Sample records for earth metal ions

  1. Experimental demonstration of efficient and selective population transfer and qubit distillation in a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal

    E-print Network

    Suter, Dieter

    in a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal Lars Rippe, Mattias Nilsson, and Stefan Kröll Department of Physics on optical interactions in rare-earth- metal-ion-doped crystals. The optical transition lines of the rare-earth-metal out in preparation for two-qubit gate operations in the rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystals

  2. Electron capture dissociation of peptides metalated with alkaline-earth metal ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Eva Fung; Haichuan Liu; T.-W. Dominic Chan

    2006-01-01

    The possible use of divalent alkaline-earth metal ions, including Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+, as charge carrier for electron capture dissociation of peptides was investigated. Model peptides of RGGGVGGGR and NGGGWGGGN\\u000a were used to simplify the interpretation of spectral information. It was demonstrated that useful electron capture dissociation\\u000a (ECD) tandem mass spectra of these metalated peptides could be generated. Interestingly,

  3. Alkaline Earth Metal Ion/Dihydroxy-Terephthalate MOFs: Structural Diversity and Unusual Luminescent Properties.

    PubMed

    Douvali, Antigoni; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S; Gullo, Maria Pia; Barbieri, Andrea; Tsipis, Athanassios C; Malliakas, Christos D; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Papadas, Ioannis; Armatas, Gerasimos S; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios G; Lazarides, Theodore; Manos, Manolis J

    2015-06-15

    Alkaline earth (group 2) metal ion organic frameworks (AEMOFs) represent an important subcategory of MOFs with interesting structures and physical properties. Five MOFs, namely, [Mg2(H2dhtp)2(?-H2O)(NMP)4] (AEMOF-2), [Mg2(H2dhtp)1.5(DMAc)4]Cl·DMAc (AEMOF-3), [Ca(H2dhtp)(DMAc)2] (AEMOF-4), [Sr3(H2dhtp)3(DMAc)6]·H2O (AEMOF-5), and [Ba(H2dhtp)(DMAc)] (AEMOF-6) (H4dhtp = 2,5-dihydroxy-terepthalic acid; DMAc = N,N-dimethylacetamide; NMP = N-methylpyrrolidone), are presented herein. The reported MOFs display structural variety with diverse topologies and new structural features. Interestingly, AEMOF-6 is the first example of a Ba(2+)-H2dhtp(2-) MOF, and AEMOF-5 is only the second known Sr(2+)-H2dhtp(2-) MOF. Detailed photoluminescence studies revealed alkaline earth metal ion-dependent fluorescence properties of the materials, with the heavier alkaline earth metal ions exhibiting red-shifted emission with respect to the lighter ions at room temperature. A bathochromic shift of the emission was observed for the MOFs (mostly for AEMOF-3 and AEMOF-4) at 77 K as a result of excited state proton transfer (ESIPT), which involves an intramolecular proton transfer from a hydroxyl to an adjacent carboxylic group of the H2dhtp(2-) ligand. Remarkably, AEMOF-6 displays rare yellow fluorescence at room temperature, which is attractive for solid state lighting applications. To probe whether the alkaline earth metal ions are responsible for the unusual luminescence properties of the reported MOFs, the potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground, S0, and lowest energy excited singlet, S1, states of model complexes along the intramolecular proton transfer coordinate were calculated by DFT and TD-DFT methods. PMID:26039441

  4. Biosorption of rare earth metal ion on aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Li; Feng, Xin-Xing; Xu, Fang; Xu, Shi; Cai, Wei-Min

    2005-01-01

    Aerobic granules are microbial aggregates possessing excellent settling ability and high-porosity structure. In this study, aerobic granules as a novel type of biosorbent were used for cerium's removal from aqueous solution simulating the polluted industrial wastewater. Batch trials were conducted at different initial cerium ion and granule concentration. Biosorption kinetics was also studied. The biosorption conformed to a first-order kinetics model. The results showed that the biosorption ability of aerobic granules was related to both initial cerium ion and granule concentration. The maximum biosorption capacity of cerium by aerobic granules was 357 mg g(-1) granules. The aerobic granules were settled down by gravity from the aqueous solution in one minute after the biosorption experiments. Thus, the post-separation of the conventional suspended biosorbents from the treated effluent could be ignored in the aerobic granule-based biosorption process. All the results confirmed the technical feasibility of the biosorption process by aerobic granules. PMID:15792304

  5. Coherent spectroscopy of rare-earth-metal-ion-doped whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    SciTech Connect

    McAuslan, D. L.; Korystov, D.; Longdell, J. J. [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultra-Cold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. (New Zealand)

    2011-06-15

    We perform an investigation into the properties of Pr{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} whispering-gallery-mode resonators as a first step toward achieving the strong coupling regime of cavity QED with rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystals. Direct measurement of cavity QED parameters are made using photon echoes, giving good agreement with theoretical predictions. By comparing the ions at the surface of the resonator to those in the center, it is determined that the physical process of making the resonator does not negatively affect the properties of the ions. Coupling between the ions and resonator is analyzed through the observation of optical bistability and normal-mode splitting.

  6. Unambiguously identifying spin states of transition-metal ions in the Earth (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.

    2010-12-01

    The spin state of a transition-metal ion in crystalline solids, defined by the number of unpaired electrons in the ion’s incomplete 3d shell, may vary with many factors, such as temperature, pressure, strain, and the local atomic configuration, to name a few. Such a phenomenon, known as spin-state crossover, plays a crucial role in spintronic materials. Recently, the pressure-induced spin-state crossover in iron-bearing minerals has been recognized to affect the minerals’ structural and elastic properties. However, the detailed mechanism of such crossover in iron-bearing magnesium silicate perovskite, the most abundant mineral in the Earth, remains unclear. A significant part of this confusion arises from the difficulty in reliably extracting the spin state from experiments. For the same reason, the thermally-induced spin-state crossover in lanthanum cobaltite (LaCoO3) has been controversial for more than four decades. In this talk, I will discuss how first-principle calculations can help clarifying these long-standing controversies. In addition to the total energy, equation of state, and elastic properties of each spin state, first-principle calculations also predict the electric field gradient (EFG) at the nucleus of each transition-metal ion. Our calculations showed that the nuclear EFG, a quantity that can be measured via Mössbauer or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, depends primarily on the spin state, irrespective of the concentration or configuration of transition-metal ions. Such robustness makes EFG a unique fingerprint to identify the spin state. The combination of first-principle calculations and Mössbauer/NMR spectroscopy can therefore be a reliable and efficient approach in tackling spin-state crossover problems in the Earth. This work was primarily supported by the MRSEC Program of NSF under Awards Number DMR-0212302 and DMR-0819885, and partially supported by NSF under ATM-0428774 (V-Lab), EAR-1019853, and EAR-0810272. The computations were performed mainly at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI).

  7. The adsorption kinetics of metal ions onto different microalgae and siliceous earth.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D; Müller, A; Csögör, Z; Frimmel, F H; Posten, C

    2001-03-01

    In the present work the adsorption kinetics of the six metal ions aluminum, zinc, mercury, lead, copper, and cadmium onto living microalgae were measured. The freshwater green microalga Scenedesmus subspicatus, the brackish water diatom Cyclotella cryptica, the seawater diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and the seawater red alga Porphyridium purpureum were the subject of investigation. In most cases the adsorption rate of the metals could be well described by using the equation of the Langmuir adsorption rate expression. Inverse parameter estimation allowed the determination of the rate constants of the adsorption process and the maximum metal content of the algae. The highest values for the rate constant were obtained for Porphyridium purpureum followed by Phaeodactylum tricornutum. High values for the maximum content were obtained for Cyclotella cryptica and Scenedesmus subspicatus. The maximum rate constant was 24.21 h-1 for the adsorption of Hg to Porphyridium purpureum whereas the maximum metal content (0.243 g g-1) was obtained for Zn on Cyclotella cryptica. A comparison of these values with those obtained for the mineral siliceous earth exhibiting low maximum content and high adsorption rates reveals that the mechanism of adsorption onto the algae is a mixture of adsorption and accumulation. PMID:11228977

  8. Sol-gel derived hybrid materials doped with rare earth metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelazowska, E.; Rysiakiewicz-Pasek, E.; Borczuch-Laczka, M.; Cholewa-Kowalska, K.

    2011-10-01

    Sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid materials doped with rare earth metal ions (Pr 3+) and small amounts of lithium ions (˜0.1-0.2 wt.%) were produced from the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), AlCl 3·6H 2O (about 10 mol%), ethyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate and some other organic additions (ca. 35-40 wt.% of organics in the fresh gels) to obtain hybrid organic-inorganic hosts. The gel and hybrid materials obtained were aged at room temperature for three weeks, then heated in an electric drier for 3 h at temperature of 125 °C and investigated for morphology, structure and luminescence properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 29Si and 27Al MAS nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy. An influence of the organic additions and inorganic dopants on microstructure of the materials obtained and their luminescence properties has been examined. Under excitation with UV radiation in a range of ˜210-350 nm, the sharp and relatively intense luminescence emission lines due to 3P 0 ? 3H 4 (blue) and 3P 0 ? 3F 3 (red) transitions of Pr 3+ ions were observed in the luminescence spectra of gel and hybrid materials of SA-series.

  9. Sol-gel-derived hybrid materials multi-doped with rare-earth metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelazowska, E.; Rysiakiewicz-Pasek, E.; Borczuch-Laczka, M.; Cholewa-Kowalska, K.

    2012-06-01

    Four different hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on TiO2-SiO2 matrices with organic additives and doped with rare-earth metal ions (III) from the group of europium, cerium, terbium, neodymium, dysprosium and samarium, were synthesized by sol-gel method. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, titanium (IV) isopropoxide and organic compounds, such as butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, ethyl acetate, propylene carbonate, organic solvents and certain inorganic salts were used in the synthesis. The inorganic part of the sols, which were used in the synthesis of all the hybrid materials, was prepared separately and then the organic parts were added. The materials obtained were aged for three weeks at room temperature and then heated in an electric oven for three hours at temperatures of 80 °C-150 °C. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (KBr technique); 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance; and fluorescence spectroscopy were used for the examination of morphology, microstructure and luminescence properties, respectively. Photoluminescence properties with relatively intense narrow emission lines of Tb, Eu, Dy, Nd, Sm respectively to the RE-ions doping, were observed for all the hybrid materials.

  10. Growth of metallic Ag nanoparticles in fluoroborate glasses doped with rare-earth ions and their optical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riano, L. P.; de Araujo, Cid B.; Malta, O. L.; Santa Cruz, P.; Couto dos Santos, Marcos A.

    2004-10-01

    Fluoroborate glasses have been prepared containing silver nanoparticles (NP) and rare-earth (RE) ions. Optical techniques were used for analysis of the surface plasmon (SP) band formation and to determine the influence of the NP on the RE ions luminescence. Electron microscopy was applied to measure the particles concentration and their size distributions. The techniques used allowed to identify the presence of Ag particles with diameters in the range of 5 - 200 nm. The absorption band of SP is centered at 425 nm for samples doped with Eu3+ and centered at 416 nm for samples with Pr3+. The ions luminescence shows enhancement or quenching for metallic particles of different sizes.

  11. Self-propelled droplets for extracting rare-earth metal ions.

    PubMed

    Ban, Takahiko; Tani, Kentaro; Nakata, Hiroki; Okano, Yasunori

    2014-09-01

    We have developed self-propelled droplets having the abilities to detect a chemical gradient, to move toward a higher concentration of a specific metal ion (particularly the dysprosium ion), and to extract it. Such abilities rely on the high surface activity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) in response to pH and the affinity of DEHPA for the dysprosium ion. We used two external stimuli as chemical signals to control droplet motion: a pH signal to induce motility and metal ions to induce directional sensing. The oil droplets loaded with DEHPA spontaneously move around beyond the threshold of pH even in a homogeneous pH field. In the presence of a gel block containing metal ions, the droplets show directional sensing and their motility is biased toward higher concentrations. The metal ions investigated can be arranged in decreasing order of directional sensing as Dy(3+)? Nd(3+) > Y(3+) > Gd(3+). Furthermore, the analysis of components by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer reveals that the metal ions can be extracted from the environmental media to the interiors of the droplets. This system may offer alternative self-propelled nano/microscale machines to bubble thrust engines powered by asymmetrical catalysts. PMID:25029997

  12. Radiation-enhanced thermal diffusion of transition metal and rare earth ions into II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alán.; Williams, Lamario; Gafarov, Ozarfar; Martyshkin, Dmitry; Fedorov, Vladimir; Mirov, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    We report on study of gamma radiation-enhanced thermal diffusion of Transition Metal and Rare Earth ions into IIVI semiconductor crystals. ZnSe and ZnS samples with of iron thin film deposited on one facet were sealed in evacuated quartz ampoules at 10-3 Torr. The crystals were annealed for 14 days at 950°C under ?-irradiation from 60Co source. The irradiation dose rates of 43.99 R/s, 1.81 R/s were varied by distance between 60Co source and furnaces. For comparison, the samples were also annealed without irradiation at the same temperature. The spatial distributions of transition metal were measured by absorption of focused laser radiation at 5T2-5E mid-IR transitions of iron ions. In addition, samples of ZnSe were similarly sealed in evacuated quartz ampoules in the presence of Praseodymium metal and annealed at 950°C under 43.99 R/s and 0 R/s and the diffusion lengths and Pr concentrations were compared. The ?-irradiation results in better intrusion of the iron ions from the metal film and increase of the diffusion length at ~25%, while Praseodymium diffusion is dramatically enhanced by ?-irradiation during the annealing process.

  13. Method for separating rare earth metal

    SciTech Connect

    Asami, T.; Ichijo, H.; Ogawa, S.; Suehiro, T.; Suzuki, M.; Uzumaki, M.; Yamauchi, A.

    1985-04-30

    Rare earth metals are adsorbed on an ion exchanger fiber comprising an ion exchanger having a strong cation exchange group and a weak cation exchange group, and the adsorbed metals are fractionally eluted with an aqueous solution of a chelating agent, whereby the respective rare earth metals can be separated at high efficiency in a short time. According to this method, elution can be accomplished at an elution rate of 5.0 or above in terms of space velocity.

  14. Mutual influence of trivalent rare-earth metal ions at their extraction from nitrate solutions by mixtures of tributyl phosphate and diisooctyl methylphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Pyartman, A.K.; Puzikov, E.A.; Kopyrin, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction of yttrium-group lanthanide(III) and yttrium nitrates from multicomponent solutions by mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate and diisooctyl methylphosphonate has been examined at 298.15 K and pH 2. A physiocochemical and mathematical model has been developed to describe distribution and mutual influence of rare-earth metal ions in multicomponent solutions as influenced by the total concentration of rare-earth metals in aqueous phase and compositions of the concentrate and of organic phase.

  15. Ion association of alkaline and alkaline-earth metal perchlorates in acetonitrile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Eberspächer; Erwin Wismeth; Richard Buchner; Josef Barthel

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution results of a joint investigation by dielectric and infrared spectroscopy into the ion association of LiClO4, NaClO4, Mg(ClO4)2 and Ca(ClO4)2 in acetonitrile solutions at 25 °C are presented. All electrolytes exhibit multi-step ion association. Whereas the alkali salts only form solvent-shared (SIP) and contact ion pairs (CIP), a significant amount of neutral triple ions M(ClO4)2 (T0) is additionally

  16. Rare earth metal borocarbides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Bauer; Jean-François Halet; Jean-Yves Saillard

    1998-01-01

    A variety of structural types of solid-state rare earth metal borocarbide materials containing infinite two-dimensional layers, infinite one-dimensional chains, or finite groups of boron and carbon are reviewed. Although the solid-state language of Zintl–Klemm concept, band structures, and density of states is necessary to rationalize this kind of compound, they are governed by the laws that guide most molecular and

  17. Extractive properties towards rare-earth metal ions of calix[4]arenes substituted at the narrow rim by phosphoryl and amide groups

    SciTech Connect

    Yaftian, M.R.; Burgard, M.; Wieser, C.; Dieleman, C.B.; Matt, D. [Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

    1998-08-01

    The extractive properties of the cone and partial-cone isomers of 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis(diethylcarbamoylmethoxy)-26,28-bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (cone-1 and partial-cone-1) in 1,2-dichloroethane towards rare-earth metal ions in nitrate media at 25 C were investigated. The analysis of the extraction equilibrium obtained from a mixture of four rare-earths (La, Eu, Er and Y) revealed that the extracted species have a 1:1 metal/ligand ratio for both ligands. The intra-group separation efficiencies of the ligands have been evaluated in a competitive extraction process of 11 rare-earth metal ions (La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Y). Significantly higher extractive properties were found for cone-1 with respect to partial-cone-1, suggesting the crucial role of the phosphoryl groups in the complexation of the rare-earth ions.

  18. Microcalorimetric study on host-guest complexation of naphtho-15-crown-5 with four ions of alkaline earth metal.

    PubMed

    Song, Ming-zhi; Zhu, Lan-ying; Gao, Xi-ke; Dou, Jian-min; Sun, De-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters of complexation of naphto-15-crown-5 with four alkaline earth ions in aqueous media was determined using titration microcalorimetry at 298.15 K. The stability of the complexes, thermal effect and entropy effect of the complexation is discussed on the basis of the guest ions structure and the solvent effect. The stability constants tendency to vary with ion radius was interpreted. Complex of naphtha-15-crown-5 with calcium ion is very stable due to the synergism of static electric interaction and size selectivity between the host and the guest. PMID:15593396

  19. EXTRACTIVE PROPERTIES TOWARDS RARE-EARTH METAL IONS OF CALIX[ 4] ARENES SUBSTITUTED AT THE NARROW RIM BY PHOSPHORYL AND AMIDE GROUPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Yaftian; M. Burgard; C. Wieseir; C. B. Dieleman; D. Matt

    1998-01-01

    The extractive properties of the cone and partial-cone isomers of 5,11,17,23-tetra-?ert-butyl-25,27-bis( diethylcarbamoylmethoxy)-26,28-bisi( diphenylphospninoylmethoxy) calyx[ 4] arene ( cone-1 and partial-cone -1) in 1,2-dichloroethane towards rare-earth metal ions in nitrate media at 25 ° C were investigated. The analysis of the extraction equilibrium obtained from a mixture of four rare-earths ( La, Eu, Er and Y) revealed that the extracted species

  20. Luminescent materials based on thin metal oxide films doped with rare earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanarjov, P.; Reedo, V.; Oja Acik, I.; Matisen, L.; Vorobjov, A.; Kiisk, V.; Krunks, M.; Sildos, I.

    2008-09-01

    Luminescent films of TiO2: Sm were prepared by the sol-gel method using the spray pyrolysis technique. Various techniques (including IR absorption, Raman, AFM, XPS, photoluminescence) were used to characterize the samples. After a thermal treatment up to 750°C, intense Sm3+ luminescence with a well-resolved fine structure was observed under optical excitation within the fundamental absorption band of the TiO2 host. After further thermal treatments up to 950°C, the luminescence was quenched, although no anataseto-rutile phase transformation was observed. This behavior is attributed to nanocrystallinity and segregation of Sm ions in the surface layer.

  1. Rare-earth metal-ion separation using a supported liquid membrane mediated by a narrow rim phosphorylated calix[4]arene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R Yaftian; M Burgard; C. B Dieleman; D Matt

    1998-01-01

    The transport of rare-earth metal ions through a supported liquid membrane mediated by 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (1) (cone conformation) in o-nitrophenyl hexyl ether (NPHE) has been investigated. The effect of the initial metal concentration, salting-out agent concentration in the feed phase and temperature as well as the carrier concentration on the flux was studied. The separation ability of ligand 1 was tested

  2. Strong-coupling cavity QED using rare-earth-metal-ion dopants in monolithic resonators: What you can do with a weak oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    McAuslan, D. L.; Longdell, J. J.; Sellars, M. J. [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultra-Cold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-12-15

    We investigate the possibility of achieving the strong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics using rare-earth-metal-ions as impurities in monolithic optical resonators. We conclude that due to the weak oscillator strengths of the rare-earth-metals, it may be possible but difficult to reach the regime where the single photon Rabi frequency is large compared to both the cavity and atom decay rates. However, reaching the regime where the saturation photon and atom numbers are less than one should be much more achievable. We show that in this 'bad cavity' regime, transfer of quantum states and an optical phase shift conditional on the state of the atom is still possible and suggest a method for coherent detection of single dopants.

  3. Investigations on the electrical and mechanical properties of triglycine sulphate single crystals modified with some rare earth metal ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Muralidharan; R Mohankumar; R Dhanasekaran; A. K Tirupathi; R Jayavel; P Ramasamy

    2003-01-01

    Single crystals of triglycine sulphate (TGS) modified with La3+, Ce3+ and Nd3+ have been grown from aqueous solutions by low-temperature solution growth method. The effect of rare earth ion dopants (La, Ce and Nd) on the ferroelectric properties of TGS is reported. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss have been measured for different frequencies. Dielectric measurements revealed that the dielectric constant

  4. Effect of sodium ions on the extraction of rare earth metals by liquid surfactant membranes containing a calix[4]arene carboxyl derivative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiko Kakoi; Tatsuya Oshima; Takayuki Nishiyori; Fukiko Kubota; Masahiro Goto; Seiji Shinkai; Fumiyuki Nakashio

    1998-01-01

    A novel host compound calixarene has been applied as a mobile carrier for the separation and concentration of rare earth metals by liquid surfactant membranes (LSMs). Using the novel carrier, extraction of rare earth metals (Ho, Er and Y) by LSMs was systematically studied in a stirred cell. Extraction behavior of rare earth metals by the carboxyl derivative of calix[4]arene

  5. Intermultiplet transitions in rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stirling, W.G.; McEwen, K.A.; Loong, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    We report here on direct observations of intermultiplet (IM) transitions in the rare-earth metals, Pr, Nd and Tb, made using the chopper spectrometers at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source of Argonne National Laboratory. Despite hydrogen contamination of the polycrystalline samples, we have observed inelastic peaks at small Q arising from IM transitions in Pr (approx.260 MeV), Nd (approx.242 MeV) and Tb (approx.256 MeV) although the latter has not yet been observed unambiguously. Future work will investigate the energy level structure and dynamical properties of rare-earth ions in stoichiometric metallic systems. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Hayato; Ichimura, Kouichi [Frontier Research Laboratory, Corporate Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 1, Komukai Toshiba-cho, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki-shi, 212-8582 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Coherent population transfer in a laser-driven four-level system in a tripod configuration is experimentally investigated with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal (Pr{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}). The population transfers observed here indicate that a main process inducing them is not optical pumping, which is an incoherent process inducing population transfer. Moreover, numerical simulation, which well reproduces the experimental results, also shows that the process inducing the observed population transfers is similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) in the sense that this process possesses characteristic features of STIRAP.

  7. Forward and reverse ion-exchange kinetics for some alkali and alkaline earth metal ions on amorphous zirconium(IV) aluminophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Varshney, K.G.; Pandith, A.H.

    1999-10-26

    The Nernst-Planck equations are applied to study the ion-exchange kinetics on the surface of zirconium(IV) aluminophosphate for Li{sup +}/H{sup +}, Na{sup +}/H{sup +}, K{sup +}/H{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}/H{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}/H{sup +}, and Sr{sup 2+}/H{sup +} exchanges in the forward and reverse directions under the conditions favoring particle diffusion. On the basis of these studies, various physical parameters such as the self-diffusion coefficient (D{sub 0}), the energy of activation (E{sub a}), and the entropy of activation ({Delta}S*) have been determined and a correlation has been made of these parameters with the ion-exchange characteristics of the material. The study gives an insight into the ion-exchange processes going on in the exchanger phase and its potential use in metal ion separations.

  8. The rare-earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. R. Taylor

    1970-01-01

    A brief survey is given of the physical properties of the rare earth metals. In doing this their characteristic structural and magnetic behaviour is described first and this is then followed by an examination of the ways in which these features affect the other properties.

  9. Adsorption kinetics and reversibility of linear plasmid DNA on silica surfaces: influence of alkaline earth and transition metal ions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh H; Chen, Kai Loon; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-05-10

    A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring is used to study the adsorption of linear plasmid DNA on silica surfaces and silica surfaces coated with poly-L-lysine (PLL) in solutions containing either alkaline earth (calcium and magnesium) or transition (cobalt, copper, and zinc) metals. Our results show that electrostatic attraction alone does not fully explain the significantly higher adsorption rate of DNA on the positively charged PLL layer in Cu(2+) solution compared to solutions containing Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Co(2+), or Zn(2+). Diffusion coefficients measured by dynamic light scattering reveal that the compactness of plasmid DNA molecules is greater in solutions containing Cu(2+) compared to that of DNA in other divalent electrolyte solutions. When the adsorption rate of plasmid DNA on silica is normalized to the corresponding adsorption rate on PLL-coated surfaces at the same solution condition, the attachment (adsorption) efficiencies are about 0.01 for Ca(2+) or Mg(2), but close to unity for Co(2+), Cu(2+), or Zn(2+). Results from viscoelastic modeling of adsorbed DNA layers suggest that the DNA layer formed in Cu(2+) solutions is thicker and more viscous compared to that formed in Co(2+) solutions. This study demonstrates that plasmid DNA has a strong affinity to Cu(2+), which results in a more compact conformation of DNA molecules compared to the case with the other divalent cations investigated. PMID:20373757

  10. Interaction of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate with alkali and alkaline earth metal ions: Spectroscopic, potentiometric and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Julia; Veiga, Nicolás; Gancheff, Jorge S.; Domínguez, Sixto; Mederos, Alfredo; Sundberg, Markku; Sánchez, Agustín; Castiglioni, Jorge; Díaz, Alvaro; Kremer, Carlos

    2008-02-01

    myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate (Ins P6) interacts strongly with cations, forming soluble complexes and solids, both of which are biologically relevant. We have recently reported advances in this area, showing the importance of the interaction with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+. We now extend the data to Sr 2+ and Ba 2+, which behaved similarly to Mg 2+ and Ca 2+, but giving even less soluble systems. We also describe the interactions with Li +, Na +, K +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, and Ba 2+ in a non-interacting medium: these depended strongly on cation charge but only weakly on ionic radius within each series. In addition, we probed structural aspects of Ins P6 compounds with alkaline earth cations, by means of IR and Raman spectroscopy of the solids and computational calculations on the 1:1 complexes of Mg 2+. Both approaches suggested direct and multidentate phosphate-metal coordination. In [Mg(H 2L)(H 2O) 3] 8-, three oxygen atoms from two phosphate groups and three water molecules were predicted to form a roughly octahedral coordination shell; alternate or vicinal phosphate groups were predicted to chelate Mg 2+ depending on whether Ins P6 is in the 5-axial/1-equatorial or the 1-axial/5-equatorial conformation, respectively.

  11. First Principles Hartree-Fock Cluster Study Of Very Dilute Transition Metal And Rare-Earth

    E-print Network

    Chow, Lee

    First Principles Hartree-Fock Cluster Study Of Very Dilute Transition Metal And Rare-Earth Ion INTRODUCTION There is currently great interest in the doping of silicon with transition metal and rare-earth temperature with potential applications for spintronics2 . As far as the rare-earth ion Er3+ is concerned

  12. RARE-EARTH METALS--1997 61.1 RARE-EARTH METALS

    E-print Network

    RARE-EARTH METALS--1997 61.1 RARE-EARTH METALS By James B. Hedrick The rare earths are a relatively. The elemental forms of rare earths are iron gray to silvery lustrous metals and are typically soft, malleable million, to thulium and lutetium, the least abundant rare-earth elements at about 0.5 parts per million

  13. Imestigation ol" Maenons in Rare Earth Metals

    E-print Network

    Imestigation ol" Maenons in Rare Earth Metals b\\ Inelastic Neutron Scattering tL Bjerrum Moiler #12;BLANK PAGE #12;Riso Report No. 178 Investigation of Magnons in Rare Earth Metals by Inelastic NeutronN LANGF h. a. dec. #12;Contents Page PREFACE 7 I. INTRODUCTION *> 1. Magnetism of Rare Earth Metals 10 2

  14. Dialing in color with rare earth metals: facile photoluminescent production of true white light

    E-print Network

    Tew, Gregory N.

    Dialing in color with rare earth metals: facile photoluminescent production of true white light of lanthanide ions which is the focus of this report. Rare earth metal complexes have relatively good Combining polymeric architectures with metal ions produces hybrid materials with extremely rich properties

  15. The electric field gradient in heavy rare earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pelzl; Fachbereich Physik

    1972-01-01

    Estimates of the electric field gradient in heavy rare earth metals have been evaluated from experimental hyperfine interaction data. In addition, the magnetic hyperfine fields are analyzed. In the metals the effective radial integrals r-3>4f of the magnetic and quadrupole hyperfine interaction are reduced at most by 10% compared with the free ion values. The electric field gradients due to

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance in rare earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. H. McCausland; I. S. Mackenzie

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the study, by nuclear magnetic resonance, of both static and dynamical aspects of the hyperfine interaction in rare earth metals, and illustrates the categories of information that can be obtained by using nuclei as microscopic probes in metallic media. The systems discussed include not only the pure rare earth metals but also their alloys and their metallic

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF THE RARE-EARTH METAL IONS BY A CONE-SHAPED CALDC[4]ARENE SUBSTITUTED AT THE LOWER RTM BY FOUR CH2P(O)Ph2 LIGANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Yaftian; M. Burgard; D. Matt; C. B. Dieleman; F. Rastegar

    1997-01-01

    The extraction properties of cone-5,11,17,23-tetra-t-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (1) in 1,2-dichloroethane towards rare-earth metal ions at 25 °C have been investigated. The slope analysis showed a 1:1 metal\\/ligand ratio for the extracted species (La, Eu, Er and Y). The distribution coefficients increase with the polarity of the diluents : chloroform ? dichioromethane ? 1,2-dichloroethane ? nitrobenzene. In the competitive extraction of 11 rare-earth

  18. Advances in metal ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1988-05-01

    Beams of metallic ion species can be produced by the ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source and by the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) ion source. Although the ECR source is fundamentally a gaseous ion source, metal ion beams can be produced by introducing metallic feed material into the plasma discharge using a number of techniques. The ion charge states can be very high, which is a significant advantage to most applications. The MEVVA ion source, on the other hand, is specifically a metal ion source. It has produced metallic ion beams from virtually all the solid metallic elements at a current of typically hundreds of milliamperes; the ions produced are in general multiply ionized, but not as highly stripped as those generated in the ECR source. Although the MEVVA source at present operates in a pulsed mode with a low duty cycle (less than or equal to 1%), work is in progress to increase the duty cycle significantly. In this paper the operation and performance of the LBL ECR and MEVVA ion sources, with respect to metal ion generation, are described.

  19. Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals is the

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Info Sheet Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals isolated. Actually, most rare earth elements exist in the Earth's crust in higher concentrations than though most people have never heard of rare earth elements, sev- eral of them govern mankind's modern

  20. Dosimetric studies of YAlO3: Mn co-doped with transition (Co, Cu, Fe) and rare earth (Yb, Ce) metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premkumar, H. B.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Prashantha, S. C.; Nagabhushana, B. M.; Nagaswarupa, H. P.; Zhao, Guangjun; Chen, Jianyu

    2014-04-01

    Dosimetric studies on single crystals of YAlO3:Mn co-doped with transition (Co, Cu, Fe) and rare earth (Yb, Ce) metal ions using UV radiation exposure for the duration 5-30 min have been studied. A single well resolved thermoluminescence glow peak was observed at 183 °C in Co and Cu co-doped single crystals. In Fe co-doped single crystals, two well resolved glow peaks at 196 °C and 238 °C were observed. A well resolved glow peak at 215 °C in Yb and 176 °C in Ce co-doped single crystals was observed. Variations of thermoluminescent (TL) glow peaks intensity in all the co-doped crystals with different UV-exposures were studied. TL glow peak intensity increases sublinearly in Co, Cu co-doped crystals, whereas in Fe co-doped crystals glow peaks at 196 °C and 238 °C increase linearly. Fading effect was studied at different intervals up to 30 d for all co-doped crystals exposed to UV source for 10 min. Strong fading was observed initially and stabilized after 15 d. Fe co-doped YAlO3:Mn2+ records 40% fading, whereas other samples of YAlO3:Mn2+ co-doped with Cu, Co, Yb and Ce show 60% fading. The kinetic parameters (E, b, s) were estimated using glow peak shape method for UV irradiated samples and results are discussed in detail.

  1. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohumi Shinjoh

    2006-01-01

    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of

  2. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  3. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  4. Adsorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) from water by novel chelating sponge and the effect of alkali-earth metal ions on the adsorption.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Jinnan; Yang, Xin; Li, Aimin; Philippe, Corvini

    2014-01-15

    Novel chelating sponge (PVA-M-H) was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol by graft polymerization and nucleophilic substitution. E.A, SEM, FT-IR, (13)CNMR, and XPS analyses were used to characterize PVA-M-H. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of PVA-M-H for Ni(II) and Cd(II) were 65.39 and 125.11mgg(-1), respectively. Within the range of 278-308K, the adsorption enthalpy changes of Ni(II) and Cd(II) on PVA-M-H were about 36.39-37.72kJmol(-1), and the free energy were about -13.27 to -1.7kJmol(-1). Both pseudo-first- and -second-order equations fit the adsorption kinetic curves well, and the initial adsorption rates of Ni(II) and Cd(II) onto PVA-M-H were 17.83 and 34.81mg (gmin)(-1), respectively. Although the presence of alkali-earth metal ions in solution decreased Ni(II) and Cd(II) removal, PVA-M-H still retained more than 60 and 80% of its adsorption capacity even as the concentration of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was up to 10mmolL(-1), respectively. Both 0.1M HCl and 0.1M EDTA solution could desorb Ni(II) and Cd(II) from PVA-M-H effectively, and the adsorption capacity of PVA-M-H for Ni(II) and Cd(II) could still maintain more than 90% level without any obvious decrease at the fifth cycle. PMID:24316805

  5. Rare-Earth-metal methylidene complexes.

    PubMed

    Kratsch, Jochen; Roesky, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Transition-metal carbene complexes have been known for about 50?years and widely applied as reagents and catalysts in organic transformations. In contrast, the carbene chemistry of the rare-earth metals is much less developed, but has attracted the research interest in the recent years. In this field rare-earth-metal alkylidene, especially methylidene, compounds are an emerging class of compounds with a high synthetic potential for organometallic chemistry and maybe in the future also for organic chemistry. PMID:24395606

  6. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Ellis; Frederick A. Schmidt

    1995-01-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant

  7. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Ellis; F. A. Schmidt

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material

  8. Superconducting rare earth transition metal borocarbides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-L. Drechsler; S. V. Shulga; K.-H. Müller; G. Fuchs; J. Freudenberger; G. Behr; H. Eschrig; L. Schultz; M. S. Golden; H. von Lips; J. Fink; V. N. Narozhnyi; H. Rosner; P. Zahn; A. Gladun; D. Lipp; A. Kreyssig; M. Loewenhaupt; K. Koepernik; K. Winzer; K. Krug

    1999-01-01

    We present an overview of selected properties of quaternary intermetallic rare earth transition metal borocarbides and related boronitride compounds, as well as of theoretical calculations with possible relevance to the mechanism of superconductivity. The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism for compounds with pure and mixed rare earth components is considered. We suggest that the incommensurate magnetic structure modulated along the

  9. Synthesis and characterization of metal ion recognition induced conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The synthesis and metal ion responsive properties of two 2,2{prime}-bipyridyl-phenylene-vinylene based polymers will be presented. These polymers are designed to be partially conjugated in their initial state and fully conjugated when exposed to metal ions so that such ion induced conjugation enhancement can be transduced into a measurable signal. The synthesis of the monomers and the polymers were accomplished by Wittig type reactions between oligo-phenylene-vinylene derived aldehydes and 5,5{prime}- substituted 2,2{prime}-bipyridyl phosphonium salts. It is found that these polymers exhibit highly ionochromic effects on a wide variety of transition and main group metal ions excluding metal ions of alkali and earth alkaline groups. The most striking observation perhaps is the highly specific palladium ion sensing by the polymers.

