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1

Sun\\/earth: alternative energy design for architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of architecture and its relation to the natural environment is presented. A holistic design approach is presented for use in design and construction that reduces inflation, creates a more healthful and vitalizing environment, deploys capital more effectively, increases savings in residential and commercial architecture and construction, and increases cash flow by reducing money spent on utilities. Holistic design

Crowther

1983-01-01

2

Towards Designing an Integrated Earth Observation System for the Provision of Solar Energy Resource and Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GEOSS strategic plan specifically targets the area of improved energy resource management due to the importance of these to the economic and social viability of every nation of the world. With the world s increasing demand for energy resources, the need for new alternative energy resources grows. This paper overviews a new initiative within the International Energy Agency that addresses needs to better manage and develop solar energy resources worldwide. The goal is to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information of the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface in easily-accessible formats and understandable quality metrics. The scope of solar resource assessment information includes historic data sets and currently derived data products using satellite imagery and other means. Thus, this new task will address the needs of the solar energy sector while at the same time will serve as a model that satisfies GEOSS objectives and goals.

Stackouse, Paul W., Jr.; Renne, D.; Beyer, H.-G.; Wald, L.; Meyers, R.; Perez, R.; Suri, M.

2006-01-01

3

Intelligent Design and Earth History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships

W. A. Elders

2001-01-01

4

Tracking Earth’s global energy (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With global mean temperatures in 2008 the lowest since 2000, but carbon dioxide increasing apace, where has global warming gone? We use available observations to estimate contributions to changes in the Earth’s radiation imbalance from changes in ocean heat content, sea level, sea ice, land ice, land heat, and atmospheric temperatures. Sea level rise slowed somewhat with the double La Niña in 2007-2008-2009 but not as much as the rise in ocean content appears to have, and the difference seems to be made up from increased melting of land ice (Greenland and Antarctica). However, such a change in the main contributions to sea level rise does not satisfy the energy budget, as a gain factor of about 50 is achieved by putting energy into melting land ice vs ocean expansion. Changes in the sun have contributed at the 12% level. CERES observations suggest an increase in absorbed energy, the opposite of what is required to balance the energy budget. If we can not understand what is happening in recent times, what business have we in considering geoengineering?

Trenberth, K. E.

2009-12-01

5

Earth's Energy Cycle - Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students perform a lab to explore how the color of materials at the Earth's surface affect the amount of warming. Topics covered include developing a hypothesis, collecting data, and making interpretations to explain why dark colored materials become hotter.

National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

6

Earth's Energy Imbalance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Global warming' from increased greenhouse gases really refers to a global energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA). TOA measurements of radiation from space can track changes over time but lack absolute accuracy. An inventory of energy shows that over 90% of the imbalance is manifested as ocean heat content (OHC). Here we use ORAS4 ocean reanalysis data and other OHC estimates to compare the OHC rates of change with model-based estimates of TOA energy imbalance (from CCSM4), and with TOA satellite measurements for the year 2000 onwards. Most of the ocean-only OHC analyses extend to only 700 m depth, have large discrepancies among the rates of change of OHC, and do not resolve interannual variability adequately to capture ENSO and volcanic eruption effects. For the first time we show that ORAS4 OHC quantitatively agrees with the radiative forcing estimates of impacts of the 3 major volcanic eruptions since 1960 (Mt. Agung 1963, El Chichón 1982, and Mt. Pinatubo 1991). The natural variability of the energy imbalance is substantial from month-to-month associated with cloud and weather variations, and interannually mainly associated with ENSO, while the sun affects 15% of the climate change signal on decadal timescales. All estimates (OHC and TOA) show that over the past decade the energy imbalance ranges between about 0.5 and 1 W m-2. By using the full-depth ocean, there is a better overall accounting for energy, but discrepancies remain at interannual timescales between OHC and TOA radiation measurements, notably in 2008-09.

Trenberth, K. E.; Fasullo, J.

2013-12-01

7

CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment 2013 Annual Faculty  

E-print Network

CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment 2013 Annual Faculty Conference Campus Update Terry Parker, Provost August 19, 2013 #12;CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment In Previous Years, we have discussed: · Campus budget on space overall and space location · Accreditation #12;CSM: Earth, Energy, Environment For this year, we

8

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. We update our analysis of Earth's observed energy imbalance through 2011 and compare this with climate simulations. Observed global surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing, implying existence of a large negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We discuss implications of the trend of observed sea level rise in recent years, and its consistency with reported ice melt rates and ocean thermal expansion.

Hansen, J.; von Schuckmann, K.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.

2012-04-01

9

Approach to rapid mission design and planning. [earth orbit missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and techniques are described for implementation in automated computer systems to assess parametric data, capabilities, requirements and constraints for planning earth orbit missions. Mission planning and design procedures are defined using two types of typical missions as examples. These missions were the high energy Astronomical Observatory Satellite missions, and Small Applications Technology Satellite missions.

Green, W. G.; Matthys, V. J.

1973-01-01

10

Department of Earth and Mineral Sciences Spring 2012 Energy Dashboard  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Earth and Mineral Sciences Spring 2012 Energy Dashboard Overview The Center energy and energy conservation in the MorningStar home. An energy dashboard was designed to show real-time data for the various renewable energies as well as the house consumption at the home. Data

Demirel, Melik C.

11

The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

12

Designing sustainable soils in Earth's critical zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demographic drivers of increasing human population and wealth are creating tremendous environmental pressures from growing intensity of land use, resulting in soil and land degradation worldwide. Environmental services are provided through multiple soil functions that include biomass production, water storage and transmission, nutrient transformations, contaminant attenuation, carbon and nitrogen storage, providing habitat and maintaining the genetic diversity of the land environment. One of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is to identify key risks to soil, and to design mitigation strategies to manage these risks and to enhance soil functions that can last into the future. The scientific study of Earth's Critical Zone (CZ), the thin surface layer that extends vertically from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of aquifers, provides an essential integrating scientific framework to study, protect and enhance soil functions. The research hypothesis is that soil structure, the geometric architecture of solids, pores and biomass, is a critical indicator and essential factor of productive soil functions. The experimental design selects a network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) as advanced field research sites along a gradient of land use intensity in order to quantify soil structure and soil processes that dictate the flows and transformations of material and energy as soil functions. The CZOs focus multidisciplinary expertise on soil processes, field observation and data interpretation, management science and ecological economics. Computational simulation of biophysical processes provides a quantitative method of integration for the range of theory and observations that are required to quantify the linkages between changes in soil structure and soil functions. Key results demonstrate that changes in soil structure can be quantified through the inputs of organic carbon and nitrogen from plant productivity and microbial activity, coupled with particle aggregation dynamics and organic matter mineralization. Simulation results show that soil structure is highly dynamic and is sensitive to organic matter production and minearlisation rates as influenced by vegetation, tillage and organic carbon amendments. These results point to a step-change in the capability to design soil management and land use through computational simulation. This approach of "sustainability by design" describes the mechanistic process linkages that exist between the above-ground inputs to the CZ and the internal processes that produce soil functions. This approach provides a rational, scientific approach to selecting points of intervention with the CZ in order to design methods to mitigate soil threats and to enhance and sustain vital soil functions. Furthermore, this approach provides a successful pilot study to the use of international networks of CZOs as a planetary-scale laboratory to test the response of CZ process rates along gradients of global environmental change - and to test adaptation strategies to manage the risks arising from the CZ impacts. Acknowledgements. The authors acknowledge the substantial contributions of the entire team of investigators and funding of the SoilTrEC project (EC FP7, agreement no. 244118; www.soiltrec.eu).

Banwart, Steven Allan; de Souza, Danielle Maia; Menon, Manoj; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Panagos, Panos; Vala Ragnardsdottir, Kristin; Rousseva, Svelta; van Gaans, Pauline

2014-05-01

13

Earth's energy imbalance and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 ± 0.15 W m-2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 ± 0.3 W m-2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade. Humanity is potentially vulnerable to global temperature change, as discussed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001, 2007) reports and by innumerable authors. Although climate change is driven by many climate forcing agents and the climate system also exhibits unforced (chaotic) variability, it is now widely agreed that the strong global warming trend of recent decades is caused predominantly by human-made changes of atmospheric composition (IPCC, 2007). The basic physics underlying this global warming, the greenhouse effect, is simple. An increase of gases such as CO2 makes the atmosphere more opaque at infrared wavelengths. This added opacity causes the planet's heat radiation to space to arise from higher, colder levels in the atmosphere, thus reducing emission of heat energy to space. The temporary imbalance between the energy absorbed from the sun and heat emission to space, causes the planet to warm until planetary energy balance is restored. The planetary energy imbalance caused by a change of atmospheric composition defines a climate forcing. Climate sensitivity, the eventual global temperature change per unit forcing, is known with good accuracy from Earth's paleoclimate history. However, two fundamental uncertainties limit our ability to predict global temperature change on decadal time scales. First, although climate forcing by human-made greenhouse gases (GHGs) is known accurately, climate forcing caused by changing human-made aerosols is practically unmeasured. Aerosols are fine particles suspended in the air, such as dust, sulfates, and black soot (Ramanathan et al., 2001). Aerosol climate forcing is complex, because aerosols both reflect solar radiation to space (a cooling effect) and absorb solar radiation (a warming effect). In addition, atmospheric aerosols can alter cloud cover and cloud properties. Therefore, precise composition-specific measurements of aerosols and their effects on clouds are needed to assess the aerosol role in climate change. Second, the rate at which Earth's surface temperature approaches a new equilibrium in response to a climate forcing depends on how efficiently heat perturbations are mixed into the deeper ocean. Ocean mixing is complex and not necessarily simulated well by climate models. Empirical data on ocean heat uptake are improving rapidly, but still suffer limitations. We summarize current understanding of this basic physics of global warming and note observations needed to narrow uncertainties. Appropriate measurements can quantify the major factors driving climate change, reveal how much additional global warming is already in the pipeline, and help define the reduction of climate forcing needed to stabilize climate.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; von Schuckmann, K.

2011-09-01

14

Waste-to-Energy Design Proposal for  

E-print Network

of to the existing nearby Waste Transfer Station on Hamilton Avenue, the Transfer Station could be closedWaste-to-Energy Design Proposal for Red Hook, Brooklyn Senior Design Project (EAEE 3999), Earth-2011) of the Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering of Columbia University. A Waste-to-Energy (WTE) facility

Columbia University

15

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications  

E-print Network

Abstract. Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 ± 0.15 W/m 2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be ?1.6 ± 0.3 W/m 2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade.

James Hansen; Makiko Sato; Pushker Kharecha

16

Earth's energy imbalance and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.58 ± 0.15 W m-2 during the 6-yr period 2005-2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 ± 0.3 W m-2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; von Schuckmann, K.

2011-12-01

17

Transforming Instructional Designs in Earth Science (TIDES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An enduring challenge in Earth system science education has been to prepare teachers to teach for deep understanding of subject matter. Standards and trade textbooks are often too broad to allow for in-depth treatment of specific topics, and many teachers have had limited exposure to how to plan instruction for the core concepts of Earth system science they are expected to teach. High-quality curriculum materials do exist that provide young people with opportunities to explore concepts in depth and to experience the inquiry process. At the same time, few programs provide teachers with the necessary skills and knowledge to enact and adapt those materials to the unique circumstances of their classrooms and schools. Our interdisciplinary team of curriculum and staff developers, researchers, and district personnel developed a program focused on preparing teachers to use a principled approach to curriculum adaptation in Earth system science. In this program, teachers learned how to use the Understanding by Design (UbD) approach developed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe to organize and adapt materials from an expert-designed curriculum. As part of the program, teachers learn to select or modify materials from the curriculum based on how likely the materials are to develop so-called "enduring understandings" of concepts in the district standards. Teachers also learn how to apply the approach in incorporating materials from other sources besides the expert-designed curriculum, which can include their textbook and materials they design on their own or with colleagues. Third, teachers learn how to collect and interpret evidence of student understanding by designing or adapting performance tasks that call for students to apply knowledge acquired during the unit to solve a problem or complete a project. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial indicates the program we created is effective in improving the quality of teacher assignments and in improving student achievement. From the point of view of district staff, the program is effective because it prepares teachers to become critical consumers of curriculum materials. In this presentation, we present the impacts of our program on teacher instructional planning, curriculum enactment, and student achievement.

McWilliams, H.; McAuliffe, C.; Penuel, W.

2008-12-01

18

Orbit Design of Earth-Observation Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to design a reliable orbit for a medium-resolution scientific satellite to observe Earth for developmental issues such as water resources, agricultural, and industrial. To meet this objective this study firstly, defines the mission, secondly, determines mission constraints, thirdly, design the attitude and orbit control system. As for the observation requirements, and the revisit time are provided as a function of the orbital parameters. Initial orbital parameters are obtained by optimal analysis between observation characteristics and attitude and orbit maintenance costs. Long term station-keeping strategies will be provided for the proposed solutions. Impulsive control will be investigated to provide a reliable and affordable attitude and orbit control system.

Owis, Ashraf

19

Earth’s Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications  

E-print Network

Our climate model, driven mainly by increasing human-made greenhouse gases and aerosols, among other forcings, calculates that Earth is now absorbing 0.85 T 0.15 watts per square meter more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space. This imbalance is confirmed by precise measurements of increasing ocean heat content over the past 10 years. Implications include (i) the expectation of additional global warming of about 0.6-C without further change of atmospheric composition; (ii) the confirmation of the climate system’s lag in responding to forcings, implying the need for anticipatory actions to avoid any specified level of climate change; and (iii) the likelihood of acceleration of ice sheet disintegration and sea level rise. Earth_s climate system has considerable thermal inertia. This point is of critical importance to policy- and decision-makers who seek to mitigate the effects of undesirable anthropogenicclimatechange.Theeffectoftheinertia is to delay Earth_s response to climate forcings,

James Hansen; Larissa Nazarenko; Reto Ruedy; Makiko Sato; Josh Willis; Anthony Del Genio; Dorothy Koch; Andrew Lacis; Ken Lo; Surabi Menon; Gavin A. Schmidt; Nicholas Tausnev

2005-01-01

20

Earth Science Week 2010 - Infrared Energy  

NASA Video Gallery

This video explores what infrared energy is and how NASA detects it to study our Earth's systems more completely. Satellite measurements over time allow scientists to study seasonal changes in loca...

21

Concept design of future intelligent Earth observing satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a concept design of an envisioned future intelligent Earth observing satellite (FIEOS) system. The proposed system is a space-based architecture for the dynamic and comprehensive on-board integration of Earth observing sensors, data processors and communication systems. The architecture and implementation strategies suggest a seamless integration of diverse components into a smart, adaptable and robust Earth observation satellite

G. Zhou; O. Baysal; J. Kaye; S. Habib; C. Wang

2004-01-01

22

Thermal Energy Generation in the Earth  

E-print Network

We show that a recently introduced class of electromagnetic composite particles can explain some discrepancies in observations involving heat and helium released from the earth. Energy release during the formation of the composites and subsequent nuclear reactions involving the composites are described that can quantitatively account for the discrepancies and are expected to have implications in other areas of geophysics, for example, a new picture of heat production and volcanism in the earth is presented.

Mayer, Frederick J

2014-01-01

23

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument is one of five instruments that will be flown aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observatory. Data from the CERES instrument will be used to study the energy exchanged between the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, surface and clouds, and space. This webpage describes the TRMM mission, the CERES insrument, and how Earth's daily weather and climate are controlled by the balance between the amount of solar energy received by the Earth (both by its surface and its atmosphere and clouds) and the amount of energy emitted by Earth into space. School children worldwide will be involved in the CERES program, enabling them to be part of a scientific project. As a CERES instrument passes over, students will make local observations to determine the types of clouds over their school, the clouds' altitudes and how much of the sky they cover. Via the Internet, the students will then place their data in the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center where the data will be stored for further analysis by the CERES science team.

24

Earth radiation budget measurement from a spinning satellite: Conceptual design of detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design, sensor characteristics, sensor performance and accuracy, and spacecraft and orbital requirements for a spinning wide-field-of-view earth energy budget detector were investigated. The scientific requirements for measurement of the earth's radiative energy budget are presented. Other topics discussed include the observing system concept, solar constant radiometer design, plane flux wide FOV sensor design, fast active cavity theory, fast active cavity design and error analysis, thermopile detectors as an alternative, pre-flight and in-flight calibration plane, system error summary, and interface requirements.

Sromovsky, L. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Suomi, V. E.

1975-01-01

25

Observing and modeling Earths energy flows  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews, from the authors perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within {+-}2 W m{sup -2}. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute importantly to this adjustment and thus contribute both to uncertainty in estimates of radiative forcing and to uncertainty in the response. Models are indispensable to calculation of the adjustment of the system to a compositional change but are known to be flawed in their representation of clouds. Advances in tracking Earth's energy flows and compositional changes on daily through decadal timescales are shown to provide both a critical and constructive framework for advancing model development and evaluation.

Stevens B.; Schwartz S.

2012-05-11

26

Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

27

Earth Science by Design: Teaching the Big Ideas in Earth System Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed by TERC and the American Geological Institute with funding from the National Science Foundation, Earth Science by Design (ESBD) is a year-long program of professional development for middle or high school teachers based on the Understanding by Design approach pioneered by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. ESBD is designed to help teachers: · Teach for deep and enduring understanding

H. McWilliams; C. McAuliffe

2007-01-01

28

Energy efficient building design  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

Not Available

1992-03-01

29

The Earth's Magnetic Field is Still Losing Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper closes a loophole in the case for a young earth based on the loss of energy from various parts of the earth's magnetic field. Using ambiguous 1967 data, evolutionists had claimed that energy gains in minor (\\

D. Russell Humphreys

2002-01-01

30

Galileo 1989 VEEGA trajectory design. [Venus-Earth-Earth-Gravity-Assist  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new baseline for the Galileo Mission is a 1989 Venus-earth-earth gravity-assist (VEEGA) trajectory, which utilizes three gravity-assist planetary flybys in order to reduce launch energy requirements significantly compared to other earth-Jupiter transfer modes. The launch period occurs during October-November 1989. The total flight time is about 6 years, with November 1995 as the most likely choice for arrival at Jupiter. Optimal 1989 VEEGA trajectories have been generated for a wide range of earth launch dates and Jupiter arrival dates. Launch/arrival space contour plots are presented for various trajectory parameters, including propellant margin, which is used to measure mission performance. The accessible region of the launch/arrival space is defined by propellant margin and launch energy constraints; the available launch period is approximately 1.5 months long.

D'Amario, Louis A.; Byrnes, Dennis V.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Nolan, Brian G.

1989-01-01

31

The Surface Temperature Characteristics of Earth's Active Lavas: Implications for the Design of Earth Observation Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed surface temperature distribution of an active lava body is an important boundary condition for estimating flow cooling and hence changes in rheology through time. These data can be difficult to acquire in-situ due to the temporally dynamic nature of the active lava bodies, their extreme thermal heterogeneity, and their propensity to occur in inaccessible areas and often over large spatial scales. This presentation describes results obtained from the analysis of 60 hyperspectral satellite images of active lava flows, domes, and lakes, acquired by NASA's Earth Observing-1 Hyperion sensor, which have been analyzed using sub-pixel mixture modeling techniques to constrain the temperature and radiant characteristics of real terrestrial lava bodies. The data reveal significant differences between the surface temperature distributions of lava flows (aa and pahoehoe), lava domes and lava lakes which relate primarily to a) eruption temperature, and b) the extent to which emplacement processes govern the rate at which lava flow surfaces are thermally renewed. The temperature data presented have wider implications. Volcanologists currently use many remote sensing instruments to quantify volcanic activity, and the fidelity of the imaging process (i.e. how accurately scene content is recorded in the image data), varies from instrument to instrument. Active lavas radiate prodigious amounts of energy in the infrared, often in excess of the maximum signal recordable by Earth observation satellites (Lmax), the dynamic ranges of which are optimized to observe surfaces at much lower temperatures. Such saturation is a significant problem for satellite volcanologists. The temperature data derived from Hyperion are used to simulate the response of some commonly used satellite remote sensing instruments to real lava flows to quantify the impact that saturation has on the measurements process. These results indicate the range of Lmax required to provide unsaturated data for Earth's active volcanoes, as well as quantifying the expected incidence of saturation using currently operational spacecraft. By defining target characteristics, the results are of relevance to the design of future Earth observation missions which have a strong volcanological science component, including NASA's proposed HyspIRI mission.

Wright, R.

2010-12-01

32

Designing for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a description of the energy efficient designs for new schools in the Alief Independent School District of Houston, Texas. Exhibit A shows how four major school projects differ from conventional designs. Parameters and designs for heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and lighting are given. Twenty year projected energy costs and…

Estes, R. C.

33

Designing for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alief Independent School District, Texas, has been successful in obtaining energy efficient designs for its new schools by developing energy goals prior to the selection of architects and engineers. Features of four projects designed to conserve energy are described. (Author/MLF)

Estes, R. C.

1979-01-01

34

Energy Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

1986-01-01

35

Discover Earth: Earth's Energy Budget or Can You Spare a Sun?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction, and provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park.

Gates, Tom; Peters, Dale E.; Steeley, Jeanne

1999-01-01

36

Energy-Conscious Design. Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical energy-design elements adaptable for schools include building orientation and shape, inclusion of an energy-storage system, window placement, double or triple window glazing, air-curtain windows, and the use of earth berms and trees as wind breaks. (MLF)

Lawrence, Jerry

1984-01-01

37

Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

1991-01-01

38

Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions  

PubMed Central

It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations. PMID:24591604

Byrnes, Steven J.; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

2014-01-01

39

Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions.  

PubMed

It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations. PMID:24591604

Byrnes, Steven J; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

2014-03-18

40

Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Energy Absorbing Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical element of a passive EEV performance is the energy absorbing system required to attenuate the dynamic landing loads. Two design approaches are described and the pros and cons based on particular mission requirements are discussed.

Kellas, S.; Maddock, R. W.

2014-06-01

41

Geothermal Energy--Clean Power From the Earth's Heat  

E-print Network

in providing alternative sources of energy. Alternative technologies that employ the Sun's energy (solar Geothermal Energy--Clean Power From the Earth's Heat Circular 1249 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;Geothermal Energy--Clean Power From the Earth's Heat By Wendell A

42

MURTHY, MURTY AND RAGHUPATHY Designing Earth Dams Optimally  

E-print Network

from the view point of safety and economy of construction cost. Following a scientific approach flow into specific land regions. Hydropower and pumped - storage hydroelectricity are often used. Engineering design of an earth dam is a crucial issue from the view point of safety and economy

Murty, Katta G.

43

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

44

Interplanetary Mission Design Handbook: Earth-to-Mars Mission Opportunities 2026 to 2045  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this Mission Design Handbook is to provide trajectory designers and mission planners with graphical information about Earth to Mars ballistic trajectory opportunities for the years of 2026 through 2045. The plots, displayed on a departure date/arrival date mission space, show departure energy, right ascension and declination of the launch asymptote, and target planet hyperbolic arrival excess speed, V(sub infinity), for each launch opportunity. Provided in this study are two sets of contour plots for each launch opportunity. The first set of plots shows Earth to Mars ballistic trajectories without the addition of any deep space maneuvers. The second set of plots shows Earth to Mars transfer trajectories with the addition of deep space maneuvers, which further optimize the determined trajectories. The accompanying texts explains the trajectory characteristics, transfers using deep space maneuvers, mission assumptions and a summary of the minimum departure energy for each opportunity.

Burke, Laura M.; Falck, Robert D.; McGuire, Melissa L.

2010-01-01

45

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Ocean Heat Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's energy imbalance, i.e., the difference between solar energy absorbed and thermal energy emitted by the planet, is fundamental to global climate change, as it measures the net forcing acting on the climate system. The imbalance is now positive on decadal time scales, due to dominance of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, and, with canonical climate sensitivity, it yields an estimate of the amount of global warming that remains "in the pipeline" due to GHGs already in the atmosphere. The ocean is the largest sink for excess incoming energy. Inference of information from the energy imbalance is affected by a trade-off between decreasing accuracy of earlier data and the added information from longer time scales. We use two atmosphere-ocean models, with ocean heat and sea level measurements, to study the roles of different climate forcings, unforced climate variability including ocean- cloud interactions, and limitations of data sampling. We find that observed decrease in ocean heat content in the upper 750m in 2004-2005 does not significantly alter the estimate of ~0.5C global warming still "in the pipeline". Continuation and refinement of measurements of ocean heat, sea level, and ice sheet mass balance have the potential to greatly refine understanding of global warming, its practical implications, and important climate processes, but to be most useful they need to be supplemented by better measurements of deep ocean heat content changes and precise measurements of changing climate forcings such as tropospheric aerosols.

Hansen, J.; Willis, J.; Leuliette, E.; Bleck, R.; Lo, K.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Sun, S.

2006-12-01

46

Alternative energy design toolkit  

E-print Network

This thesis concerns the concepts, structure, and applications of the Alternative Energy Design Toolkit. The toolkit is aimed to provide a widely accessible, easy to use, flexible, yet powerful modeling environment for ...

Sukkasi, Sittha

2004-01-01

47

Interplanetary Mission Design Handbook: Earth-to-Mars Mission Opportunities and Mars-to-Earth Return Opportunities 2009-2024  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides information for trajectory designers and mission planners to determine Earth-Mars and Mars-Earth mission opportunities for the years 2009-2024. These studies were performed in support of a human Mars mission scenario that will consist of two cargo launches followed by a piloted mission during the next opportunity approximately 2 years later. "Porkchop" plots defining all of these mission opportunities are provided which include departure energy, departure excess speed, departure declination arrival excess speed, and arrival declinations for the mission space surrounding each opportunity. These plots are intended to be directly applicable for the human Mars mission scenario described briefly herein. In addition, specific trajectories and several alternate trajectories are recommended for each cargo and piloted opportunity. Finally, additional studies were performed to evaluate the effect of various thrust-to-weight ratios on gravity losses and total time-of-flight tradeoff, and the resultant propellant savings and are briefly summarized.

George, L. E.; Kos, L. D.

1998-01-01

48

Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our climate model, driven mainly by increasing human-made greenhouse gases and aerosols, among other forcings, calculates that Earth is now absorbing 0.85 +/- 0.15 watts per square meter more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space. This imbalance is confirmed by precise measurements of increasing ocean heat content over the past 10 years. Implications include (i) the expectation of additional global warming of about 0.6°C without further change of atmospheric composition; (ii) the confirmation of the climate system's lag in responding to forcings, implying the need for anticipatory actions to avoid any specified level of climate change; and (iii) the likelihood of acceleration of ice sheet disintegration and sea level rise.

Hansen, James; Nazarenko, Larissa; Ruedy, Reto; Sato, Makiko; Willis, Josh; Del Genio, Anthony; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Lo, Ken; Menon, Surabi; Novakov, Tica; Perlwitz, Judith; Russell, Gary; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Tausnev, Nicholas

2005-06-01

49

Energy scalable system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the notion of energy-scalable system- design. The principal idea is to maximize computational quality for a given energy constraint at all levels of the system hierarchy. The desirable energy-quality (E-Q) characteristics of systems are dis- cussed. E-Q behavior of algorithms is considered and transforms that significantly improve scalability are analyzed using three dis- tinct categories of commonly used

Amit Sinha; Alice Wang; Anantha Chandrakasan

2002-01-01

50

Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 5: Earth storable design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive analysis and parametric design effort was conducted under the earth-storable phase of the program. Passive Acquisition/expulsion system concepts were evaluated for a reusable Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) application. The passive surface tension technique for providing gas free liquid on demand was superior to other propellant acquisition methods. Systems using fine mesh screens can provide the requisite stability and satisfy OMS mission requirements. Both fine mesh screen liner and trap systems were given detailed consideration in the parametric design, and trap systems were selected for this particular application. These systems are compatible with the 100- to 500-manned mission reuse requirements.

1973-01-01

51

Concerning the Design of a Novel Electromagnetic Launcher for Earth-to-Orbit Micro and Nanosatellite Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an alternative launcher design for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) micro- and nanosatellite systems. The main goal of the design is to reduce the cost of the launching operation. This paper also addresses the calculation of the energy required for the launching operation and the selection of a power source for the designed satellite launcher. The method introduced here proposes

Ugur Hasirci; Abdulkadir Balikci; Zivan Zabar; Leo Birenbaum

2011-01-01

52

August2014 EarthCube C4P Webinar Pascal Hitzler Ontology Design Patterns for Data  

E-print Network

August2014 � EarthCube C4P � Webinar � Pascal Hitzler Ontology Design Patterns for Data Repository://stko.geog.ucsb.edu/ #12;August2014 � EarthCube C4P � Webinar � Pascal Hitzler 2 EarthCube EarthCube: Developing accelerating our ability to understand and predict the Earth system." #12;August2014 � EarthCube C4P � Webinar

Hitzler, Pascal

53

Spacecraft Conceptual Design for Returning Entire Near-Earth Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ resource utilization (ISRU) in general, and asteroid mining in particular are ideas that have been around for a long time, and for good reason. It is clear that ultimately human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit will have to utilize the material resources available in space. Historically, the lack of sufficiently capable in-space transportation has been one of the key impediments to the harvesting of near-Earth asteroid resources. With the advent of high-power (or order 40 kW) solar electric propulsion systems, that impediment is being removed. High-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) would be enabling for the exploitation of asteroid resources. The design of a 40-kW end-of-life SEP system is presented that could rendezvous with, capture, and subsequently transport a 1,000-metric-ton near-Earth asteroid back to cislunar space. The conceptual spacecraft design was developed by the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team at the Glenn Research Center in collaboration with the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) team assembled to investigate the feasibility of an asteroid retrieval mission. Returning such an object to cislunar space would enable astronaut crews to inspect, sample, dissect, and ultimately determine how to extract the desired materials from the asteroid. This process could jump-start the entire ISRU industry.

Brophy, John R.; Oleson, Steve

2012-01-01

54

Earth Science Markup Language: Transitioning From Design to Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the proposed Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) research is to transition from design to application. The resulting schema and prototype software will foster community acceptance for the "define once, use anywhere" concept central to ESML. Supporting goals include: 1. Refinement of the ESML schema and software libraries in cooperation with the user community. 2. Application of the ESML schema and software libraries to a variety of Earth science data sets and analysis tools. 3. Development of supporting prototype software for enhanced ease of use. 4. Cooperation with standards bodies in order to assure ESML is aligned with related metadata standards as appropriate. 5. Widespread publication of the ESML approach, schema, and software.

Moe, Karen; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul

2002-01-01

55

The Earth's Internal Heat Energy and Interior Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource identifies the sources of the Earth's internal heat energy as extraterrestrial impacts, gravitational contraction of the Earth's interior, and the radioactive decay of unstable isotopes, each of which is explained in detail. A discussion of melting and compositional differentiation of the early Earth is followed by a description of the present layers, including the inner and outer core, mantle, and crust. In addition, the asthenosphere and lithosphere are described and illustrated.

Camp, Victor

56

Design of a 35-kilowatt bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery for low Earth orbit application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The needs of multikilowatt storage for low Earth orbit applications are featured. The modular concept, with projected energy densities of 20-24 W-hr/lb and 700-900 W-hr/ft3, has significant improvements over state of the art capabilities. Other design features are; active cooling, a new scheme for H2-O2 recombination, and pore size engineering of all cell components.

Cataldo, R. L.; Smithrick, J. J.

1982-01-01

57

Ch.2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons  

E-print Network

Ch.2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons #12;Learning Objective One: The Solar System #12;Milky Aphelion ­ farthest, on July 4 152,083,000 km #12;Learning Objective Two: The Solar Energy #12;What is Solar Energy? Energy is the capacity of a physical system to do work. The unit is Joule (J). Solar

Pan, Feifei

58

Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and window radiances from filtered radiances measured,by the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method,uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype, and whether cloud is present. Relative errors in instantaneous unfiltered

Norman G. Loeb; Kory J. Priestley; David P. Kratz; Erika B. Geier; Richard N. Green; Bruce A. Wielicki; Patricia O’Rawe Hinton; Sandra K. Nolan

2001-01-01

59

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 11971205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION AND ERROR  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 1197­1205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION of permeability estimates is illustrated. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth surf. process. landforms, 22, 1197

Chappell, Nick A

60

Mother Earth's Museum for Children, Boulder Colorado : harmounious design, an identity with setting  

E-print Network

Natural phenomenons are conceived of the Earth and appropriate to their setting. Architecture designed harmoniously with its setting belong. to the Earth and, through this association, appropriately contributes to the ...

Williams, Charlotte Grojean

1996-01-01

61

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth  

E-print Network

� 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons #12;� 2015 Pearson of the solar wind. � Explain the characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiant energy. � Illustrate the interception of solar energy and its uneven distribution at the top of the atmosphere

Pan, Feifei

62

Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth Science departments can blend the physical “bricks and mortar” facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; “a river runs through it” (a pebble tile “stream” inside the entrance); “confluence” lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting what Earth Scientists do. This approach can transform our Earth Science buildings into destinations for visitors, to show evoke inquiry. The building becomes a centerpiece, not another blank box on campus. Administrators at the University of Utah now want other new building structures to emulate our geoscience example. Done right, “bricks and mortar” can build stronger departments, infuse Earth Science into the community, and enhance our educational missions. LEED-certified Earth Science building with Eocene fossil fish wall, river pebble pattern in floor tile, displays, and student gathering areas.

Chan, M. A.

2009-12-01

63

Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

SciTech Connect

A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument`s ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%.

Stowe, L.; Ardanuy, P.; Hucek, R.; Abel, P.; Jacobowitz, H. [NOAA/NESDIS, Washington, DC (United States)] [NOAA/NESDIS, Washington, DC (United States); [Research and Data Systems, Greenbelt, MD (United States); [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1993-12-01

64

Thermal re-design of the Galileo spacecraft for a Venus-earth-earth-gravity assist (VEEGA) trajectory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cancellation of the Centaur upper stage program in the aftermath of the Challenger tragedy forced a redesign of the flight trajectory of the Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter, i.e., from a direct trajectory to the Venus-earth-earth-gravity-assist (VEEGA) trajectory on the lower energy two-stage inertial upper stage (IUS), with the result that the spacecraft would be exposed to more than twofold increase in peak solar irradiance. This paper describes the general system-level thermal redesign effort for the Galileo spacecraft, from the start of feasibility studies to its final implementation. Results indicate that the addition of sunshades and the generous utilization of second-surface aluminized Kapton surface material for reflecting high percentages of incident solar irradiation would 'harden' the spacecraft's existing thermal protection system adequately, provided that sun-pointing at the relatively higher solar irradiance levels could be maintained. The final miximum flight temperature predictions for the spacecraft's subsystem thermal designs are given.

