instruments. The in-flight calibration of CERES sensors are carried out using the internal calibration module (ICM) comprising of blackbody sources and quartzhalogen tungsten lamp, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration results are instrumental in determining the changes in CERES sensors' gains after launch from the prelaunch determined values and the on-orbit gain variations. In addition to the broadband response changes derived from the on-board blackbody and the tungsten lamp, the shortwave and the total sensors show a spectrally dependent drop in responsivity in the shorter wavelegth region below one micron that were brought to light through validation studies. The spectrally dependent changes were attributed to the instrument operational modes and the corrections were derived using the sensor radiance comparisons. This paper covers the on-orbit behavior of CERES sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the determination of the sensor response changes utilising the in-flight calibration and the radiance measurement comparisons viewing various targets. The corrections for the sensor response changes were incorporated in the radiance calculations of CERES Edition3 data products.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Shankar, M.; Smith, N. M.; Loeb, N. G.; Walikainen, D. R.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, R. S.; Smith, N. P.

2013-09-01

313

Compensation for spectral darkening of short wave optics occurring on the cloud's and the Earth's radiant energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation into the role of clouds and radiation in the Earth's climate system. Four CERES scanning thermistor bolometer instruments are currently in orbit. Flight model 1 (FM1) and 2 (FM2) are aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite and FM3 and FM4 are aboard the EOS Aqua satellite. Each CERES instrument measures in three broadband radiometric regions: the shortwave (SW 0.3-5?m), total (0.3- > 100?m), and window (8-12?m). It has been found that both CERES instruments on the Terra platform imply that the SW flux scattered from the Earth had dropped by up to 2% from 2000 to 2004. No climatological explanation for this drop could be found, suggesting the cause was a drift in both the Terra instruments. However, the onboard calibration lamps for the SW channels do not show a change in gain of this magnitude. Experience from other satellite missions has shown that optics in the orbital environment can become contaminated, severely reducing their transmission of ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Since the calibration lamps emit little radiance in the UV spectral region it was suggested that contaminates could be responsible for an undetectable 'spectral darkening' of the CERES SW channel optics and hence the apparent drop in SW flux. Further evidence for this was found by looking at the comparison between simultaneous measurements made by FM1 and FM2. The proposed mechanisms for contaminant build up would not apply to a CERES instrument operating in the normal cross track scan mode. Indeed it was found from the comparison between CERES instruments on Terra that the response of the instrument operating in rotating azimuth plane (RAPS) mode consistently dropped relative to the other cross track instrument. Since at all times one of the instruments operates in cross track mode, where it is not subject to spectral darkening, it allowed that unit to be used as a calibration standard from which the darkening of the other RAPS instrument can be measured. A table of adjustment coefficients to compensate for this spectral darkening are therefore derived in this paper. These figures are designed to be multiplied by SW fluxes or radiances produced in the climate community using Edition 2 CERES data. SW CERES measurements that have been revised using these coeffcients are therefore to be referred to as ERBE-like Edition2_Rev1 or SSF Edition2B_Rev1 data in future literature. Current work to fully characterize the effect of spectral darkening on the instrument spectral response before the release of Edition 3 data is also described.

Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Spence, Peter; Cooper, Denise; Walikainen, Dale

2005-08-01

314

Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution Earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-spatial-resolution microwave radiometer sensing from space with reasonable swath widths and revisit times favors large aperture systems. However, with traditional precision antenna design, the size and weight requirements for such systems are in conflict with the need to emphasize small launch vehicles. This paper describes tradeoffs between the science requirements, basic operational parameters, and expected sensor performance for selected satellite radiometer concepts utilizing novel lightweight compactly packaged real apertures. Antenna, feed, and radiometer subsystem design and calibration are presented. Preliminary results show that novel lightweight real aperture coupled with state-of-the-art radiometer designs are compatible with small launch systems, and hold promise for high-resolution earth science measurements of sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind speeds.

Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Campbell, Thomas G.

1994-01-01

315

Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data in the S4 format. The S4 data are monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo collected at selected times during the day. Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained from the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used, which makes the method easily applicable and computationally efficient. Four surface types are distinguished, namely, ocean, vegetation, desert, and snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates based on ERBE data compare well with those obtained from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. For the 9 months analyzed the linear correlation coefficient and the standard difference between the two datasets are 0.95 and 14 W/sq m (about 6% of the average shortwave irradiance), respectively, and the bias is 15 W/sq m (higher ERBE values). The bias, a strong function of ISCCP satellite viewing zenith angle, is mostly in the ISCCP-based estimates. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model, which accounts crudely for multiple reflection between the surface and clouds, may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. As found in other studies, our values are generally higher than Esbensen and Kushnir's by as much as 80 W/sq m in the tropical oceans. A cloud parameter, defined as the difference between clear-sky and actual irradiances normalized to top-of-atmosphere clear-sky irradiance, is also examined. This parameter, minimally affected by sun zenith angle, is higher in the midlatitude regions of storm tracks than in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), suggesting that, on average, the higher cloud coverage in midlatitudes is more effective at reducing surface shortwave irradiance than opaque, convective, yet sparser clouds in the ITCZ. Surface albedo estimates are realistic, generally not exceeding 0.06 in the ocean, as high as 0.9 in polar regions, and reaching 0.5 in the Sahara and Arabian deserts.

Breon, Francois-Marie; Frouin, Robert

1994-01-01

316

Community Design for Optimal Energy and Resource Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a study which investigated the energy and resource dynamics of a semi-autonomous domestic system for 30 people. The investigation is organized on three levels: (1) developing a preliminary design and design parameters; (2) development and quantification of the energy and resource dynamics; and (3) designing a model to extrapolate

Bilenky, Stephen; And Others

317

Low-energy ions dominate the space environments of Earth, Mars, and Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stretching from the top of the ionosphere to out into space, the terrestrial space environment is packed with low-energy ions, populated when ultraviolet radiation emanating from the Sun ionizes atmospheric gases in the ionosphere below. These ions, with energies of a few electron volts, play an important role in modifying dynamics within the magnetosphere. Though this view of the space environment is well grounded in theory, the actual detection and quantification of low-energy ion densities have been more elusive. The difficulty stems from the environmental conditions within which sensors seeking to measure these low-energy ions must operate. Satellites high above the Earth accumulate surface charges giving positive potentials of tens to hundreds of volts when exposed to sunlight and end up repelling the low-velocity, low-energy, positively charged ions that researchers hoped to detect. Using an array of techniques, including a recently developed approach whereby onboard sensors look for distortions in the electric field in the satellite's own wake, Andr and Cully estimate the density of low-energy ions.

Schultz, Colin

2012-03-01

318

A high-contrast coronagraph for direct imaging of Earth-like exoplanets: design and test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-contrast coronagraph for direct imaging of an Earth-like exoplanet at the visible band needs a contrast of 10?10 at a small angular separation of 4?/D or less. Here we report our recent laboratory experiment that approaches these limits. Our test of a high-contrast imaging coronagraph is based on our step-transmission apodized filter. To achieve this goal, we use a liquid crystal array as a phase corrector to create a dark hole based on our dedicated algorithm. We have suppressed the diffraction and speckle noise near the point image of a star to a level of 1.68 10?9 at 4?/D, which can be used for direct imaging of Jupiter-like exoplanets. This demonstrates that a telescope incorporating a high-contrast coronagraph in space has the potential to detect and characterize Earth-like planets. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

Liu, Cheng-Chao; Ren, De-Qing; Dou, Jian-Pei; Zhu, Yong-Tian; Zhang, Xi; Zhao, Gang; Wu, Zhen; Chen, Rui

2015-03-01

319

Lagrangian and energy forms for retrieving the impulse response of the Earth due to random electromagnetic forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We distinguish between trivial and nontrivial differences in retrieving the real or imaginary parts of the Green's function. Trivial differences come from different Green's function definitions. The energy and Lagrangian forms constitute nontrivial differences. Magnetic noise sources suffice to extract the quasistatic electromagnetic-field Earth impulse response in the Lagrangian form. This is of interest for Earth subsurface imaging. A numerical example demonstrates that all source vector components are necessary to extract a single-field vector component.

Slob, Evert; Weiss, Chester J.

2011-08-01

320

Comparison of Earth Science Achievement Between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area\\u000a of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students\\u000a achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of this study were fourfold\\u000a as follows: (1) to examine

Huang-Ching Wu; Chun-Yen Chang; Chia-Li D. Chen; Ting-Kuang Yeh; Cheng-Chueh Liu

2010-01-01

321

Feed and Optics Design for the Green Bank OVLBI Earth Station Bill Shillue  

E-print Network

-feed approach, where the X- and Ku-band signals were split by means of a * *frequency-selective-surface (FSS-ES Memo #5, Nov. 27, 1990 B. Shillue, "A Frequency-Selective Surface for the OVLBI Earth Station: Init of the Radioastron and VSOP missions. Covering a frequency range of 7.2* *-15.3 GHz is difficult to do with a single

Groppi, Christopher

322

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 5: Specification for EROS operations control center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functional, performance, and design requirements for the Operations Control Center (OCC) of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system are presented. The OCC controls the operations of the EOS satellite to acquire mission data consisting of: (1) thematic mapper data, (2) multispectral scanner data on EOS-A, or High Resolution Pointable Imager data on EOS-B, and (3) data collection system (DCS) data. The various inputs to the OCC are identified. The functional requirements of the OCC are defined. The specific systems and subsystems of the OCC are described and block diagrams are provided.

1974-01-01

323

Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A. Supporting analyses and tradeoffs, book 2. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attitude reference systems for use with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are described. The systems considered are fixed and gimbaled star trackers, star mappers, and digital sun sensors. Covariance analyses were performed to determine performance for the most promising candidate in low altitude and synchronous orbits. The performance of attitude estimators that employ gyroscopes which are periodically updated by a star sensor is established by a single axis covariance analysis. The other systems considered are: (1) the propulsion system design, (2) electric power and electrical integration, (3) thermal control, (4) ground data processing, and (5) the test plan and cost reduction aspects of observatory integration and test.