  10. Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence of Thin Films of ZnS Doped with Rare-Earth Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Krupka; D. M. Mahoney

    1972-01-01

    It has been shown recently that efficient electroluminescence may be obtained from thin films formed by the coevaporation of ZnS and rare-earth fluorides. In order to assess the importance of the fluorine ions in such systems, films have been produced by coevaporating ZnS and rare-earth metals (Tb, Sm, Nd). It is shown that large concentrations of well-dispersed rare-earth ions may

  11. Arc discharge ion source for europium and other refractory metals implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Turek; S. Prucnal; A. Drozdziel; K. Pyszniak

    2009-01-01

    The best method for the impurity doping to the host material is the ion implantation. Due to high melting point of the rare earth standard metal ion sources are useless. One of the solution is to use chemical compounds of rare earths characterized by low melting point. In this paper we describe the novel design of the ion source suitable

  12. Anticoagulant action of rare earth metals.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, T; Furushima, K; Shimada, H; Kojima, S

    1992-10-01

    Some of the lanthanides, the rare earth metals, lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er) and ytterbium (Yb) prolonged the clotting time of normal human plasma in a dose-dependent manner when clotting was induced either by thromboplastin or by kaolin in the presence of cephalin and Ca2+. They also prolonged the activated factor X induced clotting time of platelet-rich plasma. The amidolytic activities of activated factor X and thrombin progressively decreased with increasing amount of rare earth metals. These results suggested that the rare earth metals appear to show their anticoagulant effect with mechanisms in part the inhibition of the enzymatic activities of both activated factor X and thrombin. PMID:1445385

  13. Process for the production of a rare earth metal alkoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ozaki; K. Kaneko; S. Mitachi

    1985-01-01

    A new improved process of producing a rare earth metal alkoxide is now provided, which comprises reacting a rare earth metal carboxylate with an alkali metal alkoxide in an inert organic solvent under anhydrous conditions, and which can be conducted in a facile way and give the desired rare earth metal alkoxide of a high purity in a high yield.

  14. Mechanistic Enzyme Models: Pyridoxal and Metal Ions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, S. E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results are presented for experiments on the pyridoxal/metal ion model system. These experiments illustrate catalysis through Schiff's base formation between aldehydes/ketones and primary amines, catalysis by metal ions, and the predictable manner in which metal ions inhibit or catalyze reactions. (JN)

  15. Reversible photodeposition and dissolution of metal ions

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Nancy S. (Boulder, CO); Koval, Carl A. (Golden, CO); Noble, Richard D. (Boulder, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A cyclic photocatalytic process for treating waste water containing metal and organic contaminants. In one embodiment of the method, metal ions are photoreduced onto the photocatalyst and the metal concentrated by resolubilization in a smaller volume. In another embodiment of the method, contaminant organics are first oxidized, then metal ions removed by photoreductive deposition. The present invention allows the photocatalyst to be recycled until nearly complete removal of metal ions and organic contaminants is achieved.

  16. Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions in Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals by Brian Ross Maddox Electron correlation can affect profound changes transition in a transition metal monoxide. iv #12;The lanthanides (the 4f metals also known as rare-earths

  17. Metallic ions in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Four positive ion composition measurements of the equatorial E region made at Thumba, India, are presented. During the day, the major ions between 90 and 125 km are NO(+) and O2(+). A metallic ion layer centered at 92 km is observed, and found to contain Mg(+), Fe(+), Ca(+), K(+), Al(+), and Na(+) ions. The layer is explained in terms of a similarly shaped latitude distribution of neutral atoms which are photoionized and charge-exchanged with NO(+) and O2(+). Three body reactions form molecular metallic ions which are rapidly lost by dissociative ion-electron recombination. Nighttime observations show downward drifting of the metallic ion layer caused by equatorial dynamo effects. These ions react and form neutral metals which exchange charges with NO(+) and O2(+) to produce an observed depletion of those ions within the metallic ion region.

  18. METAL-NON METAL TRANSITIONS /N RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS. EXPERIMENT AND THEORK /.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    METAL-NON METAL TRANSITIONS /N RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS. EXPERIMENT AND THEORK /. VALENCE INSTABILITIES, superconductivity, electron-phonon and band theory, to name a few. 2. Properties of normal rare earth metals. - Before discussing rare earth valence instabilities, three relevant general features of rare earth metals

  19. Upconversion Processes in Transition Metal and Rare Earth Metal Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Gamelin; Hans U. Güdel

    The design and characterization of new luminescent materials is an active area of research. Here we present several current\\u000a topics in the area of upconversion by transition-metal and rare-earth-metal doped halide lattices. Following introduction\\u000a to the necessary background material related to upconversion mechanisms and kinetics, a series of topics are discussed which\\u000a illustrate some key areas of developing interest in

  20. ONDES DE SPIN MAGNETISM IN THE LIGHT RARE EARTH 'METALS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ONDES DE SPIN MAGNETISM IN THE LIGHT RARE EARTH 'METALS A. R. MACKINTOSH H. C. Mrsted Institute terres rares Ikgeres. Abstract. -The magnetic properties of the light rare earth metals are reviewed the last decade, the magnetism of the heavy rare earth metals is now rather well understood. The magnetic

  1. Metal ions binding onto lignocellulosic biosorbent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Krishnani; Xiaoguang Meng; L. Dupont

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a lignocellulosic biosorbent for the adsorption and ion exchange of nine different heavy metals ions. Batch isothermal equilibrium and continuous column adsorption experiments were carried out in an effort to evaluate the maximum adsorption capacity, pH dependence and to study the mechanism of removal of metal ions onto the biosorbent. Bio-sorption data were interpreted

  2. Systematic enhancement of in-field critical current density with rare-earth ion size variance in superconducting rare-earth barium cuprate films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. MacManus-Driscoll; S. R. Foltyn; Q. X. Jia; H. Wang; A. Serquis; B. Maiorov; L. Civale; Y. Lin; M. E. Hawley; M. P. Maley; D. E. Peterson

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced in-field critical current densities (Jc's) have been obtained in epitaxial superconducting (RE1,RE2) Ba2Cu3O7-x ( RE1=rare-earth ion 1, and RE2=rare earth ion 2) films grown on both single crystal and buffered metallic substrates. For a constant average RE ionic radius (equal to that of yttrium), there is a systematic dependence of the in-field Jc on the RE ion size variance,

  3. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Santandrea, Robert P. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR)

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  4. Characteristics of thermal decomposition products of rare earth, alkali earth metal and transition metal p -toluenesulfonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z.-L. Sun

    2005-01-01

    Summary A series of alkali earth (Ca, Ba), lanthanide (La, Ce, Pr, Nd,) and transition metal (Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd) p-toluenesulfonates were synthesized. Thermal analysis, infrared spectrophotometry, and XRD powder diffraction patterns were employed to characterize the final thermal decomposition products. By heating in dynamic air atmosphere at 30-850°C, it has been found that the alkali earth

  5. Transition metal ions: charge carriers that mediate the electron capture dissociation pathways of peptides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangfeng; Fung, Yi Man Eva; Chan, Wai Yi Kelly; Wong, Pui Shuen; Yeung, Hoi Sze; Chan, T-W Dominic

    2011-12-01

    Electron capture dissociation (ECD) of model peptides adducted with first row divalent transition metal ions, including Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+), were investigated. Model peptides with general sequence of ZGGGXGGGZ were used as probes to unveil the ECD mechanism of metalated peptides, where X is either V or W; and Z is either R or N. Peptides metalated with different divalent transition metal ions were found to generate different ECD tandem mass spectra. ECD spectra of peptides metalated by Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) were similar to those generated by ECD of peptides adducted with alkaline earth metal ions. Series of c-/z-type fragment ions with and without metal ions were observed. ECD of Fe(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) adducted peptides yielded abundant metalated a-/y-type fragment ions; whereas ECD of Cu(2+) adducted peptides generated predominantly metalated b-/y-type fragment ions. From the present experimental results, it was postulated that electronic configuration of metal ions is an important factor in determining the ECD behavior of the metalated peptides. Due presumably to the stability of the electronic configuration, metal ions with fully-filled (i.e., Zn(2+)) and half filled (i.e., Mn(2+)) d-orbitals might not capture the incoming electron. Dissociation of the metal ions adducted peptides would proceed through the usual ECD channel(s) via "hot-hydrogen" or "superbase" intermediates, to form series of c-/z(•)- fragments. For other transition metal ions studied, reduction of the metal ions might occur preferentially. The energy liberated by the metal ion reduction would provide enough internal energy to generate the "slow-heating" type of fragment ions, i.e., metalated a-/y- fragments and metalated b-/y- fragments. PMID:21952786

  6. ZnS nanocrystals co-activated by transition metals and rare-earth metals—a new class of luminescent materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Yang; Mengkai Lü; Dong Xü; Duolong Yuan; Guangjun Zhou

    2001-01-01

    We report on the unique luminescent properties of ZnS nanoparticles co-activated by Cu2+ and rare-earth metallic ions. The co-activated ZnS nanocrystals with varying sizes from 20 to 30Å have been prepared by using a chemical coprecipitation at room temperature. The nanoparticles can be co-doped with copper and rare-earth metallic ions during synthesis without altering X-ray diffraction patterns. However, the doping

  7. Metal ion separations by supported liquid membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josefina de Gyves; Eduardo Rodríguez de San Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Carrier-mediated transport through supported liquid membranes is currently recognized as a potentially valuable technology for selective separation and concentration of toxic and valuable metal ions. In this paper, a review of the fundamental aspects concerning metal ion transport and the influencing factors are surveyed in terms of data modeling, membrane efficiency (permeability, selectivity, stability), and data acquisition and evaluation. An

  8. PROTEIN-TRANSITION METAL ION NETWORKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins obtained from agricultural sources were blended with divalent metal ions. Feather keratin, egg albumin, and wheat gluten had low, medium, and high levels of aspartic and glutamic acid, respectively, and FT-IR showed that the divalent transition metal ions Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ were tightly ...

  9. COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN OF METAL ION SEQUESTERING AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic ligands that exhibit a high degree of metal ion recognition are essential precursors for developing separation processes and sensors for metal ions. Since the beginning of the nuclear era, much research has focused on discovering ligands that target specific radionuclides...

  10. Correlations in rare-earth transition-metal permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomski, R.; Manchanda, P.; Kashyap, A.

    2015-05-01

    It is investigated how electron-electron correlations affect the intrinsic properties of rare-earth transition-metal magnets. Focusing on orbital moment and anisotropy, we perform model calculations for 3d-4f alloys and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for NdCo5. On an independent-electron level, the use of a single Slater determinant with broken spin symmetry introduces Hund's rule correlations, which govern the behavior of rare-earth ions and of alloys described by the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and LSDA + U approximations to DFT. By contrast, rare-earth ions in intermetallics involve configuration interactions between two or more Slater determinants and lead to phenomena such as spin-charge distribution. Analyzing DFT as a Legendre transformation and using Bethe's crystal-field theory, we show that the corresponding density functionals are very different from familiar LSDA-type expressions and outline the effect of spin-charge separation on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  11. Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Almon, Amy C. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A process and apparatus for quantitatively and selectively separating metal ions from mixtures thereof in aqueous solution. The apparatus includes, in combination, a horizontal electrochemical flow cell containing flow bulk electrolyte solution and an aqueous, metal ion-containing solution, the cell containing a metal mesh working electrode, a counter electrode positioned downstream from the working electrode, an independent variable power supply/potentiostat positioned outside of the flow cell and connected to the electrodes, and optionally a detector such as a chromatographic detector, positioned outside the flow cell. This apparatus and its operation has significant application where trace amounts of metal ions are to be separated.

  12. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Igor B., E-mail: stepanovib@tpu.ru; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenina Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)] [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenina Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  13. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Igor B; Ryabchikov, Alexander I; Sivin, Denis O; Verigin, Dan A

    2014-02-01

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface. PMID:24593634

  14. Metal enhanced fluorescence in rare earth doped plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Derom, S; Pillonnet, A; Benamara, O; Jurdyc, A M; Girard, C; Francs, G Colas des

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate metal enhanced fluorescence of plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles doped with rare earth (RE) ions. Particle shape and size are engineered to maximize the average enhancement factor (AEF) of the overall doped shell. We show that the highest enhancement (11 in the visible and 7 in the near-infrared) are achieved by tuning either the dipolar or quadrupolar particle resonance to the rare earth ions excitation wavelength. Additionally, the calculated AEFs are compared to experimental data reported in the literature, obtained in similar conditions (plasmon mediated enhancement) or when a metal-RE energy transfer mechanism is involved.

  15. Metal enhanced fluorescence in rare earth doped plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Derom, S; Berthelot, A; Pillonnet, A; Benamara, O; Jurdyc, A M; Girard, C; Colas des Francs, G

    2013-12-13

    We theoretically and numerically investigate metal enhanced fluorescence of plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles doped with rare earth (RE) ions. Particle shape and size are engineered to maximize the average enhancement factor (AEF) of the overall doped shell. We show that the highest enhancement (11 in the visible and 7 in the near-infrared) is achieved by tuning either the dipolar or the quadrupolar particle resonance to the rare earth ion's excitation wavelength. Additionally, the calculated AEFs are compared to experimental data reported in the literature, obtained in similar conditions (plasmon mediated enhancement) or when a metal-RE energy transfer mechanism is involved. PMID:24231223

  16. Metallic ion production with the dione EBIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visentin, B.; Courtois, A.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Leroy, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first quantitative results obtained with metallic elements injected from an Hollow Cathode ion source into the Dioné EBIS. These results are concerned with the charge state distribution of gold ions, with a maximum for Au47+ of (1,3 × 107 ions), and the highest charge state detectable on a wire profiler of Au63+. The Au50+ ions have been captured in Mimas storage synchrotron, and an Fe20+ ion beam has been accelerated in the Saturne synchrotron. The Hollow Cathode ion source lifetime has been tested on a long term basis (Au1+ injected into Dioné during six weeks, 24 hours per day). This source, able to produce metallic ions with any buffer gas (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, or N) and is also used to inject gaseous ions into Dioné.

  17. Sorption of metal ions on alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgarten, E.; Kirchhausen-Duesing, U. [Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie] [Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie

    1997-10-01

    The adsorption of metal ions on aluminas is of great interest in different fields such as geochemistry, oceanography, limnology, and pollution control. Precipitation and adsorption of metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Cr(III)) on {gamma}-alumina were investigated experimentally. A surface chemical reaction model to calculate concentrations of aluminum ions, metal ions, and pH as variables depending on amount of alumina, volume of liquid and gas phase, initial metal concentration, and amount of acid or base added is presented. In the case of Co(II) the pH dependence of rest concentrations with and without alumina is equal; adsorption may be disregarded. For the other ions adsorption is important. Considering the charge of the surface does not improve the fit. In the pH region, where adsorption leads to lower rest concentrations than precipitation, adsorption may be described by a Henry isotherm.

  18. Rare earth focused ion beam implantation utilizing Er and Pr liquid alloy ion sources

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    Rare earth focused ion beam implantation utilizing Er and Pr liquid alloy ion sources L. C. Chao, B write implantation. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. S0734-211X 99 08306-7 I. INTRODUCTION Rare earth communication applications.1 Among the rare earths, erbium and praseodymium have drawn the most interest because

  19. ChemTeacher: Alkaline Earth Metals = Group 2 (IIA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-20

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Alkaline Earth Metals page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery, properties, and uses of the alkaline earth metals.

  20. Mobility of Alkaline Earth Ions in Liquid Xenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade Taylor; Shie-Chang Jeng; Kendy Hall; J. R. Fairbank; Mitsuhiro Miyajima

    2003-01-01

    Mobility studies of ions in super fluid helium have revealed snowball and bubble formations in the surrounding liquid. Unfortunately, experimental results and theoretical predictions are scarce for the structure and mobility of ions in the other noble gas liquids. The mobility of alkaline earth ions in liquid Xe has been measured for the first time in a temperature range from

  1. Magnetic Collapse in Transition Metal Oxides at High Pressure: Implications for the Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Cohen; I. I. Mazin; Donald G. Isaak

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic collapse in transition metal ions is predicted from first-principles computations at pressures reached in the Earth's lower mantle and core. Magnetic collapse would lead to marked changes in geophysically important properties, such as elasticity and con- ductivity, and also to different geochemical behavior, such as element partitioning, than estimated by extrapolating low-pressure data, and thus change the understanding of

  2. Kinetic approach to evaluate the energy and entropy of activation for the exchange of alkaline earth metal ions on tin(IV) tungstate cation exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Varshney, K.G.; Khan, A.A.; Varshney, K.; Agrawal, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach based on the Nernst-Planck equations has been applied to study the reaction kinetics on the surface of tin(IV) tungstate for the Mg(II)-H(I), Ca(II)-H(I), Sr(II)-H(I) and Ba(II)-H(I) exchanges under the conditions favouring a particle diffusion phenomenon. On the basis of these studies the various physical parameters such as the effective diffusion coefficients, activation energies and entropies of activation have been evaluated which give some informations regarding the mechanism of ion-exchange on the surface of inorganic materials. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Detection of Heavy Metal Ions Based on Quantum Point Contacts

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yanchao

    Detection of Heavy Metal Ions Based on Quantum Point Contacts Vasanth Rajagopalan, Salah Boussaad. The ability to detect trace amounts of metal ions is important because of the toxicity of heavy metal ions on many living organisms and the consequence of heavy metal ions not being biodegradable. To date, heavy

  4. Alkaline earth metal anode-containing cell having electrolyte of organometallic alkaline earth metal salt and organic solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R.J.; Winterton, R.C.; Gregory, T.D.

    1990-01-16

    This patent describes an improvement in an electrochemical cell containing an alkaline earth metal anode, an intercalation cathode, and a nonaqueous, liquid electrolyte. It comprises: using as the electrolyte at least one organic solvent and at least one electrolytically active alkaline earth metal salt. In the cell, the intercalation cathode is capable of containing an intercalated ionic species in its structure.

  5. Ion exchange resins for metal finishing wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juzer Jangbarwala

    1997-01-01

    Many ion exchange techniques applicable to the metal finishing wastes are not used owing to the significant dilution from rinsing and the front and tail portions of the elution curve. Some of these proven techniques were revisited with the thought that new, improved ion exchange systems generating less regenerant waste can make these applications economically viable.

  6. ION EXCHANGE SOFTENING: EFFECTS ON METAL CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corrosion control pipe loop study to evaluate the effect of ion exchange water softening on metal leaching from household plumbing materials was conducted on two different water qualities having different pH's and hardness levels. The results showed that removing hardness ions ...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...substance identified as hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...substance identified as hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...substance identified as hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid...

  10. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching by alkaline earth metal cations in deionized bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Wang, A J; Hu, K S

    2000-12-01

    Tryptophan quenching by the addition of alkaline earth metal cations to deionized bacteriorhodopsin suspensions was determined. The results show that the addition of cation primarily quenches fluorescence from surface tryptophan residues. The quenched intensity exhibits a 1/R dependence, where R is the ionic radius of the corresponding metal ion. This observation results from a stronger energy transfer coupling between the tryptophan and the retinal. The membrane curvature may be involved as a result of cations motion and correlated conformational changes. PMID:11332888

  11. Synergistic Catalysis of Dimetilan Hydrolysis by Metal Ions and

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Hua

    catalyzed by +II transition metal ions exhibiting strong affinities for nitrogen- and oxygen-donor ligands that dissolved metal ions (1), simple hydrous metal oxides (2-5), and clays (6, 7) can increase hydrolysis rates- chemicalorwiththeattackingnucleophile(e.g.,H2OorOH- ). In other situations, dissolved metal ions and metal oxides decrease

  12. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu; Brown, I G

    2012-02-01

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed "Mevva," for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes. PMID:22380197

  13. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Brown, I. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

  14. Short Wavelength Ion Waves Upstream of the Earth’s Bow Shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Fuselier; D. A. Gurnett

    1984-01-01

    ISEE-1 wide-band electric field data, antenna interference effects have been identified in the ion waves upstream of the earth's bow shock. This identification implies that wavelengths of the upstream ion waves are shorter than the antenna length. The interference effects also provide new measurements of the direction of propagation of the ion waves. The new measurements show that the wave

  15. Valence state at the surface of rare-earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Börje Johansson

    1979-01-01

    The valence state of a rare-earth metal surface is investigated by using general properties of the surface tension of metals. Thereby it is concluded that samarium is likely to have a divalent or partly divalent surface on top of its trivalent bulk phase, which agrees with recent spectroscopic observations. Also californium metal is discussed from this point of view. Finally,

  16. Novel syntergistic agent for selective separation of yttrium from other rare earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Terufumi; Goto, Masahiro; Nakashio, Fumiyuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    An oil-soluble synergistic agent has been developed for the selective separation of yttrium (Y) from the other rare earth metals. The synergistic agent is a polyaminocarboxylic acid alkylderivative and has interfacial activity like that of surfactants. Separation of yttrium from heavy rare earth metals (erbium (Er) and holmium (Ho)) in the presence of the synergistic agent was carried out with a 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as a carrier using a hollow-fiber membrane extractor. The new agent shows a synergistic effect on the permeation rate of rare earth metals at the oil-water interface. By the addition of a small amount of the agent, the selectivity for yttrium from the two rare earth metals was enhanced remarkably, because of the permeation rate of Y was selectively decreased compared with those of Er and Ho. The synergistic effect is discussed from the viewpoint of the stability constant for rare earth metals and the interfacial activity of the synergistic agent. The difference in interaction between the synergistic agent and rare earth ions at the oil-water interface results in an increase in the separation efficiency.

  17. Intense metal ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1986-05-01

    We have developed an ion source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. The source uses a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted, so we have called this source the MEVVA ion source. The metal plasma is created simply and efficiently and no carrier gas is required. Beams have been produced from metallic elements spanning the periodic table from lithium through uranium, at extraction voltages from 10 to 60 kV and with beam currents as high as 1.1 Amperes (electrical current in all charge states). A brief description of the source is given and its possible application as an ion source for heavy ion fusion is considered. Beams such as C/sup +/ (greater than or equal to99% of the beam in this species and charge state), Cr/sup 2 +/ (80%), and Ta/sup 3+,4+,5+/ (mixed charge states) have been produced. Beam emittance measurements and ways of increasing the source brightness are discussed.

  18. Rare earth ion diffusion in AgBr crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Nagli; A German; A Katzir

    1999-01-01

    The luminescence of silver bromide crystals doped with rare earth ions (Nd3+ and Er3+) was investigated in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges. Crystal doping was produced by growing in the melt and by a diffusion method. The diffusion profile of rare earth ions in AgBr crystals was measured by the luminescence method. The luminescence parameters of AgBr crystals

  19. Metal vapor arc ion plating

    DOEpatents

    Bertram, L.A.; Fisher, R.W.; Mattox, D.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1986-09-09

    A method and apparatus for ion plating are described. The apparatus uses more negative than a first electrode voltage in a vacuum arc remelt system to attract low energy ions from the anode electrode to the article to be plated. 2 figs.

  20. New Proton-Ionizable, Calixarene-Based Ligands for Selective Metal Ion Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, Richard A.

    2012-06-04

    The project objective was the discovery of new ligands for performing metal ion separations. The research effort entailed the preparation of new metal ion complexing agents and polymers and their evaluation in metal ion separation processes of solvent extraction, synthetic liquid membrane transport, and sorption. Structural variations in acyclic, cyclic, and bicyclic organic ligands were used to probe their influence upon the efficiency and selectivity with which metal ion separations can be performed. A unifying feature of the ligand structures is the presence of one (or more) side arm with a pendent acidic function. When a metal ion is complexed within the central cavity of the ligand, ionization of the side arm(s) produces the requisite anion(s) for formation of an overall electroneutral complex. This markedly enhances extraction/transport efficiency for separations in which movement of aqueous phase anions of chloride, nitrate, or sulfate into an organic medium would be required. Through systematic structural variations, new ligands have been developed for efficient and selective separations of monovalent metal ions (e.g., alkali metal, silver, and thallium cations) and of divalent metal ion species (e.g., alkaline earth metal, lead, and mercury cations). Research results obtained in these fundamental investigations provide important insight for the design and development of ligands suitable for practical metal ion separation applications.

  1. MEVVA ion source for high current metal ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.; Washburn, J.

    1986-07-01

    The MEVVA (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) ion source is a new kind of source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. Beams of a wide range of elements have been produced, spanning the periodic table from lithium up to and including uranium. The source extraction voltage is up to 60 kV, and we are increasing this up to 120 kV. A total ion beam current of over 1 Ampere has been extracted from the present embodiment of the concept, and this is not an inherent limit. The ion charge state distribution varies with cathode material and arc current, and beams like Li/sup +/, Co/sup +,2+,3+/ and U/sup 3+,4+,5+,6+/ for example, are typical; thus the implantation energy can be up to several hundred kilovolts without additional acceleration. The ion source has potential applications for ion implantation and ion beam mixing for achievement of improved corrosion resistance or wear resistance in metals or surface modification of ceramic materials and semiconductors. Here we outline the source and its performance, and describe some very preliminary implantation work using this source.

  2. Near-Earth asteroids: Metals occurrence, extraction, and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Near-earth asteroids occur in three principle types of orbits: Amor, Apollo, and Aten. Amor asteroids make relatively close (within 0.3 AU) approaches to the earth's orbit, but do not actually overlap it. Apollo asteroids spend most of their time outside the earth's orbital path, but at some point of close approach to the sun, they cross the orbit of the earth. Aten asteroids are those whose orbits remain inside the earth's path for the majority of their time, with semi-major axes less than 0.1 AU. Near-earth orbit asteroids include: stones, stony-irons, irons, carbonaceous, and super-carbonaceous. Metals within these asteroids include: iron, nickel, cobalt, the platinum group, aluminum, titanium, and others. Focus is on the extraction of ferrous and platinum group metals from the stony-iron asteroids, and the iron asteroids. Extraction of the metal fraction can be accomplished through the use of tunnel-boring-machines (TBM) in the case of the stony-irons. The metals within the story-iron asteroids occur as dispersed granules, which can be separated from the stony fraction through magnetic and gaseous digestion separation techniques. The metal asteroids are processes by drilling and gaseous digestion or by gaseous digestion alone. Manufacturing of structures, housings, framing networks, pressure vessels, mirrors, and other products is accomplished through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal coating on advanced composites and on the inside of contour-defining inflatables (CDI). Metal coatings on advanced composites provide: resistance to degradation in the hostile environments of space; superior optical properties; superior heat dissipation; service as wear coatings; and service as evidential coatings. Metal coatings on the inside of CDI produce metal load-bearing products. Fibers such as graphite, kevlar, glass, ceramic, metal, etc., can be incorporated in the metal coatings on the inside of CDI producing metal matrix products which exhibit high strength and resist crack propagation.

  3. Near-Earth asteroids: Metals occurrence, extraction, and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, Richard

    Near-earth asteroids occur in three principle types of orbits: Amor, Apollo, and Aten. Amor asteroids make relatively close (within 0.3 AU) approaches to the earth's orbit, but do not actually overlap it. Apollo asteroids spend most of their time outside the earth's orbital path, but at some point of close approach to the sun, they cross the orbit of the earth. Aten asteroids are those whose orbits remain inside the earth's path for the majority of their time, with semi-major axes less than 0.1 AU. Near-earth orbit asteroids include: stones, stony-irons, irons, carbonaceous, and super-carbonaceous. Metals within these asteroids include: iron, nickel, cobalt, the platinum group, aluminum, titanium, and others. Focus is on the extraction of ferrous and platinum group metals from the stony-iron asteroids, and the iron asteroids. Extraction of the metal fraction can be accomplished through the use of tunnel-boring-machines (TBM) in the case of the stony-irons. The metals within the story-iron asteroids occur as dispersed granules, which can be separated from the stony fraction through magnetic and gaseous digestion separation techniques. The metal asteroids are processes by drilling and gaseous digestion or by gaseous digestion alone. Manufacturing of structures, housings, framing networks, pressure vessels, mirrors, and other products is accomplished through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal coating on advanced composites and on the inside of contour-defining inflatables (CDI). Metal coatings on advanced composites provide: resistance to degradation in the hostile environments of space; superior optical properties; superior heat dissipation; service as wear coatings; and service as evidential coatings. Metal coatings on the inside of CDI produce metal load-bearing products. Fibers such as graphite, kevlar, glass, ceramic, metal, etc., can be incorporated in the metal coatings on the inside of CDI producing metal matrix products which exhibit high strength and resist crack propagation.

  4. IONS OF EXTRATERRESTRIAL ORIGIN IN THE EARTH'S IONOSPHERE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V ISTOMIN

    1963-01-01

    Two of the tasks of the third Russian satellite were to determine the ; chemical composition of the main ion components in the earth's daytime ionosphere ; and to study the variation in composition in the main components with altitude in ; the E, Fâ, and Fâ regions of the ionosphere. In some of the ; measurements, ions were discovered

  5. Charge state of ions in liquid metal field ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingham, D. R.

    1983-07-01

    The post-ionization model of field evaporation is shown to be consistent with observations of singly and doubly charged ions in liquid metal field ion sources. The model can be used to estimate the field strength at the apex of the Taylor cone which is found to be 1.9 2.0 V/Å for a Ga source. Experiments to test the post-ionization model and to determine the apex field strength more accurately are suggested. A possible method of obtaining ˜?A currents of highly charged ions, e.g. Zr4+, Ta4+, Ga3+, As3+, is proposed.

  6. Engineering of microorganisms towards recovery of rare metal ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouichi Kuroda; Mitsuyoshi Ueda

    2010-01-01

    The bioadsorption of metal ions using microorganisms is an attractive technology for the recovery of rare metal ions as well\\u000a as removal of toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In initial attempts, microorganisms with the ability to accumulate\\u000a metal ions were isolated from nature and intracellular accumulation was enhanced by the overproduction of metal-binding proteins\\u000a in the cytoplasm. As

  7. Potential carcinogenicity of some transition metal ions.

    PubMed

    Dovinová, I; Vachálková, A; Novotný, L

    1999-01-01

    Potential carcinogenicity of some transition metal ions was tested using a direct-current polarography method. The measurements were based on the reduction of tested compounds in an anhydrous solution using alpha-lipoic acid as the detection compound. The potential carcinogenicity was expressed in terms of the parameter tg alpha, which is known to directly correlate with the carcinogenicity of tested compounds. For the metal ions tested, tg alpha was found to decrease in the following sequence: Fe(III) > Pb(II) > V(IV) > Fe(II) > Mn(II) > Cu(II). Zero values of tg alpha were found for Cd(II) and Mn(III). PMID:10065599

  8. Heavy Ion Energization, Transport, and Loss in the Earth’s Magnetosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Nilsson

    \\u000a The magnetic field of the Earth acts like a shield against the solar wind, leading to a magnetopause position many planetary\\u000a radii away from the planet, in contrast to the situation at non- or weakly magnetized planets such as Mars and Venus. Despite\\u000a this there is significant ion outflow from the cusp and polar cap regions of the Earth’s ionosphere.

  9. Novel metal ion surface modification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.; Yu, K.M.

    1990-10-01

    We describe a method for applying metal ions to the near-surface region of solid materials. The added species can be energetically implanted below the surface or built up as a surface film with an atomically mixed interface with the substrate; the metal ion species can be the same as the substrate species or different from it, and more than one kind of metal species can be applied, either simultaneously or sequentially. Surface structures can be fabricated, including coatings and thin films of single metals, tailored alloys, or metallic multilayers, and they can be implanted or added onto the surface and ion beam mixed. We report two simple demonstrations of the method: implantation of yttrium into a silicon substrate at a mean energy of 70 keV and a dose of 1 {times} 10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 2}, and the formation of a titanium-yttrium multilayer structure with ion beam mixing to the substrate. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Metal-metal bonding and interstitials in reduced rare-earth metal halides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Corbett; D. S. Dudis; J. E. Ford; S. J. Hwu; G. Meyer; S. Wijeyesekera

    1986-01-01

    Exploratory research in recent years has shown the rare-earth elements in their highly reduced halides exhibit a remarkable ability to undergo cluster formation, some as isolated units and others as infinite chains or slabs containing double-metal layers. Only a few of the elements have been studied in any detail, principally scandium, yttrium and gadolinium. Many of these new compounds are

  11. Selective extraction and recovery of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps using an ionic liquid system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2013-06-15

    The recycling of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps by solvent extraction using ionic liquids was studied. Acid leaching of rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powder was examined first. Yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) dissolved readily in the acid solution; however, the leaching of other rare earth metals required substantial energy input. Ionization of target rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powders into the leach solution was critical for their successful recovery. As a high temperature was required for the complete leaching of all rare earth metals, ionic liquids, for which vapor pressure is negligible, were used as an alternative extracting phase to the conventional organic diluent. An extractant, N, N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA), which was recently developed, showed a high affinity for rare earth metal ions in liquid-liquid extraction although a conventional commercial phosphonic extractant did not. An effective recovery of the rare earth metals, Y, Eu, La and Ce, from the metal impurities, Fe, Al and Zn, was achieved from the acidic leach solution of phosphor powders using an ionic liquid containing DODGAA as novel extractant system. PMID:23587931

  12. Alkali and alkali-earth ions in 4He systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M.; Verona, M.; Galli, D. E.; Reatto, L.

    2004-06-01

    We study with variational Monte Carlo simulations a single ion impurity in nanodroplets and in liquid 4He . Within the shadow wave function (SWF) approach we have studied alkali-earth ion doped 4He systems ( Be+ and Mg+ ) and we have also improved our previous variational results for alkali ion impurities ( Na+ , K+ , and Cs+ ). The new SWF allows for anisotropic correlations between 4He atoms and the ion. The first shell of 4He atoms around the ions has always a well defined solidlike structure, which is remarkably different for each ion but it does not depend on the 4He system (bulk liquid or cluster). We also give results for the chemical potential, the single particle excitation spectrum, and the effective mass of the ions in the bulk.