Reeve, R.

1989-01-01

65

On the gravitational energy associated with Earth's changing oblateness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative to the gravitational potential energy of the Earth's monopole, the multipole energy has received far less attention. In this paper, we recapitulate the basic physics from first principles and derive the formulas for multipole energies in analogy to classical electrostatic theory. We focus on the zonal quadrupole energy associated with the Earth's oblateness, the dominant term in Earth's gravity field apart from the monopole. We find the gravitational energy Eoblateness ? 10-6 |Emonopole| = +2.5 × 1026 J. We examine the implications of Eoblateness and its changes associated with long-term `secular' decreases in the oblateness parameter J2. We find the rate of loss of Eoblateness due to the Earth rounding induced by the present-day GIA is about -200 GW, an amount quite significant in the kinetic energy budget of the mantle heat engine that drives the plate tectonics that has been estimated to be ˜1 TW. We also assert that the tidal braking and the global earthquake dislocations, both resulting in Earth rounding on long-term geological timescales, are accompanied with a secular decrease of Eoblateness at nearly the same rate of several GW.

Chao, B. F.

2014-11-01

66

Solar energy and shelter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major contributions to the global environmental crisis is misuse of energy and the inability to harness certain energy sources. Designing with solar energy is discussed through three major sections: ''The Issues,'' ''Designing with the Sun,'' and ''Solar Energy Collection and Utilization.'' The first section discusses the environmental situation that requires new attitudes toward living; it discusses those

1973-01-01

67

Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

2014-09-01

68

Astronautics - As a key to the earth's energy problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a preliminary review of work on the feasibility of tapping inexhaustible and pollution-free energy sources, centering on satellite solar power stations but also treating fusion power. Weight, size, power delivery, power transmission and storage, and cost estimates are cited for solar-cell power stations in geostationary synchronous orbits beaming energy to earth at microwave frequencies. The size of

M. Subotowicz

1976-01-01

69

Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana  

E-print Network

An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

1985-01-01

70

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

71

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Research for Energy Management. Part 1; Overview of Energy Issues and an Assessment of the Potential for Application of NASA Earth Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective management of energy resources is critical for the U.S. economy, the environment, and, more broadly, for sustainable development and alleviating poverty worldwide. The scope of energy management is broad, ranging from energy production and end use to emissions monitoring and mitigation and long-term planning. Given the extensive NASA Earth science research on energy and related weather and climate-related parameters, and rapidly advancing energy technologies and applications, there is great potential for increased application of NASA Earth science research to selected energy management issues and decision support tools. The NASA Energy Management Program Element is already involved in a number of projects applying NASA Earth science research to energy management issues, with a focus on solar and wind renewable energy and developing interests in energy modeling, short-term load forecasting, energy efficient building design, and biomass production.

Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.

2005-01-01

72

Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to put forward a new estimate, in the context of previous assessments, of the annual global mean energy budget. A description is provided of the source of each component to this budget. The top-of-atmosphere shortwave and longwave flux of energy is constrained by satellite observations. Partitioning of the radiative energy throughout the atmosphere is

J. T. Kiehl; Kevin E. Trenberth

1997-01-01

73

Global Sea Level Rise and the Earth's Energy Balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the oceans warm due to human-caused climate change, they contribute to both global and regional sea level rise. But the uptake of heat by the ocean also reflects the net radiative imbalance of the planet due to human interference with the climate. Global sea level rise and its components therefore provide a constraint on the Earth's Energy Balance, and vice versa. We will present an assessment of the sea level and energy budgets and their implications for the magnitude of deep ocean warming and net radiative forcing over the past decade. Observations from satellite altimeters and the GRACE gravity mission will be compared with in situ observations of ocean warming. In addition, we will consider observations from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments to assess the Earth's net radiation balance. Finally, a new estimate of bias corrections for the XBT observations will be assessed and presented.

Willis, J.; Hobbs, W. R.

2012-12-01

74

CERES: Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure gives a brief description of the science research that is being done with data from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying onboard NASA's Terra satellite. It also contains information about some of the data products and technical specifications.

1999-04-01

75

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

76

The Sun: Earth's Primary Energy Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides elementary school teachers with background knowledge about science concepts needed to understand the first of seven essential principles of climate literacy--the sun is the primary source of energy for our climate system. Graphs, diagrams, and oneline resources provide more background for the teacher. The article appears in a free online magazine that focuses on the seven essential princples of the climate sciences.

Lightle, Kimberly

2011-02-01

77

Gravitational potential energy of the earth: A spherical harmonic approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic equation agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the mantle and crust of -2.77 x 10 to the twenty-ninth power ergs, an order of magnitude. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the twentieth power poises is found by assuming the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at one per cent efficiency, then the viscosity is ten to the twenty second power poises, a number preferred by some as the viscosity of the mantle.

Rubincam, D. P.

1977-01-01

78

Field performance validation of an advanced design earth-coupled heat pump system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, and W.S. Fleming and Associates, Inc. conducted a field-test program to evaluate prototype earth-coupled heat pump systems in two upstate New York homes. Each site utilized a proototype liquid-source heat pump designed specifically for the earth-coupled application. One-pipe and two-pipe-per-trench earth coils were used. The results show that the prototype heat pumps

P. J. Hughes; R. J. Hackner

1988-01-01

79

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

80

Designing to Save Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While tripling the campus size of Alvin Community College in Texas, architects and engineers cut back on nonessential lighting, recaptured waste heat, insulated everything possible, and let energy considerations dictate the size and shape of the building. (Author/MLF)

Santamaria, Joseph W.

1977-01-01

81

TPS design for aerobraking at Earth and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of using an aerobrake system for manned and unmanned missions to Mars, and to Earth from Mars and lunar orbits. A preliminary thermal protection system (TPS) was examined for five unmanned small nose radius, straight bi-conic vehicles and a scaled up Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle aerocapturing at Mars. Analyses were also

S. D. Williams; M. M. Gietzel; W. C. Rochelle; D. M. Curry

1991-01-01

82

Waste-to-Energy Facilities in Taiwan by Shang-Hsiu Lee, WTERT/Earth Engineering Center  

E-print Network

1 Waste-to-Energy Facilities in Taiwan by Shang-Hsiu Lee, WTERT/Earth Engineering Center National Plan for Waste-to-Energy (WTE) facilities The total area of Taiwan is nearly 14000 sq. mi (36,000 sqJ/kg #12;3 Table 2 Waste-to-Energy Facilities in Taiwan7,8 No Location Design Capacity (ton/d) Design

Columbia University

83

Internal variability of Earth’s energy budget simulated by CMIP5 climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse a large number of multi-century pre-industrial control simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to investigate relationships between: net top-of-atmosphere radiation (TOA), globally averaged surface temperature (GST), and globally integrated ocean heat content (OHC) on decadal timescales. Consistent with previous studies, we find that large trends (˜0.3 K dec-1) in GST can arise from internal climate variability and that these trends are generally an unreliable indicator of TOA over the same period. In contrast, trends in total OHC explain 95% or more of the variance in TOA for two-thirds of the models analysed; emphasizing the oceans’ role as Earth’s primary energy store. Correlation of trends in total system energy (TE ? time integrated TOA) against trends in OHC suggests that for most models the ocean becomes the dominant term in the planetary energy budget on a timescale of about 12 months. In the context of the recent pause in global surface temperature rise, we investigate the potential importance of internal climate variability in both TOA and ocean heat rearrangement. The model simulations suggest that both factors can account for O (0.1 W m-2) on decadal timescales and may play an important role in the recently observed trends in GST and 0-700 m (and 0-1800 m) ocean heat uptake.

Palmer, M. D.; McNeall, D. J.

2014-03-01

84

Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that much of the contemporary origin-of-life research uses the original estimates of Miller and Urey (1959) for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges being equal to 2 x 10 to the 19th J/yr and 6 x 10 to the 19th J/yr, respectively. However, data from experiments that provide analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges indicate that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole/J) are about one order of magnitude higher than the coronal discharge yields. This suggests that, on early earth, organic production by lightning may have dominated that due to coronal emission. New values are recommended for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early earth, 1 x 10 to the 18th J/yr and 5 x 10 to the 17th J/yr, respectively.

Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

1991-01-01

85

Energy Balance and Power Performance Analysis for Satellite in Low Earth Orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical power system (EPS) of Korean satellites in low-earth-orbit is designed to achieve energy balance based on a one-orbit mission scenario. This means that the battery has to be fully charged at the end of a one-orbit mission. To provide the maximum solar array (SA) power generation, the peak power tracking (PPT) method has been developed for a spacecraft

Sung-Soo Jang; Sung-Hoon Kim; Sang-Ryool Lee; Jaeho Choi

2010-01-01

86

Energy Efficient Industrial Building Design  

E-print Network

The design of industrial buildings today is still largely unaffected by energy legislation and building technologies. The present corporate tax structures for industry do little to encourage investment of capital for future operating cost savings...

Holness, G. V. R.

1983-01-01

87

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

88

Measurements of earth pressures for the design modification of cantilever retaining walls  

E-print Network

MEASUREMENTS OF EARTH PRESSURES FOR THE DESIGN MODIFICATION OF CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS A Thesis by William Pri kryl Submitted to the Graduate College Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Civil Engineering MEASUREMENTS OF EARTH PRESSURES FOR THE DESIGN MODIFICATION OF CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS A Thesis by William Prikryl Approved as to style and content by: jl ~, E Harry M. Coyle ? Chairman...

Prikryl, William

2012-06-07

89

Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument's ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%. A key issue is the amount of systematic ADM error (departures from the mean models) that is present at the 2.5 deg resolution of the ERBE target areas. If this error is less than 30%, then the CERES-I, ERBE, and CSR, in order of increasing error, provide the most accurate instantaneous flux estimates, within 2-3 W/sq m of each other in reflected shortwave flux. The magnitude of this error is near the 10 W/sq m accuracy requirement of the user community. Longwave flux errors have been found to have the same space and time characteristics as errors in shortwave radiation, but only about 25% as large.

Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

1993-01-01

90

Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

2009-01-01

91

The definition and specification of the near earth environmental criteria for spacecraft thermal design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variation of the earth's thermal and albedo radiation received by a near-earth orbiting space vehicle or space payload as a result of temporal variation of the earth atmosphere is discussed. A statistical study of current satellite data for determining probability distributions is proposed. With these distributions the thermal designer can define confidence levels on predicted temperature ranges which are compatible with engineering models for use in design, failure probabilities, and spacecraft cost estimates. Use of the distributions in environmental criteria guidelines is also considered.

Gary, G. A.; Craven, P. D.

1974-01-01

92

A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

1984-01-01

93

Skylab Earth Resource Experiment Package critical design review. [conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline of the conference for reviewing the design of the EREP is presented. Systems design for review include: tape recorder, support equipment, view finder/tracking, support hardware, and control and display panel.

1973-01-01

94

Designing and Creating Earth Science Lessons with Google Earth⢠ 

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide provides instructions on creating Earth science lessons using Google Earth⢠software. The guide, which focuses on using the free version of the software, covers how to plan a lesson (what the software can do, what can be included in a lesson) and how to create a lesson (creating folders, placemarks, map layers; sharing lessons). There are also links to useful tools for image processing, text editing, and image hosting, and an appendix with instructions for downloading, installing, and using the software. A sample "tour" is provided, and a downloadable, printable version of the guide is included.

Steve Kluge (Fox Lane High School, Bedford, New York, and SUNY Purchase); Drew Patrick (Fox Lane High School, Bedford, New York); Eric Fermann (Eastchester High School, Eastchester, New York)

95

Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

1975-01-01

96

10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

2010-01-01

97

10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

2011-01-01

98

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha  

E-print Network

1 Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025, USA Columbia University Earth Institute, New York that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during

Hansen, James E.

99

Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the Earth work? What is its relationship to the other planets? These are but a few important questions answered by this creative instructional series created by WQED in Pittsburgh, in association with the National Academy of Sciences. The series was designed to present information about "our solar system and Earth's oceans, climate, and mineral and energy sources." The Annenberg Media group has placed this entire series online, and visitors can view all seven installments here. The programs include "The Climate Puzzle", "Gifts from the Earth", and "The Solar Sea". Teachers will note that the site also contains links to other educational resources, reviews, and related resources from the Annenberg Media organization.

1986-01-01

100

ENVIR 202: EARTH, AIR, WATER 22 Jan 2003 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION FOR THE SCIENCE CORE: ENERGY  

E-print Network

of the web links, and find more on your own. For example, a simple Google search for `diffraction grating on Earth. There is also some heat coming up from deep in the Earth, some nuclear energy, natural

101

Requirements and concept design for large earth survey telescope for SEOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efforts of a one year program of Requirements Analysis and Conceptual Design for the Large Earth Survey Telescope for the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite is summarized. A 1.4 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with 0.6 deg field of view is shown to do an excellent job in satisfying the observational requirements for a wide range of earth resources and meteorological applications. The telescope provides imagery or thermal mapping in ten spectral bands at one time in a field sharing grouping of linear detector arrays. Pushbroom scanning is accomplished by spacecraft slew.

Mailhot, P.; Bisbee, J.

1975-01-01

102

MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan: Earth's Energy Budget-Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan uses Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiation data to understand seasonal variations in the pattern of net energy input to the Earth system. The net amount of energy received by different parts of the Earth at different times of year determines the type of weather and climate they will experience. The net radiative flux shows the combined effect of the Sun's location and the conditions in the Earth system. The two primary components of the Earth system that affect the net radiative flux are: 1) the type of surface and 2) clouds. This lesson will allow students to explore these variations.

2006-01-01

103

Sensor performance of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft based on post-launch calibration studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometers measure the broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to

Susan Thomas; K. J. Priestley; P. C. Hess; R. S. Wilson; M. A. Avery; D. R. Walikainen; Z. P. Szewczyk; D. L. Cooper; M. Shankar

2009-01-01

104

Ultrahigh energy tau neutrino flux regeneration while skimming the Earth  

SciTech Connect

The detection of Earth-skimming tau neutrinos has turned into a very promising strategy for the observation of ultra-high-energy cosmic neutrinos. The sensitivity of this channel crucially depends on the parameters of the propagation of the tau neutrinos through the terrestrial crust, which governs the flux of emerging tau leptons that can be detected. One of the characteristics of this propagation is the possibility of regeneration through multiple {nu}{sub {tau}}{r_reversible}{tau} conversions, which are often neglected in the standard picture. In this paper, we solve the transport equations governing the {nu}{sub {tau}} propagation and compare the flux of emerging tau leptons obtained allowing regeneration or not. We discuss the validity of the approximation of neglecting the {nu}{sub {tau}} regeneration using different scenarios for the neutrino-nucleon cross sections and the tau energy losses.

Bigas, Oscar Blanch [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Paris VI-VIIbb, Paris (France); Deligny, Olivier [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Payet, Kevin [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France); Van Elewyck, Veronique [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Paris Sud, Orsay (France); AstroParticules et Cosmologie (UMR 7165) and Universite Paris 7, Paris (France)

2008-09-15

105

Inertial Confinement Fusion, High Energy Density Plasmas and an Energy Source on Earth  

E-print Network

Inertial Confinement Fusion, High Energy Density Plasmas and an Energy Source on Earth Max Tabak explosions and breed tritium Driver To heat and compress target to fusion conditions #12;Tabak Snowmass #12;#12;-10 0 10 -10 0 10 20 In laser focused light Focused short pulse laser planar shock ICF

106

Who Believes What? Clearing up confusion about Intelligent Design and Young-Earth Creationism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of what differentiates young-Earth creationism (YEC) from Intelligent Design (ID) has resulted in inaccurate and confusing terminology, and hinders both understanding and dialogue. Though both YEC and ID groups have drawn distinctions between themselves, previous attempts to classify design-based positions on origins have been unable to adequately resolve their relationships. The Nested Hierarchy of Design, a multiple-character classification

Marcus R. Ross

2005-01-01

107

Elemental processes of transport and energy conversion in Earth's magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 5 years observations from several missions and ground based observatories have honed in on the most elemental aspects of flux transport and energy conversion. Dipolarization fronts and their counterpart in the distant magnetotail "anti-dipolarization" fronts, which together are refered to herein as "reconnection fronts", usher the recently reconnected flux tubes from the near-Earth X-points and in the process convert magnetic energy to particle energy and wave radiation. On the tailward side they are responsible for plasmoid formation and acceleration. On the earthward side they result in elemental substorm current wedges or wedglets, which were initially postulated from ground observations alone. Recent observations have revealed how the interaction of wedgelets and the inner magnetosphere takes place. Questions remain with regards to the physics of the energy transfer process from global magnetic energy to local heating and waves, and with regards to the initiation of the X-point activations in space. Observations indicate that the latter may be induced by polar cap or dayside activity, suggesting a direct link between dayside reconnection and nightside phenomena. The likely causal sequence of events and open questions in light of these recent observations, and the field's outlook in anticipation of upcoming coordinated observations from the international Heliophysics System Observatory will be discussed.

Angelopoulos, Vassilis

108

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Sensors and Preflight Calibration Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft sensors are designed to measure broadband earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and earth-emitted longwave (5- > 100 microns) radiances at the top of the atmosphere as part of the Mission to Planet Earth program. The scanning thermistor bolometer sensors respond to radiances in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and total-wave (0.3- > 100 microns) spectral regions, as well as to radiances in the narrowband water vapor window (8-12 microns) region. 'ne sensors are designed to operate for a minimum of 5 years aboard the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System AM-1 spacecraft platforms that are scheduled for launches in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The flight sensors and the in-flight calibration systems will be calibrated in a vacuum ground facility using reference radiance sources, tied to the international temperature scale of 1990. The calibrations will be used to derive sensor gains, offsets, spectral responses, and point spread functions within and outside of the field of view. The shortwave, total-wave, and window ground calibration accuracy requirements (1 sigma) are +/-0.8, +/-0.6, and +/-0.3 W /sq m/sr, respectively, while the corresponding measurement precisions are +/-O.5% and +/-1.0% for the broadband longwave and shortwave radiances, respectively. The CERES sensors, in-flight calibration systems, and ground calibration instrumentation are described along with outlines of the preflight and in-flight calibration approaches.

Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, R. Wes; Thomas, Susan; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.

1996-01-01

109

Earth Observations and the Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Water-Energy-Food (W-E-F) Security Nexus has received a great deal of attention internationally since 2011 when the World Economic Forum identified it as one of the three largest threats to the global economy. Since then several international conferences and research initiatives have focused on the linkages and synergies between these sectors. In addition, it has been recognized that land and/or ecosystems must also be considered as part of this nexus to fully understand the linkages between the sectors. The Global Water System Project carried out a preliminary assessment of the role of basin management on W-E-F security in a number of transboundary basins to determine the factors that drive this nexus, to understand how W-E-F security is perceived; to evaluate the degree to which data are used in making decisions related to this nexus; and to identify opportunities for enhancing the role of Earth Observations in making decisions relevant to W-E-F security. This assessment which relied on expert surveys is supplemented by a more in-depth case study in the Lake Winnipeg Basin which includes the basin of the Red River of the North. This paper provides a summary of the results of this assessment with an emphasis on the actual and potential roles of Earth Observations. In particular, their possible role is discussed in both national and transboundary basin contexts. Recommendations arising from the study deal with data sets and information systems, the need for targets related to the W-E-F Nexus, and possible new approaches for enhancing W-E-F resilience through the use Earth Observations to better plan and monitor the movement of water on the landscape.

Lawford, R. G.; Marx, S.

2013-12-01

110

Solar power satellites: our next generation of satellites will deliver the sun's energy to Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the means for gathering energy from sunlight in space and transmitting it to Earth via Solar Power Satellites. The motivating factor is that the output of our sun is the largest potential energy source available, with the capability of providing inexhaustible quantities of clean electrical energy to every location on Earth. The challenge is that considerable financial,

Don M. Flournoy

2009-01-01

111

Low energy trajectories to Mars via gravity assist from Venus to earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analytical determination of launch dates and proposed trajectories is reviewed with respect to the search for a low-energy trajectory to Mars with gravitational assist from Venus for the years 1995-2024. Both Ballistic and Venus-Earth gravity assist (VEGA) trajectories are calculated with an automated design tool by the authors (1990). The trajectories are modeled as conic sections from one gravitating body to the next, and gravity assist is considered to act impulsively. VEGA trajectories to Mars require similar launch energies for 6 years listed and have moderate arrival C3s, with the lowest C3 requirement in 2015. The flight time and arrival energies of the trajectories are found to be larger than those of ballistic trajectories, but the low-energy launch window makes them desirable for unmanned Mars missions, in particular.

Williams, S. N.; Longuski, J. M.

1991-01-01

112

Design of an unmanned, reusable vehicle to de-orbit debris in Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space debris problem is becoming more important because as orbital missions increase, the amount of debris increases. It was the design team's objective to present alternative designs and a problem solution for a deorbiting vehicle that will alleviate the problem by reducing the amount of large debris in earth orbit. The design team was asked to design a reusable, unmanned vehicle to de-orbit debris in earth orbit. The design team will also construct a model to demonstrate the system configuration and key operating features. The alternative designs for the unmanned, reusable vehicle were developed in three stages: selection of project requirements and success criteria, formulation of a specification list, and the creation of alternatives that would satisfy the standards set forth by the design team and their sponsor. The design team selected a Chain and Bar Shot method for deorbiting debris in earth orbit. The De-orbiting Vehicle (DOV) uses the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) as the propulsion and command modules with the deorbiting module attached to the front.

Aziz, Shahed; Cunningham, Timothy W.; Moore-Mccassey, Michelle

1990-01-01

113

Design of ballistic three-body trajectories for continuous polar earth observation in the Earth-Moon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates orbits and transfer trajectories for continuous polar Earth observation in the Earth-Moon system. The motivation behind this work is to complement the services offered by polar-orbiting spacecraft, which offer high resolution imaging but poor temporal resolution, due to the fact that they can only capture one narrow swath at each polar passage. Conversely, a platform for high-temporal resolution imaging can enable a number of applications, from accurate polar weather forecasting to Aurora study, as well as direct-link telecommunications with high-latitude regions. Such a platform would complement polar orbiters. In this work, we make use of resonant gravity swing-by manoeuvres at the Moon in order to design trajectories that are suitable for quasi-continuous polar observation. In particular, it is shown that the Moon can flip the line of apsides of a highly eccentric, highly inclined orbit from north to south, without the need for thrust. In this way, a spacecraft can alternatively loiter for an extended period of time above the two poles. In addition, at the lunar encounter it is possible to change the period of time spent on each pole. In addition, we also show that the lunar swing-by can be exploited for transfer to a so-called pole-sitter orbit, i.e. a spacecraft that constantly hovers above one of the Earth's poles using continuous thrust. It is shown that, by using the Moon's gravity to change the inclination of the transfer trajectory, the total ?v is less than using a trajectory solely relying on high-thrust or low-thrust, therefore enabling the launchers to inject more mass into the target pole-sitter position.

Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R.

2014-09-01

114

Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

2013-10-01

115

Design and field testing of solar-assisted earth coils. Final report, August 1, 1978-January 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Two types of earth coils were designed, constructed, and are operational on the Oklahoma State University campus. A nominal 1000-foot, 4-inch, PVC coil buried in a serpentine pattern is the heat source/sink for two commercial heat pump systems. This system is vented which allows the easy placement of thermocouples down its length to measure changes in temperature as well as changes in overall U values as a function of length. Integral to the earth coil is a 1000-gallon uninsulated water storage tank in which solar energy from 210 ft/sup 2/ of solar collectors (single-glazed, metal absorber) can be added directly to the heat pump, circulated through the 1000-foot earth coil system, or added to an insulated storage tank for direct transfer. Temperature ranges for this type of system at the four-foot level are from a nominal range of 78/sup 0/F in mid-September to a low of 42/sup 0/F in mid-February in the absence of heat rejection or absorption. The second type of earth coil under study was a vertical coil approximately 240 feet in length. Placement of the coil is with a conventional water well drilling machine. The vertical heat exchanger consists of a 5-inch PVC pipe which is capped at both ends and pressurized at approximately 15 PSIG. This sealed and pressurized heat exchanger allows a low power pump to circulate water through both the heat pump and vertical heat exchanger system.

Bose, J E

1981-01-01

116

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

117

Features of ballistic design of ARKON-1 remote-sensing space system for optoelectronic earth observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SC orbit parameters are selected and substantiated based on the maximum efficiency criterion based on the requirements of comprehensiveness, periodicity, and the immediacy of data acquisition using the example of the ballistic design of the ARKON-1 space system for the optoelectronic observation of Earth developed by NPO Lavochkin.

Efanov, V. V.; Semunkina, V. I.; Shostak, S. V.

2011-12-01

118

Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect to the conceptions

William R. Penuel; Lawrence P. Gallagher

2009-01-01

119

Hardware-in-the-loop Test Rig for Designing Near-earth Aerial Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's aerial robots are being tasked to fly in near- Earth environments such as caves, forests and build- ings. The lack of flight data and performance metrics poses a gap that prevents the analytical design of such robots. This paper describes a test rig with a full-scale diorama in its workspace. Lamps, fans, and genera- tors allow the control of

Vefa Narli; Paul Y. Oh

2006-01-01

120

Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect…

Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

2009-01-01

121

Design considerations for ocean energy resource systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceans occupy nearly three-quarters of the Earth's surface and represent an enormous source of renewable energy. While many of the world's industrialized nations have conducted exploratory research and development, the total power currently available from ocean energy systems, with the exception of the French tidal power plant, is less than one hundred megawatts (MW). An increasing number of ocean

R. Bregman; R. H. Knapp; P. K. Takahashi

1995-01-01

122

Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main purpose of the Small Space-Based Geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellite is to provide a space link to the user mission spacecraft for relaying data through ground networks to user Mission Control Centers. The Small Space Based Satellite (SSBS) will provide services comparable to those of a NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) for the same type of links. The SSBS services will keep the user burden the same or lower than for TDRS and will support the same or higher data rates than those currently supported by TDRS. At present, TDRSS provides links and coverage below GEO; however, SSBS links and coverage capability to above GEO missions are being considered for the future, especially for Human Space Flight Missions (HSF). There is also a rising need for the capability to support high data rate links (exceeding 1 Gbps) for imaging applications. The communication payload on the SSBS will provide S/Ka-band single access links to the mission and a Ku-band link to the ground, with an optical communication payload as an option. To design the communication payload, various link budgets were analyzed and many possible operational scenarios examined. To reduce user burden, using a larger-sized antenna than is currently in use by TDRS was considered. Because of the SSBS design size, it was found that a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket could deliver three SSBSs to GEO. This will greatly reduce the launch costs per satellite. Using electric propulsion was also evaluated versus using chemical propulsion; the power system size and time to orbit for various power systems were also considered. This paper will describe how the SSBS will meet future service requirements, concept of operations, and the design to meet NASA users' needs for below and above GEO missions. These users' needs not only address the observational mission requirements but also possible HSF missions to the year 2030. We will provide the trade-off analysis of the communication payload design in terms of the number of links looking above and below GEO; the detailed design of a GEO SSBS spacecraft bus and its accommodation of the communication payload, and a summary of the trade study that resulted in the selection of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle to deploy the SSBS and its impact on cost reductions per satellite. ======================================================================== Several initiatives have taken place within NASA1 and international space agencies2 to create a human exploration strategy for expanding human presence into the solar system; these initiatives have been driven by multiple factors to benefit Earth. Of the many elements in the strategy one stands out: to send robotic and human missions to destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), including cis-lunar space, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), the Moon, and Mars and its moons.3, 4 The time frame for human exploration to various destinations, based on the public information available,1,4 is shown in Figure 1. Advance planning is needed to define how future space communications services will be provided in the new budget environment to meet future space communications needs. The spacecraft for these missions can be dispersed anywhere from below LEO to beyond GEO, and to various destinations within the solar system. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program office provides communication and tracking services to space missions during launch, in-orbit testing, and operation phases. Currently, SCaN's space networking relay satellites mainly provide services to users below GEO, at Near Earth Orbit (NEO), below LEO, and in deep space. The potential exists for using a space-based relay satellite, located in the vicinity of various solar system destinations, to provide communication space links to missions both below and above its orbit. Such relays can meet the needs of human exploration missions for maximum connectivity to Earth locations and for reduced latency. In the past, several studies assessed the ability of satellite-based relays working above GEO in conjunction with Earth gro

Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James

2014-01-01

123

Recent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatoriesRecent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm andPart 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and  

E-print Network

observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm andPart 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and SeisComPSeisComP Jean-Marie SAUREL (2,1), Frédéric RANDRIAMORA (3 observatories community : EarthWorm and SeisComP. The first is renowned for its ability to process real time

Beauducel, François

124

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 3: Design cost trade-off studies and recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the design and cost tradeoff aspects of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) development is presented. The design/cost factors that affect a series of mission/system level concepts are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) spacecraft subsystem cost tradeoffs, (2) ground system cost tradeoffs, and (3) program cost summary. Tables of data are provided to summarize the results of the analyses. Illustrations of the various spacecraft configurations are included.

1974-01-01

125

New retaining wall design criteria based on lateral earth pressure measurements  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE August 1975 Major Subject: Civil Engineering NEW RETAINING WALL DESIGN CRITERIA BASED ON LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS A thesi s by William V. Wright (Chairman of Commi ttee) (M ber) (Head of Department) 0'( (Member) August 1975... consist of pressure cell and movement measurements for both walls. In addition, the force transmitted from the panel wall to its supporting pilasters was measured with force transducers. A discussion of structural design considerations and some...

Wright, William Vincent

2012-06-07

126

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key issues in the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program which are subject to configuration study and tradeoff are identified. The issue of a combined operational and research and development program is considered. It is stated that cost and spacecraft weight are the key design variables and design options are proposed in terms of these parameters. A cost analysis of the EOS program is provided. Diagrams of the satellite configuration and subsystem components are included.

1974-01-01

127

Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 2: Cryogenic design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed designs were made for three earth orbital propulsion systems; (1) the space shuttle (integrated) OMS/RCS, (2) the space shuttle (dedicated) OMS (LO2), and (3) the space tug. The preferred designs from the integrated OMS/RCS were used as the basis for the flight test article design. A plan was prepared that outlines the steps, cost, and schedule required to complete the development of the prototype DSL tank and feedline (LH2 and LO2) systems. Ground testing of a subscale model using LH2 verified the expulsion characteristics of the preferred DSL designs.

1973-01-01

128

Link design of Moon-to-Earth optical communication based on telescope array receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical communication technology shows promising prospects to fulfill the large bandwidth requirements of future deep-space exploration. This paper mainly studies the link design of Moon-to-Earth optical communication based on the telescope array receiver. Firstly, we analyze and design the telescope array model. An array of relatively small-sized telescope combined to form a larger synthesized aperture is a viable and efficient alternative to a large monolithic telescope. Moreover, this array structure also saves the total costs of the telescopes. In addition, we present an end-to-end system analysis to provide the expected signal and background photons as a function of the Moon-Earth distance. Then, we describe the work on the link design of the Moon-to-Earth optical communication. This primarily includes the received power, the antenna gain, the space loss, the atmospheric loss, and so on. We also provide an approximation calculation to the channel capacity, the data rate, the bit error ratio (BER) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This demonstrates much theoretical significance on the actual Moon-to-Earth optical communication.

Wang, Xiaorui; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Lincong; Liu, Yejun

2014-01-01

129

Designing dark energy afterglow experiments  

E-print Network

Chameleon fields, which are scalar field dark energy candidates, can evade fifth force constraints by becoming massive in high-density regions. However, this property allows chameleon particles to be trapped inside a vacuum chamber with dense walls. Afterglow experiments constrain photon-coupled chameleon fields by attempting to produce and trap chameleon particles inside such a vacuum chamber, from which they will emit an afterglow as they regenerate photons. Here we discuss several theoretical and systematic effects underlying the design and analysis of the GammeV and CHASE afterglow experiments. We consider chameleon particle interactions with photons, Fermions, and other chameleon particles, as well as with macroscopic magnetic fields and matter. The afterglow signal in each experiment is predicted, and its sensitivity to various properties of the experimental apparatus is studied. Finally, we use CHASE data to exclude a wide range of photon-coupled chameleon dark energy models.

Amol Upadhye; Jason H. Steffen; Aaron S. Chou

2012-04-24

130

Melting of Iron under Earth's Core Conditions from Diffusion Monte Carlo Free Energy Calculations  

E-print Network

Melting of Iron under Earth's Core Conditions from Diffusion Monte Carlo Free Energy Calculations Ester Sola1 and Dario Alfe`1,2 1 Thomas Young Centre@UCL, and Department of Earth Sciences, UCL, Gower. Here we used quantum Monte Carlo techniques to compute the free energies of solid and liquid iron

Alfè, Dario

131

Advanced Energy Conversion Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. There is a need to produce "proof-ofconcept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space surface sites. Space surface receiving sites of particular interest include the areas of permanent shadow near the moon s North and South poles, where WPT technologies could enable access to ice and other useful resources for human exploration. This paper discusses work addressing a promising approach to solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) applied to both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components (only the photovoltaic cells need to be different), economies of manufacturing and scale may be realized by using SLA on both ends of the laser power beaming system in a space solar power application. Near-term uses of this SLA-laser-SLA system may include terrestrial and space exploration in near Earth space. Later uses may include beamed power for bases or vehicles on Mars. Strategies for developing energy infrastructures in space which utilize this technology are presented. This dual use system produces electrical energy efficiently from either coherent light, such as from a highly coherent laser, or from conventional solar illumination. This allows, for example, supplementing solar energy with energy provided by highly coherent laser illumination during periods of low solar illumination or no illumination. This reduces the need for batteries and alternate sources of power. The capability of using laser illumination in a lowest order Gaussian laser mode provides means for transmitting power optically with maximum efficiency and precision over the long distances characteristic of space. A preliminary receiving system similar to that described here, has been produced and tested under solar and laser illumination. A summary of results is given.

Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Phillips, Dane J.; Laycock, Rustin L.; ONeill, Mark; Henley, Mark W.; Fork, Richard L.

2006-01-01

132

Annual UCF Progress Energy Senior Design Symposium  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................6 Ablative Rocket Nozzle3rd Annual UCF ­ Progress Energy Senior Design Symposium on Renewable & Sustainable Energy Friday between academic and professional experience by participating in year-long design and build projects

Van Stryland, Eric

133

Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and NREL are developing target energy budgets and design guides to achieve 30% energy savings. This paper focuses the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing.

Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

2008-08-01

134

Education, energy, toilets, and Earth: The Operators' Manual  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid science shows the unsustainability of relying on fossil fuels for long-term future energy supply, with increasingly strong evidence that a measured shift to renewable sources will be economically beneficial while improving employment and national security, providing insurance against catastrophes, and more. Yet despite notable advances in renewable energy and related issues, the transition does not appear to be occurring at the economically optimal rate. Analogy may be useful. In biological evolution and business, successful innovation is met by competitors, but also by predators, parasites, and diseases. Trees must handle the competition, but also termites, bark beetles, fungal diseases, strangling vines, and more, while new software meets competitors plus viruses, worms, Trojan horses and other malware. By analogy, the emergence of a "denialsphere" as well as competitors may be a predictable response to the threat posed to business-as-usual by the success of the National Academies and the IPCC in defining the climate-energy problem with the best science, and the growing success of inventors and policy-makers in developing advantageous and increasingly cost-effective solutions. Real questions exist about the best way forward, but the discussion of the important issues is sometimes confused by arguments that are not especially forward-going. Success of beneficial innovations against such problems is not guaranteed but surely has occurred, with transitions as large as that to a low-carbon energy system-we did switch from chamber pots and night-soil haulers to modern sanitation and clean water, for example. Analogy suggests that education and outreach are integral in such a transition, not a job to be completed but a process to be continued. Our attempt to contribute to this large effort, the NSF-supported Earth: The Operators' Manual, emphasizes diverse, interlocking approaches to show the large benefits that are ultimately available, relying on assessed science and not recommending particular policies.

Alley, R. B.; Haines-stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

2011-12-01

135

Low-energy Earth-Moon transfers involving manifolds through isomorphic mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis and design of low-energy transfers to the Moon has been a subject of great interest for decades. Exterior and interior transfers, based on the transit through the regions where the collinear libration points are located, have been studied for a long time and some space missions have already taken advantage of the results of these studies. This paper is concerned with a geometrical approach for low-energy Earth-to-Moon mission analysis, based on isomorphic mapping. The isomorphic mapping of trajectories allows a visual, intuitive representation of periodic orbits and of the related invariant manifolds, which correspond to tubes that emanate from the curve associated with the periodic orbit. Two types of Earth-to-Moon missions are considered. The first mission is composed of the following arcs: (i) transfer trajectory from a circular low Earth orbit to the stable invariant manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1 (corresponding to a specified energy level) and (ii) transfer trajectory along the unstable manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1, with final injection in a periodic orbit around the Moon. The second mission is composed of the following arcs: (i) transfer trajectory from a circular low Earth orbit to the stable invariant manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1 (corresponding to a specified energy level) and (ii) transfer trajectory along the unstable manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1, with final injection in a capture (non-periodic) orbit around the Moon. In both cases three velocity impulses are needed to perform the transfer: the first at an unknown initial point along the low Earth orbit, the second at injection on the stable manifold, the third at injection in the final (periodic or capture) orbit. The final goal is in finding the optimization parameters, which are represented by the locations, directions, and magnitudes of the velocity impulses such that the overall delta-v of the transfer is minimized. This work proves how isomorphic mapping (in two distinct forms) can be profitably employed to optimize such transfers, by determining in a geometrical fashion the desired optimization parameters that minimize the delta-v budget required to perform the transfer.

Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo

2013-10-01

136

Integrating energy expertise into building design  

SciTech Connect

Most commercial buildings designed to today will use more energy to operate, and cost more to design and construct than necessary. Significant energy savings cold be achieved with little or not increase in first cost if energy-efficient design technologies were used. Research into integration of building systems indicates that by considering energy performance early in the design process, energy savings between 30% and 50% of current energy consumption rates are technically and economically feasible. However, most building design teams do not adequately consider the energy impacts of design decisions to achieve these savings. The US Department of Energy has initiated a project, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to develop advanced computer-based technologies that will help designers take advantage of these large potential energy savings. The objective of this work is to develop automated, intelligent, energy design assistance that can be integrated into computer aided design systems of the future. This paper examines the need for this technology by identifying the impediments to energy-efficient design, identifies essential and desirable features of such systems, presents the concept under development in this effort, illustrates how energy expertise might be incorporated into design, and discusses the importance of an integrated approach. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bailey, M.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (USA). Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

1990-08-01

137

Earth assisted annual energy cycle home. Final progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project makes use of sub-basement earth as a massive heat sink and extracts natural ground heat from all tap water coming into the dwelling actually using or wasting water. Heat storage gain from the earth surrounding the four 1800 gallon concrete storage tanks was documented.

Chesen

1981-01-01

138

Elastic energy of a deformable earth: General expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is the first in the second part of a project dedicated to elaborating a Hamiltonian theory for the rotational motion of a deformable Earth. In the four works which make up the first part the basis of this theory is laid down, studying the effects produced when the Earth's elastic mantle is deformed by lunisolar attraction. More specifically,

Juan Getino; Facultad Ciencias

1992-01-01

139

Earth and Planetary Science 120/Energy and Resources 130 Fall 2005 Analysis of Environmental Data Organizational Information  

E-print Network

Earth and Planetary Science 120/Energy and Resources 130 Fall 2005 Analysis of Environmental Data Organizational Information Registration: Earth and Planetary Science C120 -- or -- Energy and Resources C130

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

140

Navigation Design and Analysis for the Orion Earth-Moon Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details the design of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. The unmodeled accelerations and their characterization are detailed. It also presents the analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the delta-V performance.

DSouza, Christopher; Zanetti, Renato

2014-01-01

141

The design of a concentrator solar array for use in low earth orbit  

E-print Network

of these materials are identified. It is designed to protect the lenses during launch and deployment, and maintain their optical alignment with the respective solar cells, while it is thermally cycled in low earth orbit (LEO). The use of metal matrix composites... ensures that the LEO environment will not degrade the structural integrity and optical efficiency of the solar array. iv Mission profile is that of the proposed NASA space station Freedom. Launch and deployment is achieved by use of the space shuttle...

Kish, Guy Leslie

2012-06-07

142

Universal Space Vehicle Design Concept to Defend the Earth against Asteroidal-Cometary Danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and experimental estimations are given on the structure of a universal space interceptor designed on the modular principle. The interceptor comprising one command-impact module and a variable number of separable impact modules, each with propulsion and guidance systems, can be injected into a trajectory towards an Earth approaching space object by launch vehicles MOLNIYA, PROTON, TITAN-4, ARIANE-5, N-2, and

V. A. Volkov; V. A. Danilkin; V. G. Degtyar; G. G. Sytyi

143

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

1999-01-01

144

Applicability of the control configured design approach to advanced earth orbital transportation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of the control configured design approach (CCV) to advanced earth orbital transportation systems was studied. The baseline system investigated was fully reusable vertical take-off/horizontal landing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle and had mission requirements similar to the space shuttle orbiter. Technical analyses were made to determine aerodynamic, flight control and subsystem design characteristics. Figures of merit were assessed on vehicle dry weight and orbital payload. The results indicated that the major parameters for CCV designs are hypersonic trim, aft center of gravity, and control surface heating. Optimized CCV designs can be controllable and provide substantial payload gains over conventional non-CCV design vertical take-off vehicles.

Hepler, A. K.; Zeck, H.; Walker, W. H.; Shafer, D. E.

1978-01-01

145

CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

Eckman, Richard S.

2009-01-01

146

Solar Sailing Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) Mission for Impacting/Deflecting Near-Earth Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar sailing mission architecture, which requires a t least ten 160-m, 300-kg solar sail spacecraft with a characteristic acceleration of 0.5 mm/sqs, is proposed as a realistic near- term option for mitigating the threat posed by near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Its mission feasibility is demonstrated for a fictional asteroid mitigation problem created by AIAA. This problem assumes that a 200-m asteroid, designated 2004WR, was detected on July 4, 2004, and that the expected impact will occur on January 14, 2015. The solar sailing phase of the proposed mission for the AIAA asteroid mitigation problem is comprised of the initial cruise phase from 1 AU t o 0.25 AU (1.5 years), the cranking orbit phase (3.5 years), and the retrograde orbit phase (1 year) prior to impacting the target asteroid at its perihelion (0.75 AU from the sun) on January 1, 2012. The proposed mission will require at least ten kinetic energy interceptor (KEI) solar sail spacecraft. Each KEI sailcraft consists of a 160- m, 150-kg solar sail and a 150-kg microsatellite impactor. The impactor is to be separated from a large solar sail prior to impacting the 200-m target asteroid at its perihelion. Each 150-kg microsatellite impactor, with a relative impact velocity of at least 70 km/s, will cause a conservatively estimated AV of 0.3 cm/s in the trajectory of the 200-m target asteroid, due largely to the impulsive effect of material ejected from the newly-formed crater. The deflection caused by a single impactor will increase the Earth-miss-distance by 0.45Re (where Re denotes the Earth radius of 6,378 km). Therefore, at least ten KEI sailcraft will be required for consecutive impacts, but probably without causing fragmentation, to increase the total Earth-miss-distance by 4.5Re. This miss-distance increase of 29,000 km is outside of a typical uncertainty/error of about 10,000 km in predicting the Earth-miss- distance. A conventional Delta I1 2925 launch vehicle is capable of injecting at least two KEI sailcraft into an Earth escaping orbit. A 40-m solar sail is currently being developed by NASA and industries for a possible flight validation experiment within 10 years, and a 160-m solar sail is expected to be available within 20 years.

Wie, Bong

2005-01-01

147

An integrated environment for intelligent energy design  

SciTech Connect

The design of energy-efficient buildings can be aided by intelligent computer tools that can evaluate design solutions and make recommendations for improving the buildings` energy performance. Such tools can be very productive when they are integrated with existing computer-aided design technology. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Oregon, the California Polytechnic State University, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is developing such tools and integrating them into a computational environment that can be easily used by architects, engineers, and designers. This project, called the Advanced Energy Design and Operations Technologies (AEDOT) project, intends to demonstrate how building energy performance can be improved by combining expertise from a variety of domain perspectives during the design process. This paper describes the first prototype to emerge from the AEDOT work. AEDOT Prototype 1 consists of several design and energy tools that have been integrated using, the ICADS framework developed at California Polytechnic State University. The prototype demonstrates how an integrated system responds to a building design as it is being developed on a CAD system. While the designer draws a building floor plan, a number of intelligent design tools (IDTs) examine the drawing and evaluate the design`s acoustics, thermal profile, daylighting use, cost, and compliance with energy standards, to name a few. These IDTs also make design-specific recommendations intended to improve the cost, energy performance, and overall quality of the design.

Brambley, M.R.; Quadrel, R.W.; Stratton, R.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Brown, G.Z.; Meacham, M.; Miller, P. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Pohl, J.G.; La Porta, J.; Snyder, J. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Selkowitz, S.E.; Papamichael, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bailey, M.L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-06-01

148

GeoWall: Stereo Projection Systems Designed for Earth Science Classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the past year, advances in projection technology and consumer-grade computer game technology have reduced the cost of stereo projection systems to a level that allows this technology to be used in the classroom. Stereo projection systems have remarkable potential for any educational discipline that deals with complex spatial relationships (engineering, physics, astronomy, etc.), but the implications for earth science education are particularly rich. The ability to visualize and interpret spatial relationships is a critical skill that many earth science students find difficult to master. Stereo projection can serve as a bridge to increase students' perception of maps, images and aerial views, or allow students to interactively manipulate three-dimensional, time-dependent visualizations of research data sets and mathematical models that move well beyond traditional education materials. The GeoWall Project is an initiative to build low-cost, high-quality stereo projection systems at a number of research and education institutions. By standardizing the technical design of these systems, materials developed by one institution can be used by any of the other member institutions. This allows institutions to easily adopt materials that they could not produce in-house and fosters a community capable of generating curriculum materials that take advantage of stereo projection technology. Although not universally applicable across earth science education, stereo projection systems have the potential to transform the way that we teach many earth science concepts.

Morin, P.; Kirkby, K. C.; Van Keken, P.; Leigh, J.; Reynolds, S. J.; Davis, B.; Burdick, R.; Schumann, L.

2001-12-01

149

Optimization methods for alternative energy system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal

Michael Henry Reinhardt

2000-01-01

150

An integrated environment for intelligent energy design  

SciTech Connect

The design of energy-efficient buildings can be aided by intelligent computer tools that can evaluate design solutions and make recommendations for improving the buildings' energy performance. Such tools can be very productive when they are integrated with existing computer-aided design technology. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Oregon, the California Polytechnic State University, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is developing such tools and integrating them into a computational environment that can be easily used by architects, engineers, and designers. This project, called the Advanced Energy Design and Operations Technologies (AEDOT) project, intends to demonstrate how building energy performance can be improved by combining expertise from a variety of domain perspectives during the design process. This paper describes the first prototype to emerge from the AEDOT work. AEDOT Prototype 1 consists of several design and energy tools that have been integrated using, the ICADS framework developed at California Polytechnic State University. The prototype demonstrates how an integrated system responds to a building design as it is being developed on a CAD system. While the designer draws a building floor plan, a number of intelligent design tools (IDTs) examine the drawing and evaluate the design's acoustics, thermal profile, daylighting use, cost, and compliance with energy standards, to name a few. These IDTs also make design-specific recommendations intended to improve the cost, energy performance, and overall quality of the design.

Brambley, M.R.; Quadrel, R.W.; Stratton, R.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Brown, G.Z.; Meacham, M.; Miller, P. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States)); Pohl, J.G.; La Porta, J.; Snyder, J. (California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)); Selkowitz, S.E.; Papamichael, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bailey, M.L. (USDOE, Washington,

1992-06-01

151

Solar Influences Light from the Sun is the largest source of energy for Earth's  

E-print Network

Solar Influences Light from the Sun is the largest source of energy for Earth's atmosphere. The Solar Influences group at LASP studies the light from the Sun and how it interacts with the Earth and other planets. In particular, we are interested in: · Measuring the light that the Sun emits (total

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

152

Earth Shelter Buildings Coupled with the Sun: Opportunities and Constraints in Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Civil/Mineral Engineering Building on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus is a demonstration design in energy conservation and innovation in active and passive solar energy applications. Its antecedents at the university represent contributory steps in the identification of issues and the development of design principles. (MLW)

Bennett, David J.

1982-01-01

153

Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

154

Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha  

E-print Network

is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar of heat energy to space. The temporary imbalance between the energy absorbed from the sun and heat1 Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha NASA

Hansen, James E.

155

July2014 ESIP Summer Meeting 2014 Frisco, CO Pascal Hitzler Ontology Design Patterns for EarthCube  

E-print Network

July2014 � ESIP Summer Meeting 2014 � Frisco, CO � Pascal Hitzler Ontology Design Patterns://www.pascal-hitzler.de Krzysztof Janowicz STKO Lab UC Santa Barbara http://stko.geog.ucsb.edu/ #12;July2014 � ESIP Summer Meeting 2014 � Frisco, CO � Pascal Hitzler 2 EarthCube EarthCube: Developing a Community-Driven Data

Hitzler, Pascal

156

Mass, Energy, Space And Time System Theory---MEST A way to help our earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two danger to our earth. The first, the sun will expand to devour our earth, for example, the ozonosphere of our earth is be broken; The second, the asteroid will impact near our earth. According to MEST, there is a interaction between Black hole (and Dark matter-energy) and Solar system. The orbit of Jupiter is a boundary of the interaction between Black hole (and Dark matter-energy) and Solar system. Because there are four terrestrial planets which is mass-energy center as solar system, and there are four or five Jovian planets which is gas (space-time) center as black hole system. According to MEST, dark matter-energy take the velocity of Jupiter gose up. So there are a lot of asteroids and dark matter-energy near the orbit of Jupiter-the boundary. Dark matter-energy can change the orbit of asteroid, and take it impacted near our earth. Because the Dark matter-energy will pressure the Solar system. It is a inverse process with sun's expandedness. So the ``two danger'' is from a new process of the balance system between Black hole (and Dark matter-energy) and Solar system. According to MEST, We need to find the right point for our earth in the ``new process of the balance system.''

Cao, Dayong

2009-03-01

157

Design of Round-trip Trajectories to Near-Earth Asteroids Utilizing a Lunar Flyby  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are currently over 7,700 known Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and more are being discovered on a continual basis. Current models predict that the actual order of magnitude of the NEA population may range from 10' to 10 6 . The close proximity of NEA orbits to Earth's orbit makes it possible to design short duration round-trip trajectories to NEAs under the proper conditions. In previous work, 59 potentially accessible NEAs were identified for missions that depart Earth between the years 2016 and 2050 and have round-trip flight times of a year or less. We now present a new method for designing round-trip trajectories to NEAs in which the Moon's gravity aids the outbound trajectory via a lunar flyby. In some cases this gravity assist can reduce the overall spacecraft propellant required for the mission, which in turn can allow NEAs to be reached which would otherwise be inaccessible to a given mission architecture. Results are presented for a specific case study on NEA 2003 LN6.

Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.

2011-01-01

158

Designating Earth's Moon as a United Nations World Heritage Site - Permanently Protected from Commercial or Military Uses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes that Earth's Moon, in its entirety, be designated a United Nations World Heritage Site (WHS), permanently protected from any and all commercial or military utilization and reserved exclusively for scientific and aesthetic purposes. The paper discusses: 1) the extraordinary importance of the Moon for science, culture, and religion - past, present and future; 2) the history of proposals to exploit the Moon for commercial and military purposes and the shortcomings of this colonial, exploitation paradigm; and 3) the necessity, policy mechanisms, and political dynamics of designating the Moon as a World Heritage Site, permanently protected from commercial and/or military uses. The first part of the paper discusses the extraordinary importance of the Moon as it exists today - as a scientific laboratory, a source of beauty and inspiration throughout human evolution, a source for artistic expression, and as an object that is considered sacred by many cultures. Next, the paper traces the history of specific proposals for the exploitation of the Moon for commercial and/or military purposes - including plans by the U.S. Air Force in 1959 to detonate a nuclear explosion on the Moon, proposals to strip-mine the lunar regolith for helium-3 and rocket-fuel hydrogen; construction of solar power plants to transmit energy to Earth, and proposals to use the lunar surface as a billboard upon which to project commercial advertisements visible from Earth. The profound ethical, legal, and scientific shortcomings of this exploitation paradigm are described as an emerging Extraterrestrial Manifest Destiny that we have a collective obligation to challenge and constrain. The paper proposes that space exploration be infused with an ethical commitment to compassion, reverence, conservation, and non-interference to abiotic and biotic systems alike; as opposed to the expansion and extraterrestrial imposition of the colonization, exploitation, domination, and despoliation paradigm that has characterized 19th and 20th century western civilization on Earth. The World Heritage process, and how Earth's Moon clearly satisfies necessary criteria, is described, as are the political challenges this proposal presents, including the 'national sovereignty' issue. The 1972 United Nations World Heritage Convention (signed by 167 countries), provides for the protection of cultural and natural properties deemed to be of "outstanding universal value", including value "from the point of view of science, conservation, or natural beauty" and places them under "a collective responsibility." The Moon clearly meets several criteria for WHS designation, as follow: a. "be outstanding examples representing major stages of Earth's history...significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features"; b. "contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance"; and c. the Moon qualifies within the Convention as an "associative cultural landscape" which designates areas "by virtue of their powerful religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element." To facilitate WHS site designation for the Moon, it is proposed that the 1979 "Moon Treaty" (Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, entered into force 7/11/84) be amended and broadly ratified internationally. Specifically, Article 11 - which presently provides for 'the establishment of an international regime to govern the exploitation of the natural resources of the moon, encourage the development of the natural resources of the moon, the management and expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources' - should be amended to provide a clear and unequivocal declaration of the extraordinary, irreplaceable cultural and natural value of the Moon, and designation of the Moon in its entirety as an inviolate World Heritage Site reserved exclusively for scient

Steiner, R. G.

2002-01-01

159

Constraining the gravitational wave energy density of the Universe using Earth's ring  

E-print Network

The search for gravitational waves is one of today's major scientific endeavors. A gravitational wave can interact with matter by exciting vibrations of elastic bodies. Earth itself is a large elastic body whose so-called normal-mode oscillations ring up when a gravitational wave passes. Therefore, precise measurement of vibration amplitudes can be used to search for the elusive gravitational-wave signals. Earth's free oscillations that can be observed after high-magnitude earthquakes have been studied extensively with gravimeters and low-frequency seismometers over many decades leading to invaluable insight into Earth's structure. Making use of our detailed understanding of Earth's normal modes, numerical models are employed for the first time to accurately calculate Earth's gravitational-wave response, and thereby turn a network of sensors that so far has served to improve our understanding of Earth, into an astrophysical observatory exploring our Universe. In this article, we constrain the energy density o...

Coughlin, Michael

2014-01-01

160

Specific mode output from multimode fiber oscillators by designing rare earth doping profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on rate equations, a theoretical model of a fiber oscillator with a multimode gain fiber was built. We studied the effect of the rare earth doping profile in the core on the output characteristics of the multimode fiber oscillator. The results indicated that a pure fundamental mode can be obtained by partly doping the core of the large mode area (LMA) ytterbium doped fiber (YDF) in the fiber laser. Furthermore, a sole specific high-order mode can also be implemented by tailoring the rare earth doping profile according to the simulations. The mode coupling effect was also taken into account in the model. In spite of the mode coupling effect, the specific mode was able to dominate in the output of the fiber laser by utilizing the designed LMA YDF.

Wang, Wen-Liang; Huang, Liang-Jin; Leng, Jin-Yong; Guo, Shao-Feng; Jiang, Zong-Fu

2014-09-01

161

Design for Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings  

E-print Network

This paper presents the thermal design and heating design of an energy saving residential building in Beijing where the owners lived until 2004. Results show the advantages and disadvantages of a household-based heating mode by natural gas. Based...

Song, M.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, G.

2006-01-01

162

Guidelines for the Selection of Near-Earth Thermal Environment Parameters for Spacecraft Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal analysis and design of Earth orbiting systems requires specification of three environmental thermal parameters: the direct solar irradiance, Earth's local albedo, and outgoing longwave radiance (OLR). In the early 1990s data sets from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment were analyzed on behalf of the Space Station Program to provide an accurate description of these parameters as a function of averaging time along the orbital path. This information, documented in SSP 30425 and, in more generic form in NASA/TM-4527, enabled the specification of the proper thermal parameters for systems of various thermal response time constants. However, working with the engineering community and SSP-30425 and TM-4527 products over a number of years revealed difficulties in interpretation and application of this material. For this reason it was decided to develop this guidelines document to help resolve these issues of practical application. In the process, the data were extensively reprocessed and a new computer code, the Simple Thermal Environment Model (STEM) was developed to simplify the process of selecting the parameters for input into extreme hot and cold thermal analyses and design specifications. In the process, greatly improved values for the cold case OLR values for high inclination orbits were derived. Thermal parameters for satellites in low, medium, and high inclination low-Earth orbit and with various system thermal time constraints are recommended for analysis of extreme hot and cold conditions. Practical information as to the interpretation and application of the information and an introduction to the STEM are included. Complete documentation for STEM is found in the user's manual, in preparation.

Anderson, B. J.; Justus, C. G.; Batts, G. W.

2001-01-01

163

Lighting design considerations for effective energy utilization  

SciTech Connect

The changes in the lighting industry brought about by the energy crisis have affected illuminance levels, sources, hardware, codes, and the lighting design profession itself. The author describes the key issues a lighting designer must address to successfully design quality luminous environments that will enhance user productivity, use energy efficiently, and meet local energy code restrictions. The American Institute of Architects Research Institute's findings that lighting systems installed during the 1970s consume 50% of the total building energy consumption in offices and hospitals and 40% in schools and commercial buildings underscores the importance of effective lighting design.

Stashik, S.M.

1985-08-01

164

Energy-Conscious Design: Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many design features that can be used to achieve an energy-efficient building. Described are task lighting, unoccupied space shutoff, onsite well with heat pump, wide-band thermostats, and solar energy. (MLF)

Lawrence, Jerry

1984-01-01

165

Design of an energy conservation building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concepts in designing and predicting energy consumption in a low energy use building are summarized. The building will use less than 30,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. of boarder energy. The building's primary energy conservation features include heavy concrete walls with external insulation, a highly insulated ceiling, and large amounts of glass for natural lighting. A solar collector air system is integrated into the south wall. Calculations for energy conservation features were performed using NASA's NECAP Energy Program.

Jensen, R. N.

1981-01-01

166

Design of an energy conservation building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts in designing and predicting energy consumption in a low energy use building are summarized. The building will use less than 30,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. of boarder energy. The building's primary energy conservation features include heavy concrete walls with external insulation, a highly insulated ceiling, and large amounts of glass for natural lighting. A solar collector air system is integrated into the south wall. Calculations for energy conservation features were performed using NASA's NECAP Energy Program.

Jensen, R. N.

1981-11-01

167

Axial focusing of impact energy in the earth`s interior: A possible link to flood basalts and hotspots  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of shock physics and seismological computational simulations that show how energy from a large impact can be coupled to the interior of the Earth. The radially-diverging shock wave generated by the impact decays to linearly elastic seismic waves. These waves reconverge (minus attenuation) along the axis of symmetry between the impact and its antipode. The locations that experience the most strain cycles with the largest amplitudes will dissipate the most energy and have the largest increases in temperature (for a given attenuation efficiency). We have shown that the locus of maximum energy deposition in the mantle lies along the impact axis. Moreover, the most intense focusing is within the asthenosphere at the antipode, within the range of depths where mechanical energy is most readily converted to heat. We propose that if large impacts on the Earth leave geological evidence anywhere other than the impact site itself, it will be at the antipode. We suggest that the most likely result of the focusing for a sufficiently large impact, consistent with features observed in the geological record, would be a flood basalt eruption at the antipode followed by hotspot volcanism. A direct prediction of this model would be the existence of undiscovered impact structures whose reconstructed locations would be antipodal to flood basalt provinces. One such structure would be in the Indian Ocean, associated with the Columbia River Basalts and Yellowstone; another would be a second K/T impact structure in the Pacific Ocean, associated with the Deccan Traps and Reunion.

Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.; Campbell, D.L.

1994-12-01

168

Low-earth-orbit Satellite Internet Protocol Communications Concept and Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a design concept for a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end Internet-Protocol- (IP-) based mission. The goal is to maintain an up-to-date communications infrastructure that makes communications seamless with the protocols used in terrestrial computing. It is based on the premise that the use of IPs will permit greater interoperability while also reducing costs and providing users the ability to retrieve data directly from the satellite. However, implementing an IP-based solution also has a number of challenges, since wireless communications have different characteristics than wired communications. This report outlines the design of a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end IP-based mission; the ideas and concepts of Space Internet architectures and networks are beyond the scope of this document. The findings of this report show that an IP-based mission is plausible and would provide benefits to the user community, but the outstanding issues must be resolved before a design can be implemented.

Slywezak, Richard A.

2004-01-01

169

Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Design Study for Cargo Transfer to Earth-moon L1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design study for a cargo transfer vehicle using solar electric propulsion was performed for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts program. Targeted for 2016, the solar electric propulsion (SEP) transfer vehicle is required to deliver a propellant supply module with a mass of approximately 36 metric tons from Low Earth Orbit to the first Earth-Moon libration point (LL1) within 270 days. Following an examination of propulsion and power technology options, a SEP transfer vehicle design was selected that incorporated large-area (approx. 2700 sq m) thin film solar arrays and a clustered engine configuration of eight 50 kW gridded ion thrusters mounted on an articulated boom. Refinement of the SEP vehicle design was performed iteratively to properly estimate the required xenon propellant load for the out-bound orbit transfer. The SEP vehicle performance, including the xenon propellant estimation, was verified via the SNAP trajectory code. Further efforts are underway to extend this system model to other orbit transfer missions.

Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Falck, Robert D.; Dudzinski, Leonard J.; Oleson, Steven R.

2002-01-01

170

Low-Earth-Orbit Satellite Internet Protocol Communications Concept and Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a design concept for a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end Internet-Protocol- (IP-) based mission. The goal is to maintain an up-to-date communications infrastructure that makes communications seamless with the protocols used in terrestrial computing. It is based on the premise that the use of IPs will permit greater interoperability while also reducing costs and providing users the ability to retrieve data directly from the satellite. However, implementing an IP-based solution also has a number of challenges, since wireless communications have different characteristics than wired communications. This report outlines the design of a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end IP-based mission; the ideas and concepts of Space Internet architectures and networks are beyond the scope of this document. The findings of this report show that an IP-based mission is plausible and would provide benefits to the user community, but the outstanding issues must be resolved before a design can be implemented.

Slywezak, Richard A.

2004-01-01

171

Dynamic earth-contact building: A sustainable low-energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development includes low-energy buildings, which reduce energy consumption, green house gases emission, water usage, etc. The choice of subsurface wall at varying depths for construction of buildings has a direct impact on energy consumption and the environment. This paper includes in its scope all building structures in which a significant area is in direct contact with the earth, and

Rakesh Kumar; Shweta Sachdeva; S. C. Kaushik

2007-01-01

172

Energy position of 4f levels in rare-earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy position of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels relative to the Fermi energy is studied for the rare-earth metals. This is done by treating the excited state as an impurity in an otherwise perfect crystal. This picture is first considered in the complete screening approximation. In this approximation thermochemical data can be used directly to give energy values

Börje Johansson

1979-01-01

173

Earth resources data systems design: S192 instrument measurements and characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and characteristics of the S192 instrument for use with the earth resources data systems are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) multispectral scanner measurements, (2) measurement characteristics, (3) calibration and aligment, (4) operating modes, and (5) time tagging and references. The S192 will obtain high spatial resolution, quantitative line scan imagery data of the radiation reflected and emitted by selected test sites in up to 13 spectral bands of visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Goldstein, A. S.

1972-01-01

174

Rare earth permanent magnets and energy conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally in magnetoelectric devices the stator has been the massive and static part of the device and the dynamic element has been a moving coil. With improvements in the volumetric efficiency of permanent magnets it is possible to rearrange magnetic circuit elements and invert devices. Rare earth permanent magnets exhibit a high magnetic moment per unit volume and have extreme

R. J. Parker

1977-01-01

175

Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential  

SciTech Connect

The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

Wendt, R.L.

1982-04-01

176

Effect of the shrinking dipole on solar-terrestrial energy input to the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global average temperature of the Earth is rising rapidly. This rise is primarily attributed to the release of greenhouse gases as a result of human activity. However, it has been argued that changes in radiation from the Sun might play a role. Most energy input to the Earth is light in the visible spectrum. Our best measurements suggest this power input has been constant for the last 40 years (the space age) apart from a small 11-year variation due to the solar cycle of sunspot activity. Another possible energy input from the Sun is the solar wind. The supersonic solar wind carries the magnetic field of the Sun into the solar system. As it passes the Earth it can connect to the Earth's magnetic field whenever it is antiparallel t the Earth's field. This connection allows mass, momentum, and energy from the solar wind to enter the magnetosphere producing geomagnetic activity. Ultimately much of this energy is deposited at high latitudes in the form of particle precipitation (aurora) and heating by electrical currents. Although the energy input by this process is miniscule compared to that from visible radiation it might alter the absorption of visible radiation. Two other processes affected by the solar cycle are atmospheric entry of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic protons (SEP). A weak solar magnetic field at sunspot minimum facilitates GCR entry which has been implicated in creation of clouds. Large coronal mass ejections and solar flares create SEP at solar maximum. All of these alternative energy inputs and their effects depend on the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently the Earth's field is decreasing rapidly and conceivably might reverse polarity in 1000 years. In this paper we describe the changes in the Earth's magnetic field and how this might affect GCR, SEP, electrical heating, aurora, and radio propagation. Whether these effects are important in global climate change can only be determined by detailed physical models.

McPherron, R. L.

2011-12-01

177

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY UTILITY DESIGN: OPTIONS  

E-print Network

..................................................................25 3.4.3 Green Energy Fund-responsive Programs that Target All Fuels and All Customer Classes.................32 4.3 A Financing Plan for Self

Delaware, University of

178

Design of a Representative Low Earth Orbit Satellite to Improve Existing Debris Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the process and methodologies used in the design of a small-satellite, DebriSat, that represents materials and construction methods used in modern day Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. This satellite will be used in a future hypervelocity impact test with the overall purpose to investigate the physical characteristics of modern LEO satellites after an on-orbit collision. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy Transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960 s. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques from a satellite built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. The design of DebriSat will focus on designing and building a next-generation satellite to more accurately portray modern satellites. The design of DebriSat included a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 10 kg to 5000 kg. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions, and helped direct the design of DebriSat.

Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Werremeyer, M.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.

2012-01-01

179

Energy Efficient Architectural Design and Model Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed for middle to high school level math teachers who want to illustrate the principles of scaling, ratio, and proportion in a concrete way through model building, and for science teachers who want to teach practical energy efficient design principles, with particular emphasis on passive solar design. Recommended for 7th-12th grade basic math and science.

Kass, Stephen

2007-07-29

180

50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box retail buildings, (4) Large hospital buildings.

Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Liu, B.; Wang, W.; Thornton, B.; Williams, J.