1974-01-01

324

Design Considerations for Ultra-Low Energy Wireless Microsensor Nodes  

E-print Network

. The most familiar sources of ambient energy include solar power, thermal gradients, radio-frequency (RF to retain local energy storage. Coupling energy- harvesting techniques with some form of energy storage canDesign Considerations for Ultra-Low Energy Wireless Microsensor Nodes Benton H. Calhoun, Student

Chandrakasan, Anantha

325

Ecological limitation to the energy transfer from the outer space to Earth  

SciTech Connect

The energy production development on Earth is related to a number of limitations. It has been shown previously, by different techniques that were represented in this report that the limiting total power shouldn`t exceed 10{sup 11} kW, i.e. 0.1% of the total solar energy flux upon the planet. This power will be necessary for the humanity by the middle of the next century, since the population will equal 10{sup 10} human beings, i.e. it will be necessary to have 10 kW per person. One of the most reasonable and promising ways out of such a situation is the transfer of the main power production facilities and power consumers into outer space.

Latyshev, L. [Moscow Aviation Inst. (Russian Federation); Semashko, N. [Moscow Power Engineering Inst. (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

326

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF EARTH-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER FOR REDUCING COOLING ENERGY DEMAND OF OFFICE BUILDINGS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a rising demand for conventional mechanical cooling systems in UK buildings over the last 10 years, which is due to increase in building internal and solar heat gains. Use of passive and low energy strategies for cooling and heating of buildings is an attractive alternative for providing comfortable indoor environments with low energy use. Earth-air heat exchanger (EAHX)

Abdullahi Ahmed; Kenneth Ip; Andrew Miller; Kassim Gidado

327

Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews, J., Kneale, P., Sougnez, Y., Stewart, M., and Stott, T. A. (2003). Carrying out Pedagogic research into the Constructive Alignment of Fieldwork. Planet Special Edition 5: Linking Teaching and Research and undertaking Pedagogic Research in Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 51-52. Carmichael, P. (2008) The Semantic Web and Web 3.0' in: Selwyn, N. (ed.) Education 2.0? Designing the web for teaching and learning. London: ESRC Teaching and Learning Research Programme. Fletcher, S., France, D., Moore, K. and Robinson, G. (2002). Fieldwork education and technology: A GEES perspective, Planet 4, 17-19. Fletcher, S., France, D., Moore, K. and Robinson, G. (2007). Putting technology into fieldwork education: A pedagogic evaluation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 31, 2, 319 - 330 Maskall, J., Stokes, A., Truscott, J. B., Bridge, A., Magnier, K. and Calderbank, V. (2007) Supporting fieldwork using information technology, Planet 18, 18-21. Stott, TA., Nuttall, AM. and McCloskey, J. (2009a) Design, Development and Student Evaluation of a Virtual Alps Field Guide www.virtualalps.co.uk. Planet 22, 64-71. Publication of the Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Learning & Teaching Support Network www.gees.ac.uk/planet/. Stott, TA, Clark, H., Milson, C., McCloskey, J. and Crompton, K. (2009b) The Ingleton Waterfalls Virtual Field Trip: Design, Development and Preliminary Evaluation, Teaching Earth Sciences 34 (1), 13-19, Magazine of the Earth Science Teachers Association.

Stott, Tim

2010-05-01

328

On-orbit solar calibrations using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx. Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. However, in their first year of operation the Terra and Aqua MAMs showed shifts in their calibrations larger than expected. Shifts of this nature have been seen in other Solar viewing instruments in the past. A possible explanation has attributed the changes to pre-orbit or on-orbit contamination combined with solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen induced chemical changes to the contaminant during solar exposure. In the subsequent year of operation all instruments begin to stabilize within the .5 percent precision range. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the nine years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than an elevation scan will be discussed. The implementation of a thermal correction to the shortwave channel will also be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra CERES instruments and the Aqua instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2010-09-01

329

Designing for Energy Conservation - The Cypress Fairbanks Medical Center Hospital  

E-print Network

efficient and economically constructed has the winning combination. This paper details the design concepts of a 1984 Grand Award winner, the Cypress Fairbanks Medical Center Hospital, in the Fourth Annual Energy Conservation Design Award Competition....

Wiernik, L. B.; Ranzau, P. A.

1984-01-01

330

Design Drivers of Energy-Efficient Transport Aircraft  

E-print Network

The fuel energy consumption of subsonic air transportation is examined. The focus is on identification and quantification of fundamental engineering design tradeoffs which drive the design of subsonic tube and wing transport ...

Drela, Mark

331

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 2: Earth to Mars ballistic mission opportunities, 1990-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Mars are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Mars arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1990 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Mars probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.; Cunniff, R. A.

1983-01-01

332

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 1: Earth to Venus ballistic mission opportunities, 1991-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Venus is presented. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and arrival parameters, are presented in launch data/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1991 through 2005. An extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Venus probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Yin, N. H.

1983-01-01

333

Design and Performance Analysis of GPS Based Precise Relative Navigation for Rendezvous and Formation Flying Missions in Low Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise relative GPS navigation is essential technology for rendezvous and formation flying of spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit. Key design issues of precise relative GPS navigation software are studied and a novel formulation is proposed for the mission which requires high accuracy when the separation distance is up to several km. The navigation filter estimates float navigation solutions by extended Kalman filter with elaborate dynamics models, and resolves ambiguities of integer carrier phase biases to achieve high accuracy fix navigation solutions. A relative navigation software with the proposed formulation is implemented and evaluated in two different ways. One is a test using spacebourne GPS receivers and a GPS signal simulator to evaluate the performance and sensitivity of the software against variation of parameters. The other is a test using actual telemetry data from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to demonstrate the software performance. The design, implementation, and results of the evaluation are presented and discussed on this paper.

Yamamoto, Toru

334

The MIT Design Advisor : simple and rapid energy simulation of early-stage building designs  

E-print Network

Simulation tools, when applied early in the design process, can considerably reduce the energy demand of newly constructed buildings. For a simulation tool to assist with design, it must be easy to use, provide feedback ...

Urban, Bryan J. (Bryan James)

2007-01-01

335

Evaluation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanner Pointing Accuracy using a Coastline Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiometer was launched on November 27, 1997 into a 35 inclination, 350 km altitude orbit, on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The CERES instrument consists of a three channel scanning broadband radiometer. The spectral bands measure shortwave (0.3 - 5 microns), window (8 - 12 microns), and total (0.3 - 100 microns) radiation reflected or emitted from the Earth-atmosphere system. Each Earth viewing measurement is geolocated to the Earth fixed coordinate system using satellite ephemeris, Earth rotation and geoid, and instrument pointing data. The interactive CERES coastline detection system is used to assess the accuracy of the CERES geolocation process. By analyzing radiative flux gradients at the boundaries of ocean and land masses, the accuracy of the scanner measurement locations may be derived for the CERES/TRMM instrument/satellite system. The resulting CERES measurement location errors are within 10% of the nadir footprint size. Precise pointing knowledge of the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) is required for convolution of cloud properties onto the CERES footprint; initial VIRS coastline results are included.

Currey, Chris; Smith, Lou; Neely, Bob

1998-01-01

336

Design Enhancements of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer to Enable Detection of Earth Twins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last few years, considerable effort has been directed towards very large-scale (> $5 billion) missions to detect and characterize Mars-radius to Earth-radius planets around nearby stars; such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer and Darwin missions. However, technological issues such as formation flying and control of systematic noise sources will likely prevent these missions from entering Phase A until at least the end of the next decade. Presently more than 350 planets have been discovered by a variety of techniques, and little is known about the majority of them other than their approximate mass. However, a simplified nulling interferometer operating in the near- to mid-infrared (e.g. approx. 5-15 microns), like the enhanced version of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI), can characterize the atmospheres of a large sample of the known planets - including Earth twins. Many other scientific problems can be addressed with a system like FKSI, including the studies of debris disks, active galactic nuclei, and low mass companions around nearby stars. We report results of a recent engineering study on an enhanced version of FKSI that includes 1-meter primary mirrors, 20-meter boom length, and an advanced sun shield that will provide a 45-degree FOR and 40K operating temperature for all optics including siderostats.

Barry, Richard K.; Danchi, William C.; Lopez, Bruno; Rinehart, Stephan; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Beust, Herve; Bonfils, Xavier; Borde, Pascal; Kern, Pierre; Leger, Alain; Monin, Jean-Louis; Mourard, Denis; Ollivier, Marc; Petrov, Roman; Vakhili, Farrokh

2009-01-01

337

Designing and Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

Designing and Managing Datacenters Powered by Renewable Energy ´I~nigo Goiri, William Katsak, Kien,wkatsak,lekien,tdnguyen,ricardob}@cs.rutgers.edu Abstract On-site renewable energy has the potential to reduce data- centers' carbon footprint and power/energy" datacenters, i.e. datacenters partially or completely powered by renewables such as solar or wind energy

338

A participatory process for designing cooking energy programmes with women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women in rural areas of India play an important role in household energy management. Programmes designed to help them administer these needs more effectively by providing alternative, sustainable energy solutions, however, have met with limited success. Women's roles and energy needs are rarely a main focus of rural energy programmes and there are few mechanisms for creating a more meaningful

Preeti Malhotra; R. Cynthia Neudoerffer; Soma Dutta

2004-01-01

339

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix D: EOS configuration design data. Part 1: Spacecraft configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of structural studies of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) which define the member sizes to meet the vehicle design requirements are presented. The most significant requirements in sizing the members are the stiffness required to meet the launch vehicle design frequencies both in the late al and in the longitudinal directions. The selected configurations, both baseline and preferred, for the Delta and Titan launch vehicles were evaluated for stiffness requirements. The structural idealization used to estimate the stiffness of each structural arrangement, was based on an evaluation of primary loads paths, effectivity of structural members, and estimated sizes for the preferred configurations. The study included an evaluation of the following structural materials: (1) aluminum alloys, (2) titanium alloys, (3) beryllium, (4) beryllium/aluminum alloy, and (5) composite materials.

1974-01-01

340

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 4: Earth to Saturn ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Saturn are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements as well as many other launch and Saturn arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Saturn probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations elating various parameters. This is the first of a planned series of mission design documents which will apply to all planets and some other bodies in the solar system.

Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

1981-01-01

341

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A POWER CONDITIONING UNIT FOR AN EARTH OBSERVATION MICROSATELLITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsatellite project of the Universities of Naples (SMART) is aimed for the design and development of a small size and mass satellite, but with all functionality foreseen for larger ones. This led to the design of a 28V, fully-regulated bus. Voltage control logic is based on a shunt regulator, which requires a minimum power consumption of 2W. In order

Marco D'Errico; Massimiliano Pastena; Gioia Perrone

342

Constraints on Energy Dissipation in the Earth's Body Tide From Satellite Tracking and Altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phase lag by which the earth's body tide follows the tidal potential is estimated for the principal lunar semidiurnal tide M(sub 2). The estimate results from combining recent tidal solutions from satellite tracking data and from Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. Each data type is sensitive to the body-tide lag: gravitationally for the tracking data, geometrically for the altimetry. Allowance is made for the lunar atmospheric tide. For the tidal potential Love number kappa(sub 2) we obtain a lag epsilon of 0.20 deg +/- 0.05 deg, implying an effective body-tide Q of 280 and body-tide energy dissipation of 110 +/- 25 gigawatts.