  13. Spectroscopy of divalent rare earth ions in fluoride crystals

    E-print Network

    Shendrik, R; Radzhabov, E A; Nepomnyashchikh, A I

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the absorption spectra of x-ray irradiation-induced Ce2+ and Pr2+ ions in crystals of alkaline-earth fluorides. We have calculated absorption spectra of divalent praseodymium ions in SrF2 crystals doped with Pr2+ for the first time. The calculated spectra agree rather well with the experimental data. In crystals containing induced Ce2+ ions we have found strong electron-phonon coupling. In BaF2, we do not observe bands corresponded to divalent Ce or Pr ions.

  14. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  15. Metal ions affecting reproduction and development.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, Pietro; Catalani, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Many metal ions (lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, vanadium, copper, lithium) exert a wide variety of adverse effects on reproduction and development, including influence on male and female subfertility or fertility, abortions, malformations, birth defects, and effects on the central nervous system. The effects produced by metal ions depend on several factors, such as timing and duration of exposure, their distribution and accumulation in various organs (e.g., the nervous system), and on the interference with specific developmental processes. Neonatal and early postnatal periods are lifespan segments during which sensitivity to metals is high; e.g., lead toxicity on the developing organism is paradigmatic of related well known and still open questions. In more recent decades, important mechanisms of action have been suggested: the endocrine disruption via impact of metal ions on reproductive hormones and the oxidative stress. While experimental data provide clear evidence of effects of many metals, human data are scant and traditionally limited to high levels of a few metal ions, like lead on male fertility. Less documented are reproductive effects for mercury, manganese, chromium, nickel, and arsenic for the same gender. More complex is the demonstration of effects on female reproduction and on pregnancy. The action of lead, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury may in fact be relevant in several stages, beginning in fetal life, during early development or maturity, and is characterized by subfertility, infertility, intrauterine growth retardation, spontaneous abortions, malformations, birth defects, postnatal death, learning and behavior deficits, and premature aging. Also, for females the evidences of specific aspects such as fertility or abortions are usually higher and clearer from animal experiments than from human studies. PMID:21473384

  16. The effect of acetabular inclination on metal ion levels following metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Andrew R; Bergin, Karen M; Kelly, Gabrielle E; McCoy, Gerald F; Wozniak, Andrew P; Quinlan, John F

    2014-01-01

    Acetabular inclination angles have been suggested as a principal determinant of circulating metal ion levels in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties. We aimed to determine whether inclination angle correlates with ion levels in arthroplasties using the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) system. Patients undergoing ASR arthroplasties had blood metal ion levels and radiograph analysis performed a mean of 3.2 years after surgery. Inclination angle showed only a weak correlation with cobalt (r=0.21) and chromium (r=0.15) levels. The correlation between inclination angle and cobalt levels was significant only with small femoral components, although it was still weak. Multiple regression showed a complex interaction of factors influencing ion levels but inclination angle accounted for little of this variation. We conclude that the acetabular inclination angle is not a meaningful determinant of metal ion levels in ASR arthroplasties. PMID:23759116

  17. Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Layne; W. H. Lowdermilk; M. J. Weber

    1977-01-01

    Nonradiative decay of excited rare-earth ions by multiphonon emission has been investigated in a series of oxide glasses. Various rare-earth electronic levels were selectively excited by short-duration laser pulses and multiphonon relaxation rates were determined from measurements of fluorescence rise and decay times. Time resolution for fluorescence measurements was 3 nsec, so excited states were probed for which the decay

  18. The role of metal ion-ligand interactions during divalent metal ion adsorption.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Daniel S; Crawford, Russell J; Harding, Ian H

    2015-09-15

    A suite of seven different divalent metal ions (Ca(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II)) was adsorbed from solution onto two Fe2O3 samples, quartz SiO2 and three different amphoteric polystyrene latices (containing amine and carboxyl functional groups). For the metal oxides, a high correlation was observed between the pH at which 50% of the metal was removed from solution (pH50) and the first hydrolysis constant for the metal ion (pK1). For the polystyrene latices, a much higher correlation was observed between the pH50 and pKc (equilibrium constant describing metal-carboxyl affinity) as opposed to pK1. These observations provide evidence of a strong relationship that exists between a metal's affinity for a particular ligand in solution and for that metal ion's affinity for the same ligand present as part of an adsorbing surface. The isoelectric point of the amphoteric latex surface can be increased by decreasing the carboxyl content of the latex surface. For all 7 metal ions, this resulted in a substantial decrease, for any given pH, in adsorption. We suggest that this may be partly due to the decreased carboxyl content, but is dominantly attributable to the presence of less favorable electrostatic conditions. This, in turn, demonstrates that electrostatics play a controlling role in metal ion adsorption onto amphoteric latex surfaces and, in addition to the nature of the metal ion, also controls the pH at which adsorption takes place. PMID:26001134

  19. Separation and microdetermination of rare earth metals with N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid and Xylenol Orange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Thomaskutty; Y. K. Agrawal

    1987-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and selective method for solvent extraction and spectrophotometric determination of lanthanum(III), praseodymium(III), neodymium(III) and samarium(III) is described. The rare earth metals are extractable into chloroform solution of N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid (PBHA) at pH9–10. Various parameters are studied to optimize the extraction conditions. Stoichiometry of the complexes and the effect of various ions is discussed. The molar absorptivity is

  20. Anion-exchange separations of metal ions in thiocyanate media.

    PubMed

    Fritz, J S; Kaminski, E E

    1971-05-01

    The analytical potential of a weak-base macroreticular anion-exchange resin for the quantitative separation of metal ions in thiocyanate media is investigated and demonstrated. Distribution data are given for the sorption of some 25 metal ions from aqueous mixtures of potassium thiocyanate (1.0M or less) and 0.5M hydrochloric acid. The magnitude of the distribution data suggests many possible separations, some of which were quantitatively performed by procedures which are fast, simple and require only mild conditions. Representative separations are removal of traces of iron(III) and copper(II) from water samples prior to the determination of water hardness (calcium and magnesium), separation of nickel(II) from vanadium(IV) and the separation of thorium(IV) from titanium(IV). Some multicomponent separations are the separation of rare earths(III) and thorium(IV) from scandium(III) and the separation of rare earths(III) from iron(III) and uranium(VI). PMID:18960914

  1. Intense metal-ion-beam production using an impregnated-electrode-type liquid-metal ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junzo Ishikawa; Hiroshi Tsuji; Yuji Aoyama; Toshinori Takagi

    1990-01-01

    The properties of liquid-metal ion sources are very sensitive to their tip structure. Because the impregnated-electrode-type liquid-metal ion source has a porous tip, it generates more than 300-?A ion currents of various metals including relatively high vapor-pressure metals such as Li, Cu, Ga, Ge, Ag, In, and Au, from which ions can be stably extracted. The large beam divergence, a

  2. Bistable luminescence of trivalent rare-earth ions in crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José García Solé; Maria de la O Ramírez; Airán Ródenas; Daniel Jaque; Luisa Bausá; Marco Bettinelli; Adolfo Speghini; Enrico Cavalli; Lioudmila Ivleva

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have examined three new bistable systems based on the luminescence of three different crystals activated with trivalent rare earth ions. We have focussed our attention on Yb3+ ions activators, for which the most relevant results are obtained. The first crystal, Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6, is a ferroelectric material with a relatively low phase transition temperature (?370K), which provides bistability

  3. Ion irradiation effects on metallic nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Giulian, R.; Schnohr, C.S.; Foran, G.J.; Cookson, D.J.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C. (ASRP); (ANSTO); (ANU)

    2008-04-02

    We have investigated structural and morphological properties of metallic nanocrystals (NCs) exposed to ion irradiation. NCs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy in combination with advanced synchrotron-based analytical techniques, in particular X-ray absorption spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. A number of different effects were observed depending on the irradiation conditions. At energies where nuclear stopping is predominant, structural disorder/amorphization followed by inverse Ostwald ripening/dissolution due to ion beam mixing was observed for Au and Cu NCs embedded in SiO{sub 2}. The ion-irradiation-induced crystalline to amorphous transition in the NCs, which cannot be achieved in the corresponding bulk metals, was attributed to their initially higher structural energy as compared to bulk material and possibly preferential nucleation of the amorphous phase at the NC/SiO{sub 2} interface. At very high irradiation energies (swift heavy ion irradiation), where the energy loss is nearly entirely due to electronic stopping, a size-dependent shape transformation of the NCs from spheres to rod like shapes was apparent in Au NCs. Our preliminary results are in good agreement with considerations on melting of the NCs in the ion track as one mechanism involved in the shape transformation.

  4. Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Izawa, Yasukazu [ARCBS, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) and Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements (Sc, Y, and Gd) in the impact energy range of 30 to 1000 eV were measured for the first time. The experiments were performed with a crossed-beam apparatus that featured primary ion production by photoionization with a tunable dye laser. Comparing the cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements ({sigma}{sub Sc}, {sigma}{sub Y}, and {sigma}{sub Gd}) with those of alkali metals or helium {sigma}{sub 0}, we found that {sigma}{sub 0{approx_equal}{sigma}Sc}<{sigma}{sub Y}<{sigma}{sub Gd{approx_equal}}2{sigma}{sub 0}at an impact energy of 1000 eV.

  5. Arc discharge ion source for europium and other refractory metals implantation.

    PubMed

    Turek, M; Prucnal, S; Dro?dziel, A; Pyszniak, K

    2009-04-01

    The best method for the impurity doping to the host material is the ion implantation. Due to high melting point of the rare earth standard metal ion sources are useless. One of the solution is to use chemical compounds of rare earths characterized by low melting point. In this paper we describe the novel design of the ion source suitable for refractory metal (e.g., rare earths) ion implantation. The dependencies of Eu(+) current on cathode and arc currents as well as on hydrogen flow are presented. Europium (III) chloride as the source of the europium atoms was used. Europium ions were produced during collisions of evaporated and decomposed EuCl(3) molecules with fast electrons. The typical current of the europium ion beam extracted from the ion source was 25 microA for the extraction voltage of 25 kV. The ion source works without maintenance breaks for approximately 50 h, which enables high dose implantation. The presented ion source needs neither advanced high power supplies nor high vacuum regime. PMID:19405653

  6. MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF ANOMALOUS RARE-EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF ANOMALOUS RARE-EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS B. COQBLIN Laboratoire de impurities. 1. Introduction. -The rare-earth metals can be divided in two groups : - The (( normal )) rare-earths lantha- num are (( anomalous )) rare-earths metals. The same duality exists in alloys with rareearth

  7. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

  8. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA)

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  9. Effects of Metal Ion Adduction on the Gas-Phase Conformations of Protein Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flick, Tawnya G.; Merenbloom, Samuel I.; Williams, Evan R.

    2013-11-01

    Changes in protein ion conformation as a result of nonspecific adduction of metal ions to the protein during electrospray ionization (ESI) from aqueous solutions were investigated using traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). For all proteins examined, protein cations (and in most cases anions) with nonspecific metal ion adducts are more compact than the fully protonated (or deprotonated) ions with the same charge state. Compaction of protein cations upon nonspecific metal ion binding is most significant for intermediate charge state ions, and there is a greater reduction in collisional cross section with increasing number of metal ion adducts and increasing ion valency, consistent with an electrostatic interaction between the ions and the protein. Protein cations with the greatest number of adducted metal ions are no more compact than the lowest protonated ions formed from aqueous solutions. These results show that smaller collisional cross sections for metal-attached protein ions are not a good indicator of a specific metal-protein interaction in solution because nonspecific metal ion adduction also results in smaller gaseous protein cation cross sections. In contrast, the collisional cross section of ?-lactalbumin, which specifically binds one Ca2+, is larger for the holo-form compared with the apo-form, in agreement with solution-phase measurements. Because compaction of protein cations occurs when metal ion adduction is nonspecific, elongation of a protein cation may be a more reliable indicator that a specific metal ion-protein interaction occurs in solution.

  10. Diffraction studies of rare earth metals and superlattices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bohr; Doon Gibbs; J. D. Axe; D. E. Moncton; K. L. D'Amico; C. F. Majkrzak; J. Kwo; M. Hong; C. L. Chien; J. Jensen

    1989-01-01

    We review the results of X-ray scattering studies of the rare earth metals and present related new results for superlattices and thin slabs. In rare earth crystals we have observed weak structural modulations which accompany the magnetic ordering. The wave length of this modulation can be derived from a spin-slip model in accordance with symmetry considerations. X-ray scattering of both

  11. On the Metal Ion Selectivity of Oxoacid Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Chagnes, Alexandre [Chimie ParisTech; Cote, Gerard [Chimie ParisTech

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between metal chelate stability, ligand basicity, and metal ion acidity are reviewed and the general applicability is illustrated by linear correlations between aqueous stability constants and ligand pKa values for 35 metals with 26 ligands. The results confirm that most individual ligands of this type exhibit a stability ordering that correlates with the Lewis acidity of the metal ion. It is concluded that the general metal ion selectivity exhibited by liquid-liquid oxoacid extractants such as carboxylic acids, -diketones, and alkylphosphoric acids reflects the intrinsic affinity of the metal ion for the negative oxygen donor ligand.

  12. Ionospheric ions in the near-Earth magnetotail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Hsien Chen; Thomas E. Moore

    2008-01-01

    We report studies of the relationship between geomagnetic storms and the spatial distribution of cold ions, mostly of ionospheric origin, in the near-Earth magnetotail using in situ particle and field measurements from the Polar spacecraft, solar wind measurements from the ACE spacecraft, and ground geomagnetic indices, during the years from 2000 to 2005. We find local time and latitude-dependent distributions

  13. Quantitative aspects of rare earth metal determinations using capillary electrophoresis with indirect absorbance detection

    SciTech Connect

    Colburn, B.A.; Starnes, S.D.; Sepaniak, M.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The practical utility of capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect absorbance detection is examined for the separation and quantitation of rare earth metals. Various imidazole derivatives are investigated as to their suitability as running buffer (displaceable) detection ions with {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid functioning as a chelating agent to enhance separations. Parameters important for quantitative analysis, such as limits of detection, relative standard deviation of peak areas, efficiency, resolution, peak shape and linear dynamic range are presented. The influence of sample matrix, method of injection, and background ion identity on these parameters are investigated and discussed.

  14. Metal hydrides for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Oumellal, Y; Rougier, A; Nazri, G A; Tarascon, J-M; Aymard, L

    2008-11-01

    Classical electrodes for Li-ion technology operate via an insertion/de-insertion process. Recently, conversion electrodes have shown the capability of greater capacity, but have so far suffered from a marked hysteresis in voltage between charge and discharge, leading to poor energy efficiency and voltages. Here, we present the electrochemical reactivity of MgH(2) with Li that constitutes the first use of a metal-hydride electrode for Li-ion batteries. The MgH(2) electrode shows a large, reversible capacity of 1,480 mAh g(-1) at an average voltage of 0.5 V versus Li(+)/Li(o) which is suitable for the negative electrode. In addition, it shows the lowest polarization for conversion electrodes. The electrochemical reaction results in formation of a composite containing Mg embedded in a LiH matrix, which on charging converts back to MgH(2). Furthermore, the reaction is not specific to MgH(2), as other metal or intermetallic hydrides show similar reactivity towards Li. Equally promising, the reaction produces nanosized Mg and MgH(2), which show enhanced hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics. We hope that such findings can pave the way for designing nanoscale active metal elements with applications in hydrogen storage and lithium-ion batteries. PMID:18849978

  15. Metal hydrides for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumellal, Y.; Rougier, A.; Nazri, G. A.; Tarascon, J.-M.; Aymard, L.

    2008-11-01

    Classical electrodes for Li-ion technology operate via an insertion/de-insertion process. Recently, conversion electrodes have shown the capability of greater capacity, but have so far suffered from a marked hysteresis in voltage between charge and discharge, leading to poor energy efficiency and voltages. Here, we present the electrochemical reactivity of MgH2 with Li that constitutes the first use of a metal-hydride electrode for Li-ion batteries. The MgH2 electrode shows a large, reversible capacity of 1,480mAhg-1 at an average voltage of 0.5V versus Li+/Li? which is suitable for the negative electrode. In addition, it shows the lowest polarization for conversion electrodes. The electrochemical reaction results in formation of a composite containing Mg embedded in a LiH matrix, which on charging converts back to MgH2. Furthermore, the reaction is not specific to MgH2, as other metal or intermetallic hydrides show similar reactivity towards Li. Equally promising, the reaction produces nanosized Mg and MgH2, which show enhanced hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics. We hope that such findings can pave the way for designing nanoscale active metal elements with applications in hydrogen storage and lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Structure of liquid transition and rare earth metals S. N. Khanna and F. Cyrot-Lackmann

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-45 Structure of liquid transition and rare earth metals S. N. Khanna and F. Cyrot-Lackmann Groupe It is shown that the observed structure factors of transition and rare earth liquid metals can be reaso- nably. The difference is particularly large for V, Ti, and rare earth metals which are precisely the metals where

  17. Scintillation of Sol-Gel derived Lutetium orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Scintillation of Sol-Gel derived Lutetium orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions. C. Mansuy1. In order to exhibit luminescence properties, these materials are generally doped with rare earth ions. Lu

  18. Charge-separated and molecular heterobimetallic rare earth-rare earth and alkaline earth-rare earth aryloxo complexes featuring intramolecular metal-pi-arene interactions.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Moxey, Graeme J; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin; St Prix, Courtney; Zuniga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of a rare earth metal (Ln) and a potential divalent rare earth metal (Ln') or an alkaline earth metal (Ae) with 2,6-diphenylphenol (HOdpp) at elevated temperatures (200-250 degrees C) afforded heterobimetallic aryloxo complexes, which were structurally characterised. A charge-separated species [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] was obtained for a range of metals, demonstrating the similarities between the chemistry of the divalent rare earth metals and the alkaline earth metals. The [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)](+) cation in the heterobimetallic structures is unusual in that it consists solely of bridging aryloxide ligands. A molecular heterobimetallic species [AeEu(Odpp)(4)] (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) was obtained by treating an alkaline earth metal and Eu metal with HOdpp at elevated temperatures. Similarly, [BaSr(Odpp)(4)] was prepared by treating Ba metal and Sr metal with HOdpp. Treatment of [Ba(2)(Odpp)(4)] with [Mg(Odpp)(2)(thf)(2)] in toluene afforded [Ba(2)(Odpp)(3)][Mg(Odpp)(3)(thf)]. Analogous solution-based syntheses were not possible for [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] complexes, for which the free-metal route was essential. As a result of the absence of additional donor ligands, the crystal structures of the heterobimetallic complexes feature extensive pi-Ph-metal interactions involving the pendant phenyl groups of the Odpp ligands, thus enabling the large electropositive metal atoms to attain coordination saturation. The charge-separated heterobimetallic species were purified by extraction with toluene/thf mixtures at ambient temperature (Ba-containing compounds) or by extraction with toluene under pressure above the boiling point of the solvent (other products). In donor solvents, heterobimetallic complexes other than those containing barium were found to fragment into homometallic species. PMID:19360834

  19. Transparent monolithic metal ion containing nanophase aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Risen, W. M., Jr.; Hu, X.; Ji, S.; Littrell, K.

    1999-12-01

    The formation of monolithic and transparent transition metal containing aerogels has been achieved through cooperative interactions of high molecular weight functionalized carbohydrates and silica precursors, which strongly influence the kinetics of gelation. After initial gelation, subsequent modification of the ligating character of the system, coordination of the group VIII metal ions, and supercritical extraction afford the aerogels. The structures at the nanophase level have been probed by photon and electron transmission and neutron scattering techniques to help elucidate the basis for structural integrity together with the small entity sizes that permit transparency in the visible range. They also help with understanding the chemical reactivities of the metal-containing sites in these very high surface area materials. These results are discussed in connection with new reaction studies.

  20. Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, A.; Ritter, E.; Zschornack, G. [Fachrichtung Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Ullmann, F. [DREEBIT GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Pilz, W.; Bischoff, L. [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au{sup 60+}. The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented.

  1. Ion velocity distributions in the vicinity of the current sheet in Earth`s distant magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, L.A.; Paterson, W.R.; Ackerson, K.L.; Kokubun, S.; Kivelson, M.G.; Yamamoto, T.; Fairfield, D.H.

    1994-04-01

    Observations of the three-dimensional velocity distributions of positive ions and electrons have been recently gained for the first time in Earth`s distant magnetotail with the Galileo and Geotail spacecraft. For this brief discussion of these exciting results the focus is on the overall character of the ion velocity distributions during substorm activity. The ion velocity distributions within and near the magnetotail current sheet are not accurately described as convecting, isotropic Maxwellians. The observed velocity distributions are characterized by at least two robust types. The first type is similar to the `lima bean`-shaped velocity distributions that are expected from the nonadiabatic acceleration of ions which execute Speiser-type trajectories in the current sheet. The second distribution is associated with the presence of cold ion beams that presumably also arise from the acceleration of plasma mantle ions in the electric and weak magnetic fields in the current sheet. The ion velocity distributions in a magnetic field structure that is similar to that for plasmoids are also examined. Again the velocity distributions are not Maxwellian but are indicative of nonadiabatic acceleration. An example of the pressure tensor within the plasmoid-like event is also presented because it is anticipated that the off-diagonal elements are important in a description of magnetotail dynamics. Thus the concept of magnetotail dynamics must advance from the present assumption of co-moving electron and ion Maxwellian distributions into reformulations in terms of global kinematical models and nonadiabatic particle motion.

  2. Ion-ion recombination rates in the earth's atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Smith; M. J. Church

    1977-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the binary recombination coefficient for the reaction NO(+) + NO2(-) yields products has been obtained over the range from 185 to 530 K. It is found that the corresponding mean cross section is described by a power law. Data have also been obtained for two cluster ion recombination reactions which indicate that their recombination cross sections

  3. The structure of rare earth metals in the liquid state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Waseda; S. Tamaki

    1977-01-01

    The structure of liquid rare earth metals (So, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb and Yb) have been systematically examined by X-ray diffraction at temperatures above their melting points. The structure factors of liquid La, Ce, Pr, Eu and Yb were temperature insensitive in the presently available experimental temperature range. In terms of the usual Fourier analysis, the atomic radial

  4. Developments of rare earth metal catalysts for olefin polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuushou Nakayama; Hajime Yasuda

    2004-01-01

    This review article describes recent developments in rare earth metal complexes as polymerization catalysts, focusing on the polymerization of ethylene and ?-olefins. Most of this kind of catalysts had been based on metallocene type complexes, and their catalytic behaviors are surveyed. Advanced series of half-metallocene and non-Cp type catalyst systems are also summarized.

  5. Theory of the Resistance of the Rare Earth Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Elliott; F. A. Wedgwood

    1963-01-01

    The electrical resistance of the heavy rare earth metals shows strong anomalies at the temperatures where the magnetic order changes. These are most marked in measurements made along the hexagonal axis. A simple theory of the effect is given on the basis of two mechanisms. The spiral spin structures found in these materials cause an exchange field at the conduction

  6. Rare earth transition metal magnesium compounds—An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Chevalier, Bernard; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2007-05-01

    Intermetallic rare earth-transition metal-magnesium compounds play an important role as precipitations in modern light weight alloys and as host materials for hydrogen storage applications. Recent results on the crystal chemistry, the chemical bonding peculiarities, physical properties, and hydrogenation behavior of these materials are reviewed.

  7. SWELLING OF A CHELATING MACROPOROUS RESIN DURING METAL ION EXCHANGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mijangos; M. Ortueta; I. Aguirre

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of heavy metal ion exchange onto a commercial chelating resin was investigated from the standpoint of the swelling-shrinking experienced by the resin bead during the overall ion exchange process. Temporal measurements of the volume variations were carried out for every step of an operational cycle, metal load, elution and regeneration of the ion exchanger, using a microreactor mainly

  8. Rational Design of Metal Ion Sequestering Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2000-09-30

    The discriminate bonding of metal ions is a challenge to the synthetic chemist and a phenomenon of considerable practical importance.1 An important feature of many technical applications is the specific or preferential binding of a single metal ion in the presence of many metals. Examples range from large-volume uses (e.g. ferric EDTA as a plant food, calcium complexing agents as water softeners or anticaking formulations) to very high technology applications (technetium complexation in radiopharmaceuticals, synthetic metalloenzymes). We are interested in efficient and discriminate binding of actinides for waste stream remediation. Actinides represent a major and long-lived contaminant in nuclear waste. While the separation of actinides from other radioactive components of waste, such as Sr and Cs, is relatively well established, the separation of actinides from each other and in complex solutions (e.g. those found in tank wastes) is not as well resolved. The challenge of designing metal-specific (actinide) ligands is facilitated by examples from nature. Bacteria synthesize Fe(III)-specific ligands, called siderophores, to sequester Fe(III) from the environment and return it to the cell. The similarities between Fe(III) and Pu(IV) (their charge-to-size ratios and acidity), make the siderophores prototypical for designing actinide-specific ligands. The chelating groups present in siderophores are usually hydroxamic acids and catecholamides. We have developed derivatives of these natural products which have improved properties. The catechol derivatives are the 2,3-dihydroxyterephthalamides (TAMs), and 3,4-dihydroxysulfonamides (SFAMs), and the hydroxamic acid derivatives are three isomers of hydroxypyridinones, 1,2- HOPO, 3,2-HOPO, and 3,4-HOPO. All of these ligands are attached to molecular backbones by amides and a very important feature of HOPO and CAM ligands is a strong hydrogen bonds formed between the amide proton and the adjacent phenolic oxygen in the metal complex, thereby enhancing the stability (Figure 1).

  9. Metal-ion spin-on glasses: Novel materials for active waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Sullivan, C.T.; Vawter, G.A.; Hohimer, J.P.; Hadley, G.R.; Neal, D.R.

    1993-12-31

    Monolithic integration of a rare-earth-ion-based active waveguide on the same wafer as its diode pump laser would permit compact packaging of the technology demonstrated in fiber lasers and amplifiers. This new monolithic technology would offer the potential for developing compact infrared and visible (up-conversion) lasers, amplifiers, and other photonic integrated circuit components. One approach that we are investigating for such monolithic integration uses a high concentration of one or more rare-earth ions incorporated into polysiloxane spin-on glasses that are solvent-cast onto III-V semiconductor wafers. This ``fiber on a chip`` technology substitute a relatively high-ion-concentration, short-length metal-ion spin-on glass (MISOG) waveguide for the low-ion-concentration, long-length fiber. Progress to data on developing MISOG waveguide materials and technology is discussed.

  10. Study of a liquid metal ion source for external ion injection into electron-beam ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pikin; J. G. Alessi; E. N. Beebe; A. Kponou; K. Prelec

    2006-01-01

    A liquid metal ion source (LMIS) has several attractive features as an external injector of primary ions (mostly metallic ions) into electron-beam ion source (EBIS). It does not use a buffer gas and therefore it provides only a very small gas load to the system; its control and operation are simple, power consumption does not exceed 10 W, and beam

  11. Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of zwitterionic divalent rare-earth metal silanides.

    PubMed

    Thalangamaarachchige, Vidura D; Unruh, Daniel K; Cordes, David B; Krempner, Clemens

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis and structures of the first zwitterionic divalent rare-earth metal silanides of the formula [Si(SiMe2OMe)3-?(3)]2M (M-3), where M = Eu, Yb, and Sm, are reported. M-3 compounds feature spirocyclic bicyclooctane structures in which the central rare-earth metal ions are being octahedrally coordinated by six methoxy groups. The reaction of Yb-3 with BPh3 and W(CO)6 respectively generated the trinuclear zwitterions [Ph3BSi(SiMe2OMe)3-?(3)]2Yb (Yb-4) and [(CO)5WSi(SiMe2OMe)3-?(3)]2Yb (Yb-5) in good yield. PMID:25900430

  12. Silica-Polyamine Composite Materials for Heavy Metal Ion Removal, Recovery, and Recycling. II. Metal Ion Separations from Mine Wastewater and Soft Metal Ion Extraction Efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT J. FISCHER; DAVID PANG; SUSAN T. BEATTY; EDWARD ROSENBERG

    1999-01-01

    Silica-polyamine composites have been synthesized which have metal ion capacities as high as 0.84 mmol\\/g for copper ions removed from aqueous solutions. In previous reports it has been demonstrated that these materials survive more than 3000 cycles of metal ion extraction, elution, and regeneration with almost no loss of capacity (less than 10%). This paper describes two modified silica-polyamine composite

  13. Bonding Model for Transition Metal and Rare Earth Monoxides and Laser Spectroscopy of Nickel-Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srdanov, Vojislav I.

    We discovered that, for the transition metal and the rare earth monoxide series, the sum of the ionization potential of the metal, the energy of the lowest ( ...np) configuration of the metal ion and the thermochemical dissociation energy of the molecule adds up to a constant number. The correlation is particularly striking for the rare earth monoxides where the standard deviation is less than 1%. Based on this correlation we developed a new bonding scheme common for both the transition metal and rare earth monoxides. We propose that the bonding is invariant within the series and consists of an ionic and a covalent contribution. In our model a covalent contribution to the bonding of the inner-core d and f orbitals is negligible. This is in contrast to the current paradigm regarding the significant role of the d orbitals in the bonding in the first and second row transition metal oxides. Our model also appears to be in conflict with the M^{2+} O^{2-} ligand-field bonding model currently accepted for the rare earth monoxides. Based on the empirical correlation and the proposed bonding mechanism, however, we give a number of predictions regarding yet unmeasured fundamental quantities of some of the oxides such as permanent dipole moments, dissociation energies and equilibrium bond distances. We also present the results of the first high resolution laser spectroscopic study of the NiO molecule. Several bands in the green spectral region were found to originate from the ground state of NiO; their analysis allowed us to determine the following fundamental parameters: Ground state symmetry: ^3Sigma^-; Vibrational frequency: omega_{ rm e} = 8.39.1 cm^{ -1}; Equilibrium distance: r_ {rm e} = 1.627 A. With this work the determination of the ground state parameters for the first row transition metal oxides is now complete.

  14. Mechanisms of metal ion-coupled electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Morimoto, Yuma

    2012-06-28

    Redox inactive metal ions acting as Lewis acids can control electron transfer from electron donors (D) to electron acceptors (A) by binding to radical anions of electron acceptors which act as Lewis bases. Such electron transfer is defined as metal ion-coupled electron transfer (MCET). Mechanisms of metal ion-coupled electron transfer are classified mainly into two pathways, i.e., metal ion binding to electron acceptors followed by electron transfer (MB/ET) and electron transfer followed by metal ion binding to the resulting radical anions of electron acceptors (ET/MB). In the former case, electron transfer and the stronger binding of metal ions to the radical anions occur in a concerted manner. Examples are shown in each case to clarify the factors to control MCET reactions in both thermal and photoinduced electron-transfer reactions including back electron-transfer reactions. PMID:22596095

  15. Directional emission from rare earth ions in inverse photonic crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Lomonosov; P. Zhang; J. Li; J. Zhou; A. Sinitskii; V. Abramova; S. O. Klimonsky; Y. D. Tretyakov

    2007-01-01

    Angular distribution of the photoluminescence from trivalent rare earth ions (Eu3+) embedded inside a magnesium silicate photonic crystal with an inverse opal structure is experimentally and theoretically\\u000a studied. The emission at frequencies near the first stop-band of the photonic crystal is shown to exhibit strong angular modulation.\\u000a The angle-dependent Eu3+ photoluminescence is numerically simulated by evaluating the fractional density of

  16. Distribution coefficients of rare earth ions in cubic zirconium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, H.; Luther, K.-D.; Assmus, W.

    1994-08-01

    Cubic zirconium dioxide crystals are grown with the skull melting technique. The effective distribution coefficients for Nd(exp 3+), Sm(exp 3+) and Er(sup 3+) as dopants are determined experimentally as a function of the crystal growth velocity. With the Burton-Prim-Slichter theory, the equilibrium distribution coefficients can be calculated. The distribution coefficients of all other trivalent rare earth ions can be estimated by applying the correlation towards the ionic radii.

  17. Valence, coordination number, and PAV cells in metallic rare earth compounds F. L. Carter

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Valence, coordination number, and PAV cells in metallic rare earth compounds F. L. Carter Naval, generalized coordination numbers, and Pauling's metallic valences are given for 24 intermetallic rare earth self-consistently it was necessary to increase the rare earth metal (/-character and hence decrease

  18. Alkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms as Few-Qubit Quantum Registers A. V. Gorshkov,1

    E-print Network

    Alkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms as Few-Qubit Quantum Registers A. V. Gorshkov,1 A. M. Rey,2 A. J. Daley alkaline-earth-metal atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Specifically, we describe how the qubits within without affecting the others. In this Letter, we show that individual alkaline-earth- metal atoms can

  19. CAESIUM FLOODING ON METAL SURFACES AND SPUTTERED NEGATIVE ION YIELDS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-325 CAESIUM FLOODING ON METAL SURFACES AND SPUTTERED NEGATIVE ION YIELDS M. BERNHEIM and G métaux nobles. Abstract. 2014 Energy distributions and yields of secondary negative ions were measured authors have shown that the yield of negative ions may be strongly increased by using caesium primary ions

  20. Persistent luminescence phenomena in materials doped with rare earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitasalo, T.; Dere?, P.; Hölsä, J.; Jungner, H.; Krupa, J.-C.; Lastusaari, M.; Legendziewicz, J.; Niittykoski, J.; Str?k, W.

    2003-02-01

    The luminescent efficiency of rare earth ions is usually drastically lowered when defects are present in the host lattice. Persistent luminescence is the most recent rare earth application based on lattice defects. Typical materials are the Eu 2+-doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl 2O 4:Eu 2+ ( M=Ca and Sr). The trivalent R 3+ ions as co-dopants enhance greatly the duration and intensity of persistent luminescence. As a result of very slow thermal bleaching of the excitation energy from the lattice defects acting as traps, the new persistent luminescent materials yield luminescence still visible to naked eye for more than 10 h. Despite the seemingly simple stoichiometry and structure of these materials, the determination of persistent luminescence mechanism(s) presents a very complicated problem. This report presents in detail some of the factors affecting the luminescence properties of the Eu 2+-, R 3+-doped MAl 2O 4. The possible mechanisms involved with different defect centers and interactions between them and the emitting Eu 2+ ion are discussed based on the results of systematic investigations carried out on the preparation, composition, structure and different luminescence properties.

  1. Evaluation of dry ashing in conjunction with ion chromatographic determination of transition metal ions in pig feed samples.