2012-07-01

181

Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains a collection of bibliographies concerning the implementation of solar energy technology into architecture. Some titles of included works are: Passive Solar Handbook; Solar Energy; The Solar Home Book; Performance Criteria for Solar Heating and Cooling Systems; Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design; Regional Guidelines for Buildings; and A survey of Passive Solar Buildings. A total of

Givoni

1989-01-01

182

Energy Efficient Lighting System Design for Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lighting contributes the highest amount of electricity usage in a building. Generally, lighting will consume from 20% until 50% of the electricity consumption. The efficient and effective use of lighting can offer major energy and cost saving. This research investigates and analyses the energy management in a building and presents the design of energy efficient lighting systems. The first part

W. N. W. Muhamad; M. Y. M. Zain; N. Wahab; N. H. A. Aziz; R. A. Kadir

2010-01-01

183

Computational materials design for energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General adoption of sustainable energy technologies depends on the discovery and development of new high-performance materials. For instance, waste heat recovery and electricity generation via the solar thermal route require bulk thermoelectrics with a high figure of merit (ZT) and thermal stability at high-temperatures. Energy recovery applications (e.g., regenerative braking) call for the development of rapidly chargeable systems for electrical energy storage, such as electrochemical supercapacitors. Similarly, use of hydrogen as vehicular fuel depends on the ability to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract it at ambient temperatures at sufficiently rapid rates. We will discuss how first-principles computational methods based on quantum mechanics and statistical physics can drive the understanding, improvement and prediction of new energy materials. We will cover prediction and experimental verification of new earth-abundant thermoelectrics, transition metal oxides for electrochemical supercapacitors, and kinetics of mass transport in complex metal hydrides.

Ozolins, Vidvuds

2013-03-01

184

Constraining the gravitational wave energy density of the Universe using Earth's ring  

E-print Network

The search for gravitational waves is one of today's major scientific endeavors. A gravitational wave can interact with matter by exciting vibrations of elastic bodies. Earth itself is a large elastic body whose so-called normal-mode oscillations ring up when a gravitational wave passes. Therefore, precise measurement of vibration amplitudes can be used to search for the elusive gravitational-wave signals. Earth's free oscillations that can be observed after high-magnitude earthquakes have been studied extensively with gravimeters and low-frequency seismometers over many decades leading to invaluable insight into Earth's structure. Making use of our detailed understanding of Earth's normal modes, numerical models are employed for the first time to accurately calculate Earth's gravitational-wave response, and thereby turn a network of sensors that so far has served to improve our understanding of Earth, into an astrophysical observatory exploring our Universe. In this article, we constrain the energy density of gravitational waves to values in the range 0.035 - 0.15 normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe at frequencies between 0.3mHz and 5mHz, using 10 years of data from the gravimeter network of the Global Geodynamics Project that continuously monitors Earth's oscillations. This work is the first step towards a systematic investigation of the sensitivity of gravimeter networks to gravitational waves. Further advance in gravimeter technology could improve sensitivity of these networks and possibly lead to gravitational-wave detection.

Michael Coughlin; Jan Harms

2014-06-04

185

Constraining the gravitational wave energy density of the Universe using Earth's ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for gravitational waves is one of today's major scientific endeavors. A gravitational wave can interact with matter by exciting vibrations of elastic bodies. Earth itself is a large elastic body whose so-called normal-mode oscillations ring up when a gravitational wave passes. Therefore, precise measurement of vibration amplitudes can be used to search for the elusive gravitational-wave signals. Earth's free oscillations that can be observed after high-magnitude earthquakes have been studied extensively with gravimeters and low-frequency seismometers over many decades leading to invaluable insight into Earth's structure. Making use of our detailed understanding of Earth's normal modes, numerical models are employed for the first time to accurately calculate Earth's gravitational-wave response, and thereby turn a network of sensors that so far has served to improve our understanding of Earth, into an astrophysical observatory exploring our Universe. In this paper, we constrain the energy density of gravitational waves to values in the range 0.035-0.15 normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe at frequencies between 0.3 and 5 mHz, using ten years of data from the gravimeter network of the Global Geodynamics Project that continuously monitors Earth's oscillations. This work is the first step towards a systematic investigation of the sensitivity of gravimeter networks to gravitational waves. Further advances in gravimeter technology could improve sensitivity of these networks and possibly lead to gravitational-wave detection.

Coughlin, Michael; Harms, Jan

2014-08-01

186

Preparing nano-crystalline rare earth doped WC\\/Co powder by high energy ball milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nano-crystalline rare earth doped WC\\/Co powder was prepared by high energy ball milling. The nano-crystalline powders were characterized by means of XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscope) and DTA (differential thermal analysis). The results show that adding trace rare earth elements into carbides is effective to minish the grain size of WC\\/Co powder. The grain size of rare

Sha Liu; Ze-Lan Huang; Gang Liu; Gui-Bin Yang

2006-01-01

187

The Dynamics of High-energy Cosmic Rays In Near Earth Space and Earthquake Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of correlation between short-term variations of high energy charged par- ticle fluxes in the near Earth space and seismic activity was discovered at the end of 1980s in MARIA experiment on board SALYUT-7 orbital station. Basing on 15 years investigations of high energy charged particles fluxes dynamics in magnetosphere by means of instruments installed on spacecraft it was

S. Alexandrin; A. Galper; L. Grishantseva; S. Koldashov; L. Maslennikov; A. Murashov; P. Picozza; S. Voronov

2002-01-01

188

Earth-covered buildings: An exploratory analysis for hazard and energy performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of earth covered buildings is examined regarding storms, nuclear detonations, earthquakes, fire, nuclear radiation, energy consumption, compatibility with solar energy systems, peak load effects, soil and groundwater effects, air and climate effects, occupant evaluation, and resource management. Potential longterm benefits are assessed, including the areas of economic benefits, community benefits and security benefits.

Moreland, F. L.

1981-11-01

189

Earth-Science Research for Addressing the Water-Energy Nexus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coming decades, the United States will face two significant and sometimes competing challenges: preserving sustainable supplies of fresh water for humans and ecosystems, and ensuring available sources of energy. This presentation provides an overview of the earth-science data collection and research needed to address these challenges. Uncertainty limits our understanding of many aspects of the water-energy nexus. These aspects include availability of water, water requirements for energy development, energy requirements for treating and delivering fresh water, effects of emerging energy development technologies on water quality and quantity, and effects of future climates and land use on water and energy needs. Uncertainties can be reduced with an integrated approach that includes assessments of water availability and energy resources; monitoring of surface water and groundwater quantity and quality, water use, and energy use; research on impacts of energy waste streams, hydraulic fracturing, and other fuel-extraction processes on water quality; and research on the viability and environmental footprint of new technologies such as carbon capture and sequestration and conversion of cellulosic material to ethanol. Planning for water and energy development requires consideration of factors such as economics, population trends, human health, and societal values; however, sound resource management must be grounded on a clear understanding of the earth-science aspects of the water-energy nexus. Information gained from an earth-science data-collection and research program can improve our understanding of water and energy issues and lay the ground work for informed resource management.

Healy, R. W.; Alley, W. M.; Engle, M.; McMahon, P. B.; Bales, J. D.

2013-12-01

190

The opto-mechanical design of the GMT-consortium large earth finder (G-CLEF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is a fiber fed, optical echelle spectrograph that has been selected as a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) currently under construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile's Atacama desert region. We designed G-CLEF as a general-purpose echelle spectrograph with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability used for exoplanet detection. The radial velocity (RV) precision goal of GCLEF is 10 cm/sec, necessary for detection of Earth-sized planets orbiting stars like our Sun in the habitable zone. This goal imposes challenging stability requirements on the optical mounts and the overall spectrograph support structures. Stability in instruments of this type is typically affected by changes in temperature, orientation, and air pressure as well as vibrations caused by telescope tracking. For these reasons, we have chosen to enclose G-CLEF's spectrograph in a thermally insulated, vibration isolated vacuum chamber and place it at a gravity invariant location on GMT's azimuth platform. Additional design constraints posed by the GMT telescope include: a limited space envelope, a thermal emission ceiling, and a maximum weight allowance. Other factors, such as manufacturability, serviceability, available technology and budget are also significant design drivers. All of the previously listed considerations must be managed while ensuring that performance requirements are achieved. In this paper, we discuss the design of G-CLEF's optical mounts and support structures including technical choices made to minimize the system's sensitivity to thermal gradients. A more general treatment of the properties of G-CLEF can be found elsewhere in these proceedings1. We discuss the design of the vacuum chamber which houses the irregularly shaped optical bench and optics while conforming to a challenging space envelope on GMT's azimuth platform. We also discuss the design of G-CLEF's insulated enclosure and thermal control systems which maintain the spectrograph at milli-Kelvin level stability while simultaneously limiting the maximum thermal emission into the telescope dome environment. Finally, we discuss G-CLEF's front-end assembly and fiber-feed system as well as other interface challenges presented by the telescope, enclosure and neighboring instrumentation.

Mueller, Mark; Baldwin, Daniel; Bean, Jacob; Bergner, Henry; Bigelow, Bruce; Chun, Moo-Young; Crane, Jeffrey; Foster, Jeff; F?rész, Gabor; Gauron, Thomas; Guzman, Dani; Hertz, Edward; Jordán, Andrés.; Kim, Kang-Min; McCracken, Kenneth; Norton, Timothy; Ordway, Mark; Park, Chan; Park, Sang; Podgorski, William A.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Uomoto, Alan; Yuk, In-Soo

2014-08-01

191

Exceeding Energy Consumption Design Expectations  

E-print Network

& Structural Engineering Mott MacDonald Sheffield, UK The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK ABSTRACT Operational building performance often fails to meet that predicted at the design stage by as much as two to three times. Many... priority, it is important to understand how, if at all, ?low carbon? building targets are attainable. Furthermore, the 2008 UK Government budget report laid down targets for: zero carbon new homes by 2016; zero carbon new public buildings by 2018...

Castleton, H. F.; Beck, S. B. M.; Hathwat, E. A.; Murphy, E.

2013-01-01

192

A preliminary TPS design for MRSR - Aerobraking at Mars and at earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of using an aerobrake system for an unmanned mission to Mars and for a return vehicle to earth. A preliminary thermal protection system (TPS) is examined for two small nose radius, straight biconic vehicles aerocapturing at Mars. The TPS for these vehicles, entering at 6 km/s and 8 km/s, are shown to have an advantage over a propulsive burn velocity reduction for orbit insertion. The TPS for each vehicle consisted of an ablator in the region of high heating, and reusable insulation over the rest of the structure. It was determined that a reusable TPS could be used over 98 percent of the aeroshell structure. Also presented is the preliminary TPS design for an Apollo-shaped vehicle aerocapturing at earth. As with the biconics, this vehicle had an ablator in the region of high heating, and reusable insulation on the aft conic section. In contrast to the vehicles aerocapturing at Mars, the ablator is used on 63 percent of the vehicle's aeroshell structure.

Williams, S. D.; Pavlosky, J. E.; Curry, D. M.

1990-01-01

193

Design and development of a gossamer sail system for deorbiting in low earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of space debris in low Earth orbits poses an increasing threat of collisions and damage to spacecraft. As a low-cost solution to the space debris problem the Gossamer Deorbiter proposed herein is designed as a scalable stand-alone system that can be attached to a low-to-medium mass host satellite for end-of-life disposal from low Earth orbit. It consists of a 5 m by 5 m square solar/drag sail that uses four bistable carbon fiber booms for deployment and support. Prior to deployment of the gossamer structure, a telescopic enclosure system is used to displace the sail from the host craft in order to extend the sail without hindrance from the host peripherals, and also provide passive stabilization. The principal advantage of an entirely passive operational mode allows the drag augmentation system to act as a “fail-safe” device that would activate if the spacecraft suffers a catastrophic failure. Several scenarios are analyzed to study the potential application and performance of the system to current and future missions. A detailed breakdown of the mechanical subsystems of the Gossamer Deorbiter is presented, as well as the characterization process of the deployable booms and sail membrane and the full qualification testing campaign at component and system levels. Finally, the performance scalability of the concept is analyzed.

Fernandez, Juan M.; Visagie, Lourens; Schenk, Mark; Stohlman, Olive R.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Lappas, Vaios J.; Erb, Sven

2014-10-01

194

Guidelines in Wave Energy Conversion System Design  

E-print Network

This paper presents an investigational study on wave energy converters (WECs). The types of WEC available from the market are studied first. The design considerations for implementing a WEC in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are then evaluated...

Guiberteau, K. L.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.; Kozman, T.

2014-01-01

195

Earth, water, wind, and sun: our energy alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author does not see any of the alternative energy sources as magic substitutes for fossil fuels like oil, coal, and gas. Instead, these alternatives--geothermal power, water power, wind and solar energy-- together can help provide an energy solution. For each alternative, a history of its development and use is presented; its actual power contribution as well as its potential,

Halacy; D. S. Jr

1977-01-01

196

Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

1997-01-01

197

A preliminary design for the GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is an optical-band echelle spectrograph that has been selected as the first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). G-CLEF is a general-purpose, high dispersion spectrograph that is fiber fed and capable of extremely precise radial velocity measurements. The G-CLEF Concept Design (CoD) was selected in Spring 2013. Since then, G-CLEF has undergone science requirements and instrument requirements reviews and will be the subject of a preliminary design review (PDR) in March 2015. Since CoD review (CoDR), the overall G-CLEF design has evolved significantly as we have optimized the constituent designs of the major subsystems, i.e. the fiber system, the telescope interface, the calibration system and the spectrograph itself. These modifications have been made to enhance G-CLEF's capability to address frontier science problems, as well as to respond to the evolution of the GMT itself and developments in the technical landscape. G-CLEF has been designed by applying rigorous systems engineering methodology to flow Level 1 Scientific Objectives to Level 2 Observational Requirements and thence to Level 3 and Level 4. The rigorous systems approach applied to G-CLEF establishes a well defined science requirements framework for the engineering design. By adopting this formalism, we may flexibly update and analyze the capability of G-CLEF to respond to new scientific discoveries as we move toward first light. G-CLEF will exploit numerous technological advances and features of the GMT itself to deliver an efficient, high performance instrument, e.g. exploiting the adaptive optics secondary system to increase both throughput and radial velocity measurement precision.

Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Barnes, Stuart; Bean, Jacob; Bigelow, Bruce; Bouchez, Antonin; Chun, Moo-Young; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Epps, Harland; Evans, Ian; Evans, Janet; Frebel, Anna; Furesz, Gabor; Glenday, Alex; Guzman, Dani; Hare, Tyson; Jang, Bi-Ho; Jang, Jeong-Gyun; Jeong, Ueejong; Jordan, Andres; Kim, Kang-Min; Kim, Jihun; Li, Chih-Hao; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; McCracken, Kenneth; McLeod, Brian; Mueller, Mark; Nah, Jakyung; Norton, Timothy; Oh, Heeyoung; Oh, Jae Sok; Ordway, Mark; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Park, Sung-Joon; Phillips, David; Plummer, David; Podgorski, William; Rodler, Florian; Seifahrt, Andreas; Tak, Kyung-Mo; Uomoto, Alan; Van Dam, Marcos A.; Walsworth, Ronald; Yu, Young Sam; Yuk, In-Soo

2014-08-01

198

Power inversion design for ocean wave energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The needs for energy sources are increasing day by day because of several factors, such as oil depletion, and global climate change due to the higher level of CO2, so the exploration of various renewable energy sources is very promising area of study. The available ocean waves can be utilized as free source of energy as the water covers 70% of the earth surface. This thesis presents the ocean wave energy as a source of renewable energy. By addressing the problem of designing efficient power electronics system to deliver 5 KW from the induction generator to the grid with less possible losses and harmonics as possible and to control current fed to the grid to successfully harvest ocean wave energy. We design an AC-DC full bridge rectifier converter, and a DC-DC boost converter to harvest wave energy from AC to regulated DC. In order to increase the design efficiency, we need to increase the power factor from (0.5-0.6) to 1. This is accomplished by designing the boost converter with power factor correction in continues mode with RC circuit as an input to the boost converter power factor correction. This design results in a phase shift between the input current and voltage of the full bridge rectifier to generate a small reactive power. The reactive power is injected to the induction generator to maintain its functionality by generating a magnetic field in its stator. Next, we design a single-phase pulse width modulator full bridge voltage source DC-AC grid-tied mode inverter to harvest regulated DC wave energy to AC. The designed inverter is modulated by inner current loop, to control current injected to the grid with minimal filter component to maintain power quality at the grid. The simulation results show that our design successfully control the current level fed to the grid. It is noteworthy that the simulated efficiency is higher than the calculated one since we used an ideal switch in the simulated circuit.

Talebani, Anwar N.

199

Phased array feed design technology for Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Earth observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the potential and limitations of phased array antennas in space-based geophysical precision radiometry is described. Mathematical models exhibiting the dependence of system and scene temperatures and system sensitivity on phased array antenna parameters and components such as phase shifters and low noise amplifiers (LNA) are developed. Emphasis is given to minimum noise temperature designs wherein the LNA's are located at the array level, one per element or subarray. Two types of combiners are considered: array lenses (space feeds) and corporate networks. The result of a survey of suitable components and devices is described. The data obtained from that survey are used in conjunction with the mathematical models to yield an assessment of effective array antenna noise temperature for representative geostationary and low Earth orbit systems. Practical methods of calibrating a space-based, phased array radiometer are briefly addressed as well.

Schuman, H. K.

1992-01-01

200

National Energy Information System: Detailed Conceptual Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual design of the National Enrgy Information System (NEIS) is presented. The existing energy data situation is reviewed and the basic approach to the design of NEIS is explained. The NEIS goals are analyzed and the NEIS user requirements in ter...

M. Fiorello, M. Lutz, S. Morris, M. Shaw

1978-01-01

201

How reliable are latitudinal energy balance models for habitability calculations when using Earth's radiative properties?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exoplanet habitability studies are often performed using simple energy balance models (EBMs), which rely on an understanding of a planet's radiative properties. However, knowledge of these properties is currently limited. Here, I use Earth as a testbed for examining habitability and model uncertainty in a diffusive latitudinal EBM. Using an empirical approach, I parametrize Earth's radiative properties - top of atmosphere albedo and outgoing infrared radiation - as a function of surface temperature, using measurements from the NASA Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System instruments. When using surface temperature to construct these functions, a bias analysis shows only small global biases of 3 and - 0.3 W m-2 are introduced for the albedo and infrared functions, respectively. I also show there is a very fine balance between Earth's incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation in the observational data, which is substantially smaller than previously assumed in this model. Using observationally derived radiative functions for an Earth-like planet, the snowball transition can be determined within a semimajor axis of ˜3 per cent, with a structural uncertainty of ˜2 per cent in the radiative function construction. This work shows that diffusive EBMs can be successfully used to identify habitable exo-Earths within ˜3 per cent if the radiative properties are known.

Gilmore, James B.

2014-05-01

202

A method to detect ultra high energy electrons using earth's magnetic field as a radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the detection of electrons with energies exceeding a few TeV, which lose energy rapidly through synchrotron and inverse Compton processes, would provide valuable information on the distribution of sources and on the propagation of cosmic rays in the solar neighborhood. However, it would not be possible to measure the energy spectrum beyond a few TeV with any of the existing experimental techniques. The present investigation is, therefore concerned with the possibility of detecting electrons with energies exceeding a few TeV on the basis of the photons emitted through synchrotron radiation in the earth's magnetic field. Attention is given to the synchrotron radiation of electrons in the earth's magnetic field, detector response and energy estimation, and the characteristics of an ideal detector, capable of detecting photons with energies equal to or greater than 20 keV.

Stephens, S. A.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

1983-01-01

203

DSN energy data base preliminary design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of a computerized data base created to support the DSN Energy Conservation Project with data relating to energy use at Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex are described. The results of development work to date, are presented along with work currently in progress or in the planning stage.

Cole, E. R.; Herrera, L. O.; Lascu, D. M.

1979-01-01

204

Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)

Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

1988-01-01

205

Design of a Surface Albedo Modification Payload for Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Mitigation  

E-print Network

The development of the Surface Albedo Treatment System (SATS) onboard a spacecraft mission to the near earth asteroid (NEA) Apophis in 2012 is an innovative concept of deflecting NEAs from possible impact with the Earth through altering...

Ge, Shen

2011-10-21

206

Spacecraft design-for-demise strategy, analysis and impact on low earth orbit space missions  

E-print Network

Uncontrolled reentry into the Earth atmosphere by LEO space missions whilst complying with stipulated NASA Earth atmospheric reentry requirements is a vital endeavor for the space community to pursue. An uncontrolled reentry ...

Waswa, M. B. Peter (Peter Moses Bweya)

2009-01-01

207

Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a collection of bibliographies concerning the implementation of solar energy technology into architecture. Some titles of included works are: Passive Solar Handbook; Solar Energy; The Solar Home Book; Performance Criteria for Solar Heating and Cooling Systems; Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design; Regional Guidelines for Buildings; and A survey of Passive Solar Buildings. A total of 46 bibliographies are included. (FSD)

Givoni, B.

1989-01-01

208

Energy Signatures: a proposed new design tool  

SciTech Connect

Energy Signatures is a proposed new technique for aiding a designer in selecting and sizing passive solar elements on a building. Hourly heat flux profiles for each candidate design element are determined. These profiles are then matched to the hourly energy requirement of the space accounting for weather conditions, internal heat profiles of the space, and the mass characteristics of the building. Simulation analysis techniques are used to determine the Energy Signatures, the load profiles, and check the final result. Least-squares techniques are used to determine the optimum mix of strategies. Examples are given to illustrate development of the method up to the present. Future directions and possibilities are outlined.

Balcomb, J.D.

1986-04-01

209

Co-Seismic Energy Changes Induced by Earthquakes on a Rotating, Gravitating Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Besides operating its own energy budget, an earthquake acts as an agent transferring a much greater amount of energy among the Earth's rotation, elastic field, gravitational field and internal heat. We compute the co-seismic, globally integrated gravitational and rotation changes induced by some 20,000 large earthquakes that occurred in the last quarter century, according to Chao et al. (1995, GJI, 122,776- 783,784-789) and using the Harvard CMT catalog. The result confirms an extremely strong tendency for the earthquakes to decrease the global gravitational energy and to increase the spin energy. It is found that energy is being extracted from the Earth's gravitational field by the action of earthquakes at an average rate of about approx. 2 TeraW during the studied period, larger by far than the approx. 7 GigaW for the average rate of the earthquake-induced rotational energy increase and the approx. 5 GigaW for the seismic energy release. Based on energetics considerations and assuming the inability of the Earth to build up elastic energy continuously over time, it is argued that earthquakes, by converting gravitational energy, may make a significant contribution to the global hedflow.

Chao, Benjamin F.; Gross, Richard S.

2003-01-01

210

Investigation of a minimum energy Earth-Mars trajectory  

E-print Network

projected exit nozzle, (See Figure 2). P (Figure 2) Differential Pressures On Nozzle Every rocket nozzle is designed for an optimum altitude at which the exit pressure and local atmospheric pressure are balanced, that is, (P -P ) = O. Below... projected exit nozzle, (See Figure 2). P (Figure 2) Differential Pressures On Nozzle Every rocket nozzle is designed for an optimum altitude at which the exit pressure and local atmospheric pressure are balanced, that is, (P -P ) = O. Below...

Brown, Richard Emett

2012-06-07

211

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-01-01

212

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a review: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-07-01

213

Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission to Planet Earth is a research program designed to obtain information on the earth and the global changes taking place in the environment, including the 'natural'changes due to internal processes within the earth environment, the effects of energy and particles arriving from the outer space, and the effects of man and other living organisms inhabiting the earth. This paper emphasizes the need for multinational commitment to the collection of data on various global phenomena and for the 'end-to-end' management of the data handling process, which must combine data from many sources and do it properly to reveal useful information. The role of NASA and other space agencies in organizing these efforts is discussed. Special attention is given to the role of SAFISY (the Space Agency Forum for the International Space Year) formed with participation of 24 nations to coordinate the activities of various space agencies on the Mission to Planet Earth project.

Mclucas, John L.

1989-01-01

214

Star Power on Earth: Path to Clean Energy Future  

ScienceCinema

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's "Science on Saturday" lecture series presents Ed Moses, Director of the National Ignition Facility, discussing the world's largest laser system and its potential impact on society's upcoming energy needs.

Ed Moses

2010-09-01

215

Star Power on Earth: Path to Clean Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's "Science on Saturday" lecture series presents Ed Moses, Director of the National Ignition Facility, discussing the world's largest laser system and its potential impact on society's upcoming energy needs.

Ed Moses

2009-10-09

216

Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires federal facilities to be built to achieve 30% energy savings over the 2004 International Energy Code or American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004, as appropriate. The Engineer Research and Development Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing target energy budgets and design guides with a prescriptive path to achieve 30% energy savings over a baseline built to the minimum requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This project covers eight building types in 15 U.S. climate zones. The building types include barracks, administrative buildings, a maintenance facility, a dining facility, a child development center, and an Army reserve center. All the design guides will be completed by the end of 2008. This paper focuses on the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing (UEPH). The UEPH buildings are similar to apartment buildings with double occupancy units. For each building type, a baseline was established following typical Army construction and ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix G modeling rules. Improvements in energy performance were achieved for the envelope using the NREL optimization platform for commercial buildings and previous ASHRAE design guides. Credit was also taken for tightening the building envelope by using proposed envelope leakage rates from ASHRAE and the Army. Two HVAC systems, including a dedicated outdoor air system, were considered. The final results achieved 29% site energy savings in two climates and greater than 30% site energy savings in all other climates. Results of this study were implemented in the Army's standard RFP process for new UEPH barracks construction in late 2007. New UEPH design/construction begun in 2008 and beyond will require the contractor to design and construct a UEPH facility that meets the target energy budget developed in this study using either a custom design or the design guide's prescriptive path developed as part of this study.

Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

2008-01-01

217

Spacecraft Formation Design Near the Sun-Earth L(sub 2) Point  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the next two decades international space agencies including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the European Space Agency are proposing space missions which employ distributed spacecraft technologies to enable vast improvements in remote sensing performance as compared to fundamental performance limitations associated with fairing sizes of even the largest launch vehicles. A key initial step towards enabling such challenging missions is the development of processes and algorithms for designing the desired motion of the spacecraft formation subject to simultaneous gravitational and fuel constraints. In this paper we develop analogous methodologies for designing trajectories of relative motion near the L(sub 2) point as have been thoroughly developed for the Earth-orbiting regime. In this preliminary study, we confine ourselves to the basic assumptions of the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem where disturbances, non-gravitational effects, and fourth and greater body affects are ignored. The focus is on determining formations that are defined primarily by the natural gravitational effects on the vehicles, such that maintenance over long-term will not require significant fuel consumption.

Collange, Guillaume; Leitner, Jesse

2003-01-01

218

Design of a Formation of Earth Orbiting Satellites: The Auroral Lites Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has proposed a set of spacecraft flying in close formation around the Earth in order to measure the behavior of the auroras. The mission, named Auroral Lites, consists of four spacecraft configured to start at the vertices of a tetrahedron, flying over three mission phases. During the first phase, the distance between any two spacecraft in the formation is targeted at 10 kilometers (km). The second mission phase is much tighter, requiring satellite interrange spacing targeted at 500 meters. During the final phase of the mission, the formation opens to a nominal 100-km interrange spacing. In this paper, we present the strategy employed to initialize and model such a close formation during each of these phases. The analysis performed to date provides the design and characteristics of the reference orbit, the evolution of the formation during Phases I and II, and an estimate of the total mission delta-V budget. AI Solutions' mission design tool, FreeFlyer(R), was used to generate each of these analysis elements. The tool contains full force models, including both impulsive and finite duration maneuvers. Orbital maintenance can be fully modeled in the system using a flexible, natural scripting language built into the system. In addition, AI Solutions is in the process of adding formation extensions to the system facilitating mission analysis for formations like Auroral Lites. We will discuss how FreeFlyer(R) is used for these analyses.

Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.; Richon, Karen

1999-01-01

219

Design of a High Resolution Scalable Cluster Based Portable Tiled Display for Earth Sciences Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Earth Observations and Applications (CEOA) collaborated with researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visualization Center and the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) to design an advanced portable visualization system to explore geophysical and oceanography datasets at very high resolution. The system consists of 15 Dell 24" monitors arranged in a 3x5 grid ( 3 panels high and 5 wide). Each monitor supports a resolution of upto 1920 x 1200 and is driven by one node of a cluster of 15 Intel Mac Minis. The tiled display supports a total resolution of over 34 million pixels and can be used either as a single large desktop to display rendered animations, HD movies and image files or to display web-based content on each panel for simultaneous viewing of mutliple datasets. The system is enclosed in a custom built case that can hold all the required components and transported to research sites or to meetings and conferences for public awareness activities. We call the system the 'Mobile INteractive Imaging Multidisplay Environment' or simply 'miniMe'. The design of the miniMe wall is based on a class of advanced display systems called Geowall-2 developed at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Nayak, A. M.; Dawe, G.; Samilo, D.; Keen, C.; Matthews, J.; Patel, A.; Im, T.; Orcutt, J.; Defanti, T.

2006-12-01

220

Energy sources and mechanisms for the effect of space factors on the earth's upper atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy sources acting on the earth's upper atmosphere are discussed with particular emphasis on solar corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation. The scientific tasks of a satellite-rocket experiment for investigating the effect of space factors on the state of the upper atmosphere are outlined. The experiment involves the use of a Meteor satellite and meteorological rockets.

V. F. Tulinov; V. M. Feigin; V. L. Ferberov

1985-01-01

221

The solar energy incident on a plane at the earth surface; Situation in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar energy, incident yearly on a plane surface at the earth surface, is calculated, as a function of the fixed orientation of the plane. Distinction has been made between direct sun radiation, diffuse sky radiation and diffuse ground reflection. Statistical data for the clouding was taken into account. The mathematical models have been kept as simple and as general

A. De Vos; G. De Mey

1977-01-01

222

Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and window radiances from filtered radiances measured by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype, and whether cloud is present. Relative errors in instantaneous

Norman G. Loeb; Kory J. Priestley; David P. Kratz; Erika B. Geier; Richard N. Green; Bruce A. Wielicki; Patricia O'Rawe Hinton; Sandra K. Nolan

2001-01-01

223

On the stability of the Earth's radiative energy balance: Response to the Mt. Pinatubo eruption  

E-print Network

), measured by the net flux, FN, (the difference between down-welling shortwave (SW) radiation absorbedOn the stability of the Earth's radiative energy balance: Response to the Mt. Pinatubo eruption J constants for the onset and decay of the consequent radiative perturbation may be measured. The radiative

224

Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005  

E-print Network

Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005 Scientists radiation. This imbalance provides confirmation of global warming theory and a measure of the net forcing global warming `in-the-pipeline' ­ warming that will occur this century without any further increases

Hansen, James E.

225

High-energy cosmic ray muons in the Earth's atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

We present the calculations of the atmospheric muon fluxes at energies 10-10{sup 7} GeV based on a numerical-analytical method for solving the hadron-nucleus cascade equations. It allows the non-power-law behavior of the primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum, the violation of Feynman scaling, and the growth of the total inelastic cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions with increasing energy to be taken into account. The calculations have been performed for a wide class of hadron-nucleus interaction models using directly the PCR measurements made in the ATIC-2 and GAMMA experiments and the parameterizations of the primary spectrum based on a set of experiments. We study the dependence of atmospheric muon flux characteristics on the hadronic interaction model and the influence of uncertainties in the PCR spectrum and composition on the muon flux at sea level. Comparison of the calculated muon energy spectra at sea level with the data from a large number of experiments shows that the cross sections for hadron-nucleus interactions introduce the greatest uncertainty in the energy region that does not include the knee in the primary spectrum.

Kochanov, A. A., E-mail: kochanov@iszf.irk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (Russian Federation); Sinegovskaya, T. S. [Irkutsk State Railway University (Russian Federation)] [Irkutsk State Railway University (Russian Federation); Sinegovsky, S. I., E-mail: sinegovsky@api.isu.ru [Irkutsk State University (Russian Federation)

2013-03-15

226

Enhanced solar energy options using earth-orbiting mirrors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system of orbiting space reflectors is described, analyzed, and shown to economically provide nearly continuous insolation to preselected ground sites, producing benefits hitherto lacking in conventional solar farms and leading to large reductions in energy costs for such installations. Free-flying planar mirrors of about 1 sq km are shown to be optimum and can be made at under 10

W. P. Gilbreath; K. W. Billman; S. W. Bowen

1978-01-01

227

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 5: System design and specifications. Part 1: Observatory system element specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance, design, and quality assurance requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Observatory and Ground System program elements required to perform the Land Resources Management (LRM) A-type mission are presented. The requirements for the Observatory element with the exception of the instruments specifications are contained in the first part.

1974-01-01

228

The Design and Evaluation of a HighPerformance Earth Science Carter T. Shock, Chialin Chang, Bongki Moon, Anurag Acharya,  

E-print Network

The Design and Evaluation of a High­Performance Earth Science Database Carter T. Shock, Chialin Institute for Advanced Computer Studies and Department of Computer Science College Park, MD 20742 fctso,chialin,bkmoon,acha,lsd of a high­performance remote­sensing database. First, the database must provide low­latency retrieval

Moon, Bongki

229

Low-energy neutrino factory design  

SciTech Connect

The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

Ankenbrandt, C.; /Fermilab /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Bogacz, S.A.; /Jefferson Lab; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

2009-07-01

230

Thermonuclear Processes as a Principal Source of the Earth's Internal Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cosmological model of the formation of the Solar System is presented. It is shown that the main source of the Earth's energy is delivered from the thermonuclear processes in the inner Earth's core consisting of metallic hydrides. Several theoretical studies showed that under low temperature (T<104 K) and sufficiently high density of plasma, the characteristics of nuclear synthesis could be explained only with some adjustments to a thermonuclear synthesis theory. By building a diagram of the mass luminosity for the giant planets and the Earth, Wang Hong-Zhang (1990) illustrated that this diagram was similar to the one corresponding to stars. This could have only one explanation-the energy is due to the thermonuclear reactions and the energy rate is increasing exponentially with temperature and pressure. In the local areas where thermonuclear reactions occur in the Earth core, one should expect a sharp increase in temperature which causes of the dissolution of hydrides, e.g. release of hydrogen from the hydride-ionic form to the proton gas in large quantities (Larin, 2005). The pressure in this zone would sharply rise, and this would cause expulsion of the streams of the hydrogen plasma outside of the Earth's core. As a result of the Earth rotation and existence of the Coriolis' acceleration, the hydrogen plumes (more exactly, the proton gas) characterized by a high electrical conductivity twirl in spirals in the outer core of the Earth. These spirals form solenoid and, as a result, create the dipole magnetic field of the Earth. The suggest hypothesis of the thermonuclear nature of the Earth's energy flux is a main reason for the endogenic geodynamic and tectonic processes in the Earth's history. This hypothesis is supported by known experimental facts, and it opens new ways to study not only our planet but other planets of the Solar System. One should note that according to accepted concepts, the dipole magnetic field could exist in planets with a sufficient rotation and a possibility of thermonuclear reactions in their core. Accordingly, these planets don't have dipole magnetic fields. The quantities of hydrogen (in the form of hydrides) in the Earth's core are also not limitless. When they are exhausted, then naturally, the thermonuclear reactions cease along with all tectonic activity and magnetic field. This study gives a theoretical justification of a possible non-organic origin of hydrocarbons. Surely, if there is degassing of hydrogen from deep areas of the planet, hydrogen once present in the carbon rich areas would result in the hydrogenising reactions potentially forming layers rich with hydrocarbons. Respectively, hydrocarbons (non-organic) could be formed now and will be formed until the source of hydrogen would cease in the Earth's core. Moreover, the pure hydrogen (coming from the Earth's core) could find its way to the surface during some rare and catastrophic evens. However, this is another problem of new methods of how to detect, explore and even produce hydrocarbons including pure hydrogen. Full paper: www.springerlink.com/content/jn2576q7727q0034

Terez, E. I.; Terez, I. E.