Ray, Richard D.; Eanes, Richard J.; Lemoine, Frank G.

1992-01-01

343

Linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the Cosmos 1887 mission.

Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W. Jr

1990-01-01

344

Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit  

SciTech Connect

Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLD`s), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD`s), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the COSMOS 1887 mission.

Parnell, T.A.; Watts, J.W. Jr.; Akopova, A.B.; Magradze, N.V.; Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Potapov, Yu.V.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Benton, E.R. [Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR, Erivan, Armenia (Russian Federation); [Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); [San Francisco Univ., CA (United States)

1995-03-01

345

Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the COSMOS 1887 mission.

Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

1995-01-01

346

Toward an Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explore (EarthCARE) thermal flux determination: Evaluation using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) true along-track data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission developed by the European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency addresses the need to improve the understanding of the interactions between cloud, aerosol, and radiation processes. The broadband radiometer (BBR) instrument on board the EarthCARE spacecraft provides measurements of broadband reflected solar and emitted thermal radiances at the top of atmosphere (TOA) over the along-track satellite path at three fixed viewing zenith angles. The multiangular information provided by the BBR, combined with the spectral information from the EarthCARE's multispectral imager (MSI) can be exploited to construct accurate thermal radiance-to-flux conversion algorithms on the basis of radiative transfer modeling. In this study, the methodology to derive longwave (LW) fluxes from BBR and MSI data is described, and the performance of the LW BBR angular models is compared with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Terra flux retrievals in order to evaluate the reliability of the BBR synthetic models when applied to satellite-based radiances. For this purpose, the BBR methodology proposed in this work is adapted to the CERES and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument specifications, and new LW angular models for CERES are developed. According to plane-parallel simulations, the BBR LW flux uncertainty caused by flux inversion could be reduced up to 0.4 W m-2. The intercomparison between CERES BBR-like adapted and CERES original angular models is performed over a BBR-like database of CERES true along track, and the averaged instantaneous retrievals agree to within 2 W m-2.

Domenech, C.; Wehr, T.; Fischer, J.

2011-03-01

347

Survival probability and energy modification of hydrogen Energetic Neutral Atoms on their way from the termination shock to Earth orbit  

E-print Network

Context: With the forthcoming launch of a NASA SMEX mission IBEX devoted to imaging of heliospheric interface by in-situ detection of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) an important issue becomes recognizing of transport of these atoms from the termination shock of the solar wind to Earth orbit. Aims: Investigate modifications of energy and of survival probability of the H ENA detectable by IBEX (0.01 -- 6 keV) between the termination shock and Earth orbit taking into account the influence of the variable and anisotropic solar wind and solar EUV radiation. Methods: Energy change of the atoms is calculated by numerical simulations of orbits of the H ENA atoms from ~100 AU from the Sun down to Earth orbit, taking into account solar gravity and Lyman-$\\alpha$ radiation pressure, which is variable in time and depends on radial velocity of the atom. To calculate survival probabilities of the atoms against onization, a detailed 3D and time-dependent model of H ENA ionization based on observations of the solar wind and EUV ionizing radiation is constructed, and wth the use of this model probabilities of survival of the atoms are calculated by numerical integration along the previously calculated orbits. Results: Owing to the radiation pressure, H ENA reach the Earth orbit practically without energy and direction change except the atoms with energy lower than 0.1 keV during high solar activity. For a given energy at Earth orbit one expects fluctuations of survival probability from ~20% at 0.01 keV down to just a few percent at 6 keV and a modulation of survival probability as a function of the location at Earth orbit, ecliptic latitude of the arrival direction, and the phase of solar cycle with an amplitude of a few dozen percent for 0.1 keV atoms at solar minimum to a few percent for 6 keV atoms at solar maximum.

M. Bzowski

2008-06-14

348

Design of subsea energy storage chamber  

E-print Network

Energy generated from offshore resources is not reliable over short periods of time. Although wind and wave energy is fairly consistent in the long run, their short term capacity fluctuations prohibit these resources from ...

Greenlee, Alison S

2009-01-01

349

An innovative design of wave energy converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to develop an innovative approach for electric power conversion of the vast ocean wave energy. A floating-buoy wave energy converter (WEC) using hydrostatic transmission (HST), which is shortened as HSTWEC, has been proposed to enhance the wave energy generation from wave fluctuations. In the HSTWEC device, the power take-off system (PTO) was combined with

K. K. Ahn; D. Q. Truong; Hoang Huu Tien; Jong Il Yoon

350

Energy Efficiency Design Challenge in Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the concept of sensor networks and its applications. A review of factors influencing the energy consumption and energy conserving methods is provided. Energy consumption can only be reduced significantly by switching the radio to a sleep state when it is idle. We observe that under light traffic conditions (as is usually the case in sensor

Q. Gao; D. J. Holding; Y. Peng; K. J. Blow

2002-01-01

351

Landscape Design and Nursery Operation for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Landforms, vegetation, water bodies, climate and solar radiation can be analyzed and used to design an energy-conserving landscape and horticulture operation. Accordingly, this course instructor's manual covers the use of the elements of the environment to make landscaping and nursery design and operation more energy-efficient. Five sections

Bell, Richard C.; Glazener, Dennis

352

Developing an energy design tool: Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the planning phase of a proposed four-phase project for creating computer software to provide energy expertise in a manageable form to architects and engineers - thereby decreasing energy use in new buildings. The government sponsored software would be integrated with commercially developed software for use in the design of buildings. The result would be an integrated software package to aid the designer in the building design process and to provide expert insight into the energy related implications of a proposed design.

Heidell, J.A.; Deringer, J.D.

1987-02-01

353

Creating Parameterized and Energy-Efficient System Generator Designs  

E-print Network

verification on the actual hardware. The Xilinx System Generator for DSP is a high- level design environmentCreating Parameterized and Energy-Efficient System Generator Designs Jingzhao Ou, Seonil Choi-level design tools based on MAT- LAB/Simulink, such as DSP Builder [1] from Altera and System Generator [10

Prasanna, Viktor K.

354

Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guidance for Terminal Area Energy Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second generation reusable launch vehicle will leverage many new technologies to make flight to low earth orbit safer and more cost effective. One important capability will be completely autonomous flight during reentry and landing, thus making it unnecessary to man the vehicle for cargo missions with stringent weight constraints. Implementation of sophisticated new guidance and control methods will enable the vehicle to return to earth under less than favorable conditions. The return to earth consists of three phases--Entry, Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM), and Approach and Landing. The Space Shuttle is programmed to fly all three phases of flight automatically, and under normal circumstances the astronaut-pilot takes manual control only during the Approach and Landing phase. The automatic control algorithms used in the Shuttle for TAEM and Approach and Landing have been developed over the past 30 years. They are computationally efficient, and based on careful study of the spacecraft's flight dynamics, and heuristic reasoning. The gliding return trajectory is planned prior to the mission, and only minor adjustments are made during flight for perturbations in the vehicle energy state. With the advent of the X-33 and X-34 technology demonstration vehicles, several authors investigated implementing advanced control methods to provide autonomous real-time design of gliding return trajectories thus enhancing the ability of the vehicle to adjust to unusual energy states. The bulk of work published to date deals primarily with the approach and landing phase of flight where changes in heading angle are small, and range to the runway is monotonically decreasing. These benign flight conditions allow for model simplification and fairly straightforward optimization. This project focuses on the TAEM phase of flight where mathematically precise methods have produced limited results. Fuzzy Logic methods are used to make onboard autonomous gliding return trajectory design robust to a wider energy envelope, and the possibility of control surface failures, thus increasing the flexibility of unmanned gliding recovery and landing.

Burchett, Bradley

2003-01-01

355

High energy-intensity atomic oxygen beam source for low earth orbit materials degradation studies  

SciTech Connect

A high intensity (10/sup 19/O-atoms/s-sr) high energy (5 eV) source of oxygen atoms has been developed that produces a total fluence of 10/sup 22/ O-atoms/cm/sup 2/ in less than 100 hours of continuous operation at a distance of 15 cm from the source. The source employs a CW CO/sub 2/ laser sustained discharge to form a high temperature (15,000 K) plasma in the throat of a 0.3-mm diameter nozzle using 3--8 atmospheres of rare gas/O/sub 2/ mixtures. Visible and infrared photon flux levels of 1 watt/cm/sup 2/ have been measured 15 cm downstream of the source while vacuum UV (VUV) fluxes are comparable to that measured in low earth orbit. The reactions of atomic oxygen with kapton, Teflon, silver, and various coatings have been studied. The oxidation of kapton (reaction efficiency = 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/24/ cm /+-/ 50%) has an activation energy of 0.8 Kcal/mole over the temperature range of 25/degree/C to 100/degree/C at a beam energy of 1.5 eV and produces low molecular weight gas phase reaction products (H/sub 2/O, NO, CO/sub 2/). Teflon reacts with approx.0.1--0.2 efficiency to that of kapton at 25/degree/C and both surfaces show a rug-like texture after exposure to the O-atom beam. Angular scattering distribution measurements of O-atoms show a near cosine distribution from reactive surfaces indicating complete accommodation of the translational energy with the surface while a nonreactive surface (nickel oxide) shows specular-like scattering with 50% accommodation of the translational energy with the surface. A technique for simple on orbit chemical experiments using resistance measurements of coated silver strips is described. 9 figs.

Cross, J.B.; Blais, N.C.