    PubMed

    Van paemel, Marleen R; De Rycke, Herman; Millet, Sam; Hesta, Myriam; Janssens, Geert P J

    2005-03-23

    The contents of transition metal ions iron, copper, zinc, and manganese were simultaneously determined in pig feed using an ion chromatographic technique (IC) preceded by dry ashing. Employing ion exchange, the ions were separated on an IonPac CS5A column used in combination with a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid based eluent. The separation was followed by spectrophotometric detection after postcolumn reaction with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. Dry ashing parameters were varied to assess their role in potential analyte loss. Quantitative recoveries (>95%) were obtained for all analytes with a dry ashing method that included a moderate temperature-time regime and ash leaching support in the form of sonication and heat treatment. The use of HCl as leaching acid and the presence of alkaline earths in the matrix solution did not interfere with the chromatographic separation. PMID:15769106

  2. Use of luminescence probing for the study of the interaction of polytitanasiloxane with trivalent rare earth ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yao, Yingzheng; Ye, Xiufang; Wu, Qing

    2007-01-18

    Luminescent probing methods were employed to investigate the interaction of the Ti-O chains of polytitanasiloxane with europium ions in the mixture of ethanol and water. The UV-vis absorption, the luminescence intensity, and the luminescence lifetimes of the Eu3+ ions in PTS solutions were all found to increase with the increase of TBT/TEOS molar ratio. The results indicated that the incorporation of TBT can result in the increase of absorption energy of the Ti-O group by near-UV excitation and in the increase of energy transfer to the metal ion, and that the Ti-O chains due to the site binding of Eu3+ ions can expel six to nine solvent molecules from the first coordination solvation shell of the ion. The investigation of the energy transfer from europium to neodymium ions in polytitanasiloxane solutions revealed the formation of aggregates consisting of seven rare earth ions (together with the polytitanasiloxane countercharges). PMID:17214482

  3. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  4. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA); Lincoln, Lanny P. (Woodward, IA)

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

  5. Tolerance of Chlorella vulgaris for metallic and non-metallic ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. den Doore de Jong; W. B. Roman

    1965-01-01

    The well-known, extreme sensitivity of algae towards Cu++ ions prompted a systematic investigation of the tolerance ofChlorella vulgaris for both metallic (49) and non-metallic (7) ions. With thirty metals forming weak bases, pH effects were to some extent super-imposed on the toxic effects of the metal ions themselves. With the elements U, Zr, V and Sb, oxy-compounds had to be

  6. Metal Based Synthetic Strategies and the Examination of Structure Determining Factors in Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuriko

    Last decades have witnessed a large expansion of the organometallic heavier alkaline earth metal species. However, continued growth of this promising area of chemistry has been slowed by severe restrictions and limitations in viable synthetic methodologies leading to difficulties in preparing and characterizing the target compounds. There is clearly a need for the further development of synthetic methodologies and detailed structure function analysis that will promote the further advancement of organoalkaline earth metal chemistry in applications as diverse as materials chemistry and catalysis. This thesis work greatly extends the synthetic options currently available towards organoalkaline earth metal species by introducing redox transmetallation protolysis (RTP), a reaction based on the readily available Ph3Bi as a non-toxic transmetallation agent. Based on a straightforward one-pot procedure and work-up, Ph3Bi based RTP presents a powerful synthetic alternative for the facile preparation of a large variety of heavy alkaline earth metal compounds. The second part of the thesis explores the effect of secondary non covalent interactions on the coordination chemistry as well as thermal properties of a series of novel alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth as well as heterobimetallic alkali/alkaline earth fluoroalkoxides. These compounds showcase the significance of non-covalent M···F-C and agostic interactions on metal stabilization and structural features, providing critical input on ligand design for the design of advanced metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) precursor materials. This work also showcases the impact of M···F-C interactions over M---co-ligand coordination, a critical precursor design element as well.

  7. Observation of a rare earth ion-extractant complex arrested at the oil-water interface during solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Bu, Wei; Yu, Hao; Luo, Guangming; Bera, Mrinal K; Hou, Binyang; Schuman, Adam W; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Antonio, Mark R; Soderholm, L; Schlossman, Mark L

    2014-09-11

    Selective extraction of metal ions from a complex aqueous mixture into an organic phase is used to separate toxic or radioactive metals from polluted environments and nuclear waste, as well as to produce industrially relevant metals, such as rare earth ions. Selectivity arises from the choice of an extractant amphiphile, dissolved in the organic phase, which interacts preferentially with the target metal ion. The extractant-mediated process of ion transport from an aqueous to an organic phase takes place at the aqueous-organic interface; nevertheless, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this process despite its importance. Although state-of-the-art X-ray scattering is uniquely capable of probing molecular ordering at a liquid-liquid interface with subnanometer spatial resolution, utilizing this capability to investigate interfacial dynamical processes of short temporal duration remains a challenge. We show that a temperature-driven adsorption transition can be used to turn the extraction on and off by controlling adsorption and desorption of extractants at the oil-water interface. Lowering the temperature through this transition immobilizes a supramolecular ion-extractant complex at the interface during the extraction of rare earth erbium ions. Under the conditions of these experiments, the ion-extractant complexes condense into a two-dimensional inverted bilayer, which is characterized on the molecular scale with synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence measurements. Raising the temperature above the transition leads to Er ion extraction as a result of desorption of ion-extractant complexes from the interface into the bulk organic phase. XAFS measurements of the ion-extractant complexes in the bulk organic phase demonstrate that they are similar to the interfacial complexes. PMID:25134605

  8. Ion acoustic solitons in Earth's upward current region

    SciTech Connect

    Main, D. S.; Scholz, C. [Department of Physics, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761 (United States); Newman, D. L. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Ergun, R. E. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The formation and evolution of ion acoustic solitons in Earth's auroral upward current region are studied using one- and two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations. The one-dimensional simulations are confined to processes that occur in the auroral cavity and include four plasma populations: hot electrons, H{sup +} and O{sup +} anti-earthward ion beams, and a hot H{sup +} background population. Ion acoustic solitons are found to form for auroral-cavity ion beams consistent with acceleration through double-layer (DL) potentials measured by FAST. A simplified one-dimensional model simulation is then presented in order to isolate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the ion acoustic soliton. Results of a two-dimensional simulation, which include both the ionosphere and the auroral cavity, separated by a low-altitude DL, are then presented in order to confirm that the soliton forms in a more realistic 2D geometry. The 2D simulation is initialized with a U-shaped potential structure that mimics the inferred shape of the low altitude transition region based on observations. In this simulation, a soliton localized perpendicular to the geomagnetic field is observed to form and reside next to the DL. Finally, the 2D simulation results are compared with FAST data and it is found that certain aspects of the data can be explained by assuming the presence of an ion acoustic soliton.

  9. Plasma immersion surface modification with metal ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Yu, K.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Godechot, X. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA) Societe Anonyme d'Etudes et Realisations Nucleaires (SODERN), 94 - Limeil-Brevannes (France))

    1991-04-01

    We describe here a novel technique for surface modification in which metal plasma is employed and by which various blends of plasma deposition and ion implantation can be obtained. The new technique is a variation of the plasma immersion technique described by Conrad and co-workers. When a substrate is immersed in a metal plasma, the plasma that condenses on the substrate remains there as a film, and when the substrate is then implanted, qualitatively different processes can follow, including' conventional' high energy ion implantation, recoil implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam assisted deposition, and metallic thin film and multilayer fabrication with or without species mixing. Multiple metal plasma guns can be used with different metal ion species, films can be bonded to the substrate through ion beam mixing at the interface, and multilayer structures can be tailored with graded or abrupt interfaces. We have fabricated several different kinds of modified surface layers in this way. 22 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Fluorescence imaging of metal ions implicated in diseases.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xuhong; Xu, Zhaochao

    2015-07-01

    Metal ions play an important role in various biological processes, their abnormal homeostasis in cells is related to many diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, cancer and diabetes. Fluorescent imaging offers a unique route to detect metal ions in cells via a contactless and damage-free way with high spatial and temporal fidelity. Consequently, it represents a promising method to advance the understanding of physiological and pathological functions of metal ions in cell biology. In this highlight article, we will discuss recent advances in fluorescent imaging of metal ions by small-molecule sensors for understanding the role of metals in related diseases. We will also discuss challenges and opportunities for the design of small-molecule sensors for fluorescent detection of cellular metal ions as a potential method for disease diagnosis. PMID:25556818

  11. A biosystem for removal of metal ions from water

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of heavy metal ions in ground and surface waters constitutes a potential health risk and is an environmental concern. Moreover, processes for the recovery of valuable metal ions are of interest. Bioaccumulation or biosorption is not only a factor in assessing the environmental risk posed by metal ions; it can also be used as a means of decontamination. A biological system for the removal and recovery of metal ions from contaminated water is reported here. Exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms, including a methanotrophic culture, are demonstrated to have superior metal binding ability, compared with other microbial cultures. This paper describes a biosorption process in which dried biomass obtained from exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms is encapsulated in porous plastic beads and is used for metal ion binding and recovery. 22 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Isotopic fractionation of alkali earth metals during carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yotsuya, T.; Ohno, T.; Muramatsu, Y.; Shimoda, G.; Goto, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The alkaline earth metals such as magnesium, calcium and strontium play an important role in a variety of geochemical and biological processes. The element ratios (Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in marine carbonates have been used as proxies for reconstruction of the past environment. Recently several studies suggested that the study for the isotopic fractionation of the alkaline earth metals in marine carbonates has a potentially significant influence in geochemical research fields (e.g. Eisenhauer et al., 2009). The aim of this study is to explore the influence of carbonate polymorphs (Calcite and Aragonite) and environmental factors (e.g., temperature, precipitation rate) on the level of isotopic fractionation of the alkaline earth metals. We also examined possible correlations between the level of isotopic fractionation of Ca and that of other alkaline earth metals during carbonate precipitation. In order to determine the isotope fractionation factor of Mg, Ca and Sr during carbonate precipitation, calcite and aragonite were synthesized from calcium bicarbonate solution in which the amount of magnesium was controlled based on Kitano method. Calcium carbonates were also prepared from the mixture of calcium chlorite and sodium hydrogen carbonate solutions. The isotope fractionation factors were measured by MC-ICPMS. Results suggested that the level of isotopic fractionation of Mg during carbonate precipitation was correlated with that of Sr and that the change of the carbonate crystal structure could make differences of isotopic fractionations of Mg and Ca, however no difference was found in the case of Sr. In this presentation, the possible mechanism will be discussed.

  13. Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions

    E-print Network

    Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a Strontium ion are determined of molecular ions with laser-cooled atomic ions thus forming so-called ion crystals where individual ions

  14. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J. [Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain); Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento Quimica Fisica y Analitica (Spain); Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  15. Synthesis and stabilization-advances in organoalkaline earth metal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, William D; Allis, Damian G; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin

    2010-07-01

    The last decade has seen an impressive growth in alkaline earth metal chemistry, with applications ranging from synthetic organic and polymer chemistry to materials science. As a consequence, alkaline earth metal chemistry has made a leap from obscurity into the spotlight of modern organometallic chemistry. Much of this rapid development was made possible by the establishment of novel synthetic procedures that allowed facile access to the target compounds, as many conventional synthetic routes posed and continue to pose significant limitations. Novel approaches have allowed the preparation of a multitude of compounds, initiating progress not thought possible just five years ago. Examination of the new compounds delineates several factors responsible for their structure and function. Key elements in the coordination, aggregation behavior, and reactivity of these systems have been linked to secondary interactions, including M-Cpi, M-Npi, M-F, and M-H(agostic) interactions. This feature article will provide a very brief overview of established synthetic procedures, including a brief discussion on specific shortcomings. This will be followed by a detailed presentation of novel methodologies that are the core of the rapid development of alkaline earth metal chemistry. The second part of the article will be concerned with the analysis of various secondary interactions and their role in the further development of this rapidly emerging field of chemistry. PMID:20445937

  16. Local order around rare earth ions during the devitrification of oxyfluoride glasses

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Local order around rare earth ions during the devitrification of oxyfluoride glasses Maurício A. P EXAFS measurements were performed on rare earth doped fluorosilicate and fluoroborate glasses and glass based on x-ray diffraction measurements and the fact that the rare earth ions are present

  17. CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND BONDING, CRYSTAL FIBLD EFFECTS IN RARE EARTH IONS (*)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND BONDING, CRYSTAL FIBLD EFFECTS IN RARE EARTH IONS (*) I. NOWIK, I. FELNERSmBel3conduitBA4 rare earth isotopes located in cubic In determining the magnetic behavior of rare earth ions has been a subject of many experimental and theoretical

  18. Rotational dynamics of metal azide ion pairs in dimethylsulfoxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyewon; Kwon, YoungAh; Kim, Jinwoo; Park, Sungnam

    2013-03-01

    Azide ion is an excellent vibrational probe for studying ion-ion and ion-dipole interactions in solutions because its frequency is sensitively dependent on its local environments. When azide ion forms contact ion pairs with cations in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), free azide ion and contact ion pairs are spectrally well distinguished in FTIR spectra. Here, we investigated vibrational population relaxation, P(t), and orientational relaxation dynamics, r(t), of free azide ion and contact ion pairs (LiN3, NaN3, NH4N3, MgN3(+), and CaN3(+)) in DMSO by IR pump-probe spectroscopy. For metal azide ion pairs, the metal ion slowed down the vibrational relaxation of azide ion by acting like a thermal insulator. Biexponential behavior of r(t) was analyzed in the wobbling-in-a-cone model. The long time component of r(t) of free azide ion was found to be viscosity-dependent. The wobbling motion of azide ion within the frame of metal azide ion pairs was weakly dependent on the countercation. When the overall orientational relaxation of metal azide ion pairs was analyzed by the extended Debye-Stokes-Einstein equation, it was well described under stick or superstick boundary conditions due to a strong interaction between the metal ion and DMSO molecules. Our experimental results provide important insight in understanding the rotational dynamics of small ionic species in polar solvents when the size of the ionic species is smaller than or comparable to that of the solvent molecule. PMID:23409952

  19. Luminescence of rare-earth ions in epitaxial fluoride layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Nikolai S.; Yakovlev, Nikolai L.

    1996-01-01

    Epitaxial fluoride layers (CaF2, SrF2 and CdF2) were grown and doped with rare- earth ions by means of molecular beam epitaxy. This technique allows creation of new fluoride heterostructures (including superlattices) with high level and controlled profile of doping. Photoluminescence spectra of divalent ions (Eu2+ and Sm2+) were used to study strains and stress relaxation in the films. In the structures grown by MBE one can observe effects which are not actual in bulk crystals. They are crossing of 4f6 and 4f55d levels of Sm2+ ions in CaF2 layers with tensile strain as high as 2%, new shape of inhomogeneously broadened Sm2+ zero phonon emission line in very thin CaF2 layers arising from modification of strain fields of defects near the surface, bleaching of photoluminescence of RE ions in thin CaF2:Sm2+ layers on Si(111) and in CdF2-CaF2:Eu2+ superlattices. Luminescence of trivalent ions (Nd3+ and Er3+) in CaF2 films is quenched at much higher concentration of the dopants than in bulk crystals. It makes these films very attractive for potential optoelectronic applications.

  20. Separation of rare earths from transition metals by liquid-liquid extraction from a molten salt hydrate to an ionic liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Rout, Alok; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-02-28

    The solvent extraction of trivalent rare-earth ions and their separation from divalent transition metal ions using molten salt hydrates as the feed phase and an undiluted fluorine-free ionic liquid as the extracting phase were investigated in detail. The extractant was tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, [A336][NO3], and the hydrated melt was calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO3)2·4H2O. The extraction behavior of rare-earth ions was studied for solutions of individual elements, as well as for mixtures of rare earths in the hydrated melt. The influence of different extraction parameters was investigated: the initial metal loading in the feed phase, percentage of water in the feed solution, equilibration time, and the type of hydrated melt. The extraction of rare earths from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O was compared with extraction from CaCl2·4H2O by [A336][Cl] (Aliquat 336). The nitrate system was found to be the better one. The extraction and separation of rare earths from the transition metals nickel, cobalt and zinc were also investigated. Remarkably high separation factors of rare-earth ions over transition metal ions were observed for extraction from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O by the [A336][NO3] extracting phase. Furthermore, rare-earth ions could be separated efficiently from transition metal ions, even in melts with very high concentrations of transition metal ions. Rare-earth oxides could be directly dissolved in the Ca(NO3)2·4H2O phase in the presence of small amounts of Al(NO3)3·9H2O or concentrated nitric acid. The efficiency of extraction after dissolving the rare-earth oxides in the hydrated nitrate melt was identical to extraction from solutions with rare-earth nitrates dissolved in the molten phase. The stripping of the rare-earth ions from the loaded ionic liquid phase and the reuse of the recycled ionic liquid were also investigated in detail. PMID:24352299

  1. Metal Ion Sensors Based on DNAzymes and Related DNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Rong-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Metal ion sensors are an important yet challenging field in analytical chemistry. Despite much effort, only a limited number of metal ion sensors are available for practical use because sensor design is often a trial-and-error-dependent process. DNAzyme-based sensors, in contrast, can be developed through a systematic selection that is generalizable for a wide range of metal ions. Here, we summarize recent progress in the design of DNAzyme-based fluorescent, colorimetric, and electrochemical sensors for metal ions, such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, and UO22+ In addition, we also describe metal ion sensors based on related DNA molecules, including T-T or C-C mismatches and G-quadruplexes. PMID:21370984

  2. DNA as Sensors and Imaging Agents for Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interests in detecting metal ions in many chemical and biomedical fields have created demands for developing sensors and imaging agents for metal ions with high sensitivity and selectivity. This review covers recent progress in DNA-based sensors and imaging agents for metal ions. Through both combinatorial selection and rational design, a number of metal ion-dependent DNAzymes and metal ion-binding DNA structures that can selectively recognize specific metal ions have been obtained. By attaching these DNA molecules with signal reporters such as fluorophores, chromophores, electrochemical tags, and Raman tags, a number of DNA-based sensors for both diamagnetic and paramagnetic metal ions have been developed for fluorescent, colorimetric, electrochemical, and surface Raman detections. These sensors are highly sensitive (with detection limit down to 11 ppt) and selective (with selectivity up to millions-fold) toward specific metal ions. In addition, through further development to simplify the operation, such as the use of “dipstick tests”, portable fluorometers, computer-readable discs, and widely available glucose meters, these sensors have been applied for on-site and real-time environmental monitoring and point-of-care medical diagnostics. The use of these sensors for in situ cellular imaging has also been reported. The generality of the combinatorial selection to obtain DNAzymes for almost any metal ion in any oxidation state, and the ease of modification of the DNA with different signal reporters make DNA an emerging and promising class of molecules for metal ion sensing and imaging in many fields of applications. PMID:24359450

  3. Catalytic ozonation of 2-dichlorophenol by metallic ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. Ni; N. Chen; P.-Y. Yang

    This research is mainly to explore functional improvement by adding various kinds of metallic ions in the ozonation of 2-chlorophenol solution. During the experiment, various kinds of metallic ions (Pb+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Ti2+, and Mn2+ ) were added; it was found that the reaction rate increased in all cases. The best result was obtained by using manganese ions, followed

  4. Metal ion implantation in inert polymers for strain gauge applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Di Girolamo; Marcello Massaro; Emanuela Piscopiello; Leander Tapfer

    2010-01-01

    Metal ion implantation in inert polymers may produce ultra-thin conducting films below the polymer surface. These subsurface films are promising structures for strain gauge applications. To this purpose, polycarbonate substrates were irradiated at room temperature with low-energy metal ions (Cu+ and Ni+) and with fluences in the range between 1×1016 and 1×1017ions\\/cm2, in order to promote the precipitation of dispersed

  5. Magnetism of the rare earth, 3d --Theoretical review Abstract. --Compounds of rare earth and transition metals exhibit unusual and quite different behaviour. In

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and secondly those determined mainly by rare earth metals. The first group are those rich in transition metal except TCo2, TNi5, T2Ni7, TNi3, TNi2. When the transition metal is magnetic, the coupling between rare-earth temperature are much smaller, and magnetic properties bear resemblances with rare earth metals. Thus we

  6. Carbon nanostructures for separation, preconcentration and speciation of metal ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krystyna Pyrzynska

    2010-01-01

    Novel carbon-based nanomaterials with unique properties find increasing use in analytical science. This article presents an up-to-date overview of recent applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metal oxide-CNT nanocomposites and carbon-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles for enrichment and separation of metal ions, and speciation. The sorption mechanism appears to be mainly attributable to chemical interactions between metal ions and the functional groups on

  7. A self-sputtering ion source: A new approach to quiescent metal ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim M.; Anders, Andre

    2009-09-03

    A new metal ion source is presented based on sustained self-sputtering plasma in a magnetron discharge. Metals exhibiting high self-sputtering yield like Cu, Ag, Zn, and Bi can be used in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge such that the plasma almost exclusively contains singly charged metal ions of the target material. The plasma and extracted ion beam are quiescent. The ion beams consist mostly of singly charged ions with a space-charge limited current density which reached about 10 mA/cm2 at an extraction voltage of 45 kV and a first gap spacing of 12 mm.

  8. Half-metallic to insulating behavior of rare-earth nitrides C. M. Aerts,1

    E-print Network

    Svane, Axel Torstein

    Half-metallic to insulating behavior of rare-earth nitrides C. M. Aerts,1 P. Strange,1 M. Horne,1 W in the literature that rare-earth nitrides may form half-metallic ferromagnets.6­8 This is sur- prising because 30 January 2004 The electronic structure of the rare-earth nitrides is studied systematically using

  9. Quantum Computing with Alkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms Andrew J. Daley,1,2

    E-print Network

    Quantum Computing with Alkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms Andrew J. Daley,1,2 Martin M. Boyd,3 Jun Ye,1 processing using the unique features of alkaline-earth-metal atoms. We show how two completely independent.g., due to magnetic field fluctuations [2]. Alkaline-earth(-like) atoms, as developed in the context

  10. Reusable chelating resins concentrate metal ions from highly dilute solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.; Weetal, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Column chromatographic method uses new metal chelating resins for recovering heavy-metal ions from highly dilute solutions. The absorbed heavy-metal cations may be removed from the chelating resins by acid or base washes. The resins are reusable after the washes are completed.

  11. Understanding the influence of nanoenvironment on luminescence of rare-earth ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pushpal Ghosh; Amitava Patra

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the recent results on upconversion and photoluminescence of rare-earth ions in nanoenvironments.\\u000a The role of the rare-earth ion concentration, crystal size and crystal phase on the up and downconversion emission of rare-earth\\u000a ions in oxide nanocrystals and their underlying mechanisms are discussed. It is also found that the luminescence lifetime\\u000a of the excited state

  12. Synthesis, spectral characterization, and structural studies of 2-aminobenzoate complexes of divalent alkaline earth metal ions: X-ray crystal structures of [Ca(2-aba)2(OH2)3]infinity, [[Sr(2-aba)2(OH2)2].H2O]infinity, and [Ba(2-aba)2(OH2)]infinity (2-abaH = 2-NH2C6H4COOH).

    PubMed

    Murugavel, R; Karambelkar, V V; Anantharaman, G; Walawalkar, M G

    2000-04-01

    Reactions of alkaline earth metal chlorides with 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-abaH) have been investigated. The treatment of MCl2.nH2O (M = Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba) with 2-abaH in a 1:2 ratio in a MeOH/H2O/NH3 mixture leads to the formation of anthranilate complexes [Mg(2-aba)2] (1), [Ca(2-aba)2(OH2)3]infinity (2), [[Sr(2-aba)2(OH2)2].H2O)]infinity (3), and [Ba(2-aba)2(OH2)]infinity (4) respectively. Alternatively, these products can also be obtained starting from the corresponding metal acetates. Anthranilate complexes 1-4 have been characterized with the aid of elemental analysis, pH measurements, thermal analysis, and infrared, ultraviolet, and NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopic studies. All the products are found to be thermally very stable and do not melt on heating to 250 degrees C. Thermal studies of complexes 2-4, however, indicate the loss of coordinated and lattice water molecules below 200 degrees C. In the case of the magnesium complex, the analytical and thermogravimetric studies indicate the absence of any coordinated or uncoordinated water molecules. Further, the solid-state structures of metal anthranilates 2-4 have been established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. While the calcium ions in 2 are heptacoordinated, the strontium and barium ions in 3 and 4 reveal a coordination number of 9 apart from an additional weak metal-metal interaction along the polymeric chains. The carboxylate groups show different chelating and bridging modes of coordination behavior in the three complexes. Interestingly, apart from the carboxylate functionality, the amino group also binds to the metal centers in the case of strontium and barium complexes 3 and 4. However, the coordination sphere of 2 contains only O donors. All three compounds form polymeric networks in the solid state with the aid of different coordinating capabilities of the carboxylate anions and O-H...O and N-H...O hydrogen bonding interactions. PMID:12526440

  13. Operational characteristics of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Hiroshi; Brown, I.G. (Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-06-01

    The MEVVA ion source can produce high current pulsed beams of metallic ions using a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted. In this study, the operational characteristics of the MEVVA IV ion source are summarized. Results are presented of measurements of the ion beam current as a function of arc current over a range of extraction voltage. Ti, Ta and Pb were examined as the cathode materials. The arc current ranged from 50A to 250A and the extraction voltage from 10kV to 80kV. The ion beam current was measured at two different distances from the ion source using Faraday cups, so as to investigate the beam divergence. Additionally, the cathode erosion rates were measured. Optimum operating conditions of the MEVVA ion source were determined. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Understanding the influence of nanoenvironment on luminescence of rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pushpal; Patra, Amitava

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the recent results on upconversion and photoluminescence of rare-earth ions in nanoenvironments. The role of the rare-earth ion concentration, crystal size and crystal phase on the up- and downconversion emission of rare-earth ions in oxide nanocrystals and their underlying mechanisms are discussed. It is also found that the luminescence lifetime of the excited state rare-earth ions is sensitive to the particle crystalline phase and size. The analysis suggests that the modifications of radiative and nonradiative relaxation mechanisms are due to local symmetry structure of the host lattice and crystal size respectively.

  15. Numerical simulations of the optical gain of crystalline fiber doped by rare earth and transition ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoui, A. K.; Boubir, B.; Adouane, A.; Demagh, N.; Ghoumazi, M.

    2015-02-01

    A fiber laser is a laser whose gain medium is a doped fiber, although lasers whose cavity is made wholly of fibers have also been called fiber lasers. The gain media in a fiber laser is usually fiber doped with rare-earth ions, such as erbium (Er), neodymium (Nd), ytterbium (Yb), thulium (Tm), or praseodymium (Pr), which is doped into the core of the optical fiber, similar to those used to transmit telecommunications signals. Fiber lasers find many applications in materials processing, including cutting, welding, drilling, and marking metal. To maximize their market penetration, it is necessary to increase their output power. In this work, we present a detailed study based on the numerical simulation using MATLAB, of one of the principal characteristics of a fiber laser doped with rare earth ions and transition ion. The gain depends on several parameters such as the length of the doped fiber, the density, the pump power, noise, etc.). The used program resolves the state equations in this context together with those governing the light propagation phenomena. The developed code can also be used to study the dynamic operating modes of a doped fiber laser.

  16. Glucose enhancement of LDL oxidation is strictly metal ion dependent.

    PubMed

    Mowri, H O; Frei, B; Keaney, J F

    2000-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lipoprotein oxidation is increased in diabetes, however, the mechanism(s) for such observations are not clear. We examined the effect of glucose on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation using metal ion-dependent and -independent oxidation systems. Pathophysiological concentrations of glucose (25 mM) enhanced copper-induced LDL oxidation as determined by conjugated diene formation or relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) on agarose gels. Similarly, iron-induced LDL oxidation was stimulated by glucose resulting in 4- to 6-fold greater REM than control incubations without glucose. In contrast, glucose had no effect on metal ion-independent LDL oxidation by aqueous peroxyl radicals. The effect of glucose on metal ion-dependent LDL oxidation was associated with enhanced reduction of metal ions, and in the case of iron-induced LDL oxidation, was completely inhibited by superoxide dismutase. The effect of glucose was mimicked by other reducing sugars, such as fructose and mannose, and the extent to which each sugar enhanced LDL oxidation was closely linked to its metal ion-reducing activity. Thus, promotion of LDL oxidation by glucose is specific for metal ion-dependent oxidation and involves increased metal ion reduction. These results provide one potential mechanism for enhanced LDL oxidation in diabetes. PMID:11063907

  17. Plastic flow in ion-assisted deposition of refractory metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sharples; N. Savvides

    1988-01-01

    Ion-assisted deposition of refractory metals (Fe, Mo, Nb, Ta, W, Pt) was studied using an unbalanced magnetron source to provide both the depositing atom flux and the argon ion flux at ion-to-atom flux ratios in the range 2--10. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and the measurement of room-temperature electrical resistivity. As the ion bombardment energy was increased, the

  18. Magnetism of perovskite cobaltites with Kramers rare-earth ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jirák, Z., E-mail: jirak@fzu.cz; Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Novák, P.; Šantavá, E. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Fujishiro, H. [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    The band-gap insulators RECoO{sub 3} (RE?=?Nd{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, and Dy{sup 3+}) with Co{sup 3+} ions stabilized in the non-magnetic low-spin state have been investigated by specific heat measurements. The experiments evidence an antiferromagnetic ordering of the rare earths with Néel temperature of T{sub N}?=?1.25, 1.50, and 3.60?K for NdCoO{sub 3}, SmCoO{sub 3}, and DyCoO{sub 3}, respectively. With increasing external field, the lambda peak in specific heat, indicative of the transition, shifts to lower temperatures and vanishes for field of about 3?T. Starting from this point, a broader Schottky peak is formed, centered in 1?K range, and its position is moved to higher temperatures proportionally to applied field. The origin of the peak is in Zeeman splitting of the ground Kramers doublet, and the gradual shift with field defines effective g-factors for the rare-earth pseudospins in studied compounds. The results obtained are confronted with the calculations of crystal field splitting of the rare-earth multiplets.

  19. METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides J. J. Rhyne and G. E on the rare earth site. The rare earth spins disorder at a temperature lower than the bulk Tc in ErFe2 H3 5 per formula unit assuming complete occupation of 3 tetrahedral sites. The heavy rare earth (RFe2

  20. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  1. Localization of metallic ions with gingival fibroblast subcellular fractions.

    PubMed

    Messer, Regina L W; Lucas, L C

    2002-03-01

    Nickel-based alloys have been in use since the 1930s; however, there are concerns regarding the release of metal ions (Be(+2), Cr(+6), Cr(+3), Ni(+2), Mo(+6)) from these alloys into surrounding tissues. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the cellular location and accumulation of ions using atomic absorption spectroscopy and correlate location with the cytotoxic, morphologic, and ultrastructural evaluations reported previously. Human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the metal ions for 72 h. Controlled atomic absorption spectroscopy studies were used to determine the intracellular location of these ions reported as parts per million metal ions per milligram protein. Enzymatic markers were shown to correspond to the appropriate fraction indicating success in fractionation of the gingival fibroblasts. These results correspond with the cytotoxic, morphologic, and ultrastructural alterations reported previously for fibroblasts exposed to these ions. The highest concentration of beryllium ions occurred in the low-density molecule fraction, where lipofuscin granules were found, which has been shown to contain metal ions. The highest concentrations of hexavalent chromium ions occurred in the plasma membrane and nuclear fractions followed by the mitochondria fraction, which is supported by the ions' ability to oxidize to trivalent chromium accumulating at the membrane as well as the alterations in nuclear and mitochondrial function. For trivalent chromium, the highest concentrations occurred in the low-density molecule and the plasma membrane fractions, which correlates with the ions' inability to readily cross membranes. The highest concentration of molybdenum ions occurred in the plasma membrane fraction correlating with alterations in membrane morphology and increased numbers of myelin figures. The highest concentration of nickel ions was associated with the cytosol fraction where lipid droplets seen in the transmission electron micrographs were located. The current study demonstrates that a successful subcellular fractionation was obtained on gingival fibroblasts and that the location of metallic ions within the fractions correlated with cellular alterations reported previously. PMID:11774304

  2. Adhesive bonding of ion beam textured metals and fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Sovey, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    An electron bombardment argon ion source was used to ion etch various metals and fluoropolymers. The metal and fluoropolymers were exposed to (0.5 to 1.0) keV Ar ions at ion current densities of (0.2 to 1.5) mA/sq cm for various exposure times. The resulting surface texture is in the form of needles or spires whose vertical dimensions may range from tenths to hundreds of micrometers, depending on the selection of beam energy, ion current density, and etch time. The bonding of textured surfaces is accomplished by ion beam texturing mating pieces of either metals or fluoropolymers and applying a bonding agent which wets in and around the microscopic cone-like structures. After bonding, both tensile and shear strength measurements were made on the samples. Also tested, for comparison's sake, were untextured and chemically etched fluoropolymers. The results of these measurements are presented.

  3. Ion transport and loss in the Earth`s quiet ring current 1. Data and standard model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Sheldon; D. C. Hamilton

    1993-01-01

    The authors have studied the transport and loss of ions in the Earth`s quiet time ring current, comparing the standard radial diffusion model developed for the higher-energy radiation belt particles with measurements of the lower-energy ring current ions. They compiled a data set with full local time coverage from the quietest days seen by the AMPTE\\/CCE\\/CHEM instrument in near-equatorial orbit

  4. Effect of rare earth metal oxide additions to tungsten electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alber A. Sadek; Masao Ushio; Fukuhisa Matsuda

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study has been made on the operating characteristics of gas-tungsten arc (GTA) welding for several types of\\u000a electrodes. The work was carried out with a pure tungsten electrode and tungsten electrodes activated with a small quantity\\u000a of the rare earth metal oxides, La2O3, Y2O3, CeO2, and with ZrO2, ThO2, and MgO. Their behaviors during arcing were analyzed and

  5. An Animal Model Using Metallic Ions to Produce Autoimmune Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Sandoval, Roxana; Luévano-Rodríguez, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mayra; Pérez-Pérez, María Elena; Saldívar-Elias, Sergio; Gurrola-Carlos, Reinaldo; Avalos-Díaz, Esperanza; Bollain-y-Goytia, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune nephritis triggered by metallic ions was assessed in a Long-Evans rat model. The parameters evaluated included antinuclear autoantibody production, kidney damage mediated by immune complexes detected by immunofluorescence, and renal function tested by retention of nitrogen waste products and proteinuria. To accomplish our goal, the animals were treated with the following ionic metals: HgCl2, CuSO4, AgNO3, and Pb(NO3)2. A group without ionic metals was used as the control. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that metallic ions triggered antinuclear antibody production in 60% of animals, some of them with anti-DNA specificity. Furthermore, all animals treated with heavy metals developed toxic glomerulonephritis with immune complex deposition along the mesangium and membranes. These phenomena were accompanied by proteinuria and increased concentrations of urea. Based on these results, we conclude that metallic ions may induce experimental autoimmune nephritis. PMID:26064998

  6. Bimetallic cleavage of aromatic C-H bonds by rare-earth-metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenliang; Dulong, Florian; Khan, Saeed I; Cantat, Thibault; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2014-12-17

    A new type of C-H bond activation mediated by rare-earth metals under reducing conditions is reported. The synergy between reductants and rare-earth-metal complexes allows the cleavage of unactivated aromatic C-H bonds. The reaction between rare-earth-metal iodides supported by a 1,1'-ferrocenediamide ligand and potassium graphite in benzene leads to the formation of a 1:1 metal molar ratio of the corresponding metal hydride and metal phenyl complex. A proposed mechanism involving an inverse sandwich arene bimetallic intermediate is supported by experimental and computational studies. PMID:25431837

  7. Progress in metal ion separation and preconcentration : an overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, A. H.