2011-12-01

231

High-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space as earthquake precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental data on high-energy charged particle fluxes, obtained in various near-Earth space experiments (MIR orbital station, METEOR-3, GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites) were processed and analyzed with the goal to search for particle bursts. Particle bursts have been selected in every experiment considered. It was shown that the significant part of high-energy charged particle bursts correlates with seismic activity. Moreover,

S. Yu. Aleksandrin; A. M. Galper; L. A. Grishantzeva; S. V. Koldashov; L. V. Maslennikov; A. M. Murashov; P. Picozza; V. Sgrigna; S. A. Voronov

2003-01-01

232

Design and analysis of an extended mission of CE-2: From lunar orbit to Sun-Earth L2 region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chang'E-2 (CE-2) has firstly successfully achieved the exploring mission from lunar orbit to Sun-Earth L2 region. In this paper, we discuss the design problem of transfer trajectory and at the same time analyze the visible segment of Tracking, Telemetry & Control (TT&C) system for this mission. Firstly, the four-body problem of Sun-Earth-Moon and Spacecraft can be decoupled in two different three-body problems (Sun-Earth + Moon Restricted Three-Body Problems (RTBPs) and Earth-Moon ephemeris model). Then, the transfer trajectory segments in different model are computed, respectively, and patched by Poincaré sections. The full-flight trajectory including transfer trajectory from lunar orbit to Sun-Earth L2 region and target Lissajous orbit is obtained by the differential correction method. Finally, the visibility of TT&C system at the key time is analyzed. Actual execution of CE-2 extended mission shows that the trajectory design of CE-2 mission is feasible.

Qiao, Dong; Cui, Pingyuan; Wang, Yamin; Huang, Jiangchuan; Meng, Linzhi; Jie, Degang

2014-11-01

233

Energy recovery transport design for PKU FEL  

SciTech Connect

A free-electron laser based on superconducting linac is under construction in Peking University(PKU). To increase FEL output power, energy recovery is chosen as one of the most potential and popular way. The design of beam transport system for energy recovery is presented, which is suitable for Peking University construction area. Especially, a chicane structure is chosen to change path length at +/-18 degree and R56 in the arc is adjusted for fully bunch compression.

Guimei Wang; Yu-Chiu Chao; KUI Zhao; Xiangyang Lu; Jiejia Zhuang; Chuyu Liu; Zhenchao Liu; Jiaer Chen

2007-06-25

234

Global Change Research Related in the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle is to enhance the scientific knowledge and educational benefits obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). This paper presents the final technical report on this collaborative effort. Various appendices include: A) Staff Travel Activities years one through three; B) Publications and Presentations years one through three; C) Education Activities; D) Students year one through three; E) Seminars year one through three; and F) Center for Applied Optics Projects.

Berry, Linda R.

2002-01-01

235

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

Barsi, Julia A.

1995-01-01

236

Earth Sciences Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

Earth Sciences Earth Sciences Undergraduate Studies #12;Department of Earth Sciences2 Royal;3Department of Earth Sciences Earth Sciences The Department of Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway.ac.uk/studyhere Contents Why study Earth Sciences? 4 Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway 5 Admissions and entry requirements 6

Royal Holloway, University of London

237

Design of Energy-Friendly Glass Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incumbent fiberglass compositions rely on decades of commercial experience. From a compositional point of view, many of these melts require more energy than needed in their production, or emit toxic effluents into the environment. This chapter reviews the design of energy- and/or environmentally friendly E-glass, HT-glass, ECR-glass, A-glass, and C-glass compositions, which have lower viscosities or fiber-forming temperatures and therefore require less energy in a commercial furnace than the respective incumbent compositions and/or do not contain ingredients which are of environmental concern.

Wallenberger, Frederick T.

238

Dual nozzle design update. [on liquid rocket engines for advanced earth-to-orbit transportation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dual-nozzle engines, such as the dual-throat and dual-expander engines, are being evaluated for advanced earth-to-orbit transportation systems. Potential derivatives of the Space Shuttle and completely new vehicles might benefit from these advanced engines. In this paper, progress in the design of single-fuel and dual-fuel dual-nozzle engines is summarized. Dual-nozzle engines include those burning propellants such as LOX/RP-1/LH2, LOX/LC3H8/LH2, LOX/LCH4/LH2, LOX/LH2/LH2, LOX/LCH4/LCH4, LOX/LC3H8/C3H8 and N2O4/MMH/LH2. Engine data are applicable for thrust levels from 200,000 through 670,000 lbF. The results indicate that several versions of these engines utilize state-of-the-art technology and that even advanced versions of these engines do not require a major breakthrough in technology.

Obrien, C. J.

1982-01-01

239

Advanced Spacecraft Designs in Support of Human Missions to Earth's Neighborhood  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by The NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the LTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the LTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP.

Fletcher, David

2002-01-01

240

Melting of iron under Earth's core conditions from diffusion Monte Carlo free energy calculations.  

PubMed

The temperature of Earth's core is a parameter of critical importance to model the thermal structure of Earth. Since the core is mainly made of iron, with a solid liquid boundary (the inner core boundary) at 1220 km from the center of the Earth, the melting temperature of iron at the pressure of the ICB provides constraints on the temperature of the core. These constraints are based either on extrapolations to ICB pressure of experimental measurements, or on theoretical calculations which employed various flavors of quantum mechanics, most notably density functional theory. Significant disagreement between estimates obtained with different methods calls for calculations based on more accurate techniques. Here we used quantum Monte Carlo techniques to compute the free energies of solid and liquid iron at ICB conditions. We obtained an iron melting temperature at 330 GPa of 6900+/-400 K. PMID:19792692

Sola, Ester; Alfè, Dario

2009-08-14

241

Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

2011-01-01

242

An enhanced model of land water and energy for global hydrologic and earth-system studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

LM3 is a new model of terrestrial water, energy, and carbon, intended for use in global hydrologic analyses and as a component of earth-system and physical-climate models. It is designed to improve upon the performance and to extend the scope of the predecessor Land Dynamics (LaD) and LM3V models by better quantifying the physical controls of climate and biogeochemistry and by relating more directly to components of the global water system that touch human concerns. LM3 includes multilayer representations of temperature, liquid water content, and ice content of both snowpack and macroporous soil–bedrock; topography-based description of saturated area and groundwater discharge; and transport of runoff to the ocean via a global river and lake network. Sensible heat transport by water mass is accounted throughout for a complete energy balance. Carbon and vegetation dynamics and biophysics are represented as in LM3V. In numerical experiments, LM3 avoids some of the limitations of the LaD model and provides qualitatively (though not always quantitatively) reasonable estimates, from a global perspective, of observed spatial and/or temporal variations of vegetation density, albedo, streamflow, water-table depth, permafrost, and lake levels. Amplitude and phase of annual cycle of total water storage are simulated well. Realism of modeled lake levels varies widely. The water table tends to be consistently too shallow in humid regions. Biophysical properties have an artificial stepwise spatial structure, and equilibrium vegetation is sensitive to initial conditions. Explicit resolution of thick (>100 m) unsaturated zones and permafrost is possible, but only at the cost of long (?300 yr) model spinup times.

Milly, Paul C.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Dunne, Krista A.; Findell, Kirsten L.; Gleeson, Tom; Liang, Zhi; Phillips, Peter; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Swenson, Sean

2014-01-01

243

A Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Rig for Designing Near-Earth Aerial Robotics Vefa Narli and Paul Y. Oh  

E-print Network

A Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Rig for Designing Near-Earth Aerial Robotics Vefa Narli and Paul Y. Oh design of such robots. This paper describes a test rig with a full-scale diorama in its workspace. Lamps in near-Earth environ- ments. The rig's motions resemble the actual robotic aircraft through model

Oh, Paul

244

TRUST: A Successful Formal-Informal Teacher Education Partnership Designed to Improve and Promote Urban Earth Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an NSF-funded collaborative formal-informal partnership for urban Earth science teacher preparation and professional development. This model brings together The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and Brooklyn and Lehman College of the City University of New York (CUNY) to address science-impoverished classrooms that lack highly qualified teachers by focusing on Earth science teacher certification. Project design was based on identified needs in the local communities and schools, careful analysis of content knowledge mastery required for Earth science teacher certification, and existing impediments to certification. The problem-based approach required partners to push policy envelopes and to invent new ways of articulating content and pedagogy at both intra- and inter-institutional levels. One key element of the project is involvement of the local board of education, teachers, and administrators in initial design and ongoing assessment. Project components include formal Earth systems science courses, a summer institute primarily led and delivered by AMNH scientists through an informal series of lectures coupled to workshops led by AMNH educators, a mechanism for assigning course credit for informal experiences, development of new teaching approaches that include teacher action plans and an external program of evaluation. The principal research strand of this project focuses on the resulting model for formal-informal teacher education partnership, the project's impact on participating teachers, policy issues surrounding the model and the changes required for its development and implementation, and its potential for Earth science education reform. As the grant funded portion of the project draws to a close we begin to analyze data collected over the past 3 years. Third-year findings of the project's external evaluation indicate that the problem-based approach has been highly successful, particularly its impact on participating teachers. In addition to presenting these results, participating teachers from the 2004 and 2006 cohorts discuss their TRUST experiences and the subsequent impact the program has had on their respective Earth science teaching practices and professional lives.

Sloan, H.; Drantch, K.; Steenhuis, J.

2006-12-01

245

Solar axions as an energy source and modulator of the Earth magnetic field  

E-print Network

We show existence of strong negative correlation between the temporal variations of magnetic field toroidal component of the solar tachocline (the bottom of convective zone) and the Earth magnetic field (Y-component). The possibility that hypothetical solar axions, which can transform into photons in external electric or magnetic fields (the inverse Primakoff effect), can be the instrument by which the magnetic field of convective zone of the Sun modulates the magnetic field of the Earth is considered. We propose the axion mechanism of "solar dynamo-geodynamo" connection, where an energy of axions, which form in the Sun core, is modulated at first by the magnetic field of the solar tachocline zone (due to the inverse coherent Primakoff effect) and after that is absorbed in the liquid core of the Earth under influence of the terrestrial magnetic field, thereby playing the role of an energy source and a modulator of the Earth magnetic field. Within the framework of this mechanism new estimations of the strength of an axion coupling to a photon (ga_gamma about 5*10^-9 GeV^-1) and the axion mass (ma ~ 30 eV) have been obtained.

V. D. Rusov; E. P. Linnik; K. Kudela; S. Cht. Mavrodiev; T. N. Zelentsova; V. P. Smolyar; K. K. Merkotan

2010-08-09

246

Investigation of Alternative Return Strategies for Orion Trans-earth Injection Design Options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate alternative return strategies for the Orion trans-Earth injection (TEI) phase. A dynamical systems analysis approach considers the structure of the stable and unstable Sun perturbed Earth-Moon manifolds near the Earth-Moon interface region. A hybrid approach, then, combines the results from this analysis with classical two-body methods in a targeting process that seeks to expand the window of return opportunities in a precision entry scenario. The resulting startup arcs can be used, for instance, to enhance the block set of solutions available onboard during an autonomous targeting process.

Marchand, Belinda G.; Scarritt, Sara K.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Weeks, Michael W.

2010-01-01

247

Surface interactions with compartmentalized cellular phosphates explain rare earth oxide nanoparticle hazard and provide opportunities for safer design.  

PubMed

Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1? release, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use. PMID:24417322

Li, Ruibin; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dunphy, Darren R; Cai, Xiaoming; Meng, Huan; Zhang, Haiyuan; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Dong, Juyao; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Nel, Andre; Xia, Tian

2014-02-25

248

Surface Interactions with Compartmentalized Cellular Phosphates Explain Rare Earth Oxide Nanoparticle Hazard and Provide Opportunities for Safer Design  

PubMed Central

Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1? release, TGF-?1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use. PMID:24417322

2014-01-01

249

Optimization methods for alternative energy system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study reports both new experimental data from the case studies and the benefits of using modified linear programming methods to account for the real nature of alternative energy design problems.

Reinhardt, Michael Henry

250

Rare earth-cobalt hard magnetic nanoparticles and nanoflakes by high-energy milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-energy ball milling has been shown to be a promising method for large-scale fabrication of rare earth-transition metal nanoparticles. In this work, we report crystallographically anisotropic SmCo5, PrCo5 and Sm2(Co, Fe)17 nanoparticles (particle size smaller than 10 nm) obtained by surfactant-assisted ball milling and study their size and properties as a function of the milling conditions. By milling nanocrystalline precursor

A. M. Gabay; N. G. Akdogan; M. Marinescu; J. F. Liu; G. C. Hadjipanayis

2010-01-01

251

Rare earth–cobalt hard magnetic nanoparticles and nanoflakes by high-energy milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-energy ball milling has been shown to be a promising method for large-scale fabrication of rare earth–transition metal nanoparticles. In this work, we report crystallographically anisotropic SmCo5, PrCo5 and Sm2(Co, Fe)17 nanoparticles (particle size smaller than 10 nm) obtained by surfactant-assisted ball milling and study their size and properties as a function of the milling conditions. By milling nanocrystalline precursor

A M Gabay; N G Akdogan; M Marinescu; J F Liu; G C Hadjipanayis

2010-01-01

252

Origin of high-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time high-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space were discovered in the MARIYA experiment on orbital station SALYUT-7, continued on Mir orbital station later on. In this work processing of experimental data obtained on the various space vehicles: orbital station MIR, METEOR-3, GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites with instruments, registering highenergy charged particles, was carried out for

S. Aleksandrin; F. Forzan; A. Galper; L. Grishantzeva; S. Koldashov; L. Maslennilov; A. Murashov; P. Picozza; S. Voronov

2001-01-01

253

Precipitation of high-energy charged particles from the earth's radiation belt and seismic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines results of measurements of high-energy particle fluxes in the radiation belt obtained using the Elektron instrument on the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 and Meteor-3 satellites and the Mariia and Mariia-2 magnetic spectrometers on Salyut-7 and Mir. The results are examined from the standpoint of their connection with the earth's seismicity. In particular, it is shown that there exists a temporal

M. E. Aleshina; S. A. Voronov; A. M. Gal'Per; S. V. Koldashov; L. V. Maslennikov

1993-01-01

254

Fluoride technology for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth metals  

SciTech Connect

Unique specific properties of rare-earth metals (REMs) are to a large extent responsible for the technical progress in many branches of industry, science, and technology. A new fluoride procedure for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth and transition metals has been proposed.

Buinovskii, A.S.; Sofronov, V.L.; Chizhikov, V.S.; Shtefan, Yu.P. [and others

1995-10-20

255

A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

256

Performance of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to provide accurate measurements for the long-term monitoring of Earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Model 5, the sixth of the CERES instrument was launched aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011 and it has started the Earth-viewing measurements on January 26, 2012. The CERES instrument with the three scanning sensors measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to <100 microns with Total sensor and 8 to 12 micron region with Window sensor. The pre-launch accuracy goal for the CERES instrument measurements is to have the emitted longwave radiances within 0.5% and the shortwave radiances within 1.0%. An accurate determination of the radiometric gains and spectral responsivity of CERES FM5 sensors was accomplished through rigorous calibrations using the primary sources. Post-launch evaluation of the sensor performance consists of sensor calibrations with the on-board sources and the solar diffuser called Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The calibration results using onboard sources are also compared to pre-launch values which serve as a traceability standard to carry the ground determined sensor radiometric gains to orbit. Several validation studies utilising targets such as tropical ocean and deep convective clouds are performed as part of the Cal/Val protocol. The scan elevation offset in the sensor measurement will be determined from the spacecraft pitch manuveur activity viewing the deep space. This paper covers the early-orbit checkout activities and the overall performance of the CERES-FM5 instrument. The postlaunch calibration and the validation results from the instrument are presented.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Hess, Phillip C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Smith, Nathaniel P.; Timcoe, Mark G.; Shankar, Mohan; Walikainen, Dale R.

2012-09-01

257

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

258

Energy Conscious Design: Educational Facilities. [Brief No.] 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An energy task group of the American Institute of Architects discusses design features and options that educational facility designers can use to create an energy efficient school building. Design elements cover the building envelope, energy storage system, hydronic heating/cooling systems, solar energy collection, building orientation and shape,…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

259

Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiments (ERBE) data from S4 data (monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo). Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained for the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used along with four surface types: ocean, vegetation, desert, snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates compare well with the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. Our values are generally higher than Esbensen and Kushnir's by as much as 80 W m[sup [minus]2] in the tropical oceans. The difference between clear-sky and actual irradiances normalized to top-of-atmosphere clear-sky irradiance is higher in the midlatitude regions of storm tracks than in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), suggesting the higher cloud coverage in midlatitudes is more effective at reducing surface shortwave irradiance than opaque, convective, sparser clouds in the ITCZ. Surface albedo estimates are realistic, generally not exceeding 0.06 in the ocean, as high as 0.9 in polar regions, and reaching 0.5 in the Sahara and Arabian deserts. 33 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Breon, F.M.; Frouin, R. (California Space Institute, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)); Gautier, C. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

1994-02-01

260

Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

Maund, D. H.

1981-01-01

261

Geology and Earth Sciences Sourcebook for Elementary and Secondary Schools, Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This earth science resource book, designed for use by elementary and secondary school teachers, presents aspects of earth science which illustrate the significance of matter, energy, forces, motion, time, and space in the dynamics and history of the earth. The major content of this resource manual consists of authoritative information about earth

Heller, Robert L.

262

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 1: Baseline system description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system baseline design oriented to the requirements of the next generation of Earth Observatory Satellite missions is presented. The first mission (EOS-A) is envisioned as a two-fold mission which (1) provides a continuum of data of the type being supplied by ERTS for the emerging operational applications and also (2) expands the research and development activities for future instrumentation and analysis techniques. The baseline system specifically satisfies the requirements of this first mission. However, EOS-A is expected to be the first of a series of earth observation missions. Thus the baseline design has been developed so as to accommodate these latter missions effectively as the transition is made from conventional, expendable launch vehicles and spacecraft to the Shuttle Space Transportation System era. Further, a subset of alternative missions requirements including Seasat, SEOS, SMM and MSS-5 have been analyzed to verify that the spacecraft design to serve a multi-mission role is economically sound. A key feature of the baseline system design is the concept of a modular observatory system whose elements are compatible with varying levels of launch vehicle capability. The design configuration can be used with either the Delta or Titan launch vehicles and will adapt readily to the space shuttle when that system becomes available in the early 1980's.

1974-01-01

263

Preview of the BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has been detecting and monitoring point sources in the high energy sky since 1991. Although BATSE is best known for gamma ray bursts, it also monitors the sky for longer-lived sources of radiation. Using the Earth occultation technique to extract flux information, a catalog is being prepared of about 150 sources potential emission in the large area detectors (20-1000 keV). The catalog will contain light curves, representative spectra, and parametric data for black hole and neutron star binaries, active galaxies, and super-nova remnants. In this preview, we present light curves for persistent and transient sources, and also show examples of what type of information can be obtained from the BATSE Earth occultation database. Options for making the data easily accessible as an "on line" WWW document are being explored.

Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; McCollough, M. L.; Robinson, C. R.; Sahi, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.

1999-01-01

264

Monitoring the Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sky Using Earth Occultation with GLAST GBM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long term all-sky monitoring of the 20 keV - 2 MeV gamma-ray sky using the Earth occultation technique was demonstrated by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The principles and techniques used for the development of an end-to-end earth occultation data analysis system for BATSE can be extended to the GLAST Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), resulting in multiband light curves and time-resolved spectra in the energy range 8 keV to above 1 MeV for known gamma-ray sources and transient outbursts, as well as the discovery of new sources of gamma-ray emission. In this paper we describe the application of the technique to the GBM. We also present the expected sensitivity for the GBM.

Case, G.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Cherry, M.; Kippen, M.; Ling, J.; Radocinski, R.; Wheaton, W.

2007-01-01

265

Calculation of lattice energies and enthalpies of formation of rare-earth pyrosilicates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lattice energies of ionic crystals were calculated from a computer summation of the Coulombic interaction energies. The present technique was first applied to simple crystal symmetries, including rock salts, fluorites, and silicates, to establish the reliability of the method. Calculated values for these systems were found to be within 3 to 8% of the accepted values. The lattice energies of several of the light rare-earth (La through Eu) pyrosilicates, RE 2Si 2O 7, were calculated by the same procedure. The enthalpies of formation for these crystals were then estimated from the calculated lattice energies by applying the Born-Haber cycle. Both the low temperature tetragonal and the high temperature orthorhombic forms of the pyrosilicates were calculated.

O'Brien, Michael H.; Akinc, Mufit

1990-01-01

266

Design Challenges of Power Systems for Instrumented Spacecraft with Very Low Perigees in the Earth's Ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a solar array to power a spacecraft bus supporting a set of instruments making in situ plasma and neutral atmosphere measurements in the ionosphere at altitudes of 120km or lower poses several challenges. The driving scientific requirements are the field-of-view constraints of the instruments resulting in a three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the need for an electromagnetically unperturbed environment accomplished by designing an electrostatically conducting solar array surface to avoid large potentials, making the spacecraft body as small and as symmetric as possible, and body-mounting the solar array. Furthermore, the life and thermal constraints, in the midst of the effects of the dense atmosphere at low altitude, drive the cross-sectional area of the spacecraft to be small particularly normal to the ram direction. Widely varying sun angles and eclipse durations add further complications, as does the growing desire for multiple spacecraft to resolve spatial and temporal variations packaged into a single launch vehicle. Novel approaches to insure adequate orbit-averaged power levels of approximately 250W include an oval-shaped cross section to increase the solar array collecting area during noon-midnight orbits and the use of a flywheel energy storage system. The flywheel could also be used to help maintain the spacecraft's attitude, particularly during excursions to the lowest perigee altitudes. This paper discusses the approaches used in conceptual power designs for both the proposed Dipper and the Global Electrodynamics Connections (GEC) Mission currently being studied at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

Moran, Vickie Eakin; Manzer, Dominic D.; Pfaff, Robert E.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Gervin, Jan C.

1999-01-01

267

Coloration Determination of Spectral Darkening Occurring on a Broadband Earth Observing Radiometer: Application to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth s climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) must remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. Such stability is beyond the specified accuracy of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband radiometric scanning channels: the shortwave 0.3 - 5microns, total 0.3. > 100microns, and window 8 - 12microns). It has been shown that when in low earth orbit, optical response to blue/UV radiance can be reduced significantly due to UV hardened contaminants deposited on the surface of the optics. Since typical onboard calibration lamps do not emit sufficient energy in the blue/UV region, this darkening is not directly measurable using standard internal calibration techniques. This paper describes a study using a model of contaminant deposition and darkening, in conjunction with in-flight vicarious calibration techniques, to derive the spectral shape of darkening to which a broadband instrument is subjected. Ultimately the model uses the reflectivity of Deep Convective Clouds as a stability metric. The results of the model when applied to the CERES instruments on board the EOS Terra satellite are shown. Given comprehensive validation of the model, these results will allow the CERES spectral responses to be updated accordingly prior to any forthcoming data release in an attempt to reach the optimum stability target that the climate community requires.

Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Loeb, Norman G.; Loukachine, Konstantin; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale; Wielicki, Bruce A.

2006-01-01

268

Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-01-01

269

Design and Implementation of Components in the Earth System Modeling Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Modeling Framework is a component-based architecture for developing and assembling climate and related models. A virtual machine underlies the component-level constructs in ESMF, providing both a foundation for performance portability and mechanisms for resource allocation and component sequencing.

Nancy Collins; Gerhard Theurich; Cecelia Deluca; Max Suarez; Atanas Trayanov; V. Balaji; Peggy Li; Weiyu Yang; Chris Hill; Arlindo Da Silva

2005-01-01

270

Importance of light scattering properties of cloud particles on calculating the earth energy cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is an open system, and the energy cycle of the Earth is not always a certain amount. In other words, the energy cycle in the nature is imbalance. A better understanding of the earth energy cycle is very important to study global climate change. the IPCC-AR4 reported that the cloud in the atmosphere are still characterized by large uncertainties in the estimation of their effects on energy sysle of the Earth's atmosphere. There are two types of cloud in the atmosphere, which are Cirrus and warm water cloud. In order to strongly reflect visible wavelength from sun light, thick water cloud has the effect of cooling the earth surface. When Cirrus is compared to water cloud, temperature is almost lower. Thus, there is a feature that Cirrus is easy to absorb long-wave radiation than warm water cloud. However, in order to quantitatively evaluate the reflection and absorption characteristics of cloud on remote senssing application and energy cycle of the imbalance of nature, it is necessary to obtain the scattering properties of cloud particles. Since the shapes of the water cloud particle are close to spherical, scattering properties of the particles can be calculated accurately by the Mie theory. However, Cirrus particles have a complex shape, including hexagonal, plate, and other non- spherical shapes. Different from warm water cloud partical, it is required to use several different light scattering methods when calculating the light scattering properties of the non-spherical Cirrus cloud particals. Ishimoto et al. [2010, 2012] and Masuda et al. [2012] developed the Finite-Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and Improved Geometrical-Optics Method (IGOM) for the solution of light scattering by non-spherical particles. Nakajima et al [1997,2009] developed the LIght Scattering solver for Arbitral Shape particle (Lisas)-Geometrical-Optics Method (GOM) and Surface Integral Equations Method of Müller-type (SIEMM) to calculate the light scattering properties for hexagonal ice crystals. Lisas/GOM and IGOM methods are efficient for calculating the single scattering properties of the ice crystal when size parameter is large enough, while exact solution such as FDTD and Lisas/SIEMM methods are efficient for calculating the light scattering properties of the non-spherical partical when size parameter is small. However, to develop the compact light scattering database for satellite remote sensing application, it is important to optimize the scattering database based on the specification of the satellite sensor. Letu et al. (2012) optimized the ice crystal scattering database for Cirrus cloud remote sensing of the GCOM-C/SGLI satellite mission of JAXA, Japan and radiative transfer calculation in earth atmospheric system. Based on the above optimization results, we developed the ice crystal scattering database for GCOM-C/SGLI satellite mission with hexagonal, plate and aggregate shapes determined by in-situ observation for radiative transfer calculation and satellite remote sensing retrieval. Futuermore, radiance flux, alculated by RSTAR radiative transfer code with scattering database of the water cloud and the Cirrus particle is compared both at the earth surface and at the top of atmosphere. Furthermore, calculation uncertainty caused by different cloud particle scattering database was discussed.

Letu, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Nagao, T. M.; Ishimoto, H.

2013-12-01

271

Proper Design Saves Energy for Molecular Sieve Dehydration Systems  

E-print Network

The molecular sieve system is a significant energy user in the cryogenic gas plant. Designing and operating the system properly can save thousands of dollars in fuel each year. A poorly designed energy saving system can result in poor plant...

Barrow, J. A.; Veldman, R.

1984-01-01

272

Assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument performance and stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer is designed to measure the solar radiation reflected by the Earth and thermal radiation emitted by the Earth. Four CERES instruments are supporting the EOS missions; two aboard the Terra spacecraft, launched in 1999 and two aboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in 2002. A fifth instrument, Flight Model 5 (FM5), launched in October 2011 aboard the S-NPP satellite, began taking radiance measurements on January 27th, 2012. The CERES FM5 instrument uses three scanning thermistor bolometers to make broadband radiance measurements in the shortwave (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers), total (0.3 - <100 micrometers) and water vapor window (8 - 12 micrometer) regions. An internal calibration module (ICM) used for in-flight calibration is built into the CERES instrument package consisting of an anodized aluminum blackbody source for calibrating the total and window sensors, and a shortwave internal calibration source (SWICS) for the shortwave sensor. The ICM sources, along with a solar diffusor called the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM), are used to define shifts or drifts in the sensor response over the life of the mission. In addition, validation studies are conducted to assess the pointing accuracy of the instrument and understand any spectral changes that may occur with the sensors allowing for corrections to be made to the radiance calculations in later CERES data products. This paper summarizes the on-orbit behavior of the CERES FM5 instrument by outlining trends in the internal calibration data and discussing the various validation studies used to assess the performance and stability of the instrument.

Smith, Nathaniel P.; Thomas, Susan; Shankar, Mohan; Szewczyk, Z. P.; Wilson, Robert S.; Walikainen, Dale R.; Daniels, Janet L.; Hess, Phillip C.; Priestley, Kory J.

2014-09-01

273

Energy efficient building design. A transfer guide for local governments  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

Not Available

1992-03-01

274

Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the Earth and Jupiter.  

PubMed

The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source--the Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (> or = 100 keV) and proton (> or = 1 MeV) populations--the dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4th largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are -0.1 krad(Si) d(-1) at the geosynchronous orbit and -30 krad(Si) d((-1) at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield--a factor of -300 between the two planets. PMID:16604595

Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B

2005-01-01

275

A high-contrast coronagraph for earth-like exoplanet direct imaging: design and test  

E-print Network

The high-contrast coronagraph for direct imaging earth-like exoplanet at the visible needs a contrast of 10^(-10) at a small angular separation of 4 lambda/D or less. Here we report our recent laboratory experiment that is close to the limits. The test of the high-contrast imaging coronagraph is based on our step-transmission apodized filter. To achieve the goal, we use a liquid crystal array (LCA) as a phase corrector to create a dark hole based on our dedicated focal dark algorithm. We have suppressed the diffracted and speckle noise near the star point image to a level of 1.68 x 10^(-9) at 4 lambda/D, which can be immediately used for the direct imaging of Jupiter like exoplanets. This demonstrates that high-contrast coronagraph telescope in space has the potentiality to detect and characterize earth-like planets.

Liu, C C; Dou, J P; Zhu, Y T; Zhang, X; Zhao, G; Wu, Zh; Chen, R

2014-01-01

276

Design of an earth-Mars communication network using two spacecraft in halo orbits near Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbits that can be computed as restricted three-body problem solutions may serve as the basis for a communications network furnishing nearly continuous earth-Mars surface telemetry. A set of five Lagrangian libration points exist which are particular solutions for the motion of the third mass; near three of these points, a spacecraft can move in a three-dimensional 'Lissajous' quasi-periodic and controllably

Deborah Henry; Terry Jones

1992-01-01

277

Complete energy transfer due to rare-earth phase segregation in optical fiber preform glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Yb3+ to Tm3+ energy-transfer quantum yield close to one has been found in phase-separated yttrium-alumina silicate optical fiber preform glasses. Optical absorption, luminescence, lifetime measurements, and rare-earth concentration dependence have been performed to investigate the feasibility of efficient blue upconversion fiber lasers through convenient Yb3+ sensitation. Luminescence decay measurements have demonstrated the co-existence of two phases. One of the phases is characterized by an yttrium-rich composition. Most of the RE ions partition into the yttrium-rich phase and produce the intense upconversion emission.

Lahoz, F.; Pérez-Rodríguez, C.; Halder, A.; Das, S.; Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Bhadra, S. K.; Vasconcelos, H. C.

2011-10-01

278

Theoretical dissociation energies for the alkali and alkaline-earth monofluorides and monochlorides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic parameters are accurately determined for the alkali and alkaline-earth monofluorides and monochlorides by means of ab initio self-consistent field and correlated wave function calculations. Numerical Hartree-Fock calculations are performed on selected systems to ensure that the extended Slater basis sets employed are near the Hartree-Fock limit. Since the bonding is predominantly electrostatic in origin, a strong correlation exists between the dissociation energy (to ions) and the spectroscopic parameter r(e). By dissociating to the ionic limits, most of the differential correlation effects can be embedded in the accurate experimental electron affinities and ionization potentials.

Langhoff, S. R.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Partridge, H.

1986-01-01

279

Energy Mobility Network : system design, interfaces, and future interactions  

E-print Network

The Energy Mobility Network is a mobile, networked energy production, consumption and sharing system that is designed to motivate users to be more aware of their energy consumption. In particular, the system provides a ...

Cheung, Natalie Wen Yua

2011-01-01

280

Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span,…

Penuel, William R.; McWilliams, Harold; McAuliffe, Carla; Benbow, Ann E.; Mably, Colin; Hayden, Margaret M.