1988-01-01

356

The design and implementation of a high sensitivity telescope for in situ measurements of energetic particles in the Earth's radiation belts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the design and implementation of a high-sensitivity telescope (HST) for in situ detection and energy analysis of energetic charged particles in the Earth's radiation belts from a near-equatorial orbit that will range over geocentric distances from ? 2--3.5 Earth radii as part of the US Air Force's Demonstrations and Science eXperiment (DSX) mission. The HST employs a two element silicon solid state detector telescope that has a geometrical factor of 0.1 cm2 sr with a 14 field-of-view centered on the on-orbit local magnetic field vector to detect ? 100 particles s-1 cm-2 sr-1 in the geomagnetic bounce loss cone. The pointing direction of the HST is guaranteed by the active attitude control subsystem of the spacecraft. A novel implementation of a knife-edged baffled collimator design restricts the field-of-view and provides a sharp cutoff (? 103) in the angular response to all particle species with energies from ? 40--800 keV. The HST detectors are shielded with 5g cm-2 of aluminum followed by 3.1 g cm-2 of tungsten in all non-look directions to reduce the background fluxes incident on the detectors through the orbit (>107 particles cm -2 s-1 for electrons and protons individually) to levels that will allow the detection of the target flux in the loss cone. The HST has been extensively characterized on the ground and is capable of analyzing the energies of particles over the range of 25--850 keV with an energy resolution of 3.7keV and a noise FWHM of 15keV. The calibration has been established using 241Am and 133Ba X-ray sources and verified using additional beta- and X-ray sources and the electron beams produced by the 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center's Radiation Effects Facility. The instrument's calibration has been shown to vary by less than 2% over the operational temperature range of --20 to +35C. Electromagnetic interference testing has proven that the HST is unaffected by strong VLF fields of peak amplitude 1.5 kV.

Parker, Charles Walter

357

The World's Largest Experiment Manipulating Solar Energy Input To Earth Resumed In 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small amounts of solar-ultraviolet-energy absorbing gases such as ozone, SO2, and NO2 play an unusually large role warming the atmosphere. A mere 3 to 8 ppmv ozone at elevations of 15 to 50 km and associated exothermic chemical reactions warm the atmosphere >50oC, forming the stratosphere. All three molecules have an asymmetric top shape that, unlike linear molecules of CO2, forms a permanent electromagnetic dipole enhancing interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Plancks postulate (Energy = a constant times frequency) implies that solar ultraviolet energy strongly absorbed by SO2 is 43 times greater than infrared energy radiated by earth and strongly absorbed by CO2. Solar energy in the blue visible spectrum and ultraviolet causes electronic transitions and an absorption spectrum that is a continuum, absorbing far more energy per unit gas than spectral line absorption of infrared energy caused by rotational and vibrational transitions. Absorption of electromagnetic energy by atmospheric gases increases rapidly with increasing frequency, an observation not accounted for by the use of specific heat in atmospheric models to link energy flux with temperature. While SO2 in the stratosphere is oxidized to a sulfuric acid aerosol that reflects sunlight, cooling the earth, SO2 in the troposphere is oxidized much more slowly than commonly assumed. Well-documented concentrations of tens of ppbv SO2 emitted by humans burning fossil fuels, especially coal, in northern mid-latitudes are contemporaneous, with suitable time delays for warming the ocean, with increased global warming during the 20th century, greatest by nearly a factor of two in the northern hemisphere. A decrease by 18% of anthropogenic SO2 emissions between 1979 and 2000 aimed at reducing acid rain had the unintended effect of reducing the global mean rate of temperature increase to zero by 1998. By 2003, global SO2 emissions began to rise sharply due to the rapid increase in number of new coal-burning power plants in Asia. The 20th century rate of increase in tropospheric methane also approached zero by 1998 but began to increase in 2007 as explained by SO2 reducing the oxidizing capacity and thus the tropospheres ability to remove methane. SO2 does not last long in the atmosphere, but a continual and increasing flux causes increased concentrations. SO2 from China is traceable across the Pacific Ocean even to eastern America, perhaps playing a major role in the unusually high air temperatures in 2010. Atmospheric circulation in the northern hemisphere moves SO2 towards the pole where it is the primary cause of Arctic Haze. In polar regions, solar radiation travels longer path lengths through the atmosphere during longer summer days than in equatorial regions, contributing to the well-documented excessive global warming in the Arctic. The resumed increase in SO2 emissions since 2003 provides the worlds largest geoengineering experiment and an excellent chance to measure, especially in China and India, the effects of SO2 and NO2 on global warming. Technology exists to reduce SO2 emissions economically. The time has come to control this large geoengineering experiment in the hopes that we can minimize continued global warming.

Ward, P. L.

2010-12-01

358

Process Design and Operation for Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

of this technology are illustrated by the following case studies: Case study 1: Design of Tar Sands Expansion Plant. Applying the Pinch approach to a new production unit before the design has been frozen maximizes the extent to which savings can be achieved... to be developed with the optimum amount of heat recovery. Some surprising results have been obtained by using this approach: A recent study of a major tar sands processing facility expansion project showed that the contractor's initial design had too much...

Rossiter, A. P.; Nath, R.; Yell, M. D.

359

A general design for energy test procedures  

SciTech Connect

Appliances are increasingly controlled by microprocessors. Unfortunately, energy test procedures have not been modified to capture the positive and negative contributions of the microprocessor to the appliance's energy use. A new test procedure is described which captures both the mechanical and logical features present in many new appliances. We developed an energy test procedure for refrigerators that incorporates most aspects of the proposed new approach. Some of the strengths and weaknesses of the new test are described.

Meier, Alan

2000-06-15

360

Cogeneration Plant is Designed for Total Energy  

E-print Network

character istics and performance of a 200 MW combined cycle cogeneration plant located at Occidental Chemical Corporation's Battleground chlorine-caustic plant at La Porte, Texas. This successful application of a total energy management concept... plant at La Porte, Texas, produces chlorine, caustic soda, and hydrogen by an energy-intensive electro chemical process. Approximately 50% of the total manufacturing cost is attributed to energy costs. In order to maintain or improve its competitive...

Howell, H. D.; Vera, R. L.

361

Energy gaps in the spin-wave spectrum of rare-earth orthoferrites in a magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature and field dependences of energy gaps in the spin-wave spectra at the boundaries of the orientational translation have been studied for thulium and ytterbium orthoferrites. It is shown that in transitions induced by a magnetic field, the gaps in the soft-mode spectra of iron as well as the rare earth are independent of temperature (field). A comparison of the

N. K. Dan'shin; G. G. Kramarchuk

1993-01-01

362

Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science\\u000a teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices\\u000a in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span, included follow-up support to\\u000a teachers, and incorporated active learning approaches

William R. Penuel; Harold McWilliams; Carla McAuliffe; Ann E. Benbow; Colin Mably; Margaret M. Hayden

2009-01-01

363

Beam-waveguide antenna servo design issues for tracking low earth-orbiting satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upcoming NASA missions will require tracking of low-orbit satellites. As a consequence, NASA antennas will be required to track satellites at higher rates than for the current deep space missions. This article investigates servo design issues for the 34-m beam-waveguide antennas that track low-orbit satellites. This includes upgrading the servo with a feedforward loop, using a monopulse controller design, and reducing tracking errors through either proper choice of elevation pinion location, application of a notch filter, or adjustment of the elevation drive amplifier gain. Finally, improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio through averaging of the over-sampled monopulse signal is described.

Gawronski, W. K.; Mellstrom, J. A.

1993-01-01

364

Glass melting furnaces designing energy-efficient bottle glass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that developing an energy-efficient design for a bottle glass furnace implies the use of modern design methodology.\\u000a It is necessary to include mathematical modeling before the technical design stage in the structure of the traditional stages\\u000a of work on a furnace design. The boundary conditions of modeling must reflect the conjugate character of external and internal\\u000a heat

V. Ya. Dzyuzer

2008-01-01

365

Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

1991-01-01

366

Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

1991-10-01

367

Galileo: Earth avoidance study report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1989 Galileo mission to Jupiter is based on a VEEGA (Venus Earth Earth-Gravity Assist) trajectory which uses two flybys of Earth and one of Venus to achieve the necessary energy and shaping to reach Jupiter. These encounters are needed because the Centaur upper stage is not now being used on this mission. Since the Galileo spacecraft uses radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for electrical power, the question arises as to whether there is any chance of an inadvertent atmospheric entry of the spacecraft during either of the two Earth flybys. A study was performed which determined the necessary actions, in both spacecraft and trajectory design as well as in operations, to insure that the probability of such reentry is made very small, and to provide a quantitative assessment of the probability of reentry.

Mitchell, R. T.

1988-01-01

368

A Design Based Research of an Earth Systems Based Environmental Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a model for the development of an environmentally oriented unit designed to be implemented as an integral part of the science core curriculum. The program's main goal is encouraging students at the junior high-school level to develop systems-thinking and environmental insight as a basis for environmental literacy. A

Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir

2009-01-01

369

ERTS-B (Earth Resources Technology Satellite). [spacecraft design remote sensor description, and technology utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission plans and objectives of the ERTS 2 Satellite are presented. ERTS 2 follow-on investigations in various scientific disciplines including agriculture, meteorology, land-use, geology, water resources, oceanography, and environment are discussed. Spacecraft design and its sensors are described along with the Delta launch vehicle and launch operations. Applications identified from ERTS 1 investigations are summarized.

1975-01-01

370

Advanced spacecraft designs in support of human missions to earth's neighborhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by the NASA\\/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such

David Fletcher

2002-01-01

371

MACHINE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE FUTURE ENERGY CHALLENGE  

E-print Network

MACHINE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE FUTURE ENERGY CHALLENGE Jonathan W. Kimball and Marco Amrhein. As part of the International Future Energy Challenge, student teams are endeavoring to improve the effi and finite- element results are shown. I. INTRODUCriON The International Future Energy Challenge (FEC

Kimball, Jonathan W.