    1998-05-19

    A brief historical perspective covering the most mature chemically-based metal ion separation methods is presented, as is a summary of the recommendations made in the 1987 National Research Council (NRC) report entitled ''Separation and Purification: Critical Needs and Opportunities''. A review of Progress in Metal Ion Separation and Preconcentration shows that advances are occurring in each area of need cited by the NRC. Following an explanation of the objectives and general organization of this book, the contents of each chapter are briefly summarized and some future research opportunities in metal ion separations are presented.

  8. Cesium Ion Bombardment of Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompa, Gary S.

    The steady state cesium coverage due to cesium ion bombardment of molybdenum and tungsten has been studied for the incident energy range below 500 eV. When a sample is exposed to a positive cesium ion beam, the work function decreases until steady state is reached with a total dose of less than (DBLTURN)1*10('16) ions/cm('2), for both tungsten and molybdenum. A steady state minimum work function surface is produced at an incident energy of (DBLTURN)100 eV for molybdenum and at an incident energy of (DBLTURN)45 eV for tungsten. Increasing the incident energy results in an increase in the work function corresponding to a decrease in the surface coverage of cesium. At incident energies less than that giving the minimum work function, the work function approaches that of cesium metal. At a given bombarding energy the cesium coverage of tungsten is uniformly less than that of molybdenum. The effects of hydrogen gas coadsorption have also been examined. Hydrogen coadsorption does not have a large effect on the steady state work functions. The largest shifts in the work function due to the coadsorption of hydrogen occur on the samples when there is no cesium present. A theory describing the steady state coverage has been developed and is used to make predictions for other materials. A simple sticking and sputtering relationship, not including implantation, cannot account for the steady state coverage. At low concentrations, cesium coverage of a target is proportional to the ratio of (1-(beta))/(gamma) where (beta) is the reflection coefficient and (gamma) is the sputter yield. High coverages are produced on molybdenum due to implantation and low backscattering, because molybdenum is lighter than cesium. For tungsten the high backscattering and low implantation result in low coverages. The implications of these results for negative hydrogen surface conversion sources are clear, molybdenum is a better material than tungsten since a much lower work function surface is maintained on molybdenum at converter operating energies.

  9. Origins of energetic ions in the Earth's magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuselter, S. A.; Shelley, E. G.; Klumpar, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of the combined scientific data from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) and the Charge Energy Mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the Active Mesospheric Particle Tracer Experiment (AMPTE) Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft are discussed. These combined data sets have and will be used to survey the energetic ion environment in the Earth's magnetosheath to determine the origins and relative strengths of the energetic ion populations found there. A computer code was developed to analyze and interpret the data sets. The focus of the first year was on the determination of the contribution of leaked magnetospheric protons to the total energetic proton population. Emphasis was placed on intervals when the AMPTE spacecraft was in the plasma depletion layer because it was argued that in this region, only the leaked population contributes to the energetic ion population. Manipulation of the CHEM data and comparison of the CHEM and HPCE data over their common energy range near the magnetopause also contributed directly to a second study of that region.

  10. Saturation magnetic moments, magnetic hyperfine fields and electric field gradients at nuclei in the heavy rare earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Eagles

    1975-01-01

    The contributions of 4f, 5d and 6s electrons to the saturation magnetic moments and magnetic hyperfine fields in the heavy rare earth metals are calculated using the model described in the previous paper. It is found that 4f shell moments are reduced from their free ion values by amounts varying from 0.05µB in Gd to several tenths of a Bohr

  11. Molecular rare-earth-metal hydrides in non-cyclopentadienyl environments.

    PubMed

    Fegler, Waldemar; Venugopal, Ajay; Kramer, Mathias; Okuda, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Molecular hydrides of the rare-earth metals play an important role as homogeneous catalysts and as counterparts of solid-state interstitial hydrides. Structurally well-characterized non-metallocene-type hydride complexes allow the study of elementary reactions that occur at rare-earth-metal centers and of catalytic reactions involving bonds between rare-earth metals and hydrides. In addition to neutral hydrides, cationic derivatives have now become available. PMID:25413985

  12. Metal ion acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus: overcoming nutritional immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cassat, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals are essential nutrients to virtually all forms of life, including bacterial pathogens. In Staphylococcus aureus, metal ions participate in diverse biochemical processes such as metabolism, DNA synthesis, regulation of virulence factors, and defense against oxidative stress. As an innate immune response to bacterial infection, vertebrate hosts sequester transition metals in a process that has been termed “nutritional immunity.” To successfully infect vertebrates, S. aureus must overcome host sequestration of these critical nutrients. The objective of this review is to outline the current knowledge of staphylococcal metal ion acquisition systems, as well as to define the host mechanisms of nutritional immunity during staphylococcal infection. PMID:22048835

  13. High-current metal ion beam extraction from a multicusp ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Inouchi; Hideki Tanaka; Hiroshi Inami; Fumio Fukumaru; Kouzi Matsunaga

    1990-01-01

    Improvements have been made in a multicusp ion source, which made it possible to produce metal–vapor plasma and extract a high-current metal ion beam. In the discharge chamber, double radiation shields were set and the inner shields were heated to 1860 K. Therefore, it became possible to maintain enough metal–vapor density to produce plasma without the use of support gas.

  14. Preparation and structure of carbonated calcium hydroxyapatite substituted with heavy rare earth ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yasukawa, Akemi, E-mail: yasukawa@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [School of Home Economics, Faculty of Education, Hirosaki University, 1-bunkyo, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8560 (Japan)] [School of Home Economics, Faculty of Education, Hirosaki University, 1-bunkyo, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8560 (Japan); Kandori, Kazuhiko [School of Chemistry, Osaka University of Education, 4-698-1 Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan)] [School of Chemistry, Osaka University of Education, 4-698-1 Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Hidekazu [Department of Material Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan)] [Department of Material Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Gotoh, Keiko [Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women's University, Kita-uoya-nishi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)] [Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women's University, Kita-uoya-nishi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LnCaHap solid solution particles were prepared using five types of heavy rare earth ions by a precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The length and the crystallinity of the LnCaHap particles first increased and then decreased with increasing Ln{sup 3+} contents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A series of YCaHap solid solution particles formed with Y/(Y + Ca) = 0-0.10 were investigated using various methods in detail. -- Abstract: Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHap) particles substituted five types of heavy rare earth ions (Ln: Y{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}) were synthesized using a precipitation method and characterized using various means. These Ln ions strongly affected the crystal phases and the structures of the products. With increasing Ln/(Ln + Ca) in the starting solution ([X{sub Ln}]), the length and the crystallinity of the particles first increased and then decreased. The rare earth metal-calcium hydroxyapatite (LnCaHap) solid solution particles were obtained at [X{sub Y}] {<=} 0.10 for substituting Y system and at [X{sub Ln}] {<=} 0.01-0.03 for substituting the other Ln systems. LnPO{sub 4} was mixed with LnCaHap at higher [X{sub Ln}] for all Ln systems. A series of yttrium-calcium hydroxyapatite (YCaHap) solid solutions with [X{sub Y}] = 0-0.10 were investigated using XRD, TEM, ICP-AES, IR and TG-DTA in detail.

  15. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  16. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  17. Simplified model for extraction of rare-earth ions using emulsion liquid membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingrong Liu; Xiujuan Zhang

    1997-01-01

    By considering the resistances of rare-earth ions in both the external and membrane phases, the interfacial reaction and the membrane breakage, a mathematical model for the extraction of rare-earth ions by batch emulsion liquid membrane process is established. Further, two simplified mass transfer equations are also derived from the proposed model in each of the specified cases. The validity of

  18. Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingkai Xu; Wangzhao Zhu; Zijian Wang; Geert-Jan Witkamp

    2002-01-01

    Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.

  19. High-current-density metal-ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbur, P.J.; Wei, R. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Design features and preliminary performance data for an ion-implantation system that derives its broad, high-current-density beam directly from a steady, metal-plasma discharge in a high temperature graphite chamber are described. Metal vapor is supplied by drawing electron current to an anode-potential crucible to vaporize a pure metal in it. Argon used to start the discharge is turned off once sufficient metal vapor is present to sustain it. Extraction of metal-ion beams that are several centimeters in diameter at current densities ranging to several hundred {mu}A/cm{sup 2} of titanium or copper onto targets 50 cm from the ion source is demonstrated. The system is simple, reliable, and easy to maintain.

  20. Metal ion implantation for large scale surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1992-10-01

    Intense energetic beams of metal ions can be produced by using a metal vapor vacuum arc as the plasma discharge from which the ion beam is formed. We have developed a number of ion sources of this kind and have built a metal ion implantation facility which can produce repetitively pulsed ion beams with mean ion energy up to several hundred key, pulsed beam current of more than an ampere, and time averaged current of several tens of milliamperes delivered onto a downstream target. We've also done some preliminary work on scaling up this technology to very large size. For example, a 50-cm diameter (2000 cm[sup 2]) set of beam formation electrodes was used to produce a pulsed titanium beam with ion current over 7 amperes at a mean ion energy of 100 key. Separately, a dc embodiment has been used to produce a dc titanium ion beam with current over 600 mA, power supply limited in this work, and up to 6 amperes of dc plasma ion current was maintained for over an hour. In a related program we've developed a plasma immersion method for applying thin metallic and compound films in which the added species is atomically mixed to the substrate. By adding a gas flow to the process, well-bonded compound films can also be formed; metallic films and multilayers as well as oxides and nitrides with mixed transition zones some hundreds of angstroms thick have been synthesized. Here we outline these parallel metal-plasma-based research programs and describe the hardware that we've developed and some of the surface modification research that we've done with it.

  1. Detection of Metallic Compounds in Rocket Plumes Using Ion Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    This grant experimentally verified that ion probes can consistently detect metallic compounds in a hybrid rocket plume. Two electrostatic detection methods were tested. The first method used an unbiased ion probe. It responded to collisions or near collisions with charged particulates. The amplitude of the response to metallic ions always exceeded that of the combustion products. The second device was a cylindrical Gaussian surface that surrounded, but did not touch, the plume. A charge imbalance in the plume induced a current in cylinder that was detected by a sensitive amplifier. The probe was more sensitive to metallic compounds than the cylinder. However, the Gaussian cylinder demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to warrant serious future consideration. Since the cylinder is nonintrusive, it is particularly attractive. Apparently, ions formed during combustion transfer to the metallic impurities. The formation of these metallic ions slows the ion recombination rate and helps preserve charges in the plume. The electrostatic detectors, in turn, respond to the charges carried by the metallic impurities.

  2. Production of negative hydrogen ions on metal grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oohara, W.; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, H.; Kawata, K.

    2015-03-01

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced on a nickel grid with positive-ion irradiation. In order to investigate the production mechanism, a copper grid without the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms and positive helium ions without negative ionization are used for comparison. Positive hydrogen ions reflected on the metal surface obtain two electrons from the surface and become negatively ionized. It is found that the production yield of negative ions by desorption ionization of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms seems to be small, and the production is a minor mechanism.

  3. Implantation of nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus ions into metals

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, M.I.; Gordeeva, G.V.

    1987-01-01

    The application of ion implantation for alloying offers a unique opportunity to modify the chemical composition, phase constitution, and microstructure of the surface layers of metals. The authors studied ion implantation of nitrogen and carbon into the surface layers of metallic targets. The phase composition of the implanted layers obtained on the Kh18N10T stainless steel, the refractory molybdenum alloy TsM-6, niobium, and nickel was determined according to the conventional method of recording the x-ray diffraction pattern of the specimens using monochromatic FeK/sub alpha/-radiation on a DRON-2,0 diffractometer. The targets were bombarded at room temperature in an ILU-3 ion accelerator. The implantation of metalloid ions was also conducted with the targets being bombarded with 100-keV phosphorus ions and 40-keV carbon ions.

  4. Environmentally relevant metal and transition metal ions enhance Fc epsilon RI-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia; Wyczólkowska, Janina; Dastych, Jaroslaw

    2003-01-01

    Upon contact with allergen, sensitized mast cells release highly active proinflammatory mediators. Allergen-mediated mast cell activation is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of atopic asthma. Asthmatic patients are especially susceptible to air pollution. Epidemiologic studies found a positive correlation between severity of symptoms among asthmatic patients and the level of particulate matter (PM) in the air. Among the constituents of PM are metals and transition metals, which could mediate some of its adverse effects on human health. We sought to determine the effect of metal and transition metal ions on allergen-mediated mast cell activation. We observed that several metal and transition metal ions activated mast cells and enhanced allergen-mediated mast cell activation. Thus, Al(3+), Cd(2+), and Sr(2+) induced release of granule-associated N-acetyl-ss-d-hexosaminidase, and Al(3+) and Ni(2+) enhanced antigen-mediated release. Metal and transition metal ions also induced significant secretion of interleukin (IL)-4 and increased antigen-mediated IL-4 secretion in mast cells. These effects of metal and transition metal ions on mast cells were observed at concentrations that do not result in direct cytotoxicity and might be relevant for environmental exposure. Thus, metals and transition metals could increase the level of allergen-mediated mast cell activation, which might be one of the mechanisms mediating exacerbation of allergen-driven asthma symptoms by air pollution. PMID:12727598

  5. Numerical modelling of a metallic ion sporadic-E layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm A. MacLeod; Thomas J. Keneshea; Rocco S. Narcisi

    1975-01-01

    A one-dimensional time-dependent model of the ionosphere has been ; developed and applied to the study of a metallic ion sporadic-E layer observed in ; the Aladdin 1 experiment carried out at Eglin AFB, Florida, 20 November 1970. ; The model develops the molecular ion background ionosphere using a dynamic ; photochemical calculation from noon to a time near model

  6. Quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations in metallic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    The low-frequency electrostatic waves in metallic nanowires are studied using the quantum hydrodynamic model, in which the electron and ion components of the system are regarded as a two-species quantum plasma system. The Poisson equation as well as appropriate quantum boundary conditions give the analytical expressions of dispersion relations of the surface and bulk quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations.

  7. New Metal Niobate and Silicotitanate Ion Exchangers: Development and Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Navrotsky; Mary Lou Balmer; Tina M. Nenoff; Yali Su

    2003-01-01

    This renewal proposal outlines our current progress and future research plans for ion exchangers: novel metal niobate and silicotitanate ion exchangers and their ultimate deployment in the DOE complex. In our original study several forms (including Cs exchanged) of the heat treated Crystalline Silicotitanates (CSTs) were fully characterized by a combination of high temperature synthesis and phase identification, low temperature

  8. Searching for new luminescent chemosensors for metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodi, Luca; Bolletta, Fabrizio; Montalti, Marco; Zaccheroni, Nelsi

    1999-05-01

    Aiming to develop new fluorescent chemosensors for biological and environmental applications, we have designed and synthesized new chemical species able to reversibly bind alkali, earth-alkali, and transition metal ions. For signaling the binding of the target analyte, we have inserted in the structure of the chemosensors different luminophores, such as dioxyxanthone derivatives, dansyl derivatives, ruthenium complexes, and hydroxyquinoline derivatives. In solution, the binding is always signaled by pronounced changes in the photophysical properties of the inserted luminophore such as emission wavelength and intensity, and excited state lifetime. The mechanism for the signal transduction strongly depends on the chosen receptor and luminophore moieties, and has been investigated in detail by means of steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. In all cases, the synthesized chemosensors have proved to be chemically and photochemically stable. Good selectivity and affinity has been obtained with different sensors for K+, Mg2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+, even in physiological pH conditions. Moreover the use of an array of these sensors in optodes could lead to the construction of the so called electronic tongues. All these features make these sensors promising candidates for analytical applications.

  9. Sorption rates of uranium and other metals by earth materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, E.A.

    1996-10-01

    It is well known that the adsorption of metals by earth materials increases with time. Nonetheless, investigators frequently assume that adsorption reactions are essentially complete within 48 hr or less. The present analysis of published time-series data suggests that adsorption of cationic metals (1) is generally diffusion limited, (2) consists of both fast and slow processes, (3) is significantly affected by water chemistry, and (4) may depend on the adsorbate to absorbent ratio. Thus, kinetic descriptions of adsorption may need to deal with diffusion-limited reaction times of up to 1000 hr, deal explicitly with both fast and slow sorption processes, and cation (including H{sup +}) competition. Water with a low pH, as compared to a neutral pH, may significantly increase the time required for a given amount of uranium to be adsorbed by the fast process on a zeolite. Similarly, the concentration ratio of adsorbate to adsorbent can have a large effect on the apparent rate of the fast process. The extent of adsorbate complexation can significantly affect the rate of the fast process, especially during desorption. Additionally, increasing the ionic strength enough to cause coagulation can change the relative amount of metal adsorbed by the fast versus the slow reaction.

  10. Comparative study of metal and non-metal ion implantation in polymers: Optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resta, V.; Quarta, G.; Farella, I.; Maruccio, L.; Cola, A.; Calcagnile, L.

    2014-07-01

    The implantation of 1 MeV metal (63Cu+, 107Ag+, 197Au+) and non-metal (4He+, 12C+) ions in a polycarbonate (PC) matrix has been studied in order to evaluate the role of ion species in the modification of optical and electrical properties of the polymer. When the ion fluence is above ?1 × 1013 ions cm-2, the threshold for latent tracks overlapping is overcome and ?-bonded carbon clusters grow and aggregate forming a network of conjugated Cdbnd C bonds. For fluences around 1 × 1017 ions cm-2, the aggregation phenomena induce the formation of amorphous carbon and/or graphite like structures. At the same time, nucleation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) from implanted species can take place when the supersaturation threshold is overcome. The optical absorption of the samples increases in the visible range and the optical band gap redshifts from 3.40 eV up to 0.70 eV mostly due to the carbonization process and the formation of C0x clusters and cluster aggregates. Specific structures in the extinction spectra are observed when metal ions are selected in contrast to the non-metal ion implanted PC, thus revealing the possible presence of noble metal based NPs interstitial to the C0x cluster network. The corresponding electrical resistance decreases much more when metal ions are implanted with at least a factor of 2 orders of magnitude difference than the non-metal ions based samples. An absolute value of ?107 ?/sq has been measured for implantation with metals at doses higher than 5 × 1016 ions cm-2, being 1017 ?/sq the corresponding sheet resistance for pristine PC.

  11. The morphology of metallic ions in the upper atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiv Kumar

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of metallic ion data from a day-night pair of rockets, OGO 6, and the elliptic phases of AE-C and AE-D shows the presence of Fe(+) ions at altitudes above 400 km only at low magnetic latitudes. The detection probability of this ion decreases with altitude, with a maximum over the Atlantic and a minimum over India; the rocket data

  12. Current and prospective applications of metal ion–protein binding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. M Ueda; P. W Gout; L Morganti

    2003-01-01

    Since immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) was first introduced, several variants of this method and many other metal affinity-based techniques have been devised. IMAC quickly established itself as a highly reliable purification procedure, showing rapid expansion in the number of preparative and analytical applications while not remaining confined to protein separation. It was soon applied to protein refolding (matrix-assisted

  13. Removal of metal ions from dilute solutions by sorptive flotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Zouboulis; K. A. Matis

    1997-01-01

    The removal of soluble ionic species, such as toxic metal cations or oxyanions, from dilute aqueous solutions, as most waste waters are, was investigated in laboratory?scale experiments (batch and continuous mode) by applying the sorptive flotation process. This method involves the preliminary abstraction or scavenging of metal ions using proper “sorbents”, which exist at the fine or ultrafine particle?size range,

  14. Size effects in metal cluster-ion chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irion, Manfred P.

    1992-11-01

    In a special Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, the chemical reactions of different metal cluster ions with a variety of reactive gases have been observed at room temperature as a function of cluster size. The cluster ions generated by sputtering with Xe+ primary ions are transported via ion lenses to the analyzer cell, where they can be stored for up to 100s. For noble metals, mere adsorption of 1-4 molecules is the prevalent reaction type. In the case of the more reactive transition metals, addition to the cluster is typically accompanied by dehydrogenation. Several drastic size-specific effects are discussed, which depend not only on the metal alone but also on the complete system of metal cluster ion and reactive gas. For some systems, only a few sizes are reactive with the majority being inert. For others, the reverse is true and the largest number of sizes is maximized. In addition, there are systems where reactivity either oscillates with increasing size or varies smoothly. For some ion/molecule reactions, the absolute rate constants have been measured. Reactions that do not proceed spontaneously (oxidation of copper clusters, methane activation) are induced by resonantly exciting the ions to a higher kinetic energy. The Fe+4 ion is distinguished by a strong reactivity towards NH3 as well as towards C2H4, etc., whereas Ni+4 proves totally inert. This suggests that the tetramer cannot have the same structure in both cases. For the first time, the catalytic activity of a naked gas-phase metal cluster could be proven. Fe+4 was shown by a complex (MS)5 experiment to synthesize benzene from three adsorbed ethene molecules.

  15. Plasma spectroscopy of metal ions for hyper-electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kubono, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Kase, Masayuki; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Shimoura, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    In this research, the optical line spectra of metal ions from ECR plasma were observed using a grating monochromator with a photomultiplier. The light intensity of line spectrum from the ECR plasma had a strong correlation with ion beam intensity measured by a magnetic mass analyzer. This correlation is a significant information for the beam tuning process, because it allows to conduct the extraction of the desired metal ion species from the ECR plasma. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process, but this research provides a new approach for its simplification. In this paper the grating monochromator method for metal ion beam tuning such as (40)Ca(12+), (56)Fe(15+), and (85)Rb(20+) of hyper-ECR ion source as an injector for RIKEN Azimuthal Varying Field cyclotron is described. PMID:24593484

  16. Metal-Ion-Dependent Motion of Self-Propelled Droplets Due to the Marangoni Effect.

    PubMed

    Ban, Takahiko; Nakata, Hiroki

    2015-06-11

    Chemically driven self-propulsion of soft matter is useful for various applications because it can move toward a desired location, without external power fields, in response to chemical signals in environmental media. We have developed a suitable steering mechanism to maintain the orientation of self-propelled droplets loaded with surfactant in fluidic environments. A spatial gradient of alkaline-earth metal ions induces directional sensing. These metal ions can be arranged in descending order of directional sensing as Ba(2+) ? Sr(2+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+). On the other hand, the affinity between metal ions and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) decreases in the order as Ca(2+) > Ba(2+) > Sr(2+) > Mg(2+). To clarify the difference between the order of directional sensing and that of affinity, we investigated the effect of metal ions on the driving force to create asymmetric convection. We found that changes in the interfacial tension under nonequilibrium conditions play an important role in directional sensing. PMID:26000983

  17. Metal ion complexation by ionizable crown ethers. Final report, January 1, 1988--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    During the report period a variety of new lipophilic ionizable crown ethers with pendent proton-ionizable groups has been synthesized. The ligands possess one or more ionizable group (carboxylic acid, phosphonic acid monoethyl ester, para-nitrophenol, phosphonic acid) attached to crown ether, monoazacrown ether or diazacrown ether frameworks. These novel chelating agents have either pendent or inward-facing proton-ionizable groups. Such lipophilic proton-ionizable crown ethers are designed for use in multiphase metal ion separations (solvent extraction, liquid membrane transport). In addition a series of proton-ionizable crown ethers without lipophilic groups was prepared to study how structural variations within the ligand influence metal ion complexation in homogeneous media as assessed by NMR spectroscopy or titration calorimetry. A third class of new metal ion-complexing agents is a series of lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids. Competitive solvent extractions of alkali metal and alkaline earth cations and of the mixed species have been conducted to reveal the influence of ring size, nature and attachment site of the lipophilic group, sidearm length, and proton-ionizable group identity and location upon the selectivity and efficiency of metal ion complexation. In addition to such studies of structural variation within the lipophilic proton-ionizable crown ether, the effect of changing the organic solvent and variation of the stripping conditions have been assessed. The influence of structural variations within lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids upon competitive solvent extraction of alkaline earth cations has been probed. Also a new chromogenic, di-ionizable crown ether with extremely high selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} has been discovered.

  18. Ion source metal-arc fault current protection circuit

    SciTech Connect

    deVries, G.J.; Lietzke, A.F.; van Os, C.F.A.; Stearns, J.W. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California (USA))

    1991-12-01

    Ion sources can be damaged by arcs between metallic components of the source if these arcs are permitted to last. The negative-biased low-work-function converter in a surface conversion negative ion source is especially susceptible to metal-arc breakdown damage. Here an electronic circuit for minimizing the damage caused by such an arc is described. The circuit uses a transistor switch and an inductor in series with the converter bias power supply to limit the damage during the metal-arc breakdown.

  19. Neutralization by Metal Ions of the Toxicity of Sodium Selenide

    PubMed Central

    Dauplais, Marc; Lazard, Myriam; Blanquet, Sylvain; Plateau, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Inert metal-selenide colloids are found in animals. They are believed to afford cross-protection against the toxicities of both metals and selenocompounds. Here, the toxicities of metal salt and sodium selenide mixtures were systematically studied using the death rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as an indicator. In parallel, the abilities of these mixtures to produce colloids were assessed. Studied metal cations could be classified in three groups: (i) metal ions that protect cells against selenium toxicity and form insoluble colloids with selenide (Ag+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+), (ii) metal ions which protect cells by producing insoluble metal-selenide complexes and by catalyzing hydrogen selenide oxidation in the presence of dioxygen (Co2+ and Ni2+) and, finally, (iii) metal ions which do not afford protection and do not interact (Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+) or weakly interact (Fe2+) with selenide under the assayed conditions. When occurring, the insoluble complexes formed from divalent metal ions and selenide contained equimolar amounts of metal and selenium atoms. With the monovalent silver ion, the complex contained two silver atoms per selenium atom. Next, because selenides are compounds prone to oxidation, the stabilities of the above colloids were evaluated under oxidizing conditions. 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), the reduction of which can be optically followed, was used to promote selenide oxidation. Complexes with cadmium, copper, lead, mercury or silver resisted dissolution by DTNB treatment over several hours. With nickel and cobalt, partial oxidation by DTNB occurred. On the other hand, when starting from ZnSe or FeSe complexes, full decompositions were obtained within a few tens of minutes. The above properties possibly explain why ZnSe and FeSe nanoparticles were not detected in animals exposed to selenocompounds. PMID:23342137

  20. Metal ion implantation in inert polymers for strain gauge applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, Giovanni; Massaro, Marcello; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Tapfer, Leander

    2010-10-01

    Metal ion implantation in inert polymers may produce ultra-thin conducting films below the polymer surface. These subsurface films are promising structures for strain gauge applications. To this purpose, polycarbonate substrates were irradiated at room temperature with low-energy metal ions (Cu + and Ni +) and with fluences in the range between 1 × 10 16 and 1 × 10 17 ions/cm 2, in order to promote the precipitation of dispersed metal nanoparticles or the formation of a continuous thin film. The nanoparticle morphology and the microstructural properties of polymer nanocomposites were investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. At lower fluences (<5 × 10 16 ions/cm 2) a spontaneous precipitation of spherical-shaped metal nanoparticles occurred below the polymer top-surface (˜50 nm), whereas at higher fluences the aggregation of metal nanoparticles produced the formation of a continuous polycrystalline nanofilm. Furthermore, a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak was observed for nanocomposites produced at lower ion fluences, due to the presence of Cu nanoparticles. A reduced electrical resistance of the near-surface metal-polymer nanocomposite was measured. The variation of electrical conductivity as a function of the applied surface load was measured: we found a linear relationship and a very small hysteresis.

  1. Ion beam induced nanosized Ag metal clusters in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnke, H.-E.; Schattat, B.; Schubert-Bischoff, P.; Novakovic, N.

    2006-04-01

    Silver metal clusters have been formed in soda lime glass by high-energy heavy-ion irradiation at ISL. The metal cluster formation was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) in fluorescence mode, and the shape of the clusters was imaged with transmission electron microscopy. While annealing in reducing atmosphere alone, leads to the formation of metal clusters in Ag-containing glasses, where the Ag was introduced by ion-exchange, such clusters are not very uniform in size and are randomly distributed over the Ag-containing glass volume. Irradiation with 600-MeV Au ions followed by annealing, however, results in clusters more uniform in size and arranged in chains parallel to the direction of the ion beam.

  2. Correlation between volatility of rare-earth metals and encapsulation of their carbides in carbon nanocapsules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yahachi Saito; Mitsumasa Okuda; Tadanobu Yoshikawa; Atsuo Kasuya; Yuichiro Nishina

    1994-01-01

    Encapsulation of metals in multilayered graphitic capsules has been studied for all the rare-earth elements (Sc, Y, and Ln = La, Ce, ..., Lu) excluding Pm by using electric arc discharge. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction of carbonaceous products revealed that most of rare-earth metals (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Lu) were encapsulated

  3. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions on New Metal-Ligand Complexes Chemically Derived from Lycopodium clavatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erol Pehlivan; Mustafa Ersoz; Salih Yildiz; Harry J. Duncan

    1994-01-01

    Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    397 ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES C thin evaporated foils of heavy rare earths (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in three different chemical of high energy incident electrons (75 keV) transmitted through thin foils of yttric rare earth elements

  5. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  6. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J. (both Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (both Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-11-13

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  7. Fluorescent probes and bioimaging: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and pH.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Hu, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-07-01

    All living species and life forms have an absolute requirement for bio-functional metals and acid-base equilibrium chemistry owing to the critical roles they play in biological processes. Hence, a great need exists for efficient methods to detect and monitor biometals and acids. In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the development of organic molecule based fluorescent chemosensors. The availability of new synthetic fluorescent probes has made fluorescence microscopy an indispensable tool for tracing biologically important molecules and in the area of clinical diagnostics. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in the design and bioimaging applications of fluorescent probes for alkali metals and alkaline earth metal cations, including lithium, sodium and potassium, magnesium and calcium, and for pH determination within biological systems. PMID:25317749

  8. A hollow cathode ion source as an electron-beam ion source injector for metallic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visentin, B.; Harrault, F.; Gobin, R.; Leroy, P. A.

    1994-04-01

    A hollow cathode ion source (HCIS) has been developed in our Laboratory to produce, by cathodic sputtering in a glow discharge, a one charge metallic ion beam. This source is used as an injector for the electron-beam ion source (EBIS) Dioné that produce, after ion stripping, a highly charged heavy-ion beam for acceleration in Mimas-Saturne synchrotrons. Due to the good pulse-to-pulse repeatability of the HCIS, the very long lifetime of the cathode (several months), as well as the very good value of the normalized emittance (?norm=4×10-9 ? mrad), this source appears as an ideal EBIS injector for metallic and gaseous elements. In this paper we report the description of the HCIS and the experimental results achieved, after injection in the EBIS, by the production of heavy-ion beams like Fe20+, Au50+, and U55+ (from 4×107 to 9×106 ions/cycle).

  9. Influence of rare-earth metals on the physicomechanical properties of steel in thermomechanical working

    SciTech Connect

    Kotrechko, A.A.; Opal'chuk, A.S.; Kozyrskii, O.I.; Semenovskii, A.A.; Khrunik, R.A.; Katsov, K.B.; Kokotailo, I.V.

    1987-07-01

    The authors study the stabilizing influence of rare-earth metals on the structural condition of thermomechanically worked steels. 45, 60, U8A, 50KhGA, and 70S2KhA steels were used for the investigation. The rare-earth metals used were lanthanum, cerium, and a mixture of rare-earth metals called mischmetal. Impact strength tests of Mesnager specimens at room temperature showed that the favorable influence of high-temperature thermomechanical working is strengthened with an increase in carbon content in the steel. Results are shown of investigations at sub-zero temperatures of Charpy specimens with an initiated fatigue crack. Rare-earth metal microadditions are shown to have a good influence on the structurally sensitive characteristics of the steel, the contact strength and the corrosion resistance. Rare-earth metals also retard the development of the recrystallization processes of the deformed austenite.

  10. Process for modifying the metal ion sorption capacity of a medium

    DOEpatents

    Lundquist, Susan H. (White Bear Township, MN)

    2002-01-01

    A process for modifying a medium is disclosed that includes treating a medium having a metal ion sorption capacity with a solution that includes: A) an agent capable of forming a complex with metal ions; and B) ions selected from the group consisting of sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, and combinations thereof, to create a medium having an increased capacity to sorb metal ions relative to the untreated medium.

  11. Does Ion Release Differ Between Hip Resurfacing and Metal-on-metal THA?

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Antonio; Cadossi, Matteo; Baldini, Nicola; Giannini, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Modern metal-on-metal hip resurfacing was introduced as a bone-preserving method of joint reconstruction for young and active patients; however, the large diameter of the bearing surfaces is of concern for potential increased metal ion release. We hypothesized there were no differences in serum concentrations of chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum between patients who had metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (Group A; average head diameter, 48 mm; median followup, 24 months) and patients who had 28-mm metal-on-metal THA (Group B; median followup, 25 months). Serum concentrations also were compared with concentrations in healthy subjects. We identified no differences in ion levels between Groups A and B. A distinction was made according to gender. Women showed a higher chromium release in Group A whereas men had a higher cobalt release in Group B. Values obtained from Group A were higher than those of the control subjects. Our data suggest metal-on-metal bearings for THA should not be rejected because of concern regarding potential increased metal ion release; however, patients with elevated ion levels, even without loosening or toxicity, could be at higher risk and should be followed up periodically. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196364

  12. Recently, crown ethers have become very popular extractants for metal ions separation from aqueous solution. Crown ethers form complex with metal ion.

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jayant K.

    Recently, crown ethers have become very popular extractants for metal ions separation from aqueous solution. Crown ethers form complex with metal ion. Selection of suitable crown ether and metal ion depends on various factors such as proper spatial orientation of the crown ether oxygen dipole in the direction

  13. Rare earth metal oxide gate thin films prepared by e-beam deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ohmi; S. Akama; A. Kikuchi; I. Kashiwagi; C. Ohshima; J. Taguchi; H. Yamamoto; C. Kobayashi; K. Sato; A. Takeda; K. Oshima; H. Ishiwara; H. Iwai

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of the examination of various rare earth oxides for future CMOS gate insulator applications. The electrical and physical characteristics of various rare earth metal oxides have been investigated. Most of the rare earth metal oxides showed excellent electrical properties and smooth surface especially, La 2O3. Other materials such as Dy2O3 and Lu2O3 showed

  14. Analysis of rare earth elements in silicates by ion microprobe using doubly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Riciputi, L.R.; Christie, W.H.; Cole, D.R.; Rosseel, T.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    A technique for measurement of rare earth element (REE) concentrations in silicates using a Camecaims-4f ion microprobe and doubly-charged, odd-mass isotopes has been developed. The secondary ion spectra of the doubly-charged odd-mass REE are virtually free of interferences, allowing measurements to be carried out at low energies and without the need for spectral stripping. Calibration lines have been established for La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, and Yb using a suite of clinopyroxene standards. This technique offers a relatively fast, simple approach for the in-situ analysis of REE on spots of <20 [mu]m and detection limits of <15 ppb for most elements. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Batch sorption of divalent metal ions onto brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Pehlivan, E.; Gode, F. [University of Selcuk, Konya (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering & Architecture

    2006-12-15

    Brown coal, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material is currently being investigated as an adsorbent to remove some contaminants from aqueous solution. The adsorption of some heavy metals from aqueous solutions on the brown coals was studied as a function of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and concentration of metal solutions. A carboxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, and metoxyl functional group present on the coal surface was the adsorption site to remove metal ions from solution by means of ion exchange and hydrogen bonding. Effective removal of heavy metals was achieved at pH values of 4.0-5.0. The experimental data have been analyzed using the Langmuir isotherm models. Under optimized conditions, the percentage of metal removal by brown coal adsorption was over 80%.