2009-01-01

281

Pairing Essential Climate Science with Sustainable Energy Information: the "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social science research on the effective communication of climate science suggests that today's audiences may be effectively engaged by presenting information about Earth's climate in the context of individual and community actions that can be taken to increase energy efficiency and to reduce carbon emissions. "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) is an informal science education and outreach project supported by NSF, comprising three related components: a 3-part broadcast television mini-series; on-site outreach at 5 major science centers and natural history museums strategically located across the USA; and a website with innovative social networking tools. A companion tradebook, written by series presenter and Penn State glaciologist Richard Alley, is to be published by W. W. Norton in spring 2011. Program 1, THE BURNING QUESTION, shows how throughout human history our need for energy has been met by burning wood, whale oil and fossil fuels, but notes that fossil fuels produce carbon dioxide which inevitably change the composition of Earth's atmosphere. The program uses little known stories (such as US Air Force atmospheric research immediately after WW2, looking at the effect of CO2 levels on heat-seeking missiles, and Abraham Lincoln's role in the founding of the National Academy of Sciences and the Academy's role in solving navigation problems during the Civil War) to offer fresh perspectives on essential but sometimes disputed aspects of climate science: that today's levels of CO2 are unprecedented in the last 400,000 and more years; that human burning of fossil fuel is the scientifically-proven source, and that multiple lines of evidence show Earth is warming. Program 2, TEN WAYS TO KEEP TEN BILLION SMILING, offers a list of appealing strategies (such as "Get Rich and Save the World": Texas & wind energy, and "Do More with Less": how glow worms make cool light without waste heat, suggesting a role for organic LEDs) to motivate positive responses to the considerable challenge of supplying clean energy to a growing population. Additional scenes have been filmed in Brazil, Spain, China, Morocco, Scotland, and across America, including at the National Renewable Energy Lab. in Denver, CO, and New Orleans. Program 3 (presently untitled and targeted for 2012) will feature American communities seeking to increase energy efficiency and minimize carbon emissions. The Fall 2010 AGU presentation will include video clips from the series, initial findings from focus groups (coordinated by project evaluator, Rockman Et Al) as to what information has been found most compelling to potential audiences, and a description of plans being developed by the project's science center partners in San Diego CA, Portland OR, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Fort Worth TX and Raleigh NC. "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" is an experiment to determine the effectiveness of these activities to reach audiences who, according to surveys, have actually become less convinced of anthropogenic climate change, while remaining supportive of investments in advancing clean energy opportunities.

Akuginow, E.; Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.

2010-12-01

282

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 5: Specification for EROS operations control center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functional, performance, and design requirements for the Operations Control Center (OCC) of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system are presented. The OCC controls the operations of the EOS satellite to acquire mission data consisting of: (1) thematic mapper data, (2) multispectral scanner data on EOS-A, or High Resolution Pointable Imager data on EOS-B, and (3) data collection system (DCS) data. The various inputs to the OCC are identified. The functional requirements of the OCC are defined. The specific systems and subsystems of the OCC are described and block diagrams are provided.

1974-01-01

283

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix C: EOS program requirements document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system specifications is presented. The analysis consists of requirements obtained from existing documentation and those derived from functional analysis. The requirements follow the hierarchy of program, mission, system, and subsystem. The code for designating specific requirements is explained. Among the subjects considered are the following: (1) the traffic model, (2) space shuttle related performance, (3) booster related performance, (4) the data collection system, (5) spacecraft structural tests, and (6) the ground support requirements.

1974-01-01

284

Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A. Supporting analyses and tradeoffs, book 2. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attitude reference systems for use with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are described. The systems considered are fixed and gimbaled star trackers, star mappers, and digital sun sensors. Covariance analyses were performed to determine performance for the most promising candidate in low altitude and synchronous orbits. The performance of attitude estimators that employ gyroscopes which are periodically updated by a star sensor is established by a single axis covariance analysis. The other systems considered are: (1) the propulsion system design, (2) electric power and electrical integration, (3) thermal control, (4) ground data processing, and (5) the test plan and cost reduction aspects of observatory integration and test.

1974-01-01

285

Conceptual design of rotary magnetostrictive energy harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the conceptual design of a rotary magnetostrictive energy harvester (RMEH), which consists of one coil-wound Galfenol cantilever, with two PMs adhered onto the each end, and one permanent magnet (PM) array sandwiched between two wheels. Modeling and simulation are used to validate the concept. The proof-of-concept RMEH is fabricated by using the simulation results, and subjected to the experimental characterization. The experimental setup for the simulated characterization uses the motor-driven PM array to induce a forced vibration. It can be concluded that the theoretical prediction on the induced voltage agrees well with the experimental results and that induced voltage increases with rpm and with number of PMs. Future work includes optimization of RMEH performance via PM array configuration and development of prototype.

Park, Young-Woo; Kang, Han-Sam; Wereley, Norman M.

2014-05-01

286

Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data in the S4 format. The S4 data are monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo collected at selected times during the day. Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained from the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used, which makes the method easily applicable and computationally efficient. Four surface types are distinguished, namely, ocean, vegetation, desert, and snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates based on ERBE data compare well with those obtained from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. For the 9 months analyzed the linear correlation coefficient and the standard difference between the two datasets are 0.95 and 14 W/sq m (about 6% of the average shortwave irradiance), respectively, and the bias is 15 W/sq m (higher ERBE values). The bias, a strong function of ISCCP satellite viewing zenith angle, is mostly in the ISCCP-based estimates. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model, which accounts crudely for multiple reflection between the surface and clouds, may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. As found in other studies, our values are generally higher than Esbensen and Kushnir's by as much as 80 W/sq m in the tropical oceans. A cloud parameter, defined as the difference between clear-sky and actual irradiances normalized to top-of-atmosphere clear-sky irradiance, is also examined. This parameter, minimally affected by sun zenith angle, is higher in the midlatitude regions of storm tracks than in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), suggesting that, on average, the higher cloud coverage in midlatitudes is more effective at reducing surface shortwave irradiance than opaque, convective, yet sparser clouds in the ITCZ. Surface albedo estimates are realistic, generally not exceeding 0.06 in the ocean, as high as 0.9 in polar regions, and reaching 0.5 in the Sahara and Arabian deserts.

Breon, Francois-Marie; Frouin, Robert

1994-01-01

287

Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews, J., Kneale, P., Sougnez, Y., Stewart, M., and Stott, T. A. (2003). Carrying out Pedagogic research into the Constructive Alignment of Fieldwork. Planet Special Edition 5: Linking Teaching and Research and undertaking Pedagogic Research in Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 51-52. Carmichael, P. (2008) ‘The Semantic Web and ‘Web 3.0' in: Selwyn, N. (ed.) Education 2.0? Designing the web for teaching and learning. London: ESRC Teaching and Learning Research Programme. Fletcher, S., France, D., Moore, K. and Robinson, G. (2002). Fieldwork education and technology: A GEES perspective, Planet 4, 17-19. Fletcher, S., France, D., Moore, K. and Robinson, G. (2007). Putting technology into fieldwork education: A pedagogic evaluation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 31, 2, 319 - 330 Maskall, J., Stokes, A., Truscott, J. B., Bridge, A., Magnier, K. and Calderbank, V. (2007) Supporting fieldwork using information technology, Planet 18, 18-21. Stott, TA., Nuttall, AM. and McCloskey, J. (2009a) Design, Development and Student Evaluation of a Virtual Alps Field Guide www.virtualalps.co.uk. Planet 22, 64-71. Publication of the Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Learning & Teaching Support Network www.gees.ac.uk/planet/. Stott, TA, Clark, H., Milson, C., McCloskey, J. and Crompton, K. (2009b) The Ingleton Waterfalls Virtual Field Trip: Design, Development and Preliminary Evaluation, Teaching Earth Sciences 34 (1), 13-19, Magazine of the Earth Science Teachers Association.

Stott, Tim

2010-05-01

288

Performance assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard Terra and Aqua spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometer sensors on CERES measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to <100 micrometer) and in 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. Of the five CERES instruments that are currently in operation, four of the CERES instruments (Flight Models1 through 4) fly aboard Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua platforms with two instruments aboard each spacecraft, in 705 KM sun-synchronous orbits of 10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equatorial crossing time. A rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol comprising of various studies was developed to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the CERES instruments. The in-flight calibration of CERES sensors are carried out using the internal calibration module (ICM) comprising of blackbody sources and quartzhalogen tungsten lamp, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration results are instrumental in determining the changes in CERES sensors' gains after launch from the prelaunch determined values and the on-orbit gain variations. In addition to the broadband response changes derived from the on-board blackbody and the tungsten lamp, the shortwave and the total sensors show a spectrally dependent drop in responsivity in the shorter wavelegth region below one micron that were brought to light through validation studies. The spectrally dependent changes were attributed to the instrument operational modes and the corrections were derived using the sensor radiance comparisons. This paper covers the on-orbit behavior of CERES sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the determination of the sensor response changes utilising the in-flight calibration and the radiance measurement comparisons viewing various targets. The corrections for the sensor response changes were incorporated in the radiance calculations of CERES Edition3 data products.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Shankar, M.; Smith, N. M.; Loeb, N. G.; Walikainen, D. R.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, R. S.; Smith, N. P.

2013-09-01

289

Compensation for spectral darkening of short wave optics occurring on the cloud's and the Earth's radiant energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation into the role of clouds and radiation in the Earth's climate system. Four CERES scanning thermistor bolometer instruments are currently in orbit. Flight model 1 (FM1) and 2 (FM2) are aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite and FM3 and FM4 are aboard the EOS Aqua satellite. Each CERES instrument measures in three broadband radiometric regions: the shortwave (SW 0.3-5?m), total (0.3- > 100?m), and window (8-12?m). It has been found that both CERES instruments on the Terra platform imply that the SW flux scattered from the Earth had dropped by up to 2% from 2000 to 2004. No climatological explanation for this drop could be found, suggesting the cause was a drift in both the Terra instruments. However, the onboard calibration lamps for the SW channels do not show a change in gain of this magnitude. Experience from other satellite missions has shown that optics in the orbital environment can become contaminated, severely reducing their transmission of ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Since the calibration lamps emit little radiance in the UV spectral region it was suggested that contaminates could be responsible for an undetectable 'spectral darkening' of the CERES SW channel optics and hence the apparent drop in SW flux. Further evidence for this was found by looking at the comparison between simultaneous measurements made by FM1 and FM2. The proposed mechanisms for contaminant build up would not apply to a CERES instrument operating in the normal cross track scan mode. Indeed it was found from the comparison between CERES instruments on Terra that the response of the instrument operating in rotating azimuth plane (RAPS) mode consistently dropped relative to the other cross track instrument. Since at all times one of the instruments operates in cross track mode, where it is not subject to spectral darkening, it allowed that unit to be used as a calibration standard from which the darkening of the other RAPS instrument can be measured. A table of adjustment coefficients to compensate for this spectral darkening are therefore derived in this paper. These figures are designed to be multiplied by SW fluxes or radiances produced in the climate community using Edition 2 CERES data. SW CERES measurements that have been revised using these coeffcients are therefore to be referred to as ERBE-like Edition2_Rev1 or SSF Edition2B_Rev1 data in future literature. Current work to fully characterize the effect of spectral darkening on the instrument spectral response before the release of Edition 3 data is also described.

Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Spence, Peter; Cooper, Denise; Walikainen, Dale

2005-08-01

290

Towards an Earth System Knowledge Environment Designed to Promote More Usable Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is abundantly clear that fundamental decisions about how to manage future human society will need to be informed by quantitative scientific analyses of processes, options, impacts, and responses. In fact, one could argue that the human experience into the foreseeable future will increasingly be tied to the integrating of information, understanding, and experiences to create knowledge and with it solutions to emerging problems as well as opportunities for further progress. This is particularly true for the Geosciences. Our scientific field, and by extension our Union, has a special responsibility for informing policy makers and the public about how the earth system functions and about the relationship between environmental stressors and human activities. In this regard, a greatly improved working interface between natural and social scientists is needed. In this talk, I argue that something like an "Earth System Knowledge Environment" or "Earth System Collaboratory" should be developed using modern information technologies to encapsulate and make accessible existing and emerging interdisciplinary knowledge of particular use to decision makers. Such a "work place" should be open to all and could provide access to observations, models and theories in ways that more easily allow for credible scientific understanding to be translated into policy options at all levels. Examples of fledgling efforts along these lines will be cited in areas such as severe weather impacts and climate change. The challenges involved in creating more usable scientific knowledge are, of course, quite significant and include major issues such as: institutional impediments to interdisciplinary research, the role of proprietary interests, the difficulties involved in working across the natural/social science boundary, and the challenge of developing the kind of human capital needed to effectively close the gap between good science and public policy.

Killeen, T. L.

2006-12-01

291

Rare earth-cobalt hard magnetic nanoparticles and nanoflakes by high-energy milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy ball milling has been shown to be a promising method for large-scale fabrication of rare earth-transition metal nanoparticles. In this work, we report crystallographically anisotropic SmCo5, PrCo5 and Sm2(Co, Fe)17 nanoparticles (particle size smaller than 10 nm) obtained by surfactant-assisted ball milling and study their size and properties as a function of the milling conditions. By milling nanocrystalline precursor alloys, we obtained SmCo5 platelets (flakes) approximately 100 nm thick with an aspect ratio as high as 102-103. The unusual shape evolution of this brittle material is attributed to its increased plasticity in the nanocrystalline state. The nanoflakes are susceptible to re-crystallization annealing and exhibit a room-temperature coercivity of up to 19 kOe. The successful fabrication of rare earth-cobalt nanoparticles and ultra-thin flakes provides hope for the development of nanocomposite permanent magnets with an enhanced energy product.

Gabay, A. M.; Akdogan, N. G.; Marinescu, M.; Liu, J. F.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

2010-04-01

292

Energy conversion systems design for fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Various energy conversion systems have been reviewed in order to select an efficient power cycle to be compatible with the fusion reactor requirements. The power cycles were selected for a toroidal confinement system with D-T and D-D fuel cycles and a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) with a D-/sup 3/He fuel cycle. Reversed Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) was selected as an example of a toroidal confinement system with D-T fuel cycle since there has recently been a comprehensive design study for it. Tokamak was selected as an example of a toroidal confinement system with D-D fuel cycle. Tandem mirror reactor was chosen as an example of confinement for D-/sup 3/He fuel cycle. The steam cycle was found to be most suitable for the RFP and Tokamak reactors while a combination of direct energy conversion system and steam cycle was found to be most suitable for D-/sup 3/He tandem mirror reactor.

Dabiri, A.E.

1989-03-01

293

Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are a promising class of emerging devices that offer zero off-state leakage and behave like an ideal switch. Recent advances in planar fabrication technology have demonstrated that microelectromechanical (MEMS) scale miniature relays could be manufactured reliably and could be used to build fully functional, complex integrated circuits. The zero leakage operation of relays has renewed the interest in relay based low power logic design. This dissertation explores circuit architectures using NEM relays and NEMS-CMOS heterogeneous integration. Novel circuit topologies for sequential logic, memory, and power management circuits have been proposed taking into consideration the NEM relay device properties and optimizing for energy efficiency and area. In nanoscale electromechanical devices, dispersion forces like Van der Waals' force (vdW) affect the pull-in stability of the relay devices significantly. Verilog-A electromechanical model of the suspended gate relay operating at 1V with a nominal air gap of 5 - 10nm has been developed taking into account all the electrical, mechanical and dispersion effects. This dissertation explores different relay based latch and flip-flop topologies. It has been shown that as few as 4 relay cells could be used to build flip-flops. An integrated voltage doubler based flip flop that improves the performance by 2X by overdriving Vgb has been proposed. Three NEM relay based parallel readout memory bitcell architectures have been proposed that have faster access time, and remove the reliability issues associated with previously reported serial readout architectures. A paradigm shift in design of power switches using NEM relays is proposed. An interesting property of the relay device is that the ON state resistance (Ron) of the NEM relay switch is constant and is insensitive to the gate slew rate. This coupled with infinite OFF state resistance (Roff ) offers significant area and power advantages over CMOS. This dissertation demonstrates NEM relay based charge pump and NEM-CMOS heterogeneous discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) buck regulator and the results are compared against a standard commercial 0.35?m CMOS implementation. It is shown that NEM-CMOS heterogeneous DC-DC converter has an area savings of 60% over CMOS and achieves an overall higher efficiency over CMOS, with a peak efficiency of 94.3% at 100mA. NEM relays offers unprecedented 10X-30X energy efficiency improvement in logic design for low frequency operation and has the potential to break the CMOS efficiency barrier in power electronic circuits as well. The practical aspects of NEM Relay integration are evaluated and algorithms for synthesis and development of large NEM relay based logic circuits are explored.

Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

294

Energy constrained rise time scaling for ground motion modelling in a layered earth model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid estimation of strong ground motion associated with large earthquakes is a key technique for seismic emergency management. We provide a simulation procedure which is able to estimate realistic high-frequency ground motion on the basis of source parameters which are accessible in near-real-time such as hypocentre location, energy magnitude Me, fault mechanism, rupture length and, if available, slip models inferred from teleseimic or geodesic data. The presented study introduces an effective method to model strong ground motions over a broad frequency band in a layered earth model. The simulations are based on an ortho-normalized propagator algorithm for the Green's function calculation and a kinematic representation of the fault rupture. We use deterministic wave propagation for the whole frequency range but account for source variability by implementing self-similar slip distributions and rough fault interfaces leading to small-scale variations in slip, strike and dip. The energy radiated by the seismic source is adjusted by scaling the rise time of the moment rate function such that the target energy magnitude is reproduced. Hence, we fix the amplitude of the moment rate function by the moment magnitude and its rise time by the energy magnitude. The combination of the two magnitudes enables us to model the major characteristics of the observed ground motions. Fine source discretisation combined with the small scale source variability ensure that the high-frequencies are satisfactory introduced. We account for site effect amplification by using the transfer function of the horizontal soft surface cover. Results of the simulation are compared to observations. In order to justify our method using a layered earth model, we compare our simulation to more sophisticated studies which make use of the local 3D structure.

Kieling, K.; Wang, R.; Hainzl, S.

2011-12-01

295

Design Enhancements of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer to Enable Detection of Earth Twins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last few years, considerable effort has been directed towards very large-scale (> $5 billion) missions to detect and characterize Mars-radius to Earth-radius planets around nearby stars; such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer and Darwin missions. However, technological issues such as formation flying and control of systematic noise sources will likely prevent these missions from entering Phase A until at least the end of the next decade. Presently more than 350 planets have been discovered by a variety of techniques, and little is known about the majority of them other than their approximate mass. However, a simplified nulling interferometer operating in the near- to mid-infrared (e.g. approx. 5-15 microns), like the enhanced version of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI), can characterize the atmospheres of a large sample of the known planets - including Earth twins. Many other scientific problems can be addressed with a system like FKSI, including the studies of debris disks, active galactic nuclei, and low mass companions around nearby stars. We report results of a recent engineering study on an enhanced version of FKSI that includes 1-meter primary mirrors, 20-meter boom length, and an advanced sun shield that will provide a 45-degree FOR and 40K operating temperature for all optics including siderostats.

Barry, Richard K.; Danchi, William C.; Lopez, Bruno; Rinehart, Stephan; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Beust, Herve; Bonfils, Xavier; Borde, Pascal; Kern, Pierre; Leger, Alain; Monin, Jean-Louis; Mourard, Denis; Ollivier, Marc; Petrov, Roman; Vakhili, Farrokh

2009-01-01

296

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 2: Earth to Mars ballistic mission opportunities, 1990-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Mars are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Mars arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1990 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Mars probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.; Cunniff, R. A.

1983-01-01

297

Application of propagation predictions to Earth/space telecommunications system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The corresponding between a given propagation phenomenon and system performance is considered. Propagation data are related to system performance parameters, allowing the systems engineer to perform the analyses determining how well requirements are met by a given system design, and enabling the systems engineer to modify that design if necessary. The various ways of specifying performance criteria for different kinds of systems are discussed, and a general procedure for system design is presented and demonstrated.

1981-01-01

298

Community Design for Optimal Energy and Resource Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a study which investigated the energy and resource dynamics of a semi-autonomous domestic system for 30 people. The investigation is organized on three levels: (1) developing a preliminary design and design parameters; (2) development and quantification of the energy and resource dynamics; and (3) designing a model to extrapolate…

Bilenky, Stephen; And Others

299

Energy-Efficient Design for Florida Educational Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides a detailed simulation analysis of a variety of energy conservation measures (ECMs) with the intent of giving educational facility design teams in Florida a basis for decision making. The manual's three sections cover energy efficiency design considerations that appear throughout the following design processes: schematic…

Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral.

300

ENERGY EFFICIENT MAC LAYER DESIGN FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

, and proposes three mechanisms to optimize the energy consumption while maintaining high throughput and lowENERGY EFFICIENT MAC LAYER DESIGN FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS DISSERTATION Presented in Partial and Engineering #12;c Copyright by Sha Liu 2008 #12;ABSTRACT Energy efficient communication is a critical design

Sinha, Prasun

301

Design and construction of earth retaining walls for deep excavation – a risk management process  

Microsoft Academic Search

TR26: 2010: Technical Reference for Deep Excavation requires a detailed assessment of buildings in proximity to the site. The requirement is an important part of a risk management process for the design of temporary works for deep excavations. This paper will present the key elements of the risk management process for design and construction. It will demonstrate that the risk

Paul Fok; Bian Hong Neo; Dazhi Wen; Chepurthy Veeresh

2012-01-01

302

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix D: EOS configuration design data. Part 1: Spacecraft configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of structural studies of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) which define the member sizes to meet the vehicle design requirements are presented. The most significant requirements in sizing the members are the stiffness required to meet the launch vehicle design frequencies both in the late al and in the longitudinal directions. The selected configurations, both baseline and preferred, for the Delta and Titan launch vehicles were evaluated for stiffness requirements. The structural idealization used to estimate the stiffness of each structural arrangement, was based on an evaluation of primary loads paths, effectivity of structural members, and estimated sizes for the preferred configurations. The study included an evaluation of the following structural materials: (1) aluminum alloys, (2) titanium alloys, (3) beryllium, (4) beryllium/aluminum alloy, and (5) composite materials.

1974-01-01

303

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 4: Earth to Saturn ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Saturn are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements as well as many other launch and Saturn arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Saturn probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations elating various parameters. This is the first of a planned series of mission design documents which will apply to all planets and some other bodies in the solar system.

Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

1981-01-01

304

Low energy electrons (less than 200 keV) in the inner Earth's magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The version of IMPTAM (Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport ans Acceleration Model) which simulates the transport and acceleration of the electrons from the plasma sheet to the inner magnetosphere regions is presented. The low energy electron fluxes (< 200 keV) constitute the seed population for the high energy MeV particles in the radiation belts and they are responsible for hazardous phenomena such as surface charging. We show the results of modeling of 5 storm events during the year of 2013. The model output is compared with measurements made at geostationary orbit (1) at the AMC 12 geostationary spacecraft by the CEASE II ESA instrument (ten energy ranges from 5 to 50 keV), and (2) at the GOES 13 data (three energy channels, 30-50 keV, 50-100 keV, 100-200 keV). We introduced the substorm-associated electromagnetic fields by launching several electromagnetic pulses at the substorm onsets during the modeled periods. At the same time, we present the nowcast model of IMPTAM for low energy (< 200 keV) electrons in the inner magnetosphere, operating online under the SPACECAST project (http://fp7-spacecast.eu). The presented model provides the low energy electron flux at all L-shells and at all satellite orbits, when necessary. The model is driven by the real time solar wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) parameters with 1 hour time shift for propagation to the Earth's magnetopause, and by the real time Dst index. Real time geostationary GOES 13 or GOES 15 (whenever which available) data on electron fluxes are used for comparison and validation of IMPTAM running online. The output of this model can serve as an input of electron seed population for the higher-energy radiation belt modeling.

Ganushkina, Natalia

305

Designing for Energy Conservation - The Cypress Fairbanks Medical Center Hospital  

E-print Network

efficient and economically constructed has the winning combination. This paper details the design concepts of a 1984 Grand Award winner, the Cypress Fairbanks Medical Center Hospital, in the Fourth Annual Energy Conservation Design Award Competition....

Wiernik, L. B.; Ranzau, P. A.

1984-01-01

306

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities. Passive solar design  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities using passive solar designs are presented. More than one million residences and 1, 700 commercial buildings across the U.S. now employ passive solar designs.

NONE

1996-05-01

307

Design Drivers of Energy-Efficient Transport Aircraft  

E-print Network

The fuel energy consumption of subsonic air transportation is examined. The focus is on identification and quantification of fundamental engineering design tradeoffs which drive the design of subsonic tube and wing transport ...

Drela, Mark

308

Energy efficient building design: Guidelines for local government  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the project was to develop an effective, in-house energy review process for County building design, covering new buildings and major renovations of existing buildings. Montgomery County enacted regulations for energy efficient design of buildings in July 1986. In essence, the regulation sets energy consumption limits for buildings and calls for life-cycle-cost analysis of design choices. In the

Balon

1989-01-01

309

A statistical survey of ions observed upstream of the earth's bow shock - Energy spectra, composition, and spatial variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of 33 diffuse particle events in the energy range from approx.30 to approx.130 keV\\/Q observed upstream of the earth's bow shock have been determined. The measurements were made with the Ultra Low Energy Charge Analyzer (ULECA) sensor of the Max-Planck-Institut\\/University of Maryland instrument of ISEE-1. The energy spectra of these events are clearly steeper than power low and

F. M. Ipavich; A. B. Galvin; G. Gloeckler; M. Scholer; D. Hovestadt

1981-01-01

310

Linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the Cosmos 1887 mission.

Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W. Jr

1990-01-01

311

Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the COSMOS 1887 mission.

Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

1995-01-01

312

Wavelength-stable rare earth-free green light-emitting diodes for energy efficiency.  

PubMed

Solid state lighting seeks to replace both, incandescent and fluorescent lighting by energy efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Just like compact fluorescent tubes, current white LEDs employ costly rare earth-based phosphors, a drawback we propose to overcome with direct emitting LEDs of all colors. We show the benefits of homoepitaxial LEDs on bulk GaN substrate for wavelength-stable green spectrum LEDs. By use of non-polar growth orientation we avoid big color shifts with drive current and demonstrate polarized light emitters that prove ideal for pairing with liquid crystal display modulators in back light units of television monitors. We further offer a comparison of the prospects of non-polar a- and m-plane growth over conventional c-plane growth. PMID:21747568

Wetzel, Christian; Detchprohm, Theeradetch

2011-07-01

313

The MIT Design Advisor : simple and rapid energy simulation of early-stage building designs  

E-print Network

Simulation tools, when applied early in the design process, can considerably reduce the energy demand of newly constructed buildings. For a simulation tool to assist with design, it must be easy to use, provide feedback ...

Urban, Bryan J. (Bryan James)

2007-01-01

314

Survival probability and energy modification of hydrogen Energetic Neutral Atoms on their way from the termination shock to Earth orbit  

E-print Network

Context: With the forthcoming launch of a NASA SMEX mission IBEX devoted to imaging of heliospheric interface by in-situ detection of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) an important issue becomes recognizing of transport of these atoms from the termination shock of the solar wind to Earth orbit. Aims: Investigate modifications of energy and of survival probability of the H ENA detectable by IBEX (0.01 -- 6 keV) between the termination shock and Earth orbit taking into account the influence of the variable and anisotropic solar wind and solar EUV radiation. Methods: Energy change of the atoms is calculated by numerical simulations of orbits of the H ENA atoms from ~100 AU from the Sun down to Earth orbit, taking into account solar gravity and Lyman-$\\alpha$ radiation pressure, which is variable in time and depends on radial velocity of the atom. To calculate survival probabilities of the atoms against onization, a detailed 3D and time-dependent model of H ENA ionization based on observations of the solar wind and EUV ionizing radiation is constructed, and wth the use of this model probabilities of survival of the atoms are calculated by numerical integration along the previously calculated orbits. Results: Owing to the radiation pressure, H ENA reach the Earth orbit practically without energy and direction change except the atoms with energy lower than 0.1 keV during high solar activity. For a given energy at Earth orbit one expects fluctuations of survival probability from ~20% at 0.01 keV down to just a few percent at 6 keV and a modulation of survival probability as a function of the location at Earth orbit, ecliptic latitude of the arrival direction, and the phase of solar cycle with an amplitude of a few dozen percent for 0.1 keV atoms at solar minimum to a few percent for 6 keV atoms at solar maximum.

M. Bzowski

2008-01-15

315

Melting of Iron under Earth's Core Conditions from Diffusion MonteCarlo Free Energy Calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature of Earth's core is a parameter of critical importance to model the thermal structure of Earth. Since the core is mainly made of iron, with a solid liquid boundary (the inner core boundary) at 1220 km from the center of the Earth, the melting temperature of iron at the pressure of the ICB provides constraints on the temperature

Ester Sola; Dario Alfè

2009-01-01

316

Design considerations for energy storage power electronics interfaces for high penetration of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses design considerations of power electronics interfaces between renewable energy sources and energy storage. When renewable energy sources—including photovoltaic modules, wind generators, and fuel cells—are used to generate power, there are certain electrical properties of each source that need to be considered for the design of energy storage power electronics interface. In addition, energy storage's charging and discharging

Junseok Song; Ruichen Zhao; Alexis Kwasinski

2011-01-01

317

Treatment of Terasil Red R and Cibacron Red R wastewater using extracted aluminum from red earth: factorial design.  

PubMed

The ability of aluminum coagulant extracted from red earth to treat Terasil Red R (disperse) and Cibacron Red R (reactive) synthetic dye wastewater was studied. The effects of extractant concentration, soil-to-volume of extractant ratio, and the types of extracting agents (NaOH vs. KCl) on the concentration of aluminum extracted were also investigated. In addition, the efficiency of extracted aluminum was compared with aluminum sulfate, in terms of its capability to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and to remove synthetic color. Factorial design was applied to determine the effect of selected factors on the amount of aluminum extracted from red earth (i.e., pH, dose of coagulant, type of coagulant on COD reduction, and color removal). It was found that only selected factors exhibited a significant effect on the amount of aluminum extracted from red earth. It was also determined that all factors and their interactions exhibited a significant effect on COD reduction and color removal when applying the extracted aluminum in a standard coagulation process. The results were also compared to aluminum sulfate. Furthermore, NaOH was found to be a better extractant of aluminum in red earth than KCl. Therefore, the best extracting conditions for both extractants were as follows: 2 M NaOH and in a 1:5 (soil/volume of extractant) ratio; 1 M KCl and 1:5 ratio. In treating synthetic dye wastewater, the extracted coagulant showed comparable treatment efficiency to the commercial coagulant. The extracted coagulant was able to reduce the COD of the dispersed dye by 85% and to remove 99% of the color of the dispersed dye, whereas the commercial coagulant reduced 90% of the COD and removed 99% of the color of the dispersed dye. Additionally, the extracted coagulant was able to reduce the COD of the reactive dye by 73% and to remove 99% of the color of the reactive dye. However, the commercial coagulant managed to reduce the COD of the reactive dye by 94% and to remove 96% of the color for the reactive dye. PMID:23570974

Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Lim, Han Khim; Yusup, Yusri; Teng, Tjoon Tow; Abu Bakar, Mohd Azri; Cheah, Khai Siean

2013-06-15

318

Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

1991-01-01

319

William L. Fisher The Energy and Earth Resources (EER) Graduate Program  

E-print Network

--this is the place to be. It's all energy all the time--and I love it." --Ben Sigrin, Class of 2012 "As. Per- haps more than any other program in the United States, EER can help you gain knowledge across designed EER to meet a growing need in both the private sector and government for professionals who can

Texas at Austin, University of

320

Softdesk energy: A case study in early design tool integration  

SciTech Connect

Softdesk Energy is a design tool that integrates building energy analysis capability into a highly automated production drafting environment (AutoCAD and Softdesk AutoArchitect). This tool provides users of computer aided software the opportunity to evaluate the aided design/drafting (CAD) energy impact of design decisions much earlier in the design process than previously possible with energy analysis software. The authors review the technical challenges of integrating analytic methods into design tools, the opportunities such integrated tools create for building designers, and a usage scenario from the perspective of a current user of Softdesk Energy. A comparison between the simplified calculations in Softdesk Energy and detailed simulations using DOE-2 energy analysis is made to evaluate the applicability of the Softdesk Energy approach. As a unique example of integrating decision and drafting, Softdesk Energy provides an opportunity to study the strengths and weaknesses of integrated design tools and gives some insight into the future direction of the CAD software towards meeting the needs of diverse design disciplines.

Gowri, K.; Chassin, D.P.; Friedrich, M.

1998-04-01

321

The urban design of distributed energy resources  

E-print Network

Distributed energy resources (DERs) are a considerable research focus for cities to reach emissions reduction goals and meet growing energy demand. DERs, consisting of local power plants and distribution infrastructure, ...

Sheehan, Travis (Travis P.)

2012-01-01

322

ERTS-B (Earth Resources Technology Satellite). [spacecraft design remote sensor description, and technology utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission plans and objectives of the ERTS 2 Satellite are presented. ERTS 2 follow-on investigations in various scientific disciplines including agriculture, meteorology, land-use, geology, water resources, oceanography, and environment are discussed. Spacecraft design and its sensors are described along with the Delta launch vehicle and launch operations. Applications identified from ERTS 1 investigations are summarized.

1975-01-01

323

Sustainable design in its simplest form : Lessons from the living villages of Fujian rammed earth houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aims of the study are to analyze the features of a socially self-contained society; to analyze the features of an environmentally sustainable society; and to generate a discussion on an indigenous approach towards the sustainable design of communities, particularly through the study of the round village for its unique form and performance in terms of sustainable construction.

Stephen Siu-Yiu Lau; Renato Garcia; Ying-Qing Ou; Man-Mo Kwok; Ying Zhang; Shao Jie Shen; Hitomi Namba

2005-01-01

324

MATLAB® and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

2012-04-01

325

High energy-intensity atomic oxygen beam source for low earth orbit materials degradation studies  

SciTech Connect

A high intensity (10/sup 19/O-atoms/s-sr) high energy (5 eV) source of oxygen atoms has been developed that produces a total fluence of 10/sup 22/ O-atoms/cm/sup 2/ in less than 100 hours of continuous operation at a distance of 15 cm from the source. The source employs a CW CO/sub 2/ laser sustained discharge to form a high temperature (15,000 K) plasma in the throat of a 0.3-mm diameter nozzle using 3--8 atmospheres of rare gas/O/sub 2/ mixtures. Visible and infrared photon flux levels of 1 watt/cm/sup 2/ have been measured 15 cm downstream of the source while vacuum UV (VUV) fluxes are comparable to that measured in low earth orbit. The reactions of atomic oxygen with kapton, Teflon, silver, and various coatings have been studied. The oxidation of kapton (reaction efficiency = 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/24/ cm /+-/ 50%) has an activation energy of 0.8 Kcal/mole over the temperature range of 25/degree/C to 100/degree/C at a beam energy of 1.5 eV and produces low molecular weight gas phase reaction products (H/sub 2/O, NO, CO/sub 2/). Teflon reacts with approx.0.1--0.2 efficiency to that of kapton at 25/degree/C and both surfaces show a rug-like texture after exposure to the O-atom beam. Angular scattering distribution measurements of O-atoms show a near cosine distribution from reactive surfaces indicating complete accommodation of the translational energy with the surface while a nonreactive surface (nickel oxide) shows specular-like scattering with 50% accommodation of the translational energy with the surface. A technique for simple on orbit chemical experiments using resistance measurements of coated silver strips is described. 9 figs.