372

NEW MOTOR DESIGN CONCEPT FOR ENERGY SAVING APPLIED TO  

E-print Network

SHARK, NEW MOTOR DESIGN CONCEPT FOR ENERGY SAVING APPLIED TO SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR by Ana for the PhD degree in Electrical Engineering. The project was financed jointly by Danish Energy Agency-Mari Tataru Kjær Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University #12;#12;i Preface This thesis is submitted

373

Waste-to-Energy Facilities in Taiwan by Shang-Hsiu Lee, WTERT/Earth Engineering Center  

E-print Network

an estimated total of 18,615 metric tons of MSW per day (85% of the design capacity of 21,900 metric tonsJ/kg #12;3 Table 2 Waste-to-Energy Facilities in Taiwan7,8 No Location Design Capacity (ton/d) Design generating energy (MWh/day) Process Type of incinerator Engineering Consultants Construction company Project

Columbia University

374

Earths Earliest Atmospheres  

PubMed Central

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earths atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earths subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2010-01-01

375

Design, microstructure, and high-temperature behavior of silicon nitride sintered with rate-earth oxides  

SciTech Connect

The processing-microstructure-property relations of silicon nitride ceramics sintered with rare-earth oxide additives have been investigated with the aim of improving their high-temperature behavior. The additions of the oxides of Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, or Yb were compositionally controlled to tailor the intergranular phase. The resulting microstructure consisted of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and a crystalline secondary phase of RE{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with a thin residual amorphous phase present at grain boundaries. The lanthanide oxides were found to be as effective as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in densifying Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, resulting in identical microstructures. The crystallization behavior of all six disilicates was similar, characterized by a limited nucleation and rapid growth mechanism resulting in large single crystals. Complete crystallization of the intergranular phase was obtained with the exception of a residual amorphous, observed at interfaces and believed to be rich in impurities, the cause of incomplete devitrification. The low resistance to oxidation of these materials was attributed to the minimization of amorphous phases via devitrification to disilicates, compatible with SiO{sub 2}, the oxidation product of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The strength retention of these materials at 1300{degrees}C was found to be between 80% and 91% of room-temperature strength, due to crystallization of the secondary phase and a residual but refractory amorphous grain-boundary phase. The creep behavior was found to be strongly dependent on residual amorphous phase viscosity as well as on the oxidation behavior, as evidenced by the nonsteady-state creep rates of all materials. 122 refs., 51 figs., 12 tabs.

Ciniculk, M.K. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

1991-08-01

376

MATLAB and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

2012-04-01

377

Energy Efficient School Designed for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When completed, the planned Greeley Elementary School will be able to accommodate any future changes in enrollment and technological developments, while maintaining a constant energy efficient heating and cooling operation. (Author/MLF)

Modern Schools, 1977

1977-01-01

378

Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

1983-01-01

379

Design of a 12-GHz multicarrier earth-terminal for satellite-CATV interconnection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of the front-end for a multi-carrier system that allows multiplex signal transmission from satellite-borne transponders is described. Detailed systems analyses provided down-converter specifications. The 12 GHz carrier down-converter uses waveguide, coaxial, and microstrip transmission line elements in its implementation. Mixing is accomplished in a single-ended coaxial mixer employing a field-replacable cartridge style diode.

Newman, B. A.; Singh, J. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

1971-01-01

380

Climate Model Evaluation using New Datasets from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are some in the science community who believe that the response of the climate system to anthropogenic radiative forcing is unpredictable and we should therefore call off the quest . The key limitation in climate predictability is associated with cloud feedback. Narrowing the uncertainty in cloud feedback (and therefore climate sensitivity) requires optimal use of the best available observations to evaluate and improve climate model processes and constrain climate model simulations over longer time scales. The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a satellite-based program that provides global cloud, aerosol and radiative flux observations for improving our understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation feedbacks in the Earth s climate system. CERES is the successor to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which has widely been used to evaluate climate models both at short time scales (e.g., process studies) and at decadal time scales. A CERES instrument flew on the TRMM satellite and captured the dramatic 1998 El Nino, and four other CERES instruments are currently flying aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms. Plans are underway to fly the remaining copy of CERES on the upcoming NPP spacecraft (mid-2010 launch date). Every aspect of CERES represents a significant improvement over ERBE. While both CERES and ERBE measure broadband radiation, CERES calibration is a factor of 2 better than ERBE. In order to improve the characterization of clouds and aerosols within a CERES footprint, we use coincident higher-resolution imager observations (VIRS, MODIS or VIIRS) to provide a consistent cloud-aerosol-radiation dataset at climate accuracy. Improved radiative fluxes are obtained by using new CERES-derived Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) for converting measured radiances to fluxes. CERES radiative fluxes are a factor of 2 more accurate than ERBE overall, but the improvement by cloud type and at high latitudes can be as high as a factor of 5. Diurnal cycles are explicitly resolved by merging geostationary satellite observations with CERES and MODIS. Atmospheric state data are provided from a frozen version of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office- Data Assimilation System at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. In addition to improving the accuracy of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes, CERES also produces radiative fluxes at the surface and at several levels in the atmosphere using radiative transfer modeling, constrained at the TOA by CERES (ERBE was limited to the TOA). In all, CERES uses 11 instruments on 7 spacecraft all integrated to obtain climate accuracy in TOA to surface fluxes. This presentation will provide an overview of several new CERES datasets of interest to the climate community (including a new adjusted TOA flux dataset constrained by estimates of heat storage in the Earth system), show direct comparisons between CERES ad ERBE, and provide a detailed error analysis of CERES fluxes at various time and space scales. We discuss how observations can be used to reduce uncertainties in cloud feedback and climate sensitivity and strongly argue why we should NOT "call off the quest".

Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.

2008-01-01

381

Architecture and Design of Storage and Data Management for the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is a long-term NASA research mission to study the processes leading to global climate change. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the component within MTPE that will provide the Earth science community with easy, affordable, and reliable access to Earth science data. EOSDIS is a distributed system, with major facilities at eight Distributed

Ben Kobler; John Berbert; Parris Caulk; P. C. Hariharan

1995-01-01

382

Analysis of some Earth, Moon and Mars samples in terms of gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors: Penetration depth, weight fraction of constituent elements and photon energy dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth, Moon and Mars samples have been investigated in terms of gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors (EABF) depending on penetration depth, weight fraction of constituent elements and photon energy. The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to compute the buildup factors in the energy region 0.01515MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mean

Murat Kurudirek; Bekir Dogan; Yksel zdemir; Anderson Camargo Moreira; Carlos Roberto Appoloni

2011-01-01

383

Earth Observations of the Water and Energy Cycle and the GEWEX Regional Hydroclimate Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to predict and manage changes in our environment it is necessary to make accurate observations of the energy and water cycle at various scales. Changes will have direct impacts on our natural and social environment e.g. for our water resources. Within GEWEX, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the global energy and water cycle is a main focus of attention. Changes at the global scale will have consequences at the regional scale and vice versa. To better discern the various processes over the entire range of spatial and temporal scales the Regional Hydroclimate Projects (RHP's) are established as the part of the GEWEX Hydroclimatology Panel that links the regional observations and process understanding to the global scale. This is done through exchange of observations, data, modeling, transferability studies etc. In this presentation an overview is given of the various RHP's, the reasons for their establishment and how they are likely to evolve in the future. Each of the RHP's is a collection of individual researchers, research institutes, academia and national agencies which have a common goal related to our environment and in which association with GEWEX helps to reach that goal. In the next few years the emphasis will be placed on stronger collaboration between the various RHP's as well as the intercomparison and evaluation of the GEWEX global datasets with the regional data sets. Crucial to success in this endeavor is the linkage between in-situ observations, modeling data and earth observational data.

Benedict, S.; van Oevelen, P. J.

2012-12-01

384

Shift to a low carbon society through energy systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about global warming calls for an advanced approach for designing an energy system to reduce carbon emissions as well\\u000a as to secure energy security for each country. Conventional energy systems tend to introduce different technologies with high\\u000a conversion efficiency, leading to a higher average efficiency. Advanced energy systems can be achieved not by an aggregate\\u000a form of conversion technologies

Toshihiko Nakata; Mikhail Rodionov; Diego Silva; Joni Jupesta

2010-01-01

385

A communications system conceptual design for a low earth orbiting Manned Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a NASA study on the design of the communications system for a space station RF communications system are reported. The system requirements, ground rules, and assumptions are detailed, together with the overall configuration, the relay satellite links, and the forward and return links. The operational modes are surveyed for voice and data transmission performances, as well as links to unmanned orbital transfer vehicles. Tradeoff studies are yet to be performed for system growth, video data compression, multiaccess communications, optical or conventional functioning, and the necessary antenna systems.

Tu, K.; Teasdale, W. E.; Zimmerman, R. J.

1982-01-01

386

Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design estimate for the materials for the International Space Station (ISS) specified in SSP 30512 was a conservative estimate. The environment dose was over estimated. The materials originally qualified for approximately 10-15 years are anticipated to be acceptable for periods of up to 20-30 years based on SSP-30512 or 40-60 years based on 2x SSP-30512. This viewgraph presentation shows charts and graphs that review the altitude, the solar minimum and maximum, and the radiation exposure of other satellite, among other graphics.

Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; McWilliams, Brett; Koontz, Steven L.

2006-01-01

387

Space shuttle seal material and design development for earth storable propellant systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a program to investigate and characterize seal materials suitable for space shuttle storable propellant systems are given. Two new elastomeric materials were identified as being potentially superior to existing state-of-the art materials for specific sealing applications. These materials were AF-E-124D and AF-E-411. AF-E-124D is a cured perfluorinated polymer suitable for use with dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizer, and hydrazine base fuels. AF-E-411 is an ethylene propylene terpolymer material for hydrazine base fuel service. Data are presented relative to low and high temperature characteristics as well as propellant exposure effects. Types of data included are: mechanical properties, stress strain curves, friction and wear characteristics, compression set and permeability. Sealing tests with a flat poppet-seal valve were conducted for verification of sealing capability. A bibliography includes over 200 references relating to seal design or materials and presents a concise tabulation of the more useful seal design data sources.

1973-01-01

388

Initial Investigation of Reaction Control System Design on Spacecraft Handling Qualities for Earth Orbit Docking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of research, development, test, and evaluation is planned for the development of Spacecraft Handling Qualities guidelines. In this first experiment, the effects of Reaction Control System design characteristics and rotational control laws were evaluated during simulated proximity operations and docking. Also, the influence of piloting demands resulting from varying closure rates was assessed. The pilot-in-the-loop simulation results showed that significantly different spacecraft handling qualities result from the design of the Reaction Control System. In particular, cross-coupling between translational and rotational motions significantly affected handling qualities as reflected by Cooper-Harper pilot ratings and pilot workload, as reflected by Task-Load Index ratings. This influence is masked but only slightly by the rotational control system mode. While rotational control augmentation using Rate Command Attitude Hold can reduce the workload (principally, physical workload) created by cross-coupling, the handling qualities are not significantly improved. The attitude and rate deadbands of the RCAH introduced significant mental workload and control compensation to evaluate when deadband firings would occur, assess their impact on docking performance, and apply control inputs to mitigate that impact.

Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Ragsdale, W. Al; Neuhaus, Jason; Barnes, Jim

2008-01-01

389

Case Study #5: Renewable Energy Microgrid Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid and islanded configuration are developed. A wind turbine\\u000a is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with\\u000a externally applied nonconservative forces. HSSPFC is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators\\u000a system. This formulation extends previous

Rush Robinett; David Wilson

390

Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design  

SciTech Connect

A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

1980-06-01

391

Process Integration: Designing for Energy, Capital and Operability  

E-print Network

Over the last five years, significant energy savings have been achieved by several international companies using the pinch concept for heat integration. New concepts are now being added to help the designer deal with capital cost minimization...

Linnhoff, B.

392

Design New Buildings To Save Energy -- and Money  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Buildings should be designed so that energy systems function with maximum efficiency. Re-evaluation of standards for ventilation and lighting is recommended. Heat recovery techniques and topography can reduce heating loads. (MF)

Rittelmann, Richard

1974-01-01

393

Product Design for Energy: An Inverted Pyramid Approach  

E-print Network

to specific issues. This approach, termed as the "inverted pyramid" approach, and outlined in this paper is beneficial in providing energy related information to product designers and manufacturing process specialists at an early stage in the product life...

Gopalakrishnan, B.; Alkadi, N. M.; Plummer, R. W.

394

Residential site design and energy conservation. Part 1: General report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy costs that can be saved by a subdivision design format related to energy conservation that is reasonably acceptable in marketing and aesthetic terms were determined. Six subdivision layouts were designed to densities ranging from 6.5 to 13.6 units per gross acre (1058 to 2232 units) or 16.25 to 34 units per gross hectare. Hourly radiation temperature, and wind characteristics for a year constitute the local climate data base. Six house types (from detached to apartment units) and seventeen basic house designs (mostly picked at random) were used. The method for calculating the set heat load and an analysis of the results are presented. The study shows that by way of the selection of the more energy efficient traditional house designs, orientation of buildings to maximize solar transmission, and landscaping to reduce the effect of wind, there is a possible residential space heating energy saving of up to 20% for a low density housing development.

1981-01-01

395

Modeling and design of a MEMS piezoelectric vibration energy harvester  

E-print Network

The modeling and design of MEMS-scale piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvesters (MPVEH) are presented. The work is motivated by the need for pervasive and limitless power for wireless sensor nodes that have application ...

Du Toit, Nol Eduard

2005-01-01

396

Smooth energy mappings for freeform lens design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of smooth energy mappings for uniform rectangular-shaped illumination is proposed. The adequacy of the proposed method is demonstrated by ray-tracing simulation. The method can be used for horizontal clear-cut illumination to comply with the ECE regulations for auto fog light and 15-tilt for headlamp.

Lin, Ku Chin

2014-09-01

397

Design for Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings  

E-print Network

be the level of 1980?s in developed countries. Now in the cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, who uses the 65% energy-saving standard it only reaches the level of 1990?s in developed countries. So, we have a big difference but also a big...

Song, M.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, G.

2006-01-01

398

Energy analysis to the design of rotor-bearing systems  

SciTech Connect

In the design of rotating machinery, it is often desirable and necessary to change a subset of system parameters to meet the design requirements. The success in designing rotor-bearing systems and in solving the vibration problems depends heavily upon the understanding of fundamental physical properties and insights of the systems. The modeling improvements and computational techniques have been extensively presented over the years. The design methodologies and fundamental properties have not been widely addressed to assist design engineers in solving their practical problems. The objective of this paper is to relate the various forms of energy and work and their contributions to the system dynamic characteristics. The design strategies and methodologies using the energy approach are also presented and illustrated in a turbine-driven machine.

Chen, W.J. [Ingersoll-Rand Co., Mayfield, KY (United States). Centrifugal Compressor Div.

1997-04-01

399

Combustor design tool for a gas fired thermophotovoltaic energy converter  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been a renewed interest in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. A TPV device converts radiant energy from a high temperature incandescent emitter directly into electricity by photovoltaic cells. The current Department of Energy sponsored research involves the design, construction and demonstration of a prototype TPV converter that uses a hydrocarbon fuel (such as natural gas) as the energy source. As the photovoltaic cells are designed to efficiently convert radiant energy at a prescribed wavelength, it is important that the temperature of the emitter be nearly constant over its entire surface. The US Naval Academy has been tasked with the development of a small emitter (with a high emissivity) that can be maintained at 1,756 K (2,700 F). This paper describes the computer spreadsheet model that was developed as a tool to be used for the design of the high temperature emitter.

Lindler, K.W.; Harper, M.J. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering Dept.

1995-07-01

400

Size effects in DAWT innovative wind energy system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of size on the estimated weight and cost of an advanced wind energy conversion system, the diffuser-augmented wind turbine (DAWT), is investigated. Preliminary designs are developed for three DAWT sizes (ratings) in each of three construction types: all-aluminum, ferrocement, and a hybrid fiberglass reinforced plastic diffuser shell on an aluminum frame. Common design criteria are utilized for the

K. M. Foreman

1982-01-01

401

Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems is discussed. Both air based and liquid based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage

R. L. Cole; K. J. Nield; R. R. Rohde; R. M. Wolosewicz

1980-01-01

402

Advanced Energy Efficiency Design Strategies In Retail Buildings  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents two US retail building projects that were designed and constructed using the energy design process. These buildings, the BigHorn Center in Silverthorne, Colorado, and the Zion National Park Visitor Center in Springdale, Utah, were both completed and occupied during the spring of 2000.

Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.

2000-08-17

403

Sub-Threshold Design: The Challenges of Minimizing Circuit Energy  

E-print Network

Sub-Threshold Design: The Challenges of Minimizing Circuit Energy B. H. Calhoun1 , A. Wang2 , N identify the key challenges that oppose sub- threshold circuit design and describe fabricated chips that verify techniques for overcoming the challenges. Categories and Subject Descriptors B.7.1 [ICs]: Types

Calhoun, Benton H.

404

New window design options for CEBAF energy upgrade  

SciTech Connect

As the Jefferson Laboratory upgrades the existing CEBAF electron accelerator to operate at higher energies, the fundamental power coupler windows will be required to operate with lower RF dissipation and increased immunity to radiation from cavity field emission. New designs and modifications to existing designs which can achieve these goals are described.

Phillips, L.; Mammosser, J.; Nguyen, V.

1997-07-01

405

ON-BOARD SYSTEM DESIGN TO OPTIMISE ENERGY MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of a new onboard system that contributes to the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 production by optimising vehicle energy. We designed an appropriate instrument that enables the driver to adopt the best driving behaviour, smooth speed and good gear management. A global optimisation algorithm was developed to provide the driver with an eco- nomic

Jrme Barb; Guy Boy

406

Multi objective decision making in hybrid energy system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of grid-connected photovoltaic wind generator system supplying a farmstead in Nebraska has been undertaken in this dissertation. The design process took into account competing criteria that motivate the use of different sources of energy for electric generation. The criteria considered were 'Financial', 'Environmental', and 'User\\/System compatibility'. A distance based multi-objective decision making methodology was developed to rank design

Gabriel Guillermo Merino

2000-01-01

407

A design guide for energy-efficient research laboratories  

SciTech Connect

This document--A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories--provides a detailed and holistic framework to assist designers and energy managers in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide fills an important void in the general literature and compliments existing in-depth technical manuals. Considerable information is available pertaining to overall laboratory design issues, but no single document focuses comprehensively on energy issues in these highly specialized environments. Furthermore, practitioners may utilize many antiquated rules of thumb, which often inadvertently cause energy inefficiency. The Guide helps its user to: introduce energy decision-making into the earliest phases of the design process, access the literature of pertinent issues, and become aware of debates and issues on related topics. The Guide does focus on individual technologies, as well as control systems, and important operational factors such as building commissioning. However, most importantly, the Guide is intended to foster a systems perspective (e.g. right sizing) and to present current leading-edge, energy-efficient design practices and principles.

Wishner, N.; Chen, A.; Cook, L. [eds.; Bell, G.C.; Mills, E.; Sartor, D.; Avery, D.; Siminovitch, M.; Piette, M.A.

1996-09-24

408

Exploring the challenges of habitation design for extended human presence beyond low-earth orbit: Are new requirements and processes needed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the renewed interest in a sustained human presence beyond low-earth orbit, habitation in space, on planets and on moons is an area that requires re-evaluation in terms of mission and habitat designthere is a need for a paradigmatic move from a design focus on short-term LEO missions to that of long-term missions in LEO and beyond. We claim that

Douglas K. R. Robinson; Glenn Sterenborg; Sandra Huplik; Manuela Aguzzi

2008-01-01

409

A conceptual design for cosmo-biology experiments in Earth's Orbit.  

PubMed

A conceptual design was developed for a cosmo-biology experiment. It is intended to expose simulated interstellar ice materials deposited on dust grains to the space environment. The experimental system consists of a cryogenic system to keep solidified gas sample, and an optical device to select and amplify the ultraviolet part of the solar light for irradiation. By this approach, the long lasting chemical evolution of icy species could be examined in a much shorter time of exposure by amplification of light intensity. The removal of light at longer wavelength, which is ineffective to induce photochemical reactions, reduces the heat load to the cryogenic system that holds solidified reactants including CO as a constituent species of interstellar materials. Other major hardware components were also defined in order to achieve the scientific objectives of this experiment. Those are a cold trap maintained at liquid nitrogen temperature to prevent the contamination of the sample during the exposure, a mechanism to exchange multiple samples, and a system to perform bake-out of the sample exposure chamber. This experiment system is proposed as a candidate payload implemented on the exposed facility of Japanese Experiment Module on International Space Station. PMID:11541875

Hashimoto, H; Greenberg, M; Brack, A; Colangeli, L; Horneck, G; Navarro-Gonzalez, R; Raulin, F; Kouchi, A; Saito, T; Yamashita, M; Kobayashi, K

1998-06-01

410

Guidelines in Wave Energy Conversion System Design  

E-print Network

mentions that the Pelamis is able to work in sea states with a power of at least 15 kilowatts per meter. Wave Dragon Wave Dragon is an overtopping device, which was developed in Denmark and Wales, and it was also reviewed by the EPRI in 2004... be done at the device site location. The Wave Dragon uses large wings (reflectors) to drive water into the reservoir. When water flows through the reservoir, it turns low head turbines to generate energy. The device takes advantage of its height...

Guiberteau, K. L.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.; Kozman, T.