  16. Ion-Plated Soft Metallic Films Reduce Friction and Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    Ion plating is ion-assisted or glow-discharge surface-deposition technique. In this process, ions or energetic atoms transfer energy, momentum, and charge to substrate and deposited surface film. Process controlled to modify physical characteristics of surface, subsurface chemical conditions, and surface and subsurface microstructures as well. Ion plating with such soft, thin metallic films as gold, silver, or lead has great potential for producing self-contained lubricating surfaces. Such films reduce friction, wear, and corrosion on sliding or rotating mechanical surfaces used in wide range of environments.

  17. Solvent extraction of rare-earth metals by carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Preez, A.C. du; Preston, J.S. [Mintek, Randburg (South Africa)

    1992-04-01

    The solvent extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and yttrium from nitrate media by solutions of carboxylic acids in xylene has been studied. Commercially available carboxylic acids such as Versatic 10 and naphthenic acids were used, as well as model compounds of known structure, such as 2-ethylhexanoic and 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acids. In a few cases, extraction of the metals from sulphate and chloride solutions was also investigated. The dependence of the extraction properties of the carboxylic acids on the atomic number of the lanthanide shows a definite relationship to the steric bulk of the carboxylic acid molecule quantified by means of the steric parameter, E{sub s}{prime} of the substituent alkyl group. The stoichiometries of the extracted complexes for representative light (La), middle (Gd) and heavy (Lu) rare-earth metals were investigated by the slope-analysis technique for a sterically hindered acid (Versatic 10 acid; -E{prime}{sub s} = 3.83) and an acid with low steric hindrance (3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid; -E{prime}{sub s} = 0.28). 14 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Metal chelates of N,N'-dihydroxyethyl-N,N'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid and selected metal ions

    E-print Network

    Hampton, Joan Martiner

    1972-01-01

    Ijniverslty Directed by: Arthur E. Martell A quantitative study of the chelating tendencies of N, N'-dihydroxyethyl-N, N'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid with a series of metal ions was carried out in aqueous so- lution. Ca(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Pb(II), Co(II...), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni (I I), and Fe(I II) are the metal ions employed in this study. Metal chelate formation constants were deter- mined from potentiometric equilibrium data obtained at 25' C and at an ionic strength of 0. 10 (0. 10 M KN03). Metal...

  19. The 100-kV gas and metal ion source for high current ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaev, S. P.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Schanin, P. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    1992-04-01

    The TITAN ion source is a new kind of source which can produce high current beams of both metal and gas ions simultaneously or separately. Ion beams of the elements Mg, Al, Ti, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Sn, Ta, Re, Y, C, He, N, Ar, and Xe have been generated. To obtain metal ions a vacuum arc is used in metal vapors created in ``cathode spots.'' To obtain gas ions a contragated arc discharge in gas current is used. The source extraction voltage is controlled within 10-100 kV. The ion current of both gas and metal was ?1 A. The source operates in a frequency-pulse regime at a pulse-repetition frequency as high as 50 pps. At its normal operation the source provides a dose of 1016 ions/cm2 per minute on a 250-cm2 area surface. The source is constructed according to the program on development of new technologies and is intended for high current surface modification and production of exotic surface alloys. At present, TITAN ion sources are utilized to modify physical-mechanical parameters of different surfaces. Here we outline the ion source and its performance.

  20. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass, CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities of rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  1. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass. CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities or rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  2. Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

    2012-07-01

    Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

  3. Extraction of rare earth metals by calix[4]arene solubilized in AOT reversed micellar solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Kubota; K Shinohara; K Shimojo; T Oshima; M Goto; S Furusaki; T Hano

    2001-01-01

    Extraction of rare earth metals (europium and yttrium) and their separation from zinc were investigated using a novel host compound, p-tert-octylcalix[4]arene carboxyl derivative as an extractant. Extraction behavior of the metals with a typical commercial extractant PC-88A or Versatic 10 was also examined. The cyclic ligand calixarene showed a high selectivity towards rare earth metals compared with PC-88A and Versatic

  4. Redox reactions in molten electrolytes containing chlorides of rare-earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Khokhlov; A. V. Novoselova; E. V. Nikolaeva; O. Yu. Tkacheva; A. B. Salyulev

    2007-01-01

    Solutions of rare-earth metals (REM, Ln) in molten chlorides, including mixtures MCl + LnCl3, where M stands for an alkali metal, are studied by methods of potentiometry, voltammetry, and conductimetry in broad intervals\\u000a of concentration and temperature. The results that had been obtained give sufficiently comprehensive and reliable enough information\\u000a concerning the valence state of rare-earth metals, as well as

  5. Oligomeric rare-earth metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Simon; Zimmermann, Sina; Brühmann, Matthias; Meyer, Eva; Rustige, Christian; Wolberg, Marike; Daub, Kathrin; Bell, Thomas; Meyer, Gerd

    2014-11-01

    Comproportionation reactions of rare-earth metal trihalides (RX3) with the respective rare-earth metals (R) and transition metals (T) led to the formation of 22 oligomeric R cluster halides encapsulating T, in 19 cases for the first time. The structures of these compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and are composed of trimers ({T3R11}X15-type, P63/m), tetramers ({T4R16}X28{R4} (P-43m), {T4R16}X20 (P42/nnm), {T4R16}X24(RX3)4 (I41/a) and {T4R16}X23 (C2/m) types of structure) and pentamers ({Ru5La14}2Br39, Cc) of {TRr}n (n=2-5) clusters. These oligomers are further enveloped by inner (Xi) as well as outer (Xa) halido ligands, which possess diverse functionalities and interconnect like oligomers through i-i, i-a and/or a-i bridges. The general features of the crystal structures for these new compounds are discussed and compared to literature entries as well as different structure types with oligomeric T centered R clusters. Dimers and tetramers originating from the aggregation of {TR6} octahedra via common edges are more frequent than trimers and pentamers, in which the {TRr} clusters share common faces.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ferromagnetic nitride-based semiconductors doped with transition metals and rare earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanni, A.

    2007-09-01

    This review summarizes the state-of-the-art in the search for room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors based on transition-metal- and rare-earth-doped nitrides. The major methods of synthesis are reported, together with an overview of the magnetic, structural, electrical and optical characterization of the materials systems, where available. The controversial experimental results concerning the actual value of the apparent Curie temperature in magnetically doped nitrides are highlighted, the inadequacy of standard characterization methods alone and the necessity of a possibly exhaustive structural investigation of the systems are proven and underlined. Furthermore, the dependence on the fabrication parameters of the magnetic ions incorporation into the semiconductor matrix is discussed, with special attention to the fundamental concepts of solubility limit and spinodal decomposition. It is argued that high-temperature ferromagnetic features in magnetically doped nitrides result from the presence of nanoscale regions containing a high concentration of the magnetic constituents. Various functionalities of these multicomponent systems are listed. Moreover, we give an extensive overview on the properties of single magnetic-impurity states in the nitride host. The understanding of this limit is crucial when considering the most recent suggestions for the control of the magnetic ion distribution—and consequently of the magnetic response—through the Fermi level engineering as well as to indicate roads for achieving high-temperature ferromagnetism in the systems containing a uniform distribution of magnetic ions.

  7. New type of metal ion source: Surface diffusion Li{sup +} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, V.K.; Suchorski, Y.; Block, J.H. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)] [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    A surface diffusion metal ion source, a new type of metal ion source, is explored. In this device a field desorption process is used to achieve an almost monoenergetic continuous flux of Li{sup +} ions from a [111]-oriented W field emitter. Earlier difficulties with the continuous supply of adatoms, required to produce measurable desorption rates, were overcome by making use of solid state surface diffusion from the Li multilayer reservoir at the shank of the field emitter. The high density of the ion beam (an ion current of 10{sup {minus}12} A was achieved from a W trimer), the extremely narrow energy distribution (full width at half-maximum of 0.25 eV) and the stable geometric form of the emitter itself during the operation are advantages of the new ion source which may be important in different areas of nanotechnology. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

  8. Swift heavy ions induced mixing in metal/semiconductor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Chauhan, R. S.; Agarwal, D. C.; Kumar, Manvendra; Tripathi, A.; Bolse, W.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the ion beam mixing in the metal/semiconductor (Cu/Ge) system under swift heavy ion irradiation. For this study the samples have been prepared by electron gun evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum deposition system. The irradiations were performed at room temperature (RT) using 100 MeV Ag ions, 120 MeV and 140 MeV Au ions and at liquid nitrogen temperature (LT) using 120 MeV, 350 MeV Au ions with fluences ranging from 1 × 10 13 to 2.7 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. Characterizations of these samples have been performed using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). On analyzing the RBS data, we find that mixing occurs at the interface and it increases with the fluence, electronic energy loss and irradiation temperature. The mixing in this case is due to interdiffusion across the interface during a transient melt phase according to the thermal spike model.

  9. Refinement of Cast Microstructure of Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys Through the Addition of Rare Earth Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joonyeon Chang; Inge Moon; Chongsool Choi

    1998-01-01

    Microstructural observation and thermal analysis of Al-21 wt % Si alloys with different rare earth metals were performed to examine the effect of rare earth metal on the refinement of primary silicon phase. Simultaneous refinement of both primary and eutectic silicon morphology is achieved with the addition of rare earth and its effect increases with the amount of rare earth

  10. Metal ion levels and revision rates in metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Patrick G; Wilkinson, Andrew J; Meek, Robert M D

    2014-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings in hip surgery are related to increased blood levels of metal ions. The nature of the relationship between ion levels and failure is still not fully understood. This study compares three cohorts of patients, 120 patients in each cohort, treated with a hip resurfacing arthroplasty, grouped by brand and diameter of femoral component on average four years postoperatively: Birmingham Hip Resurfacing ?50 mm, Durom resurfacing ?50 mm and Durom resurfacing <50 mm. The median blood ion levels of cobalt and chromium were significantly lower in the cohort with the large Durom resurfacing than the other two cohorts (P<0.05). The large BHR and large Durom HRA had revision rates of 3.3%. The small Durom HRA had a revision rate of 8.3%. Elevated blood ion levels can indicate a failing MoM bearing. The large BHR and large Durom HRA have similar revision rates yet the large Durom HRA had significantly lower metal ion levels. When similar ion levels were reported for BHR and small Durom the latter had significantly higher revision rates. This suggests ion levels do not absolutely predict the rate of HRA failure. Since MoM generation of metal ions is not the sole reason of failure, regular clinical and radiographic follow-up should also be in place for patients with these joints. PMID:24500833

  11. Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Water by High-Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yanchao

    Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Water by High-Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy voltammetry (ASV) capability has been demonstrated for detecting heavy metal ions in water. Metal ions in water from part-per-million to sub-part-per-billion levels with good linearity. Heavy metal poisoning

  12. MATERIALS WORLD January 201216 Dr Steve Barrett from the University of Liverpool, UK, has been studying rare earth metals for

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Steve D.

    studying rare earth metals for 20 years. Here he explains how preparation of the surface layer is crucial to the functionality of these scarce elements. S tudies into the properties of rare earth metals have been active since of the geometric and electronic structure of single crystal rare earth metal surfaces were published. Studies

  13. Surface metal ion enhancement of thermally treated zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, W.S.; Suib, S.L.

    1986-09-03

    During the past several years the area of zeolite science has received increasingly intense attention owing to the preparation of new molecular sieves and the availability of modern spectroscopic methods for the study of these materials. The majority of spectroscopic studies of zeolites have focused on measurements of bulk magnetic, electronic, and structural properties, but few surface studies have been reported. Surface-inhomogeneous aluminum and silicon species have recently been reported by Barr and co-workers. In this study the authors have heated metal ion containing zeolites under controlled conditions in order to probe interactions between the zeolite and the metal ion. Here they present preliminary results for Ag/sup +//NaY and Cs/sup +//NaY zeolites studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS), and ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS).

  14. Reactions of fourth-period metal ions (Ca + - Zn + ) with O2: Metal-oxide ion bond energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Ellen R.; Elkind, J. L.; Clemmer, D. E.; Georgiadis, R.; Loh, S. K.; Aristov, N.; Sunderlin, L. S.; Armentrout, P. B.

    1990-08-01

    Reactions of Ca+, Zn+ and all first-row atomic transition metal ions with O2 are studied using guided ion beam techniques. While reactions of the ground states of Sc+, Ti+, and V+ are exothermic, the remaining metal ions react with O2 in endothermic processes. Analyses of these endothermic reactions provide new determinations of the M+-O bond energies for these eight elements. Source conditions are varied such that the contributions of excited states of the metal ions can be explicitly considered for Mn+, Co+, Ni+, and Cu+. Results (in eV) at 0 K are D0(Ca+-O)= 3.57±0.05, D0(Cr+-O)=3.72±0.12, D0(Mn+-O)=2.95±0.13, D0(Fe+-O)=3.53±0.06 (reported previously), D0(Co+-O)=3.32±0.06, D0(Ni+-O) =2.74±0.07, D0(Cu+-O)=1.62±0.15, and D0(Zn+-O)=1.65±0.12. These values along with literature data for neutral metal oxide bond energies and ionization energies are critically evaluated. Periodic trends in the ionic metal oxide bond energies are compared with those of the neutral metal oxides and those of other related molecules.

  15. Metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

    1996-09-01

    Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (MePIIID) is a hybrid process combining cathodic arc deposition and plasma immersion ion implantation. The properties of metal plasma produced by vacuum arcs are reviewed and the consequences for MePIIID are discussed. Different version of MePIIID are described and compared with traditional methods of surface modification such as ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). MePIIID is a very versatile approach because of the wide range of ion species and energies used. In one extreme case, films are deposited with ions in the energy range 20--50 eV, and at the other extreme, ions can be implanted with high energy (100 keV or more) without film deposition. Novel features of the technique include the use of improved macroparticle filters; the implementation of several plasma sources for multi-element surface modification; tuning of ion energy during implantation and deposition to tailor the substrate-film intermixed layer and structure of the growing film; simultaneous pulsing of the plasma potential (positive) and substrate bias (negative) with a modified Marx generator; and the use of high ion charge states.

  16. Peptide self-assembly triggered by metal ions.

    PubMed

    Zou, Rongfeng; Wang, Qi; Wu, Junchen; Wu, Jingxian; Schmuck, Carsten; Tian, He

    2015-08-01

    Through their unique and specific interactions with various metal ions, naturally occurring proteins control structures and functions of many biological processes and functions in organisms. Inspired by natural metallopeptides, chemists have developed artificial peptides which coordinate with metal ions through their functional groups either for introducing a special reactivity or for constructing nanostructures. However, the design of new coordination peptides requires a deep understanding of the structures, assembly properties, and dynamic behaviours of such peptides. This review briefly discusses strategies of peptide self-assembly induced by metal coordination to different natural and non-natural binding sites in the peptide. The structures and functions of the obtained aggregates are described as well. We also highlight some examples of a metal-induced peptide self-assembly with relevance to biotechnology applications. PMID:25952028

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of amido scorpionate rare earth metals complexes.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Segovia, Isabel; Lara-Sánchez, Agustín; Otero, Antonio; Fernández-Baeza, Juan; Castro-Osma, José Antonio; Sánchez-Barba, Luis F; Rodríguez, Ana M

    2014-07-01

    The reactivity of hybrid scorpionate/cyclopentadienyl ligands in the form of the protio derivatives as a mixture of two regioisomers, namely bpzcpH [1-{2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1,1-diphenylethyl}-1,3-cyclopentadiene and 2-{2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1,1-diphenylethyl}-1,3-cyclopentadiene] and bpztcpH [1-{2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1-tert-butylethyl}-1,3-cyclopentadiene and 2-{2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1-tert-butylethyl}-1,3-cyclopentadiene], with the tris(silylamide) precursors [M{N(SiHMe2)2}3(thf)x] of rare earth metals (including the group 3 metals scandium and yttrium) is related to the atomic radii of the metal centres. The reaction with the precursor containing the smallest ion, [Sc{N(SiHMe2)2}3(thf)], did not proceed even heating at reflux temperature in toluene. The reaction with the precursors that contain a medium-sized metal ion, i.e., [M{N(SiHMe2)2}3(thf)2] (M = Y, Lu), proceeded only at high temperature and gave good yields of the silylenediamide-containing derivatives [M{?(2)-NN-Me2Si(NSiHMe2)2}(bpzcp)] (M = Y , Lu ) and [M{?(2)-NN-Me2Si(NSiHMe2)2}(bpztcp)] (M = Y , Lu ) by an double activation of Si-H and Si-N bonds. However, the reaction with the precursors that contained the largest metal ions, i.e., [M{N(SiHMe2)2}3(thf)2] (M = Nd, Sm), proceeded rapidly at room temperature to afford the bis(silylamide) complexes [M{N(SiHMe2)2}2(bpzcp)] (M = Nd , Sm ) and [M{N(SiHMe2)2}2(bpztcp)] (M = Nd , Sm ). Additionally, the alkyl heteroscorpionate yttrium and lutetium complexes [M(CH2SiMe3)2(NNCp)] (M = Y, Lu) reacted with an excess of HN(SiHMe2)2 to give the mixed alkyl/amide derivatives [M{N(SiHMe2)2}(CH2SiMe3)(bpzcp)] (M = Y , Lu ) and [M{N(SiHMe2)2}(CH2SiMe3)(bpztcp)] (M = Y , Lu ). The structures of the complexes were determined by spectroscopic methods and the X-ray crystal structures of , and were also established. PMID:24829057

  18. Adsorbent for metal ions and method of making and using

    DOEpatents

    White, Lloyd R. (Minneapolis, MN); Lundquist, Susan H. (White Bear Township, MN)

    1999-01-01

    A method comprises the step of spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising (alkali metal or ammonium) (metal) hexacyanoferrate particles in a liquid, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers, said particles being active towards Cs ions. The particles, which can be of a single salt or a combination of salts, can be used free flowing, in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove Cs ions from aqueous solutions.

  19. Adsorbent for metal ions and method of making and using

    DOEpatents

    White, L.R.; Lundquist, S.H.

    1999-08-10

    A method comprises the step of spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising (alkali metal or ammonium) (metal) hexacyanoferrate particles in a liquid, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers, said particles being active towards Cs ions. The particles, which can be of a single salt or a combination of salts, can be used free flowing, in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove Cs ions from aqueous solutions. 2 figs.

  20. Adsorbent for metal ions and method of making and using

    DOEpatents

    White, Lloyd R. (Minneapolis, MN); Lundquist, Susan H. (White Bear Township, MN)

    2000-01-01

    A method comprises the step of spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising (alkali metal or ammonium) (metal) hexacyanoferrate particles in a liquid, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers, said particles being active towards Cs ions. The particles, which can be of a single salt or a combination of salts, can be used free flowing, in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove Cs ions from aqueous solutions.

  1. Beam dynamics of a liquid-metal ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Meszaros, P.S.; Rothe, K.E.; Raridon, R.J.; Ryan, P.M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (US))

    1990-01-01

    rms emittance growth of liquid-metal ion sources is studied. Processes included are nonlinear expansion through extractor and accelerator fringe fields, nonlinear beam space charge, plasma effects near needle, and waves (either ion acoustic or space charge limited as considered by Dudnikov (private communication, 1988)). This investigation consists of 2-D analysis of appropriate Vlasov--Poisson equations in both steady-state and time-dependent formulations. Various geometries will be considered such as some used by Alton of ORNL.

  2. Sorption of heavy metal ions on new metal-ligand complexes chemically derived from Lycopodium clavatum

    SciTech Connect

    Pehlivan, E.; Ersoz, M.; Yildiz, S. [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkey); Duncan, H.J. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1994-08-01

    Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and the possibilities to remove and to recover selectively heavy metal cations using these systems are discussed on the basis of their chemical natures and their complexing properties.

  3. Broad-beam multi-ampere metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ian G.; Galvin, James E.; MacGill, Robert A.; Paoloni, Frank J.

    1989-06-01

    An embodiment of the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) high current metal ion source was developed in which the beam is formed from a 10 cm diameter set of extractor grids and which produces a peak beam current of up to several Amperes. The source, MEVVA V, operates in a pulsed mode with a pulse width at present 0.25 ms and a repetition rate of up to several tens of pulses per second (power supply limited). The multicathode feature that was developed for the prior source version, MEVVA IV, was incorporated here also; one can switch between any of 18 separate cathodes and thus metallic beam species. Maximum beam extraction voltage is over 90 kV, and since the ion charge state typically from Q = 1 to 5, depending on the metal employed, the ion energy in the extracted beam can thus be up to several hundred keV. This source is a new addition to the MEVVA family of metal ion sources, and the operational regimes and the limits to the source performance are being investigated. The source is described and some preliminary results are presented.

  4. Broad-beam multi-ampere metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ian G.; Galvin, James E.; MacGill, Robert A.; Paoloni, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    An embodiment of the MEVVA (metal vapor vacuum arc) high current metal ion source has been developed in which the beam is formed from a 10-cm-diam set of extractor grids and which produces a peak beam current of up to several amperes. The source, MEVVA V, operates in a pulsed mode with a pulsewidth, at present, of 0.25 ms and a repetition rate of up to several tens of pulses per second (power supply limited). The multi-cathode feature that was developed for the prior source version, MEVVA IV, has been incorporated here also; one can switch among any of 18 separate cathodes and thus metallic beam species. Maximum beam extraction voltage is over 90 kV, and since the ion charge states are typically from Q=1 to 5, depending on the metal employed, the ion energy in the extracted beam can thus be up to several hundred keV. This source is a new addition to the MEVVA family of metal ion sources, and we are at present investigating the operational regimes and the limits to the source performance. In this article we describe the source, and present some preliminary results.

  5. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

  6. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

    2008-07-25

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

  7. The Possibility of Gain among the 5D-4F Transitions of the Rare Earth Ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice Kay Lawson

    1992-01-01

    Although a wealth of information exists on the 4f-4f transitions of rare earth ions doped into solid-state materials, relatively little research exists on the 5d -4f transitions present in the same materials. We have studied the 5d-4f transitions of three rare-earth ions in a variety of materials in an attempt to evaluate the potential of the 5d-4f transition as a

  8. Characterization of metal ion binding sites on {ital Datura innoxia} by using lanthanide ion probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, L.R.; Hensman, C.E.; Lin, S.; Rayson, G.D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, Department 3C, Las Cruces, New Mexico (United States) 88003-0001] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, Department 3C, Las Cruces, New Mexico (United States) 88003-0001; Jackson, P.J. [Environmental Molecular Biology Group, Life Sciences Division, LS-7, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States) 87545] [Environmental Molecular Biology Group, Life Sciences Division, LS-7, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States) 87545

    1997-10-01

    The excitation spectra associated with the {sup 7}F{sub 0}{r_arrow}{sup 5}D{sub 0} transition of Eu{sup +3} has been used to examine the binding sites on cell wall fragments of {ital Datura innoxia}. Both native and esterified cell wall fragments were each examined at pH 5 and pH 2 to determine the contributions to metal ion sorption from both the carboxylate and sulfonate functional groups. The excitation spectra have been deconvoluted into the individual groups responsible for metal ion uptake. At least four unique binding sites can be described as being responsible for metal ion uptake. The higher affinity sites involve carboxylates in the binding of Eu{sup +3} in a tridentate (3:1 ligand-to-metal ratio) configuration. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  9. Metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition using vacuum arc plasma sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Anders; Simone Anders; Ian G. Brown; Michael R. Dickinson; Robert A. MacGill

    1994-01-01

    Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) with metal plasma results in a qualitatively different kind of surface modification than with gaseous plasma due to the condensable nature of the metal plasma, and a new, PSII-related technique can be defined: metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MPI). Tailored, high-quality films of any solid metal, metal alloy, or carbon (amorphous diamond) can

  10. DUHOCAMIS: a dual hollow cathode ion source for metal ion beams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W J; Müller, M W O; Janik, J; Liu, K X; Ren, X T

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we describe a novel ion source named DUHOCAMIS for multiply charged metal ion beams. This ion source is derived from the hot cathode Penning ion gauge ion source (JINR, Dubna, 1957). A notable characteristic is the modified Penning geometry in the form of a hollow sputter electrode, coaxially positioned in a compact bottle-magnetic field along the central magnetic line of force. The interaction of the discharge geometry with the inhomogeneous but symmetrical magnetic field enables this device to be operated as hollow cathode discharge and Penning discharge as well. The main features of the ion source are the very high metal ion efficiency (up to 25%), good operational reproducibility, flexible and efficient operations for low charged as well as highly charged ions, compact setup, and easy maintenance. For light ions, e.g., up to titanium, well-collimated beams in the range of several tens of milliamperes of pulsed ion current (1 ms, 10/s) have been reliably performed in long time runs. PMID:18315181

  11. Coordination of alkaline earth metal ions in the inverted cucurbit[7]uril supramolecular assemblies formed in the presence of [ZnCl4]2- and [CdCl4]2-.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zhang, Yun-Qian; Zhu, Qian-Jiang; Xue, Sai-Feng; Tao, Zhu; Xiao, Xin

    2015-05-01

    A convenient method to isolate inverted cucurbit[7]uril (iQ[7]) from a mixture of water-soluble Q[n]s was established by eluting the soluble mixture of Q[n]s on a Dowex (H(+) form) column so that iQ[7] could be selected as a ligand for coordination and supramolecular assembly with alkaline earth cations (AE(2+)) in aqueous HCl solutions in the presence of [ZnCl(4)](2-) and [CdCl(4)](2-) anions as structure-directing agents. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both iQ[7]-AE(2+) -[ZnCl(4)](2-) -HCl and iQ[7]-AE(2+) -[CdCl(4)](2-) -HCl interaction systems yielded supramolecular assemblies, in which the [ZnCl(4)](2-) and [CdCl(4)](2-) anions presented a honeycomb effect, and this resulted in the formation of linear iQ[7]/AE(2+) coordination polymers through outer-surface interactions of Q[n]s. PMID:25627326

  12. Metallic ions in cometary comae and plasma tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Axford, W. I.

    1986-06-01

    A surprising result of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) observations of the comet Giacobini-Zinner was the detection of ions of mass 23-24 AMU with a relatively high abundance. According to the experiments, these ions may be either Na(+) or C2(+), if not both. It is suggested here that the detected ions may indeed be in part Na(+) and/or Mg(+), and that these and other metallic ions, especially Si(+) and Fe(+), may be an important component of the cometary ionosphere and central plasma tail. The reasons are similar in principle to those which account for the prevalence of such ions in sporadic E layers in the terrestrial ionosphere, notably the comparatively short timescales for ionization of their neutral parent atoms and the large difference between the rates of dissociative and radiative recombination.

  13. Study of the rare-earth ion-acetylacetone-fumaric acid system by analysis of the complete NMR line shape

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, A.S.; Vashchuk, A.V.; Mironov, V.L. [Kuban State Univ., Krasnodar (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The possibility of studying the paramagnetic rare-earth ion-acetylacetone-fumaric acid dynamic system by analysis of the complete NMR line shape is demonstrated within the formalism of a spin density matrix. The processes of three-position ligand exchange for the AB system of strongly coupled spins are simulated for the acid molecule at various concentrations of the metal and the ligands, rates of exchange, and limiting chemical shifts of protons in the heteroligand complexes. The calculated and experimental spectra are compared.

  14. Metal ion bombardment of onion skin cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Vilaithong, T.; Yu, L.D.; Verdaguer, A.; Ratera, I.; Ogletree, D.F.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

    2004-05-10

    Ion bombardment of living cellular material is a novel subfield of ion beam surface modification that is receiving growing attention from the ion beam and biological communities. Although it has been demonstrated that the technique is sound, in that an adequate fraction of the living cells can survive both the vacuum environment and energetic ion bombardment, there remains much uncertainty about the process details. Here we report on our observations of onion skin cells that were subjected to ion implantation, and propose some possible physical models that tend to support the experimental results. The ion beams used were metallic (Mg, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu), mean ion energy was typically 30keV, and the implantation fluence was in the range 1014 1016 ions/cm2. The cells were viewed using Atomic Force Microscopy, revealing the formation of microcrater-like structures due to ion bombardment. The implantation depth profile was measured with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and compared to the results of the TRIM, T-DYN and PROFILE computer codes.

  15. Changes in blood ion levels after removal of metal-on-metal hip replacements

    PubMed Central

    Durrani, Salim K; Sampson, Barry; Panetta, Therese; Liddle, Alexander D; Sabah, Shiraz A; Chan, Newton K; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose In patients with metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses, pain and joint effusions may be associated with elevated blood levels of cobalt and chromium ions. Since little is known about the kinetics of metal ion clearance from the body and the rate of resolution of elevated blood ion levels, we examined the time course of cobalt and chromium ion levels after revision of MoM hip replacements. Patients and methods We included 16 patients (13 female) who underwent revision of a painful MoM hip (large diameter, modern bearing) without fracture or infection, and who had a minimum of 4 blood metal ion measurements over an average period of 6.1 (0–12) months after revision. Results Average blood ion concentrations at the time of revision were 22 ppb for chromium and 43 ppb for cobalt. The change in ion levels after revision surgery varied extensively between patients. In many cases, over the second and third months after revision surgery ion levels decreased to 50% of the values measured at revision. Decay of chromium levels occurred more slowly than decay of cobalt levels, with a 9% lag in return to normal levels. The rate of decay of both metals followed second-order (exponential) kinetics more closely than first-order (linear) kinetics. Interpretation The elimination of cobalt and chromium from the blood of patients who have undergone revision of painful MoM hip arthroplasties follows an exponential decay curve with a half-life of approximately 50 days. Elevated blood levels of cobalt and chromium ions can persist for at least 1 year after revision, especially in patients with high levels of exposure. PMID:24758321

  16. Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

    1981-11-04

    Quick setting polymer concrete compositions which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

  17. Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY); Horn, William H. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1985-01-01

    Quick setting polymer concrete compositions with excellent structural properties are disclosed; these polymer concrete compositions are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate, which may be wet, and with a source of bivalent metallic ions.

  18. COAGULATION AND PRECIPITATION OF SELECTED METAL IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory jar tests to develop data on the removal from aqueous solution of 12 metal ions of environmental concern. The project, of very limited scope, provides initial screening data only: coagulants were evaluated at only two dose levels (1.1 and 1....

  19. Arrays of Metal Nanostructures Produced by Focussed Ion Beam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Luches; A. di Bona; S. F. Contri; G. C. Gazzadi; P. Vavassori; F. Albertini; F. Casoli; L. Nasi; S. Fabbrici; S. Valeri

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of the magnetic properties of arrays of nanostructures produced in a focussed ion beam-scanning electron microscope dual beam system. The single magnetic units have been isolated either by direct removal of parts of the metallic film or by local modification of the film magnetic properties. The final quality of the shape and the residual damage strictly

  20. Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

    1983-05-13

    Quick setting polymer concrete compositions are described which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

  1. Accumulation of heavy-metal ions by Zoogloea ramigera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders B. Norberg; Hans Persson

    1984-01-01

    Biomass has been produced from glucose using the organism Zoogloea ramigera 115. This biomass has been used to remove copper, cadmium, and uranyl ions from water solutions. The metal uptake was studied with two different methods: either by spectrophotometric measurements on the solutions after flocculation or by potentiometric measurements with amalgam electrodes in order to follow the entire complex formation.

  2. Characterization of Sol-Gel derived scintillating LuBO3 films doped with rare earth ions.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Characterization of Sol-Gel derived scintillating LuBO3 films doped with rare earth ions. C. Mansuy-669" DOI : 10.1016/j.tsf.2005.12.235 #12;Abstract Rare earth doped LuBO3 thin films have been prepared, 81.20. Fw, Keywords : Sol-Gel, Scintillators, XPS, RBS, Rare earth ions, Luminescence hal-00154764

  3. Observation of sub-kilohertz resonance in Rf-Optical double resonance experiment in rare earth ions in solids

    E-print Network

    Shahriar, Selim

    Observation of sub-kilohertz resonance in Rf-Optical double resonance experiment in rare earth ions-kilohertz resonance structures in RF-optical double resonance experiments of rare-earth-doped solids, when in the course of optical-RF double resonance experiment of rare earth ions in solids. The reso- nance

  4. Metal ion deposition from ionized mangetron sputtering discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Rossnagel, S.M.; Hopwood, J. [IBM Research, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)] [IBM Research, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A technique has been developed for highly efficient postionization of sputtered metal atoms from a magnetron cathode. The process is based on conventional magnetron sputtering with the addition of a high density, inductively coupled rf (RFI) plasma in the region between the sputtering cathode and the sample. Metal atoms sputtered from the cathode due to inert gas ion bombardment transit the rf plasma and can be ionized. The metal ions can then be accelerated to the sample by means of a low voltage dc bias, such that the metal ions arrive at the sample at normal incidence and at a specified energy. The ionization fraction, measured with a gridded mass-sensitive energy analyzer is low at 5 mTorr and can reach 85% at 30 m Torr. Optical emission measurements show scaling of the relative ionization to higher discharge powers. The addition of large fluxes of metal atoms tends to cool the Ar RFI plasma, although this effect depends on the chamber pressure and probably the pressure response of the electron temperature. The technique has been scaled to 300 mm cathodes and 200 mm wafers and demonstrated with Cu,AlCu, and Ti/TiN. Deposition rates are equal to or in some cases larger than conventional magnetron sputtering. A primary application of this technique is lining and filling semiconductor trenches and vias on a manufacturing scale. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  5. One year variations in the near earth solar wind ion density and bulk flow velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Scott J.

    1990-01-01

    One-year periodic variations in the near earth solar wind ion density and bulk flow velocity are reported. The variations show an inverse relationship between the ion velocity and density. The peak strength of the observed density variation ranges from 50-100 percent over the background. These variations imply either large scale mass loading inside the earth's orbit or intrinsic solar modulations. Analyses of both near earth and Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft data provide a comparison at two different heliocentric distances. Several explanations for these variations are discussed.