Cross, J.B.; Blais, N.C.

1988-01-01

326

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Revised Eros Orbit Phase Trajectory Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trajectory design of the orbit phase of the NEAR mission involves a new process that departs significantly from those procedures used in previous missions. In most cases, a precise spacecraft ephemeris is designed well in advance of arrival at the target body. For NEAR, the uncertainty in the dynamic environment around Eros does not allow the luxury of a precise spacecraft trajectory to be defined in advance. The principal cause of this uncertainty is the limited knowledge oi' the gravity field a,-id rotational state of Eros. As a result, the concept for the NEAR trajectory design is to define a number of rules for satisfying spacecraft, mission, and science constraints, and then apply these rules to various assumptions for the model of Eros. Nominal, high, and low Eros mass models are used for testing the trajectory design strategy and to bracket the ranges of parameter variations that are expected upon arrival at the asteroid. The final design is completed after arrival at Eros and determination of the actual gravity field and rotational state. As a result of the unplanned termination of the deep space rendezvous maneuver on December 20, 1998, the NEAR spacecraft passed within 3830 km of Eros on December 23, 1998. This flyby provided a brief glimpse of Eros, and allowed for a more accurate model of the rotational parameters and gravity field uncertainty. Furthermore, after the termination of the deep space rendezvous burn, contact with the spacecraft was lost and the NEAR spacecraft lost attitude control. During the subsequent gyrations of the spacecraft, hydrazine thruster firings were used to regain attitude control. This unplanned thruster activity used Much of the fuel margin allocated for the orbit phase. Consequently, minimizing fuel consumption is now even more important.

Helfrich, J; Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. G.; Carranza, E.; Williams, B. G.; Dunham, D. W.; Farquhar, R. W.; McAdams, J. V.

1999-01-01

327

Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

2008-01-01

328

Spaceship Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

Science Netlinks;

2002-09-10

329

Masters Project Integrated Optical Microsystems Group (IOMS) Design and Optical Characterization of Rare Earth Doped On-chip Waveguide  

E-print Network

of Rare Earth Doped On-chip Waveguide Laser Components Introduction Active micro and nano-photonic devices materials doped with rare earth elements, in particular Er:Al2O3, are potentially very useful

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

330

Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 3: Earth to Jupiter ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Jupiter are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Jupiter arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Jupiter probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

1982-01-01

331

Performance stability of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument sensors on board the Aqua and Terra spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments measure the earth-reflected shortwave energy as well as the earth-emitted thermal energy, which are two components of the earth's energy budget. These measurements are made through four instruments on two spacecraft as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission - Flight Models 1 and 2 onboard the Terra spacecraft, and Flight Models 3 and 4 onboard the Aqua spacecraft. Each instrument comprises of three sensors that measure the radiances in different spectral regions- a shortwave channel that measures energy in the 0.3 to 5 micron wavelength band, a total channel that measures all the incident energy (0.3- <100 microns) and a window channel that measures the water-vapor window region of 8 to 12 microns. The required accuracy of the CERES sensors is achieved through pre-launch ground-based calibrations as well as on-orbit calibration activities. Onorbit calibration is carried out using the Internal Calibration Module (ICM) that consists of a quartz-halogen tungsten lamp, blackbodies, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration provides information about the change in the CERES sensors' broadband radiometric gains on-orbit from the pre-launch values. Several validation studies are conducted in order to monitor the behavior of the instruments in various spectral bands. The CERES Edition-3 data products incorporate the latest upgrades to the calibration techniques. In this paper, we present the on-orbit performance stability as well as some validation studies using the CERES Edition-3 data products from all four instruments.

Shankar, Mohan; Priestley, Kory; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip; Walikainen, Dale

2012-09-01

332

Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guidance for Terminal Area Energy Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second generation reusable launch vehicle will leverage many new technologies to make flight to low earth orbit safer and more cost effective. One important capability will be completely autonomous flight during reentry and landing, thus making it unnecessary to man the vehicle for cargo missions with stringent weight constraints. Implementation of sophisticated new guidance and control methods will enable the vehicle to return to earth under less than favorable conditions. The return to earth consists of three phases--Entry, Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM), and Approach and Landing. The Space Shuttle is programmed to fly all three phases of flight automatically, and under normal circumstances the astronaut-pilot takes manual control only during the Approach and Landing phase. The automatic control algorithms used in the Shuttle for TAEM and Approach and Landing have been developed over the past 30 years. They are computationally efficient, and based on careful study of the spacecraft's flight dynamics, and heuristic reasoning. The gliding return trajectory is planned prior to the mission, and only minor adjustments are made during flight for perturbations in the vehicle energy state. With the advent of the X-33 and X-34 technology demonstration vehicles, several authors investigated implementing advanced control methods to provide autonomous real-time design of gliding return trajectories thus enhancing the ability of the vehicle to adjust to unusual energy states. The bulk of work published to date deals primarily with the approach and landing phase of flight where changes in heading angle are small, and range to the runway is monotonically decreasing. These benign flight conditions allow for model simplification and fairly straightforward optimization. This project focuses on the TAEM phase of flight where mathematically precise methods have produced limited results. Fuzzy Logic methods are used to make onboard autonomous gliding return trajectory design robust to a wider energy envelope, and the possibility of control surface failures, thus increasing the flexibility of unmanned gliding recovery and landing.

Burchett, Bradley

2003-01-01

333

Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

Technology Teacher, 1991

1991-01-01

334

Galileo: Earth avoidance study report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1989 Galileo mission to Jupiter is based on a VEEGA (Venus Earth Earth-Gravity Assist) trajectory which uses two flybys of Earth and one of Venus to achieve the necessary energy and shaping to reach Jupiter. These encounters are needed because the Centaur upper stage is not now being used on this mission. Since the Galileo spacecraft uses radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for electrical power, the question arises as to whether there is any chance of an inadvertent atmospheric entry of the spacecraft during either of the two Earth flybys. A study was performed which determined the necessary actions, in both spacecraft and trajectory design as well as in operations, to insure that the probability of such reentry is made very small, and to provide a quantitative assessment of the probability of reentry.

Mitchell, R. T.

1988-01-01

335

Architecture and Design of Storage and Data Management for the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is a long-term NASA research mission to study the processes leading to global climate change. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the component within MTPE that will provide the Earth science community with easy, affordable, and reliable access to Earth science data. EOSDIS is a distributed system, with major facilities at eight Distributed

Ben Kobler; John Berbert; Parris Caulk; P. C. Hariharan

1995-01-01

336

Landscape Design and Nursery Operation for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Landforms, vegetation, water bodies, climate and solar radiation can be analyzed and used to design an energy-conserving landscape and horticulture operation. Accordingly, this course instructor's manual covers the use of the elements of the environment to make landscaping and nursery design and operation more energy-efficient. Five sections…

Bell, Richard C.; Glazener, Dennis

337

Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

338

The variations of geomagnetic energy and solar irradiance and their impacts on Earth's upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary energy sources of Earth's upper atmosphere are the solar irradiance and geomagnetic energy including Joule heating and particle precipitation. Various data and models are utilized to investigate the variations of energy inputs and their influences on the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere system. First, the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) has been used and the data show that the solar irradiance enhancement has wavelength dependence during flare events, and it increased largest in the XUV range. NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) simulations for the X17.2-class flare event on October 28th, 2003 (X17.2) show that the impact of solar irradiance enhancement on the high-altitude thermosphere (400 km) is largest in the EUV wavebands instead. Secondly, the energy transfer processes into the upper atmosphere associated with high-speed solar wind stream has been investigated. It is a combination of Joule heating and particle precipitation, while Joule heating may play a more important role. We studied the high-latitude forcing from the measurements of DMSP satellite, empirical model Weimer05 and Assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) model. The yearly average of the northern hemisphere integrated Joule heating (IJH) calculated from AMIE is 85% larger than that from Weimer05. Thirdly, the TIE-GCM model has been used to examine the altitudinal distribution of Joule heating and its influence on the upper atmosphere. The simulation results indicate that most of the Joule heating is deposited under 150 km. For solar minimum, Joule heating above 150 km (18% of total heat) causes about 60% of the total temperature variation and 50% of the total density variation, while for solar maximum, 34% of the total heat is above 150 km and results in 90% of the temperature variation and 80% density variation. This indicates that the high-altitude Joule heating has a stronger impact on the atmosphere at 400 km. At last, the long-term variation of different energy inputs in the last solar cycle has been studied as well. The solar EUV power in last solar minimum (2008) was reduced by 33 GW compared to the previous solar minimum (1996). The reduction of the total geomagnetic energy was close to 29 GW including 13 GW for Joule heating and 16 GW for particle precipitation. The change of the geomagnetic energy from 1996 to 2008 was comparable to that of the solar EUV power. The TIE-GCM simulations indicate that the variation of the solar irradiance and the geomagnetic energy accounts for 3/4 and 1/4 of the total neutral density reduction in 2008, respectively.

Huang, Yanshi

339

Developing an energy design tool: Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the planning phase of a proposed four-phase project for creating computer software to provide energy expertise in a manageable form to architects and engineers - thereby decreasing energy use in new buildings. The government sponsored software would be integrated with commercially developed software for use in the design of buildings. The result would be an integrated software package to aid the designer in the building design process and to provide expert insight into the energy related implications of a proposed design.

Heidell, J.A.; Deringer, J.D.

1987-02-01

340

Earth, soil and environmental science research facility at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source. I. Sector layout and optical design (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earth, soil and environmental science component (GSECARS) of the Consortium of Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS), is designing a national research facility to be built at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source. The bending magnet beam will be split to allow simultaneous operation of two stations, a monochromatic (8-15 keV) side station and a multipurpose, white beam/monochromatic end station. The undulator beamline will have two white beam stations, which may operate simultaneously using a double-crystal monochromator (cryogenic Si) with a thin first crystal. In this mode, the upstream station will accept the monochromatized (4.5-22 keV) beam deflected horizontally by a third (bendable) Ge crystal, while the end station accepts the high energy component (blue beam) transmitted by the first crystal. The need for small x-ray beams and broad spectral range have led us to base the focusing aspects of the optic design on grazing incidence mirrors. Both our bending magnet and insertion device beamlines will have long (˜1 m), bendable mirrors (demagnification <11, E(cut-off) ?70 keV; beam sizes ?tens of micrometers). For smaller focal spots, we will use small, dynamically bent Kirpatrick-Baez mirrors (demagnification 100-400; E(cut-off) <70 keV; beam sizes ˜1 micrometer). A unique aspect of our insertion device beamline is the ability to deliver focused white beam to the sample, through the incorporation of a power management pinhole in the first optics enclosure.

Eng, Peter; Jaski, Yifei R.; Lazarz, Nancy; Murray, Paul; Pluth, Joseph; Rarback, Harvey; Rivers, Mark; Sutton, Stephen

1996-09-01

341

The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4 (Levine et al. 1984), as well as new transient sources discovered with BATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique (Harmon et al. 2001, astro-ph/0109069) was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling to about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (greater than 10 mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) for public use.

Harmon, B. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.; Finger, M. H.; Connaughton, V.; Koshut, T. M.; Henze, W.; McCollough, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

342

Influences of energy economy on steam turbine design  

SciTech Connect

The pulp and paper industry uses condensing, backpressure, and automatic extraction types of steam turbines. Small drive turbines have better efficiency with multiple stages. The author presents a summary of some alternate steam turbine designs and shows the impact on operating energy costs. There is a summary of operating parameters for various cogeneration design options with illustration of the relative energy cost of each of the various designs.

Garner, J.W. (BE and K Engineering, Morrisville, NC (United States))

1993-11-01

343

Initial Investigation of Reaction Control System Design on Spacecraft Handling Qualities for Earth Orbit Docking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of research, development, test, and evaluation is planned for the development of Spacecraft Handling Qualities guidelines. In this first experiment, the effects of Reaction Control System design characteristics and rotational control laws were evaluated during simulated proximity operations and docking. Also, the influence of piloting demands resulting from varying closure rates was assessed. The pilot-in-the-loop simulation results showed that significantly different spacecraft handling qualities result from the design of the Reaction Control System. In particular, cross-coupling between translational and rotational motions significantly affected handling qualities as reflected by Cooper-Harper pilot ratings and pilot workload, as reflected by Task-Load Index ratings. This influence is masked but only slightly by the rotational control system mode. While rotational control augmentation using Rate Command Attitude Hold can reduce the workload (principally, physical workload) created by cross-coupling, the handling qualities are not significantly improved. The attitude and rate deadbands of the RCAH introduced significant mental workload and control compensation to evaluate when deadband firings would occur, assess their impact on docking performance, and apply control inputs to mitigate that impact.

Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Ragsdale, W. Al; Neuhaus, Jason; Barnes, Jim

2008-01-01

344

Designing and evaluating energy efficient landscape plantings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerations in plant selection and solar access protection are examined. Several shortcuts are provided for assuring that planted landscape will function adequately to conserve energy. The characteristics of the plants that affect energy savings are discussed and include form, ultimate size, growth rate, lead-out period, and branching and leaf density. A California state law protecting solar access (California Solar Shade

Thayer; R. L. Jr

1981-01-01

345

The local energy indicator: designing for wind and solar energy systems in the home  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and investigates the area of local energy for interactive systems design. We characterize local energy in terms of three themes: contextuality, seasonality, and visibility\\/tangibility. Here we focus on two specific local energy technologies domestic, electrical generation from wind and solar. In order to investigate this area we design, deploy and study a novel local energy device: The

James Pierce; Eric Paulos

2012-01-01

346

Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We review the sea-level and energy budgets together from 1961, using recent and updated estimates of all terms. From 1972 to 2008, the observed sea-level rise (1.8 0.2 mm yr-1 from tide gauges alone and 2.1 0.2 mm yr -1 from a combination of tide gauges and altimeter observations) agrees well with the sum of contributions (1.8 0.4 mm yr-1) in magnitude and with both having similar increases in the rate of rise during the period. The largest contributions come from ocean thermal expansion (0.8 mm yr-1) and the melting of glaciers and ice caps (0.7 mm yr -1), with Greenland and Antarctica contributing about 0.4 mm yr -1. The cryospheric contributions increase through the period (particularly in the 1990s) but the thermosteric contribution increases less rapidly. We include an improved estimate of aquifer depletion (0.3 mm yr -1), partially offsetting the retention of water in dams and giving a total terrestrial storage contribution of-0.1 mm yr-1. Ocean warming (90% of the total of the Earth's energy increase) continues through to the end of the record, in agreement with continued greenhouse gas forcing. The aerosol forcing, inferred as a residual in the atmospheric energy balance, is estimated as-0.8 0.4 W m-2 for the 1980s and early 1990s. It increases in the late 1990s, as is required for consistency with little surface warming over the last decade. This increase is likely at least partially related to substantial increases in aerosol emissions from developing nations and moderate volcanic activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Church, John A.; White, Neil J.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Domingues, Catia M.; Cogley, J. Graham; Rignot, Eric; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Van Den, Broeke, Michiel R.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Velicogna, Isabella

2011-01-01

347

Total energy calculations using DFT+DMFT: Computing the pressure phase diagram of the rare earth nickelates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full implementation of the ab initio density functional plus dynamical mean field theory (DFT+DMFT) formalism to perform total energy calculations and structural relaxations is proposed and implemented. The method is applied to the structural and metal-insulator transitions of the rare earth nickelate perovskites as a function of rare earth ion, pressure, and temperature. In contrast to previous DFT and DFT+U theories, the present method accounts for the experimentally observed structure of LaNiO3 and the insulating nature of the other perovskites, and quantitatively reproduces the metal-insulator and structural phase diagram in the plane of pressure and rare earth element. The temperature dependence of the energetics of the phase transformation indicates that the thermal transition is driven by phonon entropy effects.

Park, Hyowon; Millis, Andrew J.; Marianetti, Chris A.

2014-06-01

348

Energy Efficient School Designed for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When completed, the planned Greeley Elementary School will be able to accommodate any future changes in enrollment and technological developments, while maintaining a constant energy efficient heating and cooling operation. (Author/MLF)

Modern Schools, 1977

1977-01-01

349

Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

Martin, Doug

2008-01-01

350

Parametric analysis of performance and design characteristics for advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance, trajectory, and design characteristics are presented for (1) a single-stage shuttle with a single advanced rocket engine, (2) a single-stage shuttle with an initial parallel chemical engine and advanced engine burn followed by an advanced engine sustainer burn, (3) a single-stage shuttle with an initial chemical engine burn followed by an advanced engine burn, and (4) a two-stage shuttle with a chemical propulsion booster stage and an advanced propulsion upper stage. The ascent trajectory profile includes a brief initial vertical rise; zero-lift flight through the sensible atmosphere; variational steering into an 83-kilometer by 185-kilometer intermediate orbit; and a fixed, 460-meter per second allowance for subsequent maneuvers. Results are given in terms of burnout mass fractions (including structure and payload), trajectory profiles, propellant loadings, and burn times. These results are generated with a trajectory analysis that includes a parametric variation of the specific impulse from 800 to 3000 seconds and the specific engine weight from 0 to 1.0.

Willis, E. A., Jr.; Strack, W. C.; Padrutt, J. A.

1972-01-01

351

Five year research plan, 1988--1992: Energy from the earth: Geothermal energy program  

SciTech Connect

Consistent with national energy policy guidance, the plan concentrates on research and development (R and D) and limits system experiments to only those necessary to stimulate industrial confidence in the validity of research findings. A key strategy element is the continuation of the government/industry partnership which is critical to successful development of geothermal technology. The primary near-term research emphasis is the extension of hydrothermal technology options for reservoir identification, reservoir analysis, hard rock penetration, and flash and binary electric plants. The advanced geothermal resources--geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma--are longer-term and higher-risk focal points, and research in these areas centers on establishing a technology base that will allow industry to make prudent and timely investment decisions with respect to the use of these resources. 13 figs.

Not Available

1988-10-01

352

Evaluating the design of an earth radiation budget instrument with system simulations. Part 2: Minimization of instantaneous sampling errors for CERES-I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of the new record of broadband earth radiation budget satellite measurements to be obtained during the late 1990s and early twenty-first century will come from the dual-radiometer Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-I) flown aboard sun-synchronous polar orbiters. Simulation studies conducted in this work for an early afternoon satellite orbit indicate that spatial root-mean-square (rms) sampling errors of instantaneous CERES-I shortwave flux estimates will range from about 8.5 to 14.0 W/m on a 2.5 deg latitude and longitude grid resolution. Rms errors in longwave flux estimates are only about 20% as large and range from 1.5 to 3.5 W/sq m. These results are based on an optimal cross-track scanner design that includes 50% footprint overlap to eliminate gaps in the top-of-the-atmosphere coverage, and a 'smallest' footprint size to increase the ratio in the number of observations lying within to the number of observations lying on grid area boundaries. Total instantaneous measurement error also depends on the variability of anisotropic reflectance and emission patterns and on retrieval methods used to generate target area fluxes. Three retrieval procedures from both CERES-I scanners (cross-track and rotating azimuth plane) are used. (1) The baseline Earth Radiaton Budget Experiment (ERBE) procedure, which assumes that errors due to the use of mean angular dependence models (ADMs) in the radiance-to-flux inversion process nearly cancel when averaged over grid areas. (2) To estimate N, instantaneous ADMs are estimated from the multiangular, collocated observations of the two scanners. These observed models replace the mean models in computation of satellite flux estimates. (3) The scene flux approach, conducts separate target-area retrievals for each ERBE scene category and combines their results using area weighting by scene type. The ERBE retrieval performs best when the simulated radiance field departs from the ERBE mean models by less than 10%. For larger perturbations, both the scene flux and collocation methods produce less error than the ERBE retrieval. The scene flux technique is preferable, however, because it involves fewer restrictive assumptions.

Stowe, Larry; Hucek, Richard; Ardanuy, Philip; Joyce, Robert

1994-01-01

353

The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma-Ray Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE),aboard the COmptOn Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4 (Levine et al. 19841, as well as new transient sources discovered with RATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique (Harmon et al. 2001, astro-ph/0109069) was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (>lO mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the HEASARC for public use.

Harmon, B. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.; Finger, M. H.; Connaughton, V.; Koshut, T. M.; Henze, W.; McCollough, M. L.

2004-01-01

354

The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4, as well as new transient sources discovered with BATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling to about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (> 10 mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the HEASARC for public use.

Harmon, B. A.; WilsonHodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W.

2002-01-01

355

Motion of the Earth's magnetopause: Estimation from low-energy neutral atom emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On April 13, 2001 the high pressure solar wind impinged on the Earth and moved the magnetopause inside of geosynchronous orbit. During this interval, the Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager onboard the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft observed significant amount of ENA flux in the direction of the dayside low-latitude magnetosheath. This ENA flux is primarily a result of enhanced charge exchange between the increased solar wind plasma and the exospheric hydrogen neutral. We have developed a method of deriving the stand-off distance of the dayside magnetopause directly from this ENA emission, which enables subsolar distance of the magnetopause to be monitored continuously for an hour. Location of the magnetopause estimated from ENA measurements is found to be well consistent with the in-situ measurement of the magnetopause crossings by the LANL-01A spacecraft on geosynchronous orbit. We also estimated velocity of the inward/outward motion of the dayside magnetopause. Estimated velocities of the magnetopause are typically in between -50 to 50 km/s during this interval, which are very close to the values derived from the recent multi-spacecraft observations of the magnetopause. Our result also shows that the motion of the boundary can be changing very rapidly and that its speed sometimes reaches the order of 100 km/s in response to the arrival of the interplanetary shock, demonstrating that the dayside magnetopause moves at very high acceleration.

Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Suzuki, S.; Nishizawa, R.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.; Thomsen, M. F.

2007-12-01

356

Passive solar energy design and materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive solar approaches are examined, taking into account direct gain, the thermal storage wall, the solar greenhouse, the roof pond, and the convective loop. Various system components are considered. Window treatments are discussed along with thermal storage, freon-activated controls, hinged skylid shutters and nightwall clips, beadwalls, thermic diode solar panels, heat pipes, the Skytherm roof pond, the energy roof, Suncatcher

J. K. Paul

1979-01-01

357

Energy-Efficient Graphical User Interface Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile computers, such as cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs), have dramatically increased in sophistication. At the same time, the desire of consumers for portability limits batters size. As a result, many researchers have targeted hardware and software energy optimization. However, most of these techniques focus on compute-intensive applications rather than interactive applications, which are dominant in mobile computers.

Keith S. Vallerio; Lin Zhong; Niraj K. Jha

2006-01-01

358

Energy-Efficient Graphical User Interface Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile computers, such as cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs), have dramatically increased in sophisti- cation. At the same time, the desire of consumers for portability limits battery size. As a result, many researchers have targeted hardware and software energy optimization. However, most of these techniques focus on compute-intensive applications, rather than interactive applications, which are dominant in mobile

Keith S. Vallerio; Lin Zhong; Niraj K. Jha

2004-01-01

359

Stochastic design of solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the statistical element in the behaviour of solar radiation on the performance of solar energy systems is investigated through a stochastic model constructed for diffuse radiance. A demonstration of the use of such a model in a transient simulation study of three conceptual solar thermal systems is presented. The discussion concentrates on features that would not be

Faud M. F. Siala

1995-01-01

360

Process Integration: Designing for Energy, Capital and Operability  

E-print Network

Over the last five years, significant energy savings have been achieved by several international companies using the pinch concept for heat integration. New concepts are now being added to help the designer deal with capital cost minimization...

Linnhoff, B.

361

Design of test bench apparatus for piezoelectric energy harvesters  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the design and analysis of an experimental test bench for the characterization of piezoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS) energy harvester being developed by the Micro & Nano Systems Laboratory ...

Yoon, You C. (You Chang)

2013-01-01

362

Modeling and design of a MEMS piezoelectric vibration energy harvester  

E-print Network

The modeling and design of MEMS-scale piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvesters (MPVEH) are presented. The work is motivated by the need for pervasive and limitless power for wireless sensor nodes that have application ...

Du Toit, Noël Eduard

2005-01-01

363

Design of a Computerized Energy Management System for Marine Applications  

E-print Network

A computer-based energy management system for marine applications is presented. The problem of fuel-management for large diesel engines on board ship is discussed. The design of the computer hardware and software are presented including...

Russell, B. D.; Perry, L. W.; Gerloff, G. W.; Heller, R. P.; Pankonien, G.

1982-01-01

364

Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design  

SciTech Connect

A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

1980-06-01

365

Part of the Earth Day 2012 Celebration Energy Center Global Sustainability Initiative (GSI) Purdue Interdisciplinary Center for Ecological Sustainability (PICES) Purdue Energy Club O ce of Sustainability  

E-print Network

icts. Meanwhile, the planet will continue to warm and the impacts of global climate change will followSPONSORS Part of the Earth Day 2012 Celebration Energy Center Global Sustainability Initiative (GSI at which global oil production stagnates and then goes into decline ­ will change the game of oil politics

Ginzel, Matthew

366

Use of thulium-sensitized rare earth-doped low phonon energy crystalline hosts for IR sources  

PubMed Central

Crystalline hosts with low phonon energies enable novel energy transfer processes when doped with rare earth ions. Two applications of energy transfer for rare earth ions in thulium-sensitized low phonon energy crystals that result in infrared luminescence are discussed. One application is an endothermic, phonon-assisted cross-relaxation process in thulium-doped yttrium chloride that converts lattice phonons to infrared emission, which raises the possibility of a fundamentally new method for achieving solid-state optical cooling. The other application is an optically pumped mid-IR phosphor using thulium-praseodymium-doped potassium lead chloride that converts 805-nm diode light to broadband emission from 4,000 to 5,500 nm. These two applications in chloride crystals are discussed in terms of critical radii calculated from Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory. It is found that the critical radii for electric dipole-dipole interactions in low phonon energy chloride crystals are comparable to those in conventional oxide and fluoride crystals. It is the reduction in multi-phonon relaxation rates in chloride crystals that enable these additional energy transfer processes and infrared luminescence. PMID:24180684

2013-01-01

367

Size effects in DAWT innovative wind energy system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of size on the estimated weight and cost of an advanced wind energy conversion system, the diffuser-augmented wind turbine (DAWT), is investigated. Preliminary designs are developed for three DAWT sizes (ratings) in each of three construction types: all-aluminum, ferrocement, and a hybrid fiberglass reinforced plastic diffuser shell on an aluminum frame. Common design criteria are utilized for the

K. M. Foreman

1982-01-01

368

A design guide for energy-efficient research laboratories  

SciTech Connect

This document--A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories--provides a detailed and holistic framework to assist designers and energy managers in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide fills an important void in the general literature and compliments existing in-depth technical manuals. Considerable information is available pertaining to overall laboratory design issues, but no single document focuses comprehensively on energy issues in these highly specialized environments. Furthermore, practitioners may utilize many antiquated rules of thumb, which often inadvertently cause energy inefficiency. The Guide helps its user to: introduce energy decision-making into the earliest phases of the design process, access the literature of pertinent issues, and become aware of debates and issues on related topics. The Guide does focus on individual technologies, as well as control systems, and important operational factors such as building commissioning. However, most importantly, the Guide is intended to foster a systems perspective (e.g. right sizing) and to present current leading-edge, energy-efficient design practices and principles.

Wishner, N.; Chen, A.; Cook, L. [eds.; Bell, G.C.; Mills, E.; Sartor, D.; Avery, D.; Siminovitch, M.; Piette, M.A.

1996-09-24

369

Propagation of extremely high energy leptons in Earth: Implications for their detection by the IceCube neutrino telescope  

E-print Network

such as muons and taus. The expected mean free path is 600( rock/2.65 g cm 3 ) 1 ( /10 32 cm2 ) 1 km which and charged leptons in Earth for trajectories in the whole phase space of nadir angles. Our comprehen- sive with an energy loss in a detection volume of 10 PeV or greater. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.69.103004 PACS number

Yoshida, Shigeru

370

Low launch-energy trajectories to the outer solar system via Venus and earth gravity-assist flybys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent cancellation of the program to develop a Centaur upper stage for use in the Space Transportation System (STS) has motivated considerable interest in trajectory modes with low launch-energy requirements to the outer solar system. Flyby encounters of the inner planets, especially Venus and earth, may be used to enable missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and a restricted class of comets. An examination of mission opportunities to these targets is presented through the end of this century using gravity-assist trajectories.

Diehl, Roger; Belbruno, Edward; Bender, David; Myers, Mark; Stetson, Douglas

1988-01-01

371

The Earth-Moon CR3BP: A full Atlas of low-energy fast periodic transfer orbits  

E-print Network

In the framework of the planar CR3BP for mass parameter mu=0.0121505, corresponding to the Earth-Moon system, we identify and describe 80 families of periodic orbits encircling both the Earth and the Moon ("transfer" orbits). All the orbits in these families have very low energies, most of them corresponding to values of the Jacobi constant C for which the Hill surface is closed at the Lagrangian point L2. All of these orbits have also short period T, generally under six months. Most of the families are composed of orbits that are asymmetric with respect to the Earth-Moon axis. The main results presented for each family are: (i) the characteristic curves T(h), y(h), v_y(h), and v_x(h) on the Poincare section Sigma_1={x=0.836915310,y,v_x>0,v_y} normal to the Earth-Moon axis at the Lagrangian point L1, parameterized by their energy h=-C/2 in the synodic coordinate system; (ii) the stability parameter along each family; (iii) the intersections x_i(h) of the orbits with the Earth-Moon axis, on the Poincare section Sigma_2={x,y=0,v_x},v_y>0}; (iv) plots of some selected orbits and details of their circumlunar region; and (v) numerical data for the intersection of an orbit with Sigma_1 at a reference value of h. Some possible extensions and applications of this work are also discussed.

Alejandro M. Leiva; Carlos B. Briozzo

2006-12-14

372

The Dark Energy Survey instrument design  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx}5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R&D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009.

Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

373

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements.  

PubMed

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 Ah · g(-1) at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

374

Energy Management Method for solar race car design and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy management method for designing a solar-cell supplied electrical vehicle is described and its implementation on Istanbul Technical University (ITU) race cars is discussed. The effectiveness of the method has been tested and proved during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 races organized by the Scientific and Technical Council of Turkey. The ldquoenergy management model (EMS)rdquo, which computes the energy

O. Ustun; M. Yilmaz; C. Gokce; U. Karakaya; R. N. Tuncay

2009-01-01

375

Energy codes and the building design process: Opportunities for improvement  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act (EPAct), passed by Congress in 1992, requires states to adopt building energy codes for new commercial buildings that meet or exceed the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and Illuminating Engineers Society of North America (IES) Standard 90.1-1989 by October 24, 1994. In response to EPAct many states will be adopting a state-wide energy code for the first time. Understanding the role of stakeholders in the building design process is key to the successful implementation of these codes. In 1993, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a survey of architects and designers to determine how much they know about energy codes, to what extent energy-efficiency concerns influence the design process, and how they convey information about energy-efficient designs and products to their clients. Findings of the PNL survey, together with related information from a survey by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and other reports, are presented in this report. This information may be helpful for state and utility energy program managers and others who will be involved in promoting the adoption and implementation of state energy codes that meet the requirements of EPAct.

Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.; Rigler, E.J.

1994-05-01

376

Procuring low-energy design and consulting services  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information which aids in the design of low energy building elements. The proven strategies can dramatically reduce a building`s energy consumption for little or no added cost while improving it`s comfort, economy, and environmental performance.

NONE

1997-07-01

377

Computational chemical engineering modeling applied to energy and reactor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical engineering is the combination of physical, chemical, biological … operations on an energy or chemical plant. For process design, we have to carry out optimisations based on a multiple of parameters all the more so since the needs of processes in industry change very rapidly. These industries have to integrate new constraints linked to the energy cost and the

Luc Nougier

2008-01-01

378

Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

2005-01-01

379

PERFORMANCE-OBJECTIVE DESIGN FOR ENERGY CONSTRAINED TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence indicates that the peak in world oil supply may arrive within the design life of present transport systems. The current transportation planning paradigm has no means for managing, building and operating under energy constraints. We present a new paradigm based on control systems theory to incorporate energy constraints into transportation planning. The systems paradigm focuses on integrating transportation,

André DANTAS; Susan Krumdieck; Andrew Hamn; Simon Minges; Michael Saunders

2005-01-01

380

Energy conservation through improved design of induction motor  

SciTech Connect

To meet the increasing demand of energy crisis, attempts have been made by harnessing energy from renewable sources or by improving the operating efficiency of devices used in generation, transmission and utilization of electric energy. Induction motors are used in a very large number in a variety of applications. Any significant improvement in the operating efficiency of induction motor will, therefore, help their effort at energy conservation. The optimized design of induction motor using Rosenbrock`s method is carried out with the objective of minimizing (1) cost of active materials; (2) the cost of annual energy consumed and (3) the total annual cost.

Ayyub, M. [A.M.U. Aligarh, Utter Pradesh (India). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Murthy, S.S.; Singh, B.P. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Electrical Engineering Dept.

1995-12-31

381

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wow! Endagered species are everywhere! Just understanding the needs of animals will help them to survive longer. Find out how much your use of energy leaves a 'carbon' footprint on the earth. We all need to use our limited resources wisely. Reduce your footprint! Find out how and take the carbon footrpint quiz here. Carbon Footprint Watch the following YouTube video to hear a special message from Carl Hiaasen, the ...

Datwyler, Mrs.

2010-04-19

382

Preliminary design specification for Department of Energy standardized spent nuclear fuel canisters. Volume 1: Design specification  

SciTech Connect

This document (Volume 1) is the preliminary design specification for the canisters to be used during the handling, storage, transportation, and repository disposal of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This document contains no procurement information, such as the number of canisters to be fabricated, explicit timeframes for deliverables, etc. A companion document (Volume 2) provides background information and design philosophy in order to help engineers better understand the established design requirements for these DOE SNF canisters.