2014-01-01

411

Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

2005-01-01

412

1Energy Metabolism Laboratory Intelligent Design of the Exercise Drug  

E-print Network

1Energy Metabolism Laboratory H H OH OH CH2OH H OH OH H Intelligent Design of the Exercise Drug Normal insulin action LIVER MUSCLE GLUCOSE FFA X CNS FAT islet cells #12;7Energy Metabolism Laboratory H H OH OH CH2OH H OH OH H Insulin Resistance LIVER MUSCLE GLUCOSE FFA X x insulin "normalizes

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

413

Challenge Students to Design an Energy-Efficient Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an activity that gives students a practical understanding of how much energy the average home consumes and wastes, and shows how the construction technologies used in home design affect overall energy usage. In this activity, students will outline the cost of a home's electrical system, give a breakdown of how much power the

Griffith, Jack

2008-01-01

414

Design and applications of a versatile HF radar calibration target in low Earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High frequency (HF) radars are used to detect ionospheric irregularities, meteor trails, and moving targets. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) is a simple radar target in space to help determine the operational parameters of ground HF radars. PERCS will have a known radar cross section that is independent of observation direction within 0.5 dB. The PERCS satellite can be launched in a stowed configuration that has about 1 m in diameter. After launch, the PERCS will expand to a diameter of almost 10 m. Upon expansion, a stable wire frame is formed to act as a radar scatter target in the form of a polyhedral sphere. The simplest version of the sphere has 60 vertices (V60) that are joined to 90 rigid segments. Each segment is hinged so that the PERCS can be folded into a compact package for launch. Analysis of the V60 wire frame with a 10 m diameter shows that the radar cross section (RCS) is nearly independent of viewing angle up to 30 MHz. Another design with 240 vertices produces even better performance. Radar systems will be calibrated using the radar echo data and the precise knowledge of the target RCS, position, and velocity. The PERCS can reflect radar signals from natural targets such as field aligned and current driven irregularities not presently accessible from ground-based radars. The wire frame structure has several advantages over a metalized spheroid "balloon" with (1) much less drag, (2) larger radar cross section, and (3) lower fabrication cost.

Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Thomason, Joe F.; Rodriquez, Serafin P.; Nicholas, Andrew C.; Koss, Steven M.; Nurnberger, Mike; Hoberman, Chuck; Davis, Matthew; Hysell, David L.; Kelley, Michael C.

2008-02-01

415

The Dark Energy Survey instrument design  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx}5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R&D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009.

Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

416

Solar total energy project at Shenandoah, Georgia system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar total energy system (STES) was to provide 50% of the total electrical and thermal energy requirements of the 25,000 sq ft Bleyle of America knitwear plant located at the Shenandoah Site. The system will provide 400 kilowatts electrical and 3 megawatts of thermal energy. The STES has a classical, cascaded total energy system configuration. It utilizes one hundred twenty (120), parabolic dish collectors, high temperature (750 F) trickle oil thermal energy storage and a steam turbine generator. The electrical load shaving system was designed for interconnected operation with the Georgia Power system and for operation in a stand alone mode.

Poche, A. J.

1980-05-01

417

Use of thulium-sensitized rare earth-doped low phonon energy crystalline hosts for IR sources  

PubMed Central

Crystalline hosts with low phonon energies enable novel energy transfer processes when doped with rare earth ions. Two applications of energy transfer for rare earth ions in thulium-sensitized low phonon energy crystals that result in infrared luminescence are discussed. One application is an endothermic, phonon-assisted cross-relaxation process in thulium-doped yttrium chloride that converts lattice phonons to infrared emission, which raises the possibility of a fundamentally new method for achieving solid-state optical cooling. The other application is an optically pumped mid-IR phosphor using thulium-praseodymium-doped potassium lead chloride that converts 805-nm diode light to broadband emission from 4,000 to 5,500nm. These two applications in chloride crystals are discussed in terms of critical radii calculated from Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory. It is found that the critical radii for electric dipole-dipole interactions in low phonon energy chloride crystals are comparable to those in conventional oxide and fluoride crystals. It is the reduction in multi-phonon relaxation rates in chloride crystals that enable these additional energy transfer processes and infrared luminescence. PMID:24180684

2013-01-01

418

Use of thulium-sensitized rare earth-doped low phonon energy crystalline hosts for IR sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystalline hosts with low phonon energies enable novel energy transfer processes when doped with rare earth ions. Two applications of energy transfer for rare earth ions in thulium-sensitized low phonon energy crystals that result in infrared luminescence are discussed. One application is an endothermic, phonon-assisted cross-relaxation process in thulium-doped yttrium chloride that converts lattice phonons to infrared emission, which raises the possibility of a fundamentally new method for achieving solid-state optical cooling. The other application is an optically pumped mid-IR phosphor using thulium-praseodymium-doped potassium lead chloride that converts 805-nm diode light to broadband emission from 4,000 to 5,500 nm. These two applications in chloride crystals are discussed in terms of critical radii calculated from Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory. It is found that the critical radii for electric dipole-dipole interactions in low phonon energy chloride crystals are comparable to those in conventional oxide and fluoride crystals. It is the reduction in multi-phonon relaxation rates in chloride crystals that enable these additional energy transfer processes and infrared luminescence.

Ganem, Joseph; Bowman, Steven R.

2013-11-01

419

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements  

PubMed Central

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300?mAhg?1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4?V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imidetriglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cdric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

420

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh.g-1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cdric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-07-01

421

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements.  

PubMed

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 Ah g(-1) at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cdric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

422

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered systems demands optimizations in both hardware and software. We present a modular approach for enhancing instruction level simulators with cycle-accurate simulation of energy dissipation in embedded systems. Our methodology has tightly coupled component models thus making our approach more accurate. Performance and energy computed by our simulator are within a 5% tolerance of hardware measurements on

Tajana Simunict; Luca Benini; Giovanni De Michelit

1999-01-01

423

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems demands optimizations in both hardware and software. In this work we leverage cycle-accurate energy consumption models to explore compiler and source code optimizations aimed at reducing energy consumption. In addition, we extend cycle-accurate architectural power simulation with battery models that provide battery lifetime estimates. The enhanced simulator and software optimizations are used to study

T. Simunic; Luca Benini; G. de Micheli

1999-01-01

424

Controlled timing-error acceptance for low energy IDCT design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In embedded digital signal processing (DSP) sys- tems, quality is set by a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) floor. Con- ventional digital design strategies guarantee timing correctness of all operations, which leaves large quality margins in practical systems and sacrifices energy efficiency. This paper presents techniques to significantly improve energy efficiency by shaping the quality-energy tradeoff achievable via VDD scaling. In an

Ku He; Andreas Gerstlauer; Michael Orshansky

2011-01-01

425

NASA Now: Earth Science Week: Exploring Energy - Duration: 7:32.  

NASA Video Gallery

During this installment of NASA Now, you??ll see some of the ways NASA studies Earth. You??ll meet Eric Brown de Colstoun, a physical scientist at NASA??s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbel...

426

The Earth-Moon CR3BP: A full Atlas of low-energy fast periodic transfer orbits  

E-print Network

In the framework of the planar CR3BP for mass parameter mu=0.0121505, corresponding to the Earth-Moon system, we identify and describe 80 families of periodic orbits encircling both the Earth and the Moon ("transfer" orbits). All the orbits in these families have very low energies, most of them corresponding to values of the Jacobi constant C for which the Hill surface is closed at the Lagrangian point L2. All of these orbits have also short period T, generally under six months. Most of the families are composed of orbits that are asymmetric with respect to the Earth-Moon axis. The main results presented for each family are: (i) the characteristic curves T(h), y(h), v_y(h), and v_x(h) on the Poincare section Sigma_1={x=0.836915310,y,v_x>0,v_y} normal to the Earth-Moon axis at the Lagrangian point L1, parameterized by their energy h=-C/2 in the synodic coordinate system; (ii) the stability parameter along each family; (iii) the intersections x_i(h) of the orbits with the Earth-Moon axis, on the Poincare section Sigma_2={x,y=0,v_x},v_y>0}; (iv) plots of some selected orbits and details of their circumlunar region; and (v) numerical data for the intersection of an orbit with Sigma_1 at a reference value of h. Some possible extensions and applications of this work are also discussed.

Alejandro M. Leiva; Carlos B. Briozzo

2006-12-14

427

Designing a Residential Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System Based on the Energy Buffering Strategy  

E-print Network

Designing a Residential Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System Based on the Energy Buffering-connected hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) system can help residential users lower their electric bills system consists of different types of electrical energy storage (EES) elements, utilizing the benefits

Pedram, Massoud

428

Ocean circulation plays a key role in distributing solar energy and maintaining climate, by moving heat from Earth's equator to the poles. At  

E-print Network

Ocean circulation plays a key role in distributing solar energy and maintaining climate, by moving heat from Earth's equator to the poles. At the ocean surface, currents are primarily driven by wind of "overturning circulation" occurs in all ocean basins and helps to regulate Earth's climate. Aquarius

Waliser, Duane E.

429

Passive annual heat storage: improving the design of earth shelters or how to store summer's sunshine to keep your wigwam warm all winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical guide to passive annual heat storage is presented. Year-round energy conservation measures are discussed. Without mechanical equipment or commercial power, passive annual heat storage may be used to inexpensively cool a home during the hot summer months. The following topics are discussed: improving the earth shelter, passive annual heat storage, the use of water in passive heat storage,

Hait

1983-01-01

430

Energy product and coercivity of a rare-earth-free multilayer FeCo/FePt exchange spring magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method, we have explored the energy product and the coercivity field of rare-earth-free FeCo/FePt(001) multilayered exchange spring magnet systems. We have considered 5 and 7 monolayers (ML) of a FePt hard layer and 3, 5, 7, and 9 ML of a FeCo soft layer. The FeCo soft layers are found to show close to half metallic features, while the FePt hard layers manifest conventional metallic behavior. A giant perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (EMCA) is observed. For instance, an EMCA of 27.24 meV/cell is found in FeCo(9 ML)/FePt(7 ML) multilayer structure. The energy product almost linearly increases with increasing FeCo thickness, while the coercivity filed shows the opposite behavior. Interestingly, we have obtained that the multilayer structures display very large energy product and coercivity field. For example, FeCo(9 ML)/FePt(5 ML) multilayer has an energy product of about 82 MGOe and a coercivity field of about 130 KOe. Moreover, we find that the multilayer system may show enhanced coercivity field compared with that found in FeCo/FePt bilayer film structures, while the energy product is comparable to that observed in bilayer films. Therefore, our results may imply that the FeCo/FePt multilayer can be employed as a potential rare- earth-free permanent magnet material.