  6. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: From Cluster Ions to Toxic metal Ions in Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas B. Lentz

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation focused on using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to study cluster ions and toxic metal ions in biology. In Chapter 2, it was shown that primary, secondary and quarternary amines exhibit different clustering characteristics under identical instrument conditions. Carbon chain length also played a role in cluster ion formation. In Chapters 3 and 4, the effects of solvent types/ratios and various instrumental parameters on cluster ion formation were examined. It was found that instrument interface design also plays a critical role in the cluster ion distribution seen in the mass spectrum. In Chapter 5, ESI-MS was used to investigate toxic metal binding to the [Gln{sup 11}]-amyloid {beta}-protein fragment (1-16). Pb and Cd bound stronger than Zn, even in the presence of excess Zn. Hg bound weaker than Zn. There are endless options for future work on cluster ions. Any molecule that is poorly ionized in positive ion mode can potentially show an increase in ionization efficiency if an appropriate anion is used to produce a net negative charge. It is possible that drug protein or drug/DNA complexes can also be stabilized by adding counter-ions. This would preserve the solution characteristics of the complex in the gas phase. Once in the gas phase, CID could determine the drug binding location on the biomolecule. There are many research projects regarding toxic metals in biology that have yet to be investigated or even discovered. This is an area of research with an almost endless future because of the changing dynamics of biological systems. What is deemed safe today may show toxic effects in the future. Evolutionary changes in protein structures may render them more susceptible to toxic metal binding. As the understanding of toxicity evolves, so does the demand for new toxic metal research. New instrumentation designs and software make it possible to perform research that could not be done in the past. What was undetectable yesterday will become routine tomorrow.

  7. Reflected and diffuse ions backstreaming from the Earth's bow shock. Volume 1: Basic properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bonifazi; G. Moreno

    1980-01-01

    Plasma data from the ISEE 2 solar wind experiment were used to perform statistical analysis of the basic moments of the ions backstreaming from the Earth's bow shock. The density and total energy density of the backstreaming ions are, on the average, equal to 1% and 10% of those of the the solar wind, respectively. The distinction between the reflected

  8. Metal ion influence on eumelanin fluorescence and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Jens-Uwe; Birch, David J. S.

    2014-06-01

    Melanin has long been thought to have an unworkably weak and complex fluorescence, but here we study its intrinsic fluorescence in order to demonstrate how metal ions can be used to control the rate of formation, constituents and structure of eumelanin formed from the well-known laboratory auto-oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA). The effect on eumelanin absorption and fluorescence of a range of solvated metal ions is reported including Cu, Zn, Ni, Na and K. Monovalent cations and Zn have little effect, but the effect of transition metal cations can be considerable. For example, at pH 10, copper ions are shown to accelerate the onset of eumelanin formation, but not the rate of formation once it commences, and simplify the usual complex structure and intrinsic fluorescence of eumelanin in a way that is consistent with an increased abundance of 5,5-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA). The presence of a dominant 6 ns fluorescence decay time at 480 nm, when excited at 450 nm describes a distinct photophysical species, which we tentatively assign to small oligomers. Copper is well-known to normally quench fluorescence, but increasing amounts of copper surprisingly leads to an increase in the fluorescence decay time of eumelanin, while reducing the fluorescence intensity, suggesting copper modification of the excited state. Such results have bearing on diverse areas. The most accepted morphology for melanin is that of a graphite-like sheet structure, and one which readily binds metal ions, an interaction that is thought to have an important, though as yet unclear bearing on several areas of medicine including neurology. There is also increasing interest in bio-mimicry by preparing and labelling sheet structures with metal ions for new electronic and photonic materials.

  9. Solution NMR Refinement of a Metal Ion Bound Protein Using Metal Ion Inclusive Restrained Molecular Dynamics Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Dhruva K.; Wang, Bing; Lee, Chul Won; Guerra, Alfredo J.; Giedroc, David P.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Correctly calculating the structure of metal coordination sites in a protein during the process of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure determination and refinement continues to be a challenging task. In this study, we present an accurate and convenient means by which to include metal ions in the NMR structure determination process using molecular dynamics (MD) constrained by NMR-derived data to obtain a realistic and physically viable description of the metal binding site(s). This method provides the framework to accurately portray the metal ions and its binding residues in a pseudo-bond or dummy-cation like approach, and is validated by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) MD calculations constrained by NMR-derived data. To illustrate this approach, we refine the zinc coordination complex structure of the zinc sensing transcriptional repressor protein Staphylococcus aureus CzrA, generating over 130 ns of MD and QM/MM MD NMR-data compliant sampling. In addition to refining the first coordination shell structure of the Zn(II) ion, this protocol benefits from being performed in a periodically replicated solvation environment including long-range electrostatics. We determine that unrestrained (not based on NMR data) MD simulations correlated to the NMR data in a time-averaged ensemble. The accurate solution structure ensemble of the metal-bound protein accurately describes the role of conformational dynamics in allosteric regulation of DNA binding by zinc and serves to validate our previous unrestrained MD simulations of CzrA. This methodology has potentially broad applicability in the structure determination of metal ion bound proteins, protein folding and metal template protein-design studies. PMID:23609042

  10. Non-metallocene rare earth metal catalysts for the diastereoselective and enantioselective hydroamination of aminoalkenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai C. Hultzsch; Denis V. Gribkov; Frank Hampel

    2005-01-01

    In this short review we summarize our work on new cyclopentadienyl-free rare earth metal catalysts for the diastereoselective and enantioselective hydroamination of aminoalkenes. Non-metallocene rare earth metal catalysts based on diamidoamine, biphenolate and binaphtholate ligands are readily available through alkane and amine elimination procedures. Diamidoamine yttrium complexes are efficient catalysts for the highly diastereoselective cyclization of 1-methyl-pent-4-enylamine to yield trans-2,5-dimethyl-pyrroldine

  11. Extraction and separation of rare earth metals using microcapsules containing bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphinic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syouhei Nishihama; Nobuya Sakaguchi; Takayuki Hirai; Isao Komasawa

    2002-01-01

    The separation of rare earth metals using microcapsules (MC) consisting styrene (St)–divinylbenzene (DVB) copolymer and containing bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphinic acid (PIA-226) has been investigated. Microcapsules containing PIA-226 can be prepared by adding PIA-226 to the dispersed phase during the preparation process. The extraction of rare earth metals with the microcapsules progresses via the same scheme, as proposed in the conventional liquid–liquid extraction

  12. Cationic rare earth metal alkyls as novel catalysts for olefin polymerization and copolymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaomin Hou; Yunjie Luo; Xiaofang Li

    2006-01-01

    Cationic rare earth metal alkyl species, generated by the treatment of mono(cyclopentadienyl) bis(alkyl) rare earth metal complexes with 1 equiv. of a borate compound such as [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4], act as an excellent catalyst for the polymerization and copolymerization of various olefins such as ethylene, 1-hexene, styrene, norbornene, dicyclopentadiene, and isoprene. These catalysts show unprecedented activity and regio- and stereo-selectivity and afford

  13. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  14. The adsorption refrigeration characteristics of alkaline-earth metal chlorides and its composite adsorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wang; L. Chen; H. L. Wang; D. L. Liao

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted on the adsorption characteristics of the adsorption refrigeration working pairs using alkaline-earth metal chlorides as adsorbents and ammonia as refrigerant. The adsorption isotherms between alkaline-earth metal chlorides and nitrogen were studied. The study shows that the adsorbents of CaCl2, SrCl2 provide better adsorption capability associated with ammonia when compared to that of MgCl2, BaCl2. CaSO4 was

  15. Towards the ionic limit of two-dimensional materials: monolayer alkaline earth and transition metal halides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi-Hsin; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2014-10-14

    We theoretically explored new two-dimensional materials near the ionic instability (three-dimensional structures are favored), with covalent bonded systems (graphene) sitting at the opposite end of the spectrum. Accordingly, monolayer alkaline earth and transition metal halides, many of their bulk forms being layered structures, were investigated by density functional calculations. We thus predicted a new class of two-dimensional materials by performing structure relaxation, cohesive/formation energy and full phonon dispersion calculations. These materials exhibit strong ionic bonding character, as revealed by significant charge transfers. The superior charge donating/accepting abilities and the large specific area make these new materials promising for adsorption and catalytic reactions. We demonstrated adsorption and diffusion of Li on these materials, which are relevant for Li ion battery electrodes and hydrogen storage. Also the new materials with varied charge donating abilities and their nanostructures can enhance and tune catalytic reactions, such as Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Moreover, they exhibit diverse electronic properties that can be of great application interest, ranging from insulators to metals, and even spin-polarized semiconductors. PMID:25163641

  16. Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Wysocki, Joseph A. (Oxnard, CA); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR); Bell, Anthony E. (McMinnville, OR)

    1987-06-02

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably constructed of rhenium and tungsten, both of which are readily fabricated. The ion sources emit continuous beams of ions having sufficiently high currents of the desired species to be useful in ion implantation of semiconductor wafers for preparing integrated circuit devices. The sources are stable in operation, experience little corrosion during operation, and have long operating lifetimes.

  17. Metal negative ion production by an RF sputter self-extraction ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Vasquez, M. R., Jr.; Wada, M.

    2013-02-01

    An 80 mm diameter 80 mm long RF sputter type self-extraction negative ion source equipped with a metal sputter target has been tested to investigate the performance of producing beams of negative aluminum (Al) ions. An RF power at 13.56 MHz is directly supplied to a 60 mm diameter target containing a cylindrical and ring permanent magnets to form planar magnetron magnetic field geometry. The target is self-biased to a DC potential at about -250 V with respect to the plasma, and negative ions produced at the surface are self-extracted from the target across the sheath to reach the ion beam extraction hole. Injection of cesium into the discharge enhanced the amount of Al- ions but it also enlarged the impurity ion beam current.

  18. Novel polymerization catalysts and hydride clusters from rare-earth metal dialkyls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayoshi Nishiura; Zhaomin Hou

    2010-01-01

    This Review gives an overview on recent progress in the synthesis and chemistry of rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes bearing monoanionic ancillary ligands, with an emphasis on novel polymerization catalysts. These structurally well-defined and highly reactive compounds are prepared either by alkane elimination reactions between trialkyl rare-earth complexes and acidic neutral ligands, or by the metathetical reactions of rare-earth trihalides with

  19. Core Formation and Early Earth History: Constraints from Metal-Silicate Partitioning Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Wood

    2006-01-01

    The chemical similarities between the Earth and chondritic meteorites enable us to use the concentrations of refractory elements in the mantle to estimate their concentrations in the core. Experimental data on metal- silicate partitioning then constrain the conditions under which the core segregated as the earth accreted. Current results on a range of refractory elements of different degrees of siderophile

  20. Catalytic asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction utilizing rare earth metal complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakatsu Shibasaki; Hiroaki Sasai

    1996-01-01

    Novel optically active rare earth complexes have made possible a catalytic asymmetric nitroaldol reaction for the first time. Structural elucidation reveals that the complexes consist of one rare earth metal, three lithium atoms, and three BINOL units. Applications of the catalytic asymmetric nitroaldol reaction to syntheses of several p-blockers and erythro-AYA have been also achieved. Although the lithium containing rare

  1. Electrical transport properties of thin rare earth metal wires and films

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, A.

    1991-12-31

    Thin wires of several heavy rare earth metals (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) have been fabricated using a step-edge lithographic technique with cross section area from 0.87 x 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2} to 58 x 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}. The electrical resistances of thin wires were measured by a four probe method in the temperature range from 1.5 K to 300 K. With decreasing temperature the resistance of the Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho wires has a consistent sharp drop at {approx}25 K, {approx}20 K, {approx}6K and {approx}5 K respectively. The Er wires do not consistently show this sharp drop. The sharp drop of resistance was shown by three methods to be consistent with a ferromagnetic transition: the temperature derivative of resistance, the character of temperature dependence and the magnetoresistance measurement. The driving force of the suppressed ferromagnetic transition was originally interpreted as an effect of electron localization. Then the effect of substrates was checked by fabricating thin wires on sapphire (single crystal) and cover glass (amorphous solid). The effect from rare earth compounds was examined by matching the suppressed transition temperature to that of the single two element rare earth compounds. Both failed to interpret the causation. The structure of thin films was examined by TEM and X-ray diffraction. These showed that the thin films are polycrystalline with mixed f.c.c. and h.c.p. structure and the (002) plane of h.c.p. structure predominates the lattice orientation respectively. Thin films without Ar ion milling showed the suppressed ferromagnetic transition to be thickness dependent, while this transition occurred in all milled films with different thicknesses. This phenomenon is able to be interpreted by the magnetoelastic effect, which can also interpret the unchanged antiferromagnetic transition for Tb, Dy and Ho wires. This magnetoelastic effect cannot interpret the length effect on Tb wires.

  2. High Pressure Phase Transformations in Heavy Rare Earth Metals and Connections to Actinide Crystal Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Stemshorn, Andrew K. [Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), 310 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, 35294-1170 (United States); Hope, Kevin M. [Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics, University of Montevallo, Harman Hall, Station 6480, Montevallo, AL, 35115 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    High-pressure studies have been performed on heavy rare earth metals Terbium (Tb) to 155 GPa and Holmium (Ho) to 134 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The following crystal structure sequence was observed in both metals hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc (hR-24) {yields} monoclinic (C2/m) with increasing pressure. The last transformation to a low symmetry monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume collapse of 5 % for Tb at 51 GPa and a volume collapse of 3 % for Ho at 103 GPa. This volume collapse under high pressure is reminiscent of f-shell delocalization in light rare earth metal Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), and heavy actinide metals Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm). The orthorhombic Pnma phase that has been reported in Am and Cm after f-shell delocalization is not observed in heavy rare earth metals under high pressures. (authors)

  3. Thermodynamic Evidence for Negative Charge Stabilization by a Catalytic Metal Ion within an RNA Active Site

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Thermodynamic Evidence for Negative Charge Stabilization by a Catalytic Metal Ion within an RNA models generally hinge upon the assumption that the metal ions stabilize negative charge buildup along evidence that this metal ion interaction facilitates the forward reaction by stabilization of negative

  4. Model of cratering by single ions in heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, A. I.; Perepelkin, S. S.; Strel'nitskij, V. E.

    2015-04-01

    In the model of the nonlocal thermoelasticpeak (NTP) of ion the theoretical investigation of nanocratering in targets of heavy metals at bombardment by ions Xe+ with energy from 25 eV up to 30 keV is carried out. Simulation using program package SRIM2008 has shown possibility of formation of subsurface singly connected cascade with energy capacity sufficient for arising of the droplet sputtering for Ag targets. Calculations have shown opportunity of cratering on surface of Ag flat targets with yield strength <0.1 GPa at bombardment by Xe+ ions with energy E > 10 keV. Craters are not formed on Pt flat targets. Possible influence of nanoscale roughness on cratering by single ions is discussed.

  5. Multiply stripped ion generation in the metal vapor vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Feinberg, B.; Galvin, J.E.

    1987-09-01

    We consider the charge state distribution of ions produced in the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma discharge. A new kind of high current metal ion source in which the ion beam is extracted from a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma has been used to obtain the spectra of multiply charged ions produced within the cathode spots. The cathode materials used and the species reportetd on here are: C, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Rh, Pd, Ag, In, Sn, Gd, Ho, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Pb, Th, and U; the arc current was 200 A for all measurements. Charge state spectra were measured using a time-of-flight method. The arc voltage was also measured. In this paper we report on the measured charge state distributions and arc voltages and compare the distributions with the predictions of a theory in which ionization occurs in the cathode spots via stepwise ionization by electron impact. 64 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Degradation of Anthracycline Antitumor Compounds Catalysed by Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Haj, Hayet Tayeb-Bel; Garnier-Suillerot, Arlette

    1994-01-01

    The influence of some metal ions on the degradation of anthracyclines was examined. One of the degradation products is the 7,8-dehydro-9,10-desacetyldoxorubicinone, D* (¥), usually formed by hydrolysis at slightly basic pH. D* is a lipophilic compound with no cytostatic properties. Its formation could be responsible for the lack of antitumor activity of the parent compound. The coordination of metal ions to anthracycline derivatives is required to have degradation products. Cations such as Na+, K+, or Ca2+ do not induce the D* formation however metals which can form stable complexes with doxorubicin afford D*. Iron(III) and copper(II) form appreciable amount of D* at slightly acidic pH. Terbium(III) forms D* but its complex is stable only at slightly basic pH. Palladium(II) which does not form D*. The influence of the coordination mode of metal ions to anthracycline on the D* formation is discussed. PMID:18476230

  7. Interaction of copper metallization with rare-earth metals and silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, G. L.; Peto, G.; Zsoldos, E.; Horvath, Z. E.

    2001-07-01

    Solid-phase reactions of copper films with underlying gadolinium, erbium, and erbium{endash}silicide layers on Si(100) substrates were investigated. For the phase analysis, x-ray diffraction and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy were used. In the case of Cu/Gd/Si(100), an orthorhombic GdSi{sub 2} formed, and, at higher temperatures, copper aggregated into islands. Annealed Cu/Er/Si(100) samples resulted in a hexagonal Er{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase. In the Cu/ErSi{sub 2{minus}x}/Si system, the copper catalyzes the transformation of the highly oriented hexagonal ErSi{sub 2{minus}x} phase into hexagonal Er{sub 5}Si{sub 3}. Diverse phase developments of the samples with Gd and Er are based on reactivity differences of the two rare-earth metals. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Speciation of heavy metal ions as influenced by interactions with montmorillonite, Al hydroxide polymers and citrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. T. Janssen

    1995-01-01

    Clay minerals, metal-hydroxides and organic matter can bind metal ions; moreover they also interact with each other. These mutual interactions influence the metal binding to a significant extent. In this study, the speciation of the heavy metal ions Zn and Ph was investigated in model systems consisting of various combinations of the clay mineral montmorillonite (Na saturated), Al hydroxide polymers

  9. Metal ion levels after metal-on-metal proximal femoral replacements: a 30-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, E; Sanghrajka, A P; Tilley, S; Unwin, P; Blunn, G; Cannon, S R; Briggs, T W R

    2005-05-01

    Metal-on-metal hip bearings are being implanted into younger patients. The consequence of elevated levels of potentially carcinogenic metal ions is therefore a cause for concern. We have determined the levels of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), titanium (Ti) and vanadium (Va) in the urine and whole blood of patients who had had metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene articulations in situ for more than 30 years. We compared these with each other and with the levels for a control group of subjects. We found significantly elevated levels of whole blood Ti, Va and urinary Cr in all arthroplasty groups. The whole blood and urine levels of Co were grossly elevated, by a factor of 50 and 300 times respectively in patients with loose metal-on-metal articulations when compared with the control group. Stable metal-on-metal articulations showed much lower levels. Elevated levels of whole blood or urinary Co may be useful in identifying metal-on-metal articulations which are loose. PMID:15855362

  10. Beam dynamics of a liquid metal ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Meszaros, P.S.; Rothe, K.E.; Raridon, R.J.; Ryan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    RMS emittance growth of liquid metal ion sources is studied. Processes included are nonlinear expansion through extractor and accelerator fringe fields, nonlinear beam space charge, plasma effects near needle, and waves (either ion-acoustic or space charge limited as considered by V.I. Dudnikov). This investigation consists of 2-D analysis of appropriate Vlasov-Poisson equations in both steady-state and time-dependent formulations. Various geometries will be considered such as some used by G. Alton of ORNL. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Extraction of rare-earth metals by liquid surfactant membranes containing a novel cyclic carrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiko Kakoi; Takayuki Nishiyori; Tatsuya Oshima; Fukiko Kubota; Masahiro Goto; Seiji Shinkai; Fumiyuki Nakashio

    1997-01-01

    Extraction behavior of three rare-earth metals (Ho, Er and Y), was systematically studied by liquid surfactant membranes (LSMs) containing a novel host compound, a calixarene carboxyl derivative, which is a cyclic compound connected to some phenol rings, as a mobile carrier in a stirred cell. Using the host compound, the extraction equilibrium of the metals in liquid-liquid extraction was also

  12. MAGNETIC ORDERING AND THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF RARE-EARTH METALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mackintosh

    1962-01-01

    The effects of magnetic ordering of the localized 4f electrons in rare ; earth metals on the structure of the Brillouin zones in these metals, and hence ; on the conduction-electron characteristics, are studied by means of a ; magneticsuperlattice model. The model takes into account the exchange ; interaction between the 4f and conduction electrons, and effects of spin-orbit

  13. Rare earth element behavior and Pb, Sr, Nd isotope systematics in a heavy metal contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Steinmann; Peter Stille

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the processes and phases which control migration and retention of rare earth elements (REE) in a heavy metal contaminated soil. In addition to concentration data, we used Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in order to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic trace metals and to characterize the phases leached away during the

  14. Project EARTH-13-DP1: Understanding biological processes controlling metal isotopes in the oceans

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-13-DP1: Understanding biological processes controlling metal isotopes in the oceans) on different plankton, diatoms, and other biological materials. Techniques using isotopic labelling of metals onto surfaces may also lead to isotopic fractionation, leading to isotopic shifts in the remaining

  15. Ion beam mixing of metal/fluoropolymer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, D. L.; Giedd, R. E.; Wang, Y. Q.; Glass, G. A.

    1999-06-01

    Ion beam mixing of metals and polymers with very low dielectric constants such as Teflon can provide many applications in the area of electronic materials. This work is a study of the "mixing" effect of 50 keV nitrogen implanted thin metal layers on Teflon PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) substrates. RBS analysis shows that the distribution of thin layers of copper and chromium (approximately 300-400 Å thick) through the implant layer of the Teflon depends on the reactivity of the metal. As the implant fluence is increased, the distribution of metal atoms in the polymer matrix becomes concentrated over smaller ranges near the bottom of the implant layer. In situ RGA analysis during the implantation shows the liberation of an abundance of fluorine in many different forms. This is supported by results from a NRA experiment that shows the non-uniform concentration profile of fluorine throughout the implant layer. During the implantation process, the fluorine is released through the incident ion track leaving a carbon and metal rich region near the surface of the implant layer. The fluorine density increases with depth through the implant layer making a smooth transition to the undamaged bulk Teflon below. Low dielectric materials with highly conductive surfaces, such as this one, may provide an opportunity for a broad range of new microelectronic applications.

  16. Ion beam sputter-deposited thin film coatings for protection of spacecraft polymers in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Mirtich, M. J.; Rutledge, S. K.; Swec, D. M.; Nahra, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-deposited thin films at Al2O3, SiO2, and a codeposited mixture of predominantly SiO2 with small amounts of fluoropolymer were evaluated both in laboratory plasma ashing tests and in space on board Shuttle flight STS-8 for effectiveness in preventing oxidation of polyimide Kapton. Measurements of mass loss and optical performance of coated and uncoated polyimide samples exposed to the low earth orbital environment are presented. Optical techniques were used to measure loss rates of protective films exposed to atomic oxygen. Results of the analysis of the space flight exposed samples indicate that thin film metal oxide coatings are very effective in protecting the polyimide. Metal oxide coatings with a small amount of fluoropolymer codeposited have the additional benefit of great flexibility.

  17. Local order around rare earth ions during the devitrification of oxyfluoride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Maurício A. P.; Dantelle, Geraldine; Mortier, Michel; Monteil, André; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; Messaddeq, Younès; Briois, Valérie; Poulain, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Erbium L3-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements were performed on rare earth doped fluorosilicate and fluoroborate glasses and glass ceramics. The well known nucleating effects of erbium ions for the crystallization of cubic lead fluoride (based on x-ray diffraction measurements) and the fact that the rare earth ions are present in the crystalline phase (as indicated by Er3+ emission spectra) seem in contradiction with the present EXAFS analysis, which indicates a lack of medium range structural ordering around the Er3+ ions and suggests that the lead fluoride crystallization does not occur in the nearest neighbor distance of the rare earth ion. Molecular dynamics simulations of the devitrification process of a lead fluoride glass doped with Er3+ ions were performed, and results indicate that Er3+ ions lower the devitrification temperature of PbF2, in good agreement with the experimental results. The genuine role of Er3+ ions in the devitrification process of PbF2 has been investigated. Although Er3+ ions could indeed act as seeds for crystallization, as experiments suggest, molecular dynamics simulation results corroborate the experimental EXAFS observation that the devitrification does not occur at its nearest neighbor distance.

  18. Local order around rare earth ions during the devitrification of oxyfluoride glasses.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maurício A P; Dantelle, Geraldine; Mortier, Michel; Monteil, André; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Messaddeq, Younès; Briois, Valérie; Poulain, Marcel

    2008-06-28

    Erbium L(3)-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements were performed on rare earth doped fluorosilicate and fluoroborate glasses and glass ceramics. The well known nucleating effects of erbium ions for the crystallization of cubic lead fluoride (based on x-ray diffraction measurements) and the fact that the rare earth ions are present in the crystalline phase (as indicated by Er(3+) emission spectra) seem in contradiction with the present EXAFS analysis, which indicates a lack of medium range structural ordering around the Er(3+) ions and suggests that the lead fluoride crystallization does not occur in the nearest neighbor distance of the rare earth ion. Molecular dynamics simulations of the devitrification process of a lead fluoride glass doped with Er(3+) ions were performed, and results indicate that Er(3+) ions lower the devitrification temperature of PbF(2), in good agreement with the experimental results. The genuine role of Er(3+) ions in the devitrification process of PbF(2) has been investigated. Although Er(3+) ions could indeed act as seeds for crystallization, as experiments suggest, molecular dynamics simulation results corroborate the experimental EXAFS observation that the devitrification does not occur at its nearest neighbor distance. PMID:18601357

  19. Stability constants of HBED with various metal ions 

    E-print Network

    Long, Gregory Neal

    1990-01-01

    (III)-HBED stability constant. && Determining the stability constants for HBED with the metal iona Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Ga(III), In(III), Fe(III), and Gd(III) would correct the inaccuracies for the previously measured stability constants of HBED with Ga... constant for HBED, as well as the HBED-metal ion chelate formation constants for Cu(II), Fe(III), and Gd(III), were determined from UV- visible spectrophotometric titrations at varying -log[H]'s. spectrophotometric measurements were necessary...

  20. The corrosion protection of metals by ion vapor deposited aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Danford, M.D.

    1993-10-01

    A study of the corrosion protection of substrate metals by ion vapor deposited aluminum (IVD Al) coats has been carried out. Corrosion protection by both anodized and unanodized IVD Al coats has been investigated. Base metals included in the study were 2219-T87 Al, 7075-T6 Al, Titanium-6 Al-4 Vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V), 4130 steel, D6AC steel, and 4340 steel. Results reveal that the anodized IVD Al coats provide excellent corrosion protection, but good protection is also achieved by IVD Al coats that have not been anodized.

  1. The Corrosion Protection of Metals by Ion Vapor Deposited Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the corrosion protection of substrate metals by ion vapor deposited aluminum (IVD Al) coats has been carried out. Corrosion protection by both anodized and unanodized IVD Al coats has been investigated. Base metals included in the study were 2219-T87 Al, 7075-T6 Al, Titanium-6 Al-4 Vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V), 4130 steel, D6AC steel, and 4340 steel. Results reveal that the anodized IVD Al coats provide excellent corrosion protection, but good protection is also achieved by IVD Al coats that have not been anodized.

  2. Ab Initio Calculations Applied to Problems in Metal Ion Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations can provide accurate spectroscopic data (such as molecular structures) vibrational frequencies, binding energies, etc.) that have been very useful in explaining trends in experimental data and in identifying incorrect experimental measurements. In addition, ab initio calculations. have given considerable insight into the many interactions that make the chemistry of transition metal systems so diverse. In this review we focus on cases where calculations and experiment have been used to solve interesting chemical problems involving metal ions. The examples include cases where theory was used to differentiate between disparate experimental values and cases where theory was used to explain unexpected experimental results.

  3. Novel polymerization catalysts and hydride clusters from rare-earth metal dialkyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Masayoshi; Hou, Zhaomin

    2010-04-01

    This Review gives an overview on recent progress in the synthesis and chemistry of rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes bearing monoanionic ancillary ligands, with an emphasis on novel polymerization catalysts. These structurally well-defined and highly reactive compounds are prepared either by alkane elimination reactions between trialkyl rare-earth complexes and acidic neutral ligands, or by the metathetical reactions of rare-earth trihalides with the alkali metal salts of the corresponding ligands. On treatment with an appropriate borate compound, the dialkyl complexes are converted into the corresponding cationic monoalkyl species, which serve as excellent catalysts for the polymerization and copolymerization of a variety of olefins to yield a series of new polymer materials that exhibit novel properties. Alternatively, hydrogenation of the dialkyl rare-earth complexes with H2 affords a new class of rare-earth polyhydride complexes with unique features in terms of both their structure and reactivity.

  4. Novel polymerization catalysts and hydride clusters from rare-earth metal dialkyls.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Masayoshi; Hou, Zhaomin

    2010-04-01

    This Review gives an overview on recent progress in the synthesis and chemistry of rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes bearing monoanionic ancillary ligands, with an emphasis on novel polymerization catalysts. These structurally well-defined and highly reactive compounds are prepared either by alkane elimination reactions between trialkyl rare-earth complexes and acidic neutral ligands, or by the metathetical reactions of rare-earth trihalides with the alkali metal salts of the corresponding ligands. On treatment with an appropriate borate compound, the dialkyl complexes are converted into the corresponding cationic monoalkyl species, which serve as excellent catalysts for the polymerization and copolymerization of a variety of olefins to yield a series of new polymer materials that exhibit novel properties. Alternatively, hydrogenation of the dialkyl rare-earth complexes with H(2) affords a new class of rare-earth polyhydride complexes with unique features in terms of both their structure and reactivity. PMID:21124505

  5. Correlation between volatility of rare-earth metals and encapsulation of their carbides in carbon nanocapsules

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Yahachi; Okuda, Mitsumasa; Yoshikawa, Tadanobu (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan)); Kasuya, Atsuo; Nishina, Yuichiro (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan))

    1994-07-07

    Encapsulation of metals in multilayered graphitic capsules has been studied for all the rare-earth elements (Sc, Y, and Ln = La, Ce, ..., Lu) excluding Pm by using electric arc discharge. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction of carbonaceous products revealed that most of rare-earth metals (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Lu) were encapsulated in the form of carbides, but the others, Sm, Eu, and Yb, were not. The metals in the former group that were encapsulated had vapor pressures definitely lower than those in the latter group. In the case of thulium (Tm), whose vapor pressure is intermediate between the two groups, only a trace amount of encapsulated carbide was formed. Correlation of volatility of metals with encapsulation was clearly found, suggesting that the volatility of a metal plays an important role in a process of the metal encapsulation. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The interplay of long-range magnetic order and single-ion anisotropy in rare earth nickel germanides

    E-print Network

    Canfield, Paul C.

    The interplay of long-range magnetic order and single-ion anisotropy in rare earth nickel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Prelude to RNi2Ge2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 An Overview

  7. Note: An ion source for alkali metal implantation beneath graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers on transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, L. H. de [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin”, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil)] [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin”, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cun, H. Y.; Hemmi, A.; Kälin, T.; Greber, T. [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)] [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    The construction of an alkali-metal ion source is presented. It allows the acceleration of rubidium ions to an energy that enables the penetration through monolayers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. Rb atoms are sublimated from an alkali-metal dispenser. The ionization is obtained by surface ionization and desorption from a hot high work function surface. The ion current is easily controlled by the temperature of ionizer. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy measurements confirm ion implantation.

  8. Chelating Agents and the Regulation of Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Bulman, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    Up to about the early 1980s it was perhaps still possible to summarize in a review of a moderate length the development of the medicinal applications of chelation chemistry and the exploitation of such chemistry in regulating the metal ion concentrations in the body. However, in the last few years there has a great surge in the development of chelation chemistry and its usage in medicine and related areas of life sciences research. It is no longer the case that such a review primarily concentrates upon the use of chelating agents in removing toxic metals from the body but it must now cover the use of chelating agents in the imaging procedures nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the use of chelating agents in unravelling the biochemistry of reactive oxidative species (ROS) and the control and measurement of intracellular calcium ions. It is in the recent applications that there have been the greatest developments over the last ten years. PMID:18476223

  9. MRI findings following metal on metal hip arthroplasty and their relationship with metal ion levels and acetabular inclination angles.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ciara M; Bergin, Karen M; Kelly, Gabrielle E; McCoy, Gerry F; Ryan, Anthony G; Quinlan, John F

    2014-08-01

    Following the global recall of all ASR metal on metal hip products, our aim was to correlate MRI findings with acetabular inclination angles and metal ion levels in patients with these implants. Both cobalt and chromium levels were significantly higher in the presence of a periprosthetic fluid collection. There was no association between the presence of a periprosthetic mass, bone marrow oedema, trochanteric bursitis or greater levels of abductor muscle destruction for cobalt or chromium. There was no association between the level of periprosthetic tissue reaction and the acetabular inclination angle with any of the pathologies identified on MRI. The relationship between MRI pathology, metal ion levels and acetabular inclination angles in patients with ASR implants remains unclear adding to the complexity of managing patients. PMID:24793890

  10. Metallic ions and atoms in the upper atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Forbes; R. G. Roble

    1992-01-01

    The main focus of research under AFOSR Grant F49620-92-J-0092 is to investigate the global and local transport of metallic ions in the upper atmosphere, in particular the layering of ionization, through use of comprehensive numerical models which account for realistic meteoric sources, chemical conversions and sinks, and transport by molecular and eddy diffusion, winds, and electric fields. The ultimate goal

  11. Metallic ions and atoms in the upper atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Forbes

    1994-01-01

    The main focus of research under AFOSR Grant F49620-920-J-0092 is to investigate the global and local transport of metallic ions in the upper atmosphere, in particular the layering of ionization, through use of comprehensive numerical models which account for realistic meteoric sources, chemical conversions and sinks, and transport by molecular and eddy diffusion, winds and electric fields. The ultimate goal

  12. Thermal analysis of protein–metallic ion systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Hu; David Kaplan; Peggy Cebe

    2009-01-01

    Advanced thermal analysis methods, such as temperature modulated DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and quasi-isothermal\\u000a TMDSC were used to analyze the protein–metallic ion interactions in silk fibroin proteins. The precise heat capacities were\\u000a measured and theoretically predicted in this study. To remove bound water and simplify the system, a thermal cycling treatment\\u000a through both standard DSC and TMDSC was used to

  13. Ion beam sputter deposition of refractory metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, B.E.; Dinges, H.W.; Poecker, A. [Deutsche Bundespost Telekom Forschungs- und Technologiezentrum, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Oxides of hafnium, niobium, tantalum, and zirconium are deposited by ion beam sputtering of the pure metal targets using CO{sub 2} as working gas. The resulting thin films are amorphous, featureless smooth and of excellent adherence to semiconductor substrates. Despite a certain content of carbon they are highly transparent in the visible and near infrared wavelength range as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Their wide range of refractive indices makes them suitable for multilayer optical filter design.

  14. Glucose enhancement of LDL oxidation is strictly metal ion dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiro-Omi Mowri; Balz Frei; John F Keaney Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lipoprotein oxidation is increased in diabetes, however, the mechanism(s) for such observations are not clear. We examined the effect of glucose on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation using metal ion–dependent and –independent oxidation systems. Pathophysiological concentrations of glucose (25 mM) enhanced copper-induced LDL oxidation as determined by conjugated diene formation or relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) on agarose

  15. Equilibrium sorption isotherm for metal ions on tree fern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Ho; C. T. Huang; H. W. Huang

    2002-01-01

    A new sorbent system for removing heavy metal ions, such as Zn(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II), from aqueous solutions has been investigated. This new sorbent is tree fern, an agriculture product. Variables of the system include solution temperature and sorbent particle size. The experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each

  16. Coherent spectroscopy of rare-earth-ion doped whispering-gallery mode resonators

    E-print Network

    D. L. McAuslan; D. Korystov; J. J. Longdell

    2011-04-21

    We perform an investigation into the properties of Pr3+:Y2SiO5 whispering gallery mode resonators as a first step towards achieving the strong coupling regime of cavity QED with rare-earth-ion doped crystals. Direct measurement of cavity QED parameters are made using photon echoes, giving good agreement with theoretical predictions. By comparing the ions at the surface of the resonator to those in the center it is determined that the physical process of making the resonator does not negatively affect the properties of the ions. Coupling between the ions and resonator is analyzed through the observation of optical bistability and normal-mode splitting.