NONE

1998-08-19

383

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered systems demands optimizations in both hardware and software. We present a modular approach for enhancing instruction level simulators with cycle-accurate simulation of energy dissipation in embedded systems. Our methodology has tightly coupled component models thus making our approach more accurate. Performance and energy computed by our simulator are within a 5% tolerance of hardware measurements on

Tajana Simunict; Luca Benini; Giovanni De Michelit

1999-01-01

384

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-efficient design of battery-powered embedded systems demands optimizations in both hardware and software. In this work we leverage cycle-accurate energy consumption models to explore compiler and source code optimizations aimed at reducing energy consumption. In addition, we extend cycle-accurate architectural power simulation with battery models that provide battery lifetime estimates. The enhanced simulator and software optimizations are used to study

T. Simunic; Luca Benini; G. de Micheli

1999-01-01

385

Design techniques for high performance, energy efficient control logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates delay, power and area of critical components in designing energy-efficient control logic. To improve performance and energy efficiency, a split-slave dual-path (SSDP) register is proposed which improves the energy efficiency of the prior art by 30%. For multiplexers (MUX), three MUXes are proposed and compared to existing solutions. The proposed MUXes improve performance by 50% or power

Uming Ko; Anthony M. Hill; Poras T. Balsara

1996-01-01

386

Significance of Space Charge and the Earth Magnetic Field on the Dispersive Characteristics of a Low Energy Electron Beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of energy spread and space charge provides a rich domain for interesting beam dynamics that are currently not well understood. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) [1] is a small scaled ring designed to probe the little-known regions of higher beam intensities using low-energy electrons. As such, design, commissioning and operation of UMER present many challenges, some

R. A. Kishek; G. Bai; S. Bernal; T. F. Godlove; I. Haber; P. G. O'Shea; B. Quinn; M. Reiser; C. Tobin; M. Walter

2005-01-01

387

Building energy calculator : a design tool for energy analysis of residential buildings in Developing countries  

E-print Network

Buildings are one of the world's largest consumers of energy, yet measures to reduce energy consumption are often ignored during the building design process. In developing countries, enormous numbers of new residential ...

Smith, Jonathan Y. (Jonathan York), 1979-

2004-01-01

388

Satellite Collectors of Solar Energy for Earth and Colonized Planet Habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary An array of 55,000 40-foot antennas can generate from the rays of the Sun enough electrical power to replace 50 The economic potential is huge. There are new industries that will only grow and there are different ways to collect solar energy, including wind power. The energy sources we rely on for the most part are finite - fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas are all limited in supply. The cost will only continue to rise as demand increases. The time of global economic crossover between the EU, Asia Pacific and North America is coming within less than five years. The biggest opportunity for solar energy entrepreneurs would seem to be in municipal contracting where 1500 40-foot stacking antennas can be hooked into a grid to power an entire city. The antenna can generate 45 kilowatts of energy, enough to satisfy the electrical needs 7x24 of ten to twenty homes. It is possible to design and build 35-by-80-foot pedestals that track the sun from morning until night to provide full efficiency. A normal solar cell looks in the sky for only four or five hours of direct sunlight. Fabrication of these pedestals would sell for USD 50, 000-70,000 each. The solar heat collected by the antennas can be bounced into a Stirling engine, creating electricity at a focal point. Water can be heated by running through that focal point. In addition, salt water passing through the focal point can be desalinated, and since the antenna can generate up to 2,000 degrees of heat at the focal point. The salt water passing through the focal point turns to steam, which separates the salt and allows the steam to be turned into fresh drinking water. Collector energy can be retained in betavoltaics which uses semiconductors to capture energy from radioactive materials and turn it into usable electricity for automobiles. In a new battery, the silicon wafers in the battery are etched with a network of deep pores. These pores vastly increase the exposure surface area of the silicon, allowing it to absorb more energy and making the antenna collector 20 times more efficient than planar designs. A tracking pedestal powered by betavoltaics can follow the sun. With a 500-sun photovoltaic cell underneath a Fresnal lens magnifies and distributes the sun's energy at 500 times. Primary results and the main conclusions This idea is revolutionary and utilizes satellite tracking abilities to follow the sun, maintaining a constant energy source that can reach 700 to 800 degrees. This technology will have many applications, from instant fresh water in the form of steam to the use of fiber optics to filter natural light through a building. With the direction of the oil and energy costs continuing to spiral upward, there has been recent emphasis on alternative energy that is transmitted from space. Satellite antenna manufacturers can move quickly to production and create a revolution in sustainable energy that was never thought of before. The efforts of the United States, Russia, China, and India to colonize the Moon and Mars would be greatly enhanced by use of satellite solar collectors and betavoltaics electrical energy technologies for the colonies' habitats. Introduction This study was undertaken for the Global environment is in a crisis. The rich oil producing countries of Russia, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and Africa, have been at war to gain monopoly power and to restrict the space based explorations of the solar system. The physics of solar energy transmission to electrical mechanical energy is unique in improving the economies of the entire community of Nations. It is easy to produce satellite antennas, thus, satellite antennas can now be used as solar panels which can generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity. Solar Panels require no moving parts; have zero emissions, and no maintenance. These antennas will revolutionize the use of solar rays from the sun to benefit a global grid. These "collectors of free energy" are able to harness solar energy for thermal heating, desalination, lighting, and electricity. Further,

Kusiolek, Richard

389

Design for Manufacturing for Energy Absorption Systems  

SciTech Connect

In the typical scenario of a helicopter crash, impact with the ground is preceded by a substantially vertical drop, with the result that a seated occupant of a helicopter experiences high spinal loads and pelvic deceleration during such crash due to the sudden arresting of vertical downward motion. It has long been recognized that spinal injuries to occupants of helicopters in such crash scenario can be minimized by seat arrangements which limit the deceleration to which the seated occupant is subjected, relative to the helicopter, to a predetermined maximum, by allowing downward movement of the seated occupant relative to the helicopter, at the time of impact with the ground, under a restraining force which, over a limited range of such movement, is limited to a predetermined maximum. In practice, significant benefits, in the way of reduced injuries and reduced seriousness of injuries, can be afforded in this way in such crash situations even where the extent of such controlled vertical movement permitted by the crashworthy seat arrangement is quite limited. Important increase of accident safety is reached with the installation of crashworthy shock absorbers on the main landing gear, but this solution is mostly feasible on military helicopters with long fixed landing gear. Seats can then give high contribution to survivability. Commonly, an energy absorber is a constant load device, if one excludes an initial elastic part of the load-stroke curve. On helicopter seats, this behavior is obtained by plastic deformation of a metal component or scraping of material. In the present work the authors have studied three absorption systems, which differ in relation to their shape, their working conditions and their constructive materials. All the combinations have been analyzed for applications in VIP helicopter seats.

Del Prete, A.; Primo, T.; Papadia, G.; Manisi, B. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Arnesano, Building 'O', Lecce (Italy)

2011-05-04

390

Design for Manufacturing for Energy Absorption Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the typical scenario of a helicopter crash, impact with the ground is preceded by a substantially vertical drop, with the result that a seated occupant of a helicopter experiences high spinal loads and pelvic deceleration during such crash due to the sudden arresting of vertical downward motion. It has long been recognized that spinal injuries to occupants of helicopters in such crash scenario can be minimized by seat arrangements which limit the deceleration to which the seated occupant is subjected, relative to the helicopter, to a predetermined maximum, by allowing downward movement of the seated occupant relative to the helicopter, at the time of impact with the ground, under a restraining force which, over a limited range of such movement, is limited to a predetermined maximum. In practice, significant benefits, in the way of reduced injuries and reduced seriousness of injuries, can be afforded in this way in such crash situations even where the extent of such controlled vertical movement permitted by the crashworthy seat arrangement is quite limited. Important increase of accident safety is reached with the installation of crashworthy shock absorbers on the main landing gear, but this solution is mostly feasible on military helicopters with long fixed landing gear. Seats can then give high contribution to survivability. Commonly, an energy absorber is a constant load device, if one excludes an initial elastic part of the load-stroke curve. On helicopter seats, this behavior is obtained by plastic deformation of a metal component or scraping of material. In the present work the authors have studied three absorption systems, which differ in relation to their shape, their working conditions and their constructive materials. All the combinations have been analyzed for applications in VIP helicopter seats.

Del Prete, A.; Primo, T.; Papadia, G.; Manisi, B.

2011-05-01

391

Communications via the radio artificial earth satellite: Design of the tracking diagram and features for conducting QSO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed examination is made of the operation of a transmitting artifical Earth satellite. A tracking diagram for the satellite is constructed. The zone of radio visibility can be determined based on the techniques proposed.

Dobrozhanskiy, V.; Rybkin, V.

1980-01-01

392

Optimum design of power-limited propulsion systems with application to fast Earth-to-Mars transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power-limited systems with variable Isp, which have been studied theoretically since the beginning of astronautics, are getting closer to practical applications thanks to recent technological advances in the field of magnetosplasma rockets, such as Ad-Astra’s VASIMR concept. This type of propulsion system is considered for high-speed interplanetary transfers, such as Mars missions, with demanding payload fractions that would be compatible with manned missions. This paper explores the problem of the optimization of a power-limited propulsion system through simple performance models, and investigates the trade-off between the technological requirements, the transfer time and the payload fraction1The work presented in this paper has been funded by the French space agency CNES.. Following previous works existing in literature, we model the technological characteristics of the vehicle through a small number of parameters, the most important of which being the specific weight (or mass-to-power ratio) of the power generation system. Also, we use in our models the classical “trajectory characteristic” parameter (defined as the integral over time of the squared thrust acceleration) which represents - under certain hypotheses - the propulsion requirements for an orbital or interplanetary transfer with a given time and a given thrust strategy. In this paper, we first give a review of existing methods in literature, then we present the equations of a new class of optimal design which maximizes the payload fraction, for a given transfer time and given technological characteristics. This class of optimal design is described through very simple equations that make possible to study more straightforwardly than existing calculations the links between the main mission requirements (transfer time and payload fraction) and the main technological requirements (specific weight of the power generation and structure mass ratio of the whole vehicle, excluding the power generation system). One important result obtained from these equations is a simple expression which estimates the theoretical upper limit of the power source’s specific weight as a function of transfer time and the payload mass ratio. In the last part of this paper, we apply this simple performance model to discuss the feasibility of a fast Earth-to-Mars transfer using a power-limited system.

Bérend, Nicolas

2012-10-01

393

Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

2011-12-01

394

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Highway Lodging Buildings: Development of 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in roadside motels (highway lodging) above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This 50% solution represents a further step toward realization of the U.S. Department of Energy’s net-zero energy building goal, and go beyond the 30% savings in the Advanced Energy Design Guide series (upon which this work was built). This work can serve as the technical feasibility study for the development of a 50% saving Advanced Energy Design Guide for highway lodging, and thus should greatly expedite the development process. The purpose of this design package is to provide user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers, and owners of highway lodging properties. It is intended to encourage energy-efficient design by providing prescriptive energy-efficiency recommendations for each climate zone that attains the 50% the energy savings target. This paper describes the steps that were taken to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving a 50% reduction in whole-building energy use with practical and commercially available technologies. The energy analysis results are presented, indicating the recommended energy-efficient measures achieved a national-weighted average energy savings of 55%, relative to Standard 90.1-2004. The cost-effectiveness of the recommended technology package is evaluated and the result shows an average simple payback of 11.3 years.

Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Thornton, Brian A.; Liu, Bing

2010-06-30

395

Uniqueness of Herndon's Georeactor: Energy Source and Production Mechanism for Earth's Magnetic Field  

E-print Network

Herndon's georeactor at the center of Earth is immune to meltdown, which is not the case for recently published copy-cat georeactors, which would necessarily be subject to hot nuclear fuel, prevailing high temperature environments, and high confining pressures. Herndon's georeactor uniquely is expected to be self-regulating through establishing a balance between heat production and actinide settling out. The seventy year old idea of convection in the Earth's fluid core is refuted because thermal expansion cannot overcome the 23 percent higher density at the core's bottom than at its top. The dimensionless Rayleigh Number is an inappropriate indicator of convection in the Earth's core and mantle as a consequence of the assumptions under which it was derived. Implications bearing on the origin of the geomagnetic field, the physical impossibility of mantle convection, and the concomitant refutation of plate tectonics theory are briefly described.

J. Marvin Herndon

2009-01-28

396

Prediction of the lowest-energy structures of rare-earth metallic clusters with a Möbius inversion pair potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Möbius inversion pair potential has been employed, in combination with genetic algorithms, to predict the lowest-energy structures of the rare-earth metallic clusters LaN, CeN, and PrN (N=3-20). Results are given for the symmetries, binding energies, nearest-neighbor distances of these clusters, and lowest-energy configurations of CeN clusters. Also, the calculated second finite difference of the total energy shows that for three species elements, the 13-atom clusters with Id symmetry are particularly stable. Some minor peaks are also found at size N=4, 6, 11, and 15, which indicates that the corresponding clusters are relatively stable in structure. Present work points out a route to studying clusters.

Luo, You-Hua; Wang, Yuzhu

2001-07-01

397

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 3: General purpose spacecraft segment and module specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The specifications for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) general purpose aircraft segment are presented. The satellite is designed to provide attitude stabilization, electrical power, and a communications data handling subsystem which can support various mission peculiar subsystems. The various specifications considered include the following: (1) structures subsystem, (2) thermal control subsystem, (3) communications and data handling subsystem module, (4) attitude control subsystem module, (5) power subsystem module, and (6) electrical integration subsystem.

1974-01-01

398

Energy Design Plugin: An EnergyPlus Plugin for SketchUp; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Energy Design Plugin, a new software plugin that aims to integrate simulation as a tool during the earliest phases of the design process. The plugin couples the EnergyPlus whole-building simulation engine to the Google SketchUp drawing program.

Ellis, P. G.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D. B.

2008-08-01

399

Radiative Energy Budget Studies Using Observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our research activities under this NASA grant have focused on two broad topics associated with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE): (1) the role of clouds and the surface in modifying the radiative balance; and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of the earth's radiation budget. Each of these broad topics is discussed separately in the text that follows. The major points of the thesis are summarized in section 3 of this report. Other dissertation focuses on deriving the radiation budget over the TOGA COARE region.

Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, R.; Shie, M.; Olson, R.; Collimore, C.; Friedman, M.

1997-01-01

400

Commercial building design and energy conservation: A preliminary assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the research was to determine the degree of change in commercial building design practice relating to energy conservation since the enactment of the Energy Conservation Standard for New Buildings Act of 1976. Data on current design practices consisted of information from 400 buildings advertised for bids or under construction in 1979 to 1980 on glass in windows and doors, exterior wall systems, roof system, heating plants, and lighting systems. In addition to these building design components, energy conservation measures used included: natural lighting; deadband thermostat; greenhouse-effect atrium collector, heat recovery from the top of the atrium, greenhouse passive heating panels; natural ventilation; insulating shutters, closable skylights, thermal shutters, Trombe wall, corridor trombe; attic ventilation; wind shielding, concrete wall; titled windows; night flushing cycle; and cooling coils using cooling tower water. A brief explanation of these measures is given.

Nieves, A. L.; Rosoff, D.

1982-02-01

401

Earth plasmas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fusion is the focus of this section of a tutorial about plasma, one of the four states of matter. This section deals with plasmas on Earth. There is little naturally-occurring plasma here because of the Earth's relatively cool (by universe standards) temperature, but human-made plasma is produced for industry and research purposes. The section explores the use of plasmas in experimental fusion reactors, pointing out three categories of significant unresolved issues that stand in the way of fusion becoming a viable energy source. The use of electromagnets to confine plasmas is discussed. Enlargeable images of fusion reactors are provided, and an explanation of the difference between fission and fusion is supplemented by animations of the two reaction types. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.

2005-01-01

402

Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Analysis Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (Water-cooled, Water-moderated Energy Reactor). The principle objective of this undertaking is to provide a basis to better understand the safety related features of the Soviet designed VVERs to be better prepared to respond domestically in the event of an accident at such a unit. The USDOE Team's analyses are presented together with supporting and background information. The report is structured to allow the reader to develop an understanding of safety related features of Soviet designed VVERs (as well as the probable behavior of these units under a variety of off normal conditions), to understand the USDOE Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs, and to formulate informed opinions.

Not Available

1989-09-01

403

Sensor performance of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft based on post-launch calibration studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometers measure the broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to >100 micrometer) and 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. Four CERES instruments (Flight Models1 through 4) are flying aboard EOS Terra and Aqua platforms with two instruments aboard each spacecraft. The post launch calibration of CERES sensors are carried out using the internal calibration module (ICM) comprising of blackbody sources and quartz-halogen tungsten lamp, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration results are instrumental in understanding the shift in CERES sensors' gains after launch from the pre-launch determined values. Several validation studies are also conducted with the CERES measurements to monitor the behavior of the sensors in various spectral regions. In addition to the broadband response changes derived from the on-board blackbody and the tungsten lamp, the shortwave and the total sensors show further drop in responsivity in the UV spectral region that were brought to light through validation studies. Further analyses were performed to correct for these response changes at all spectral regions. This paper reports the sensor response changes that were determined with the on-board calibration sources and the investigation of the additional factors that influence the performance of the CERES sensors in orbit.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, R. S.; Avery, M. A.; Walikainen, D. R.; Szewczyk, Z. P.; Cooper, D. L.; Shankar, M.

2009-08-01

404

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical

W. D. Carter

1981-01-01

405

Solar axions as an energy source and modulator of the Earth magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show existence of strong negative correlation between the temporal variations of magnetic field toroidal component of the solar tachocline (the bottom of convective zone) and the Earth magnetic field (Y-component). The possibility that hypothetical solar axions, which can transform into photons in external electric or magnetic fields (the inverse Primakoff effect), can be the instrument by which the magnetic

V. D. Rusov; E. P. Linnik; K. Kudela; S. Cht. Mavrodiev; T. N. Zelentsova; V. P. Smolyar; K. K. Merkotan

2010-01-01

406

International Solar Centre, Berlin - A Comprehensive Energy Design  

E-print Network

ESL-IC-10/05-06 1 INTERNATIONAL SOLAR CENTRE BERLIN - A COMPREHENSIVE ENERGY DESIGN Robert Himmler M. Norbert Fisch Technical University Braunschweig Institute of Building and Solar Technology (IGS) Mühlenpfordtstr. 23 38106 Braunschweig... / Germany ABSTRACT The International Solar Centre is a unique development in Berlin, combining a historic building and contemporary architecture to create 20 700 m² of customised office workspace. The building promotes a sustainable energy economy...

Fisch, M. N.; Himmler, R.

2005-01-01

407

Thermochemical Energy Storage Systems: Modelling, Analysis and Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage (TES) is an advanced technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. Thermochemical TES is an emerging method with the potential for high energy density storage. Where space is limited, therefore, thermochemical TES has the highest potential to achieve the required compact TES. Principles of thermochemical TES are presented and thermochemical TES is critically assessed and compared with other TES types. The integration of TES systems with heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) applications is examined and reviewed accounting for various factors, and recent advances are discussed. Thermodynamics assessments are presented for general closed and open thermochemical TES systems. Exergy and energy analyses are applied to assess and compare the efficiencies of the overall thermochemical TES cycle and its charging, storing and discharging processes. Examples using experimental data are presented to illustrate the analyses. Some important factors related to design concepts of thermochemical TES systems are considered and preliminary design conditions for them are investigated. Parametric studies are carried out for the thermochemical storage systems to investigate the effects of selected parameters on the efficiency and behavior of thermochemical storage systems. Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage; Thermochemical Energy Storage; Energy Efficiency; Exergy Efficiency, First Law Efficiency; Second Law Efficiency; Exergy

Haji Abedin, Ali

408

Engineering for the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young students are introduced to the complex systems of the Earth through numerous lessons on its natural resources, processes, weather, climate and landforms. Key earth science topics include rocks, soils and minerals, water and natural resources, weather patterns and climatic regions, wind, erosion, landforms, and the harvesting of fossil fuelsâall presented from an engineering point-of-view. (See the Unit Overview section for a list of topics by lesson.) Through many hands-on activities, students build and test sand castles for construction strength, measure snow melt as a potential water source, use colored ice cubes and salt water to learn about ocean currents, make 3-D water catchment basins, make surface tension/surfactant-powered paper boats, build and use wind vanes, build and test model wind turbines, model and observe five types of erosion, model acid rain using chalk and kitchen supplies, build transportation systems across their own 3-D model landscapes, take core samples from a clay model of the Earth's crust, read and create graphs and charts as they learn about international oil production and consumption, act as engineers by specifying the power plants to build for communities, given scenarios with budgets, energy needs and environmental impacts. They learn the steps of the engineering design process as they hypothesize ways engineers might obtain water for communities facing water crises.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

409

Deflection of Hazardous Near-Earth Objects by High Concentrated Sunlight and Adequate Design of Optical Collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some detailed astronomical and applied aspects deflection of hazardous near-Earth objects (NEO) by direct high concentrated sunlight, causing intensive local ablation of their surfaces, are considered. The major requirements to solar concentrating optics within a single collector (a large mirror) approach, along with the asteroid properties being most substantial in achieving the predetermined effect for the period less than a year (mid-thrust action), are discussed. Such a hastened strategy may become topical in the case of late detection of potential danger, and also, if required, in providing the possibility for some additional action. It is also more acceptable in the public perception and keeping the peace for mankind rather than a long-run expectation of the incorrigible deflection resulting shortly ahead of the predicted hazard. The conventional concave reflectors have been graved to be practically inapplicable within the high concentrating geometry. This is primarily because of the dramatic spread of their focal spots at needful inclinations of optical axis from the direction toward the Sun, as well as of problematic use of the secondary optics. An alternative design of a mirrored ring-array collector is presented (as a tested and approved point-focus version of innovative reflective lenses for sunlight concentration within this approach), and comparative analysis was made. The assessment argues in favor of such a type of high-aperture optics having more capabilities than conventional devices. Mainly, this is because of the underside position (as respects the entrance aperture) of its focal area that allows avoidance of target shadowing the reflecting surfaces and minimizes their coating by the ejected debris. By using the modern asteroids database, some key estimations have been obtained. The surface irradiance around 4-5 MW/m2 (average across the focal spot concentration level ~5 × 103) for the ring-array collector size ~0.5 of asteroid diameter might suffice to deflect a 0.5-km-diameter NEO during several months. For the larger diameter NEOs, to 1.3-2.2 km, the required collector sizes are about the asteroid diameters, and they are even greater for more massive objects.

Vasylyev, V. P.

2013-02-01

410

Multi objective decision making in hybrid energy system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of grid-connected photovoltaic wind generator system supplying a farmstead in Nebraska has been undertaken in this dissertation. The design process took into account competing criteria that motivate the use of different sources of energy for electric generation. The criteria considered were 'Financial', 'Environmental', and 'User/System compatibility'. A distance based multi-objective decision making methodology was developed to rank design alternatives. The method is based upon a precedence order imposed upon the design objectives and a distance metric describing the performance of each alternative. This methodology advances previous work by combining ambiguous information about the alternatives with a decision-maker imposed precedence order in the objectives. Design alternatives, defined by the photovoltaic array and wind generator installed capacities, were analyzed using the multi-objective decision making approach. The performance of the design alternatives was determined by simulating the system using hourly data for an electric load for a farmstead and hourly averages of solar irradiation, temperature and wind speed from eight wind-solar energy monitoring sites in Nebraska. The spatial variability of the solar energy resource within the region was assessed by determining semivariogram models to krige hourly and daily solar radiation data. No significant difference was found in the predicted performance of the system when using kriged solar radiation data, with the models generated vs. using actual data. The spatial variability of the combined wind and solar energy resources was included in the design analysis by using fuzzy numbers and arithmetic. The best alternative was dependent upon the precedence order assumed for the main criteria. Alternatives with no PV array or wind generator dominated when the 'Financial' criteria preceded the others. In contrast, alternatives with a nil component of PV array but a high wind generator component, dominated when the 'Environment' objective or the 'User/System compatibility' objectives were more important than the 'Financial' objectives and they also dominated when the three criteria were considered equally important.

Merino, Gabriel Guillermo

411

Sweet Grass Elementary School: A Study in Energy Conservation. Energy Conservation: School Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of building a new school in Edmonton (Alberta) in accordance with energy efficient principles are described in this report, the third and last in a series describing three projects utilizing different approaches to energy conservation. The Sweet Grass Elementary School project consisted in designing, building, and monitoring an energy

Edmonton Public Schools (Alberta).

412

Energy Efficient Engine combustor test hardware detailed design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Combustor Development effort was conducted as part of the overall NASA/GE E3 Program. This effort included the selection of an advanced double-annular combustion system design. The primary intent was to evolve a design which meets the stringent emissions and life goals of the E3 as well as all of the usual performance requirements of combustion systems for modern turbofan engines. Numerous detailed design studies were conducted to define the features of the combustion system design. Development test hardware was fabricated, and an extensive testing effort was undertaken to evaluate the combustion system subcomponents in order to verify and refine the design. Technology derived from this development effort will be incorporated into the engine combustion system hardware design. This advanced engine combustion system will then be evaluated in component testing to verify the design intent. What is evolving from this development effort is an advanced combustion system capable of satisfying all of the combustion system design objectives and requirements of the E3. Fuel nozzle, diffuser, starting, and emissions design studies are discussed.

Burrus, D. L.; Chahrour, C. A.; Foltz, H. L.; Sabla, P. E.; Seto, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.

1984-01-01

413

Designing gondola using satcom services and solar cell energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction of compact, and lightweight terminals for mobile satellite communication, opens up many opportunities to design new telecommunication systems for balloons. Architecture of this gondola, named Narcisse, is built around a control process unit able to support interface with all Inmarsat services, and Iridium or Thuraya satellite network as well. A first technological gondola was launched from Brazil in February 2001, under a Infra Red Mongolfiere (hot air balloon). This gondola used an Inmarsat terminal C which can support in two ways , store and forward messages at a data rate of 600 bits per second. During the 3 turns around the earth, the system worked well, and demonstrated its ability to handle change over from one geostationary spacecraft to the next, when balloon changes ocean region. Moreover this system provides high telemetry rate (Mbits) or telecommand capability, and greatly increase the performances of the scientific payloads . On the other hand, such types of gondola can be useful to operate long duration flight (days) with large stratospheric balloons, currently limited to range capability of UHF ground station . When line of sight of view is lost, between ground station and gondola, the switch would be made from UHF to the Inmarsat or iridium system to complete the mission. In this case, the TM/TC system has no range or altitude limitation, and the gondola descent trajectory can be followed until the ground improving the localization of landing which will be helpful for recovery operation. So, using a real time duplex mini M Inmarsat terminal, the Narcisse gondola has been operationally involved early 2002 in Archeops project. Launched from Kiruna, Narcisse provided a full duplex 2400bits per second link, all along the flight across Russia. Narcisse has been again involved in march 2003 in Mipas project, using Iridium as a cold redundancy to secure Inmarsat mini M not working at extreme polar regions (latitude more than 80°). During this flight an Inmarsat mini M was also used to provide a scientific telemetry and telecomand channel. A lighter version (15 Kg) of this gondola is currently involved in the Hibiscus project (launch of Infrared montgolfieres from Brazil ). This gondola fitted with the new terminal "Ec track" which taking advantage of better RF budget link offered by Inmarsat spacecraft third generation, requires 50% : launch of hundred pressurized balloons from south pole. The target being to decrease the gondola weight to less than 10 Kg. Expecting a life duration of three months, the energy to heat and power the electronic will be only provided from solar cells and Li Ion secondary battery. Plans for the future : Until now all the terminals we have used with Narcisse have a data rate limited to 2400 bit/s. We are now considering to transmit the data from scientific stratospheric balloons gondolas , by using a high speed terminal (64kbit/s) linked to a mechanically pointed antenna under a pressurized radome.

Cau, M.; Dezen, P.

414

Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 2: EOS-A system specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program are defined. The system specifications for the satellite payload are examined. The broad objectives of the EOS-A program are as follows: (1) to develop space-borne sensors for the measurement of land resources, (2) to evolve spacecraft systems and subsystems which will permit earth observation with greater accuracy, coverage, spatial resolution, and continuity than existing systems, (3) to develop improved information processing, extraction, display, and distribution systems, and (4) to use space transportation systems for resupply and retrieval of the EOS.

1974-01-01

415

Earth's Three  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

Hacker, Randi

2010-11-17

416

Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem set is about the methods scientists use to compare the abundance of the different elements in Earth's atmosphere. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

417

Testing Skyrme energy-density functionals with the QRPA in low-lying vibrational states of rare-earth nuclei  

E-print Network

Although nuclear energy density functionals are determined primarily by fitting to ground state properties, they are often applied in nuclear astrophysics to excited states, usually through the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). Here we test the Skyrme functionals SkM* and SLy4 along with the self-consistent QRPA by calculating properties of low-lying vibrational states in a large number of well-deformed even-even rare-earth nuclei. We reproduce trends in energies and transition probabilities associated with gamma-vibrational states, but our results are not perfect and indicate the presences of multi-particle-hole correlations that are not included in the QRPA. The Skyrme functional SkM* performs noticeably better than SLy4. In a few nuclei, changes in the treatment of the pairing energy functional have a significant effect. The QRPA is less successful with "beta-vibrational" states than with the gamma-vibrational states.

J. Terasaki; J. Engel

2011-05-19

418

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees Sciences offers BSc Honours degrees in Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences, and your degree choice

Brierley, Andrew

419

Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,  

E-print Network

94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

Brierley, Andrew

420

New Instrumental Facilities to study High Energy Processes in the Sun, Interplanetary Space and their Effects in the Earth Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new instrumental facility to study the physical mechanisms of high-energy releases taking place in solar quiet and explosive active regions, and their signatures in the Earth's atmosphere. These facilities will be installed in the CASLEO (2550 m asl) observatory, and complement solar flare diagnostic obtained there at millimeter waves (45 and 90 GHZ), submillimeter waves (212 and 405 GHz), IR (30 THz), as well as X-ray radiation imprints in the ionosphere (VLF subionospheric propagation), and of energetic charged particles in Earth's atmosphere (Cosmic Ray CARPET sensor).Specifically, we propose to complement these existing instrumental facilities with a new detector of solar and atmospheric neutrons, a gamma-ray scintillation device, and ELF/VLF wave sensors. The main objectives are: (i) to better characterize the high-frequency radio and high-energy photon flare spectra, in order to provide new clues on the emission mechanism resulting in submillimeter and THz radiation which are still unexplained; (ii) to provide a continuous monitoring of solar energetic phenomena and investigate if they are more frequent than what we do observe nowadays; (iii) to investigate the causal relationship between atmospheric phenomena as lightning occurrence, high-energy photon and neutron production, Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes, and cosmic ray fluxes.

Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Makhmutov, Vladimir

421

Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

2006-11-01

422

The outer boundary of the earth's electron radiation belt: Dependence upon L, energy, and equatorial pitch angle  

SciTech Connect

The authors present measurements of electrons made with high energy and pitch angle resolution, made at the equator, looking over a range of L shells in the neighborhood of the nightside trapping boundary. They define the trapping boundary to be the position where the trapped fluxes are equivalent to the background level. The transition region is studied in detail. Fine scale experimental measurements are of use in bringing together theoretical models which attempt to explain precipitating electrons from the outer boundary of the earth's electron radiation belt, with the broad range of measurements which are presently available. They took advantage of the measurement capabilities of the CRRES and SCATHA satellites for this work.

Imhof, W.L.; Robinson, R.M.; Nightingale, R.W.; Gaines, E.E.; Vondrak, R.R. (Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (United States))

1993-04-01

423

An open design approach for distributed energy management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management system (EMS) design has traditionally been a top-down process, in which a single vector provides the algorithms, software, and hardware to meet the utility's functional specifications. Trends in power systems, such as the move by utilities to open systems architectures, and the development of distributed computing systems indicate that this process must be changed to incorporate the new

Liam Murphy; Felix F. Wu

1993-01-01

424

University of California Energy Institute Design Choices in the  

E-print Network

­ Market Design and Redesign in the UK ­ International Comparisons of Price Formation ­ The California Responsive Demand ­ Not necessarily at the household level · Market Power Mitigation #12;University of California Energy Institute Implementing Price Responsive Demand · Role of distribution companies · Prices

California at Berkeley. University of

425

Size effects in DAWT innovative wind energy system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of a case study, we examine the effect of size on the estimated weight and cost of an advanced wind energy conversion system, the diffuser-augmented wind turbine (DAWT) concept. Preliminary designs are described for three DAWT sizes (ratings) in each of three construction approaches: all-aluminum, ferrocement, and a hybrid fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) diffuser shell on an aluminum

K. M. Foreman

1983-01-01

426

Design and Application of Low Compaction Energy Concrete for  

E-print Network

of cement pastes and the green strength of concretes Slipform self-consolidating concrete (SFSCC) requires increasing compressive stress. Results are compared to green strength tests performed on concrete mixesDesign and Application of Low Compaction Energy Concrete for Use in Slip-form Concrete Paving

427

MAC New Approach to Design Energy Consumption Minimized  

E-print Network

MAC , O , , New Approach to Design Energy Consumption Minimized Wireless sensor network MAC Protocols Wooguil Pak, Seongsu Lim O , and Saewoong Bahk School of Electrical Engineering}@netlab.snu.ac.kr duty cycle . MAC duty cycle 0.1~5% duty cycle . MAC

Bahk, Saewoong

428

Design challenges for energy-constrained ad hoc wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc wireless networks enable new and exciting applications, but also pose significant technical challenges. In this article we give a brief overview of ad hoc wireless networks and their applications with a particular emphasis on energy constraints. We then discuss advances in the link, multiple access, network, and application protocols for these networks. We show that cross-layer design of

ANDREA J. GOLDSMITH; STEPHEN B. WICKER

2002-01-01

429

Energy Efficient Engine core design and performance report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to develop fuel saving technology for future large transport aircraft engines. Testing of the General Electric E3 core showed that the core component performance and core system performance necessary to meet the program goals can be achieved. The E3 core design and test results are described.

Stearns, E. Marshall

1982-01-01