Kim, Dongyoo; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

2013-03-01

431

Down to Earth Down to Earth  

E-print Network

Down to Earth 1 Down to Earth Newsletter of the Geology and Geophysics Department University of this college. The university's plan is to design the building to be built at an estimated cost of $14 million..........................9 Geology and Geophysics Faculty at Work..... 10 Third Annual Geo-Winter Adventure .............. 11

Johnson, Cari

432

Design for Manufacturing for Energy Absorption Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the typical scenario of a helicopter crash, impact with the ground is preceded by a substantially vertical drop, with the result that a seated occupant of a helicopter experiences high spinal loads and pelvic deceleration during such crash due to the sudden arresting of vertical downward motion. It has long been recognized that spinal injuries to occupants of helicopters in such crash scenario can be minimized by seat arrangements which limit the deceleration to which the seated occupant is subjected, relative to the helicopter, to a predetermined maximum, by allowing downward movement of the seated occupant relative to the helicopter, at the time of impact with the ground, under a restraining force which, over a limited range of such movement, is limited to a predetermined maximum. In practice, significant benefits, in the way of reduced injuries and reduced seriousness of injuries, can be afforded in this way in such crash situations even where the extent of such controlled vertical movement permitted by the crashworthy seat arrangement is quite limited. Important increase of accident safety is reached with the installation of crashworthy shock absorbers on the main landing gear, but this solution is mostly feasible on military helicopters with long fixed landing gear. Seats can then give high contribution to survivability. Commonly, an energy absorber is a constant load device, if one excludes an initial elastic part of the load-stroke curve. On helicopter seats, this behavior is obtained by plastic deformation of a metal component or scraping of material. In the present work the authors have studied three absorption systems, which differ in relation to their shape, their working conditions and their constructive materials. All the combinations have been analyzed for applications in VIP helicopter seats.

Del Prete, A.; Primo, T.; Papadia, G.; Manisi, B.

2011-05-01

433

Design for Manufacturing for Energy Absorption Systems  

SciTech Connect

In the typical scenario of a helicopter crash, impact with the ground is preceded by a substantially vertical drop, with the result that a seated occupant of a helicopter experiences high spinal loads and pelvic deceleration during such crash due to the sudden arresting of vertical downward motion. It has long been recognized that spinal injuries to occupants of helicopters in such crash scenario can be minimized by seat arrangements which limit the deceleration to which the seated occupant is subjected, relative to the helicopter, to a predetermined maximum, by allowing downward movement of the seated occupant relative to the helicopter, at the time of impact with the ground, under a restraining force which, over a limited range of such movement, is limited to a predetermined maximum. In practice, significant benefits, in the way of reduced injuries and reduced seriousness of injuries, can be afforded in this way in such crash situations even where the extent of such controlled vertical movement permitted by the crashworthy seat arrangement is quite limited. Important increase of accident safety is reached with the installation of crashworthy shock absorbers on the main landing gear, but this solution is mostly feasible on military helicopters with long fixed landing gear. Seats can then give high contribution to survivability. Commonly, an energy absorber is a constant load device, if one excludes an initial elastic part of the load-stroke curve. On helicopter seats, this behavior is obtained by plastic deformation of a metal component or scraping of material. In the present work the authors have studied three absorption systems, which differ in relation to their shape, their working conditions and their constructive materials. All the combinations have been analyzed for applications in VIP helicopter seats.

Del Prete, A.; Primo, T.; Papadia, G.; Manisi, B. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Arnesano, Building 'O', Lecce (Italy)

2011-05-04

434

The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design  

SciTech Connect

The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G. [CD & W Inc., Laramie, WY (United States)

2004-05-01

435

Energy Design Plugin: An EnergyPlus Plugin for SketchUp; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Energy Design Plugin, a new software plugin that aims to integrate simulation as a tool during the earliest phases of the design process. The plugin couples the EnergyPlus whole-building simulation engine to the Google SketchUp drawing program.

Ellis, P. G.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D. B.

2008-08-01

436

Design of low energy bunch compressors with space charge effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explore a method to manipulate low energy electron bunches in a space charge dominated regime, and we use this method to design low energy linac bunch compressors to compress electron bunches in a space charge dominated regime. In the method, we use the space charge effects instead of avoiding them; i.e., we use the space charge forces to generate the required energy chirp instead of the ordinary method which uses the rf accelerating system to generate the chirp. We redefine the concepts of the dispersion function and beta functions in a space charge dominated regime to guide the optimization. Using this method, we study the low energy (5-22 MeV) linac bunch compressor design to produce short (150 fs ) and small size (30 ? m ) bunches for the electron beam slicing project. The low energy linac bunch compressors work in a space charge dominated regime, and the bunches at the downstream of the gun have a negative energy chirp due to the space charge effects. To provide compression for the negative energy chirped bunch, we design a positive R56 dispersive section using a four-dipole chicane with several quadrupole magnets. We have designed low energy linac bunch compressors with different photocathode rf guns. For example, one linac bunch compressor with the BNL photocathode electron rf gun has achieved a low energy bunch with the 166 fs rms bunch length, 28 and 31 ? m rms beam size in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, at 5 MeV with 50 pC charge. Another example with LBNL's very-high frequency gun has achieved a low energy bunch with the 128 fs rms bunch length, 42 and 25 ? m rms beam size in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, at 22 MeV with 200 pC charge.

He, A.; Willeke, F.; Yu, L. H.; Yang, L.; Shaftan, T.; Wang, G.; Li, Y.; Hidaka, Y.; Qiang, J.

2015-01-01

437

Satellite Collectors of Solar Energy for Earth and Colonized Planet Habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary An array of 55,000 40-foot antennas can generate from the rays of the Sun enough electrical power to replace 50 The economic potential is huge. There are new industries that will only grow and there are different ways to collect solar energy, including wind power. The energy sources we rely on for the most part are finite - fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas are all limited in supply. The cost will only continue to rise as demand increases. The time of global economic crossover between the EU, Asia Pacific and North America is coming within less than five years. The biggest opportunity for solar energy entrepreneurs would seem to be in municipal contracting where 1500 40-foot stacking antennas can be hooked into a grid to power an entire city. The antenna can generate 45 kilowatts of energy, enough to satisfy the electrical needs 7x24 of ten to twenty homes. It is possible to design and build 35-by-80-foot pedestals that track the sun from morning until night to provide full efficiency. A normal solar cell looks in the sky for only four or five hours of direct sunlight. Fabrication of these pedestals would sell for USD 50, 000-70,000 each. The solar heat collected by the antennas can be bounced into a Stirling engine, creating electricity at a focal point. Water can be heated by running through that focal point. In addition, salt water passing through the focal point can be desalinated, and since the antenna can generate up to 2,000 degrees of heat at the focal point. The salt water passing through the focal point turns to steam, which separates the salt and allows the steam to be turned into fresh drinking water. Collector energy can be retained in betavoltaics which uses semiconductors to capture energy from radioactive materials and turn it into usable electricity for automobiles. In a new battery, the silicon wafers in the battery are etched with a network of deep pores. These pores vastly increase the exposure surface area of the silicon, allowing it to absorb more energy and making the antenna collector 20 times more efficient than planar designs. A tracking pedestal powered by betavoltaics can follow the sun. With a 500-sun photovoltaic cell underneath a Fresnal lens magnifies and distributes the sun's energy at 500 times. Primary results and the main conclusions This idea is revolutionary and utilizes satellite tracking abilities to follow the sun, maintaining a constant energy source that can reach 700 to 800 degrees. This technology will have many applications, from instant fresh water in the form of steam to the use of fiber optics to filter natural light through a building. With the direction of the oil and energy costs continuing to spiral upward, there has been recent emphasis on alternative energy that is transmitted from space. Satellite antenna manufacturers can move quickly to production and create a revolution in sustainable energy that was never thought of before. The efforts of the United States, Russia, China, and India to colonize the Moon and Mars would be greatly enhanced by use of satellite solar collectors and betavoltaics electrical energy technologies for the colonies' habitats. Introduction This study was undertaken for the Global environment is in a crisis. The rich oil producing countries of Russia, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and Africa, have been at war to gain monopoly power and to restrict the space based explorations of the solar system. The physics of solar energy transmission to electrical mechanical energy is unique in improving the economies of the entire community of Nations. It is easy to produce satellite antennas, thus, satellite antennas can now be used as solar panels which can generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity. Solar Panels require no moving parts; have zero emissions, and no maintenance. These antennas will revolutionize the use of solar rays from the sun to benefit a global grid. These "collectors of free energy" are able to harness solar energy for thermal heating, desalination, lighting, and electricity. Further,

Kusiolek, Richard

438

Energy program of requirements for a new detention center -- Energy design criteria for prisons  

SciTech Connect

Correctional facilities are typically ``energy hogs.`` Prison facilities normally have the highest energy costs and are the most energy-intensive building type for local and state jurisdictions. The 24-hour operation and continuous, year-round use of these facilities means very high maintenance and operating costs. To minimize future utility costs, an integrated energy planning approach for a new detention facility is highly desirable at the earliest stages of programming. When energy-efficiency criteria are integrated early in a planning and design process, significant energy and operating cost savings can be achieved with little or no additional construction costs. A planning document in the form of an energy program of requirements (EPOR) can be incorporated into the solicitation of design proposals and can be very effective in ensuring energy-efficient design for a new facility.

Tseng, P.C.; Stanton-Hoyle, D. [Montgomery County Government, Rockville, MD (United States). Capitol Projects Management Division; Krout, R. [HEC Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1995-08-01

439

Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

Not Available

2014-09-01

440

Commercial building design and energy conservation: A preliminary assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the research was to determine the degree of change in commercial building design practice relating to energy conservation since the enactment of the Energy Conservation Standard for New Buildings Act of 1976. Data on current design practices consisted of information from 400 buildings advertised for bids or under construction in 1979 to 1980 on glass in windows and doors, exterior wall systems, roof system, heating plants, and lighting systems. In addition to these building design components, energy conservation measures used included: natural lighting; deadband thermostat; greenhouse-effect atrium collector, heat recovery from the top of the atrium, greenhouse passive heating panels; natural ventilation; insulating shutters, closable skylights, thermal shutters, Trombe wall, corridor trombe; attic ventilation; wind shielding, concrete wall; titled windows; night flushing cycle; and cooling coils using cooling tower water. A brief explanation of these measures is given.

Nieves, A. L.; Rosoff, D.

1982-02-01