  17. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, suppliment au no 12, Tome 37, Dtcembre 1976, page C6-639 HYPERFINE INTERACTIONS OF RARE EARTH IONS SUBSTITUTIONAL1,Y

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INTERACTIONS OF RARE EARTH IONS SUBSTITUTIONAL1,Y IMPLANTED IN IRON AND NICKEL L. NIESEN and H. P. WIT (8.4 keV) has been used to study the hyperfine interaction of the fraction of rare earth ions crystalline electric field for a rare earth ion in a ferromagnetic host. Mossbauer spectroscopy on rare earth

  18. Direct observation of rare-earth ions in ?-sialon:Ce phosphors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fangfang; Sourty, Erwan; Shi, Wei; Mou, Xinliang; Zhang, Linlin

    2011-04-01

    Doping structures of Ce(3+) into the refractory ?-sialon crystal lattice have been examined via an atom-resolved Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. The location and coordination of the rare-earth ions are well-defined through direct observation in conjunction with structural modeling and image simulation. The stability and solubility of Ce(3+) ions could be remarkably enhanced via congregation into the planar defects formed by a 1/3 (210)-type lattice displacement along with an inversion operation. The formation of cylindrical chambers near the defects is believed to provide effective structural relaxation upon doping of large rare-earth ions into the interstices in their neighborhoods. The as-revealed structural information could be useful for understanding the luminescence properties of the promising rare-earth doped sialon materials. PMID:21370828

  19. One-dimensional polymeric carbon structure based on five-membered rings in alkaline earth metal dicarbides BeC2 and MgC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srepusharawoot, Pornjuk; Blomqvist, Andreas; Araújo, C. Moysés; Scheicher, Ralph H.; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2010-09-01

    We studied five alkaline earth dicarbide systems MAEC2 (where MAE=Be-Ba ) by using ab initio random structure search. For BeC2 and MgC2 , the lowest energy and dynamically stable configuration consists of five-membered carbon rings connected to each other via an individual carbon atom, stabilized through the donation of electrons from the surrounding alkaline earth ions. For CaC2 , SrC2 , and BaC2 , our study shows that the chain crystal structure is more stable than the predicted structure due to strains induced by the increasing size of alkaline earth metal ions. The reaction energies of the typical synthesis pathway are comparable to those calculated for the experimental reaction of the known chain-type structure. Finally, the proposed structure should be optically distinguishable due to a significantly narrower band gap.

  20. Effects of metallic ion toxicity on human gingival fibroblasts morphology.

    PubMed

    Messer, R L; Bishop, S; Lucas, L C

    1999-09-01

    Alloys used as implant materials release metal ions to surrounding tissues. Cytotoxic substances attack at the molecular level, and these effects are reflected in the structure of the cells and organelles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cellular morphology and ultrastructural changes of cultured human gingival fibroblasts to salt solutions of ions (beryllium (Be+2), chromium (Cr+6 and Cr+3), nickel (Ni+2), molybdenum (Mo+6)) which may be released from nickel-chromium dental alloys. The concentrations chosen were based on previously conducted cell culture studies. Fibroblasts were exposed to the different ion concentrations for 24 or 72 h. Cellular morphology and ultrastructural features were examined using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural alterations observed included irregular shaped nuclei for cells exposed to hexavalent chromium and nickel, pseudopodia for cells exposed to beryllium and molybdenum, and lipid droplet formation in cells exposed to nickel. PMID:10503967

  1. Combined Effects of Heavy Metal Ions on Bacteria and the Determination of Heavy Metals by Bioassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Tumanov; P. A. Krest'yaninov

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the development of bioassay, a procedure was developed for studying the combined effects of heavy metal ions on bacteria. The bacterium Bacillus subtilis niger was proposed as an analytical indicator. A universal calculation system was developed that allows one to obtain and analyze functional models of toxicity and the combined effects of toxicants. Models for the

  2. Adsorption of heavy metal ion from aqueous single metal solution by chemically modified sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osvaldo Karnitz; Leandro Vinicius Alves Gurgel; Júlio César Perin de Melo; Vagner Roberto Botaro; Tânia Márcia Sacramento Melo; Rossimiriam Pereira de Freitas Gil; Laurent Frédéric Gil

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the preparation of new chelating materials derived from sugarcane bagasse for adsorption of heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. The first part of this report deals with the chemical modification of sugarcane bagasse with succinic anhydride. The carboxylic acid functions introduced into the material were used to anchor polyamines, which resulted in two yet unpublished modified sugarcane

  3. Template-directed synthesis of oligoguanylic acids - Metal ion catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridson, P. K.; Fakhrai, H.; Lohrmann, R.; Orgel, L. E.; Van Roode, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of Zn(2+), Pb(2+) and other metal ions on the efficiency and stereo-selectivity of the template-directed oligomerization of guanosine 5'-phosphorimidazolide are investigated. Reactions were run in the presence of a polyC template in a 2,6-lutidine buffer, and products analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography on an RPC-5 column. The presence of the Pb(2+) ion is found to lead to the formation of 2'-5' linked oligomers up to the 40-mer, while Zn(2+) favors the formation of predominantly 3'-5' linked oligomers up to the 35-mer. When amounts of uracil, cytidine or adenosine 5'-phosphorimidazole equal to those of the guanosine derivative are included in the reaction mixture, the incorrect base is incorporated into the oligomer about 10% of the time with a Pb(2+) catalyst, but less than 0.5% of the time with Zn(2+). The Sn(2+), Sb(3+) and Bi(3+) ions are also found to promote the formation of 2'-5' oligomers, although not as effectively as Pb(2+), while no metal ions other than Zn(2+) promote the formation of the 3'-5' oligomers. The results may be important for the understanding of the evolution of nucleic acid replication in the absence of enzymes.

  4. In vivo liberation of silver ions from metallic silver surfaces.

    PubMed

    Danscher, Gorm; Locht, Linda Jansons

    2010-03-01

    In vivo liberation of electrically charged silver atoms/silver ions from metallic silver pellets, silver grids and silver threads placed in the brain, skin and abdominal cavity was proved by way of the histochemical technique autometallography (AMG). A bio-film or "dissolution membrane" inserted between the metallic surface and macrophages was recognized on the surface of the implanted silver after a short period of time. Bio-released silver ions bound in silver-sulphur nanocrystals were traced within the first 24 h in the "dissolution membrane" and the "dissolucytotic" macrophages. In animals that had survived 10 days or more, silver nanocrystals were detected both extra- and intracellularly in places far away from the implant including regional lymph nodes, liver, kidneys and the central nervous system (CNS). The accumulated silver was always confined to lysosome-like organelles. Dissolucytotic silver was extracellularly related to collagen fibrils and fibres in connective tissue and basement membranes. Our study demonstrates that (1) the number of bio-released silver ions depends on the size of the surface of the implanted silver, (2) the spread of silver ions throughout the body takes place primarily not only through the vascular system, but also by retrograde axonal transport. It is concluded that implantation of silver or silver-plated devices is not recommendable. PMID:20033701

  5. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by immobilized phytic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.; Zheng, Yizhou; Lu, J.; Gong, Cheng S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Phytic acid (myoinositol hexaphosphate) or its calcium salt, phytate, is an important plant constituents. It accounts for up to 85% of total phosphorus in cereals and legumes. Phytic acid has 12 replaceable protons in the phytic molecule rendering it the ability to complex with multivalent cations and positively charged proteins. Poly 4-vinyl pyridine (PVP) and other strong-based resins have the ability to adsorb phytic acid. PVP has the highest adsorption capacity of 0.51 phytic acid/resins. The PVP resin was used as the support material for the immobilization of phytic acid. The immobilized phytic acid can adsorb heavy metal ions, such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc ions, from aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherms of the selected ions by immobilized phytic acid were conducted in packed-bed column at room temperature. Results from the adsorption tests showed 6.6 mg of Cd{sup 2+}, 7 mg of Cu{sup 2+}, 7.2 mg of Ni{sup 2+}, 7.4 mg of Pb{sup 2+}, and 7.7 mg of Zn{sup 2+} can be adsorbed by each gram of PVP-phytic acid complex. The use of immobilized phytic acid has the potential for removing metal ions from industrial or mining waste water. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Ion cyclotron waves in the Earth’s magnetotail during CASSINI’s Earth swing-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, A. T.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Musmann, G.; Dougherty, M. K.; Kellock, S.; Slootweg, P.; Tsurutani, B.

    2003-10-01

    The properties of low frequency magnetotail waves observed during CASSINI’s Earth swing-by are examined. A maximum in the distribution of the waves about half the proton cyclotron frequency and a peak at linear polarisation are found and their implications are analysed in detail. Data on the fluid plasma velocity for the observation interval are not available and thus no unique conclusions about Doppler shift influence on the properties of the waves can be made. This determines the need to analyse different hypotheses in order to understand the origin of the waves. The plausibility of competing interpretations, such as off-resonance proton cyclotron waves and bi-ion cyclotron waves at the gyrofrequency of a heavy ion component of the magneto-tail plasma in the form of He ++ ions of solar wind origin is questioned.

  7. Effects of metal ions on myrosinase activity and the formation of sulforaphane in broccoli seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Liang; Qipeng Yuan; Qian Xiao

    2006-01-01

    Effects of six metal ions on the formation of sulforaphane and the liberation of glucose upon hydrolysis of glucoraphanin by myrosinase at neutral pH were studied. The yields of sulforaphane and glucose were determined by HPLC. Copper ion and magnesium ion decreased the yields of sulforaphane and glucose. Ferrous ion and ferric ion inhibited the formation of sulforaphane, but had

  8. Origins of bad metal conductivity and the insulator-metal transition in the rare-earth nickelates (RNiO3, R = rare earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Rafael; Ha, Sieu; Silevitch, Daniel; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2014-03-01

    For most metals increasing temperature (T) or disorder quickens electron scattering. This scattering time hypothesis informs the Drude model of electronic conductivity. However, for so-called bad metals with very low conductivity this hypothesis predicts scattering times so short as to conflict with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Bad metal conductivity has remained a puzzle since its discovery in the 1980s in high T superconductors. Here we introduce the rare-earth nickelates (RNiO3, R = rare earth) as a class of bad metals. We study SmNiO3 thin films using infrared (IR) spectroscopy while varying T and disorder. We show that the interaction between lattice distortions and Ni-O bond covalence explains both the bad metal conductivity and the insulator-metal transition (IMT) in the nickelates. It does so by shifting spectral weight over the large energy scale established by the Ni-O orbital interaction, thus enabling very low conductivity while preserving the Drude model and without violating the uncertainty principle.

  9. Ion exchange selectivities of calcium alginate gels for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Jodra, Y; Mijangos, F

    2001-01-01

    An equilibrium model has been proposed and verified, based on the conditions in the gel phase and Donnan equilibrium theory, for the analysis of the experimental data on the recovery of lead, copper, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc from synthetic, nonmetallic aqueous solutions on calcium alginate gels. This equilibrium model considers that the system behaves as an ion-exchange process between the calcium in the gels and the divalent metals in solution, and that the metallic portion enclosed in gel fluid is supposed an important quantitative contribution to the total amount of metal uptake by gels. According to the equilibrium constants calculated, it is deduced that the selectivity order is: Pb > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Co. PMID:11380185

  10. Trivalent rare-earth ions as photon down-shifter for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steudel, Franziska; Loos, Sebastian; Ahrens, Bernd; Schweizer, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Rare-earth doped borate glasses are investigated for their potential as photon down-shifting cover glass for CdTe solar cells. Note, that CdTe solar cells have a poor response in the ultraviolet and blue spectral range due to absorption in the CdS buffer layer having a band gap of 2.4 eV. The following trivalent rare-earth ions are analyzed in detail: Sm3+, Eu3+, and Tb3+. These ions provide strong absorption bands in the ultraviolet / blue spectral range and an intense emission in the red (Sm3+ and Eu3+) or green (Tb3+) spectral range. The gain in short-circuit current density of a CdTe solar cell is calculated for different rare-earth ion concentrations. The calculations are based on the rare-earth's absorption coefficients as well as their photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency. For Sm3+, the PL quantum efficiency depends significantly on the doping concentration. Finally, the potential of double-doped borate glasses, i.e. glasses doped with two different rare-earth ions, is investigated.

  11. The Sol-Gel Synthesis of Rare-Earth Ions Substituted Barium Hexaferrites and Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; Xin, P. H.; Wang, P. F.; Zhang, B. B.; Han, Y. B.; Peng, X. L.; Hong, B.; Jin, H. X.; Gong, J.; Jin, D. F.; Ge, H. L.; Wang, X. Q.; Zhang, J.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a series of rare-earth-doped barium hexaferrite powders (Ba0.95Re0.05-Fe12O19 and Ba0.95Re0.05M0.05Fe11.95O19: Re = La, Pr, Sm, Nd, Gd, Dy, Yb; M = Zn2+, Mn2+, Mn0.52+Zn2+0.5) were synthesized by the sol-gel self-combustion technology. The phase composition and the magnetic properties of the as-prepared barium hexaferrites were characterized and discussed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the barium hexaferrites exhibited the magnetoplumbite phase structure with the average diameter of 45 nm. Magnetic properties study revealed that the variation of the saturation magnetization (Ms) was similar with the change of the rare-earth ions radius, but the change of Ms was low. This indicated that the magnetic moments of rare-earth ions could not affect Ms. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy field mainly influenced the anisotropism of hexaferrites, and the coercivity (Hc) of the rare-earth ions doped barium hexaferrites basically decreased with the increasing orbital quantum numbers (except Sm3+ and Gd3+). Further study showed the co-addition of Zn2+ and Mn2+ did not change the trend of Ms and Hc. Thus, it is concluded that the rare-earth ions played an important role for the anisotropy field of barium hexaferrites.

  12. Probing single ion luminescence in rare-earth doped nanocrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Barnes; Adosh Mehta; Thomas Thundat; Ramesh Bhargava

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been a great deal of attention focused on rare-earth doped nanocrystals (DNCs) as a new class of luminescent nanomaterials with novel and tunable optical properties. Such species have properties that make them attractive candidates for biological tags such as narrow spectral width and very high photochemical stability. However, the transitions that give rise to visible luminescence of

  13. Surface Characterization of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals on Single Crystal Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magera, Gerald Glenn

    1995-11-01

    The experiments were conducted on the clean surfaces of W(110), Mo(110) and Nb(110) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions using techniques of line-of-sight thermal desorption mass spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy and retarding potential work function measurement. The clean work functions for W(110), Mo(110) and Nb(110) were found to be 5.38 eV, 5.08 eV and 4.62 eV, respectively. The behavior of the work function was characteristic of alkali and alkaline earth metal adsorption onto refractory metal surfaces with the minimum work function for the three surfaces of approximately 1.50 eV for cesium and 2.20 eV for barium. The results of the change in work function versus adsorption of cesium onto the bariated surfaces of W(110), Mo(110) and Nb(110) were similar. The energies of desorption for the different binding states were calculated for the various adsorbate-metal systems using first order desorption kinetics, that is, the adsorbates desorb at a rate linearly dependent on coverage. The desorption spectra for cesium from the various metal surfaces showed three distinct desorption sites, while barium had a more continuous decrease in activation energy of desorption up to a monolayer of coverage. The main difference between the desorption of the two adsorbates was the temperature of the terminal (lowest coverage) desorption energy site. The highest terminal desorption energy for cesium occurred on the W(110) surface at a temperature of 1200 K, while barium does not start to desorb from the W(110) surface until the temperature reaches approximately 1700 K. The temperature difference between the binding states of cesium and barium on all three of the substrates allowed for the adsorption and desorption of cesium without altering the barium adlayer. The desorption behavior of cesium from the various barium/substrate surfaces, like the work function change, was also very similar. As the coverage of pre -adsorbed barium increased, the activation energy of the cesium decreased.

  14. Labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction for prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Zhongwen; Wang, Weisheng; Zhang, Shuzhen; Wen, Bei

    2003-02-01

    A labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction has been recommended to predict the bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants. This method used moist rhizosphere soil in combination with a mixture of 0.01 mol L(-1) of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) as extractant. The extracted soil solutions were fractionated into two colloidal fractions of <0.45 microm (F(3)) and <0.2 microm (F(2)), and one truly dissolved fraction including free metal ions and inorganic and organic complexes (fractionmetals and rare earth elements in F(2) and F(3) were quite similar. However, the mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd in F(lrss) accounted for 79.9%, 91.3%, 90.8%, 60.1%, 77.5%, 75.3%, 81.2%, 77.2%, 80.3%, and 79.5%, respectively, of their concentrations in F(2). In contrast, there were no differences in the extractable metal concentrations between the three fractions while the first step of the method recommended by the European Community of Reference (BCR), where 0.1 mol L(-1) acetic acid was used as an extractant. The single correlation analysis was made between metal concentrations in the different fractions of soil solutions and their concentrations in wheat. If the first step of BCR method was used there was no good correlation between heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat shoots and roots. When LMWAOs were used a good correlation was obtained between the concentrations of heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat roots, which followed a general order of r(1 kD, LMWOAs) >r(0.2 microm, LMWOAs) approximately r(0.45 microm, LMWOAs). In the case of rare earth elements the good correlation was obtained for both the wheat roots and shoots. Generally, the correlation coefficients obtained by LMWAOs were better than that obtained by the first step of BCR method. Therefore, LMWAOs and F(lrss) were strongly recommended to predict the bioavailability of metals in soil pools to plants. PMID:12589505

  15. Alkali Metal Ion and Lithium Isotope Selectivity of HZr2(PO4)3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao OI; Yoshichika UCHIYAMA; Morikazu HOSOE; Katsuhiko ITOH

    1999-01-01

    HZr2(PO4)3 has been synthesized by the heat treatment of NH4Zr2(PO4)3 and its properties as an ion exchanger have been examined with the main focus on its alkali metal ion and lithium isotope selectivity. The distribution coefficients for alkali metal ions revealed that HZr2(PO4)3 was lithium ion-specific and showed little affinity toward potassium, rubidium or cesium ion. The lithium and sodium

  16. Radiation damage from single heavy ion impacts on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, S.E. [Univ. of Salford, Manchester (United Kingdom); Birtcher, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1998-06-01

    The effects of single ion impacts on the surfaces of films of Au, Ag, In and Pb have been studied using in-situ transmission electron microscopy. On all of these materials, individual ion impacts produce surface craters, in some cases, with associated expelled material. The cratering efficiency scales with the density of the irradiated metal. For very thin Au foils ({approx} 20--50 nm), in some cases individual ions are seen to punch small holes completely through the foil. Continued irradiation results in a thickening of the foil. The process giving rise to crater and hole formation and other changes observed in the thin foils has been found to be due to pulsed localized flow--i.e. melting and flow due to the thermal spikes arising from individual ion impacts. Experiments carried out on thin films of silver sandwiched between SiO{sub 2} layers have indicated that pulsed localized flow also occurs in this system and contributes to the formation of Ag nanoclusters in SiO{sub 2}--a system of interest for its non-linear optical properties. Calculation indicates that, when ion-induced, collision cascades occur near surfaces (within {approx} 5 nm) with energy densities sufficient to cause melting, craters are formed. Crater formation occurs as a result of the explosive outflow of material from the hot molten core of the cascade. Processes occurring in the sandwiched layer are less well understood.

  17. Headgroup interactions and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of a chelating surfactant, different foaming agents, and divalent metal ions.

    PubMed

    Svanedal, Ida; Boija, Susanne; Norgren, Magnus; Edlund, Håkan

    2014-06-10

    The correlation between interaction parameters and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of chelating surfactant metal complexes and different foaming agents was investigated. We have recently shown that chelating surfactant 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4-C12-DTPA) forms strong coordination complexes with divalent metal ions, and this can be utilized in ion flotation. Interaction parameters for mixed micelles and mixed monolayer formation for Mg(2+) and Ni(2+) complexes with the chelating surfactant 4-C12-DTPA and different foaming agents were calculated by Rubingh's regular solution theory. Parameters for the calculations were extracted from surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry. The effects of metal ion coordination on the interactions between 4-C12-DTPA and the foaming agents could be linked to a previously established difference in coordination chemistry between the examined metal ions. As can be expected from mixtures of amphoteric surfactants, the interactions were strongly pH-dependent. Strong correlation was found between interaction parameter ?(?) for mixed monolayer formation and the phase-transfer efficiency of Ni(2+) complexes with 4-C12-DTPA during flotation in a customized flotation cell. In a mixture of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), the significant difference in conditional stability constants (log K) between the metal complexes was utilized to selectively recover the metal complex with the highest log K (Cu(2+)) by ion flotation. Flotation experiments in an excess concentration of metal ions confirmed the coordination of more than one metal ion to the headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA. PMID:24824327

  18. Capillary electrophoresis for trace metal ion analysis in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Fung, Y S; Tung, H S

    1999-07-01

    A new buffer system consisting of 30 mM hydroxylamine hydrochloride, 0.1 mM 1,10-phenanthroline, 1% methanol and pH 3.7 was optimized for simultaneous determination of water and acid leachable metals from respirable, fine and coarse air particulate matters. A reducing environment was used to resolve metal ions with variable oxidation states. A suitable counteranion was employed to enable acidic pH to be used and methanol was added to improve the resolution of the electropherograms and to achieve simultaneous determination of several metal ions. Compared to existing capillary electrophoresis (CE) buffers, the buffer developed, based on direct UV detection of ion-pair with weak interaction, gives improved resolution and sharper, more stable and well-resolved peaks. It detects total irons and solves interfering problems due to the variable oxidation states of iron in environmental samples. Compared to existing mostly alkaline CE buffers for metal analysis, the acidic nature of the buffer system developed makes the pretreatment step simpler and reduces the risk of reagent contamination. Satisfactory working ranges (15-5500 ppb) and detection limits (0.5-3 ppb) were obtained for leachable Zn, Cu, Co, Fe and Cd. The NIST 1648 urban particulate matters were found to leach out 2.53-42.8% water-extractable and 2.76-71.7% acid-extractable Zn, Cu, Fe and Cd. High iron contents, and lower copper and zinc concentrations were found in respirable suspended particulates (RSP) sampled in Hong Kong. PMID:10445323

  19. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold (Woodland Hills, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA); Specht, Eugene R. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    To increase the operating temperature of a reactor, the melting point and mechanical properties of the fuel must be increased. For an actinide-rich fuel, yttrium, lanthanum and/or rare earth elements can be added, as stabilizers, to uranium and plutonium and/or a mixture of other actinides to raise the melting point of the fuel and improve its mechanical properties. Since only about 1% of the actinide fuel may be yttrium, lanthanum, or a rare earth element, the neutron penalty is low, the reactor core size can be reduced, the fuel can be burned efficiently, reprocessing requirements are reduced, and the nuclear waste disposal volumes reduced. A further advantage occurs when yttrium, lanthanum, and/or other rare earth elements are exposed to radiation in a reactor, they produce only short half life radioisotopes, which reduce nuclear waste disposal problems through much shorter assured-isolation requirements.

  20. Ions upstream of the earth's bow shock - A theoretical comparison of alternative source populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, S. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    The trajectories of ions reflected or leaked upstream from the earth's bow shock and subject solely to the Lorentz force in a steady interplanetary magnetic field B and the V x B electric field are studied theoretically. Expressions are obtained for the guiding center motion and gyromotion in a frame (the Hoffman-Teller frame) moving parallel to the shock surface with sufficient speed to transform the incident solar wind velocity into motion entirely along the interplanetary magnetic field. Equations are derived which transform these motions back to the observer's frame. The predicted upstream motions for four different source models for upstream ions are compared using these expressions: magnetic moment-conserving reflection of solar wind ions, specular reflection of solar wind ions, magnetic moment-conserving leakage of magnetosheath ions, and leakage of magnetosheath ions parallel to the shock normal.

  1. Application of ion beams for preparation of TiO 2 thin film photocatalysts operatable under visible light irradiation: Ion-assisted deposition and metal ion-implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yamashita; M. Harada; J. Misaka; H. Nakao; M. Takeuchi; M. Anpo

    2003-01-01

    The visible light sensitive TiO2 thin film photocatalysts can be developed by the application of ion beam techniques, i.e. the combination of an ion-assisted deposition (IAD) method and a metal ion-implantation. The transparent TiO2 thin film photocatalysts have been prepared on silica glass plate by the IAD method. Then the transition metal ions (V+) were implanted into the TiO2 thin

  2. Origins of bad-metal conductivity and the insulator-metal transition in the rare-earth nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, R.; Ha, Sieu D.; Silevitch, D. M.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2014-04-01

    For most metals, increasing temperature (T) or disorder hastens electron scattering. The electronic conductivity (?) decreases as T rises because electrons are more rapidly scattered by lattice vibrations. The value of ? decreases as disorder increases because electrons are more rapidly scattered by imperfections in the material. This is the scattering rate hypothesis, which has guided our understanding of metal conductivity for over a century. However, for so-called bad metals with very low ? this hypothesis predicts scattering rates so high as to conflict with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Bad-metal conductivity has remained a puzzle since its initial discovery in the 1980s in high-temperature superconductors. Here we introduce the rare-earth nickelates (RNiO3, R = rare-earth) as a class of bad metals. We study SmNiO3 thin films using infrared spectroscopy while varying T and disorder. We show that the interaction between lattice distortions and Ni-O covalence explains bad-metal conductivity and the insulator-metal transition. This interaction shifts spectral weight over the large energy scale established by the Ni-O orbital interaction, thus enabling very low ? without violating the uncertainty principle.

  3. Extent and mechanism of metal ion incorporation into precipitated ferrites.

    PubMed

    Klas, Sivan; Dubowski, Yael; Pritosiwi, Gumelar; Gerth, Joachim; Calmano, Wolfgang; Lahav, Ori

    2011-06-01

    The ability of many noniron metals to be incorporated into the structure of ferrites is being utilized in numerous industrial and environmental applications. The incorporation of some of these metals during Fe(II) oxidation-induced precipitation at moderate temperatures (80-100°C) appears to be limited, for reasons not fully understood, and to extents not always agreed (e.g., Ni(2+), Cr(3+)). In this paper, the incorporation maxima of six metals into the structure of precipitated ferrites (in terms of x in Me(x)Fe(3-)(x)O(4), Me represents a noniron metal) were concluded to be 1.0, 1.0, 0.78, 0.49, 0.35, and 0.0 for Zn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Al(3+), Cd(2+) and Cr(3+), respectively. With the exception of the much larger Cd(2+), these values were associated with kinetic considerations controlled by the H(2)O exchange rate between the hydration shells surrounding the dissolved metal ion. PMID:21421219

  4. Process for recovering niobium and\\/or tantalum metal compound from such ores further containing complexes of uranium, thorium, titanium and\\/or rare earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Floeter; G. Schoening; K. Schroeer

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering one or more non-radioactive transition metal compounds from an ore containing one or more compounds of said transition metal or metals and further containing at least one complex of a member selected from the group consisting of uranium, thorium, radium, titanium, and rare earth metals, which comprises decomposing said ore in crushed condition by means of

  5. Mutation of outer-shell residues modulates metal ion co-ordination strength in a metalloenzyme.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jee-Loon; Jackson, Colin J; Carr, Paul D; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Schenk, Gerhard; Gahan, Lawrence R; Ollis, David L

    2010-07-15

    The metal ion co-ordination sites of many metalloproteins have been characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques and small-molecule model systems, revealing many important insights into the structural determinants of metal ion co-ordination. However, our understanding of this fundamentally and practically important phenomenon remains frustratingly simplistic; in many proteins it is essentially impossible to predict metal ion specificity and the effects of remote 'outer-shell' residues on metal ion co-ordination strength are also poorly defined. This is exemplified by our inability to explain why metalloenzymes with identical metal ion co-ordination spheres, such as the closely related orthologues of bacterial PTE (phosphotriesterase) from Agrobacterium radiobacter and Pseudomonas diminuta, display different metal ion specificity and co-ordination strength. In the present study, we present a series of PTE variants that all possess identical metal ion co-ordination spheres, yet display large differences in their metal ion co-ordination strength. Using measurement of the rates of metal ion dissociation from the active site alongside analysis of structural data obtained through X-ray crystallography, we show that 'outer-shell' residues provide essential support for the metal ion ligands, in effect buttressing them in their optimal orientation. Remote mutations appear to modulate metal ion interactions by increasing or decreasing the stabilizing effects of these networks. The present study therefore provides a description of how the greater protein fold can be modified to 'tune' the strength of metal ion co-ordination and metal ion specificity, as well as reinforcing the concept of proteins as ensembles of conformational states with unique structures and biochemical properties. PMID:20459397

  6. Theoretical studies of nonradiative 4f4f multiphonon transitions in dielectric crystals containing rare earth ions

    E-print Network

    Saikin, Semion

    rare earth ions B.Z. Malkin a,*, K.K. Pukhov b , S.K. Saikin a,c , E.I. Baibekov a , A.R. Zakirov of rare earth (RE) ions are predominantly determined by the energy gap and the particular host crystal

  7. Global transport and localized layering of metallic ions in the upper atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Carter; J. M. Forbes

    1999-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed which is capable of simulating all phases of the life cycle of metallic ions, and results are described and interpreted herein for the typical case of Fe+ ions. This cycle begins with the initial deposition of metallics through meteor ablation and sputtering, followed by conversion of neutral Fe atoms to ions through photoionization and

  8. Depth profile of residual stress in metal-ion implanted TiN coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Rafaja; Václav Valvoda; Anthony J. Perry; James R. Treglio

    1997-01-01

    Titanium nitride coatings made by conventional CVD were implanted with metal ions of different species at various energies. Changes occurring in the host structure after the ion implantation were studied using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. One consequence of the metal ion implantation was an increase of the compressive residual stress in the implantation affected zone. The depth profile of the

  9. The Effect of Complex Formation upon the Redox Potentials of Metallic Ions. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes experiments in which students prepare in situ soluble complexes of metal ions with different ligands and observe and estimate the change in formal potential that the ion undergoes upon complexation. Discusses student formation and analysis of soluble complexes of two different metal ions with the same ligand. (CW)

  10. Coexisting Kinetically Distinguishable Forms of Dialkylglycine Decarboxylase Engendered by Alkali Metal Ions

    E-print Network

    Toney, Michael

    Coexisting Kinetically Distinguishable Forms of Dialkylglycine Decarboxylase Engendered by Alkali decarboxylase (DGD) specifically binds alkali metal ions near the active site. Large ions (Rb+, K+) activate. These results suggest that the structure of the protein around the alkali metal ion determines

  11. The titration curve of insulin in the presence of various bivalent metal ions

    PubMed Central

    Graae, John

    1968-01-01

    1. Titration curves of insulin in the presence and absence of various metal ions are reported. 2. The difference in base consumption with and without the metal ions is compared with calculated curves. 3. These experiments suggest that in dilute solutions Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions are bound to ?-amino groups. PMID:5637362

  12. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A L; Stasinska, A; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

    2015-09-01

    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children. PMID:25984984

  13. Advances in the design of heavy alkaline earth metal complexes as precursors for chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Anna Yosick

    The heavy alkaline earth metals, calcium, strontium, and barium, are components in thin films with electronic properties such as high-capacitance, superconductance and electroluminescence. The formation of these thin films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods requires precursors that are volatile, but the high reactivity of the heavy alkaline earth metal precursors has made this challenging. Historically, heavy alkaline earth metal beta-diketonates have been utilized as precursors, but their tendency towards aggregation and hydrolysis affords high molecular weight compounds with low volatility. The lack of a suitable heavy alkaline earth metal precursor is a major limiting factor in the production of these electronic thin films by CVD. As a result, improved precursor materials have been pursued, yet a number of drawbacks, including limited synthetic methodologies, lack of availability, and incorporation of undesired elements into the films, have prevented their widespread use in industry. This thesis work focuses on the development of novel alkaline earth metal precursors based on pyrazolate and beta-ketoiminate ligand systems, which are thermally robust, readily available, and devoid of undesired elements such as silicon and fluorine. One of the key factors in precursor design is control of the coordination environment of the metal, to prevent aggregation and hydrolysis, and to keep the volatility high. However, the coordination chemistry of the heavy alkaline earth metals is only in its infancy, which is a major roadblock in the design of future precursors. Concurrently with the development of new precursors, this thesis work uncovers new insights into their coordination chemistry, most significantly, the effects of agostic interactions on the thermal stability of the compounds. Secondary interactions, such as agostics and pi-bonding, appear to play a large role in the coordination chemistry of these metals, with implications in the design of future precursors. Additional findings in this work reveal the reproducible formation of an alkaline earth metal-hydroxide framework with triply bridging pyrazolate ligands in novel binding modes. Furthermore, the effect of synthetic methodologies on a beta-ketoiminate ligand system is presented, specifically, the use of direct metallation by ammonia activation.

  14. Diastereoselective pinacol coupling of alkyl aryl ketones with rare earth metals in the presence of chlorosilanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiya Ogawa; Hiroki Takeuchi; Toshikazu Hirao

    1999-01-01

    Rare earth metals (Ln) are found to act as useful reducing agents for the pinacol coupling reaction of alkyl aryl ketones in the presence of chlorosilanes. Although the hitherto known pinacol coupling reaction using rare earth reducing agents generally exhibits very low diastereoselectivities, the present pinacol coupling by use of a LnR3SiCl system usually indicates higher diastereoselectivities. In particular, a

  15. Low Temperature Resistivity of Yttrium-Based Alloys Containing Small Amounts of Rare Earth Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Sugawara

    1965-01-01

    The resistivity of the dilute alloys of rare earth metals with yttrium has been measured at low temperatures. The result is in qualitative agreement with the recent theories due to Kondo and others on the s--d or s--f scattering. The effective s--f exchange integrals for various rare-earth solutes have been derived from the analysis of the resistivity data and compared

  16. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel–metal–hydride batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo Rodrigues; Marcelo Borges Mansur

    2010-01-01

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2–10.9%), cobalt (5.1–5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3–29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium

  17. Rare earth ion doped non linear laser crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaque, D.; Romero, J. J.; Ramirez, M. O.; Garcia, J. A. S.; de Las Heras, C.; Bausa, L. E.; Sole, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We show how non linear crystals activated with Yb3+ or Nd3+ ions can be used to develop diode pumped solid state lasers emitting in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For this purpose we have selected relevant examples of systems investigated in our laboratory.

  18. Correlation between the limiting pH of metal ion solubility and total metal concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Apak, R.; Hizal, J.; Ustaer, C. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)] [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

    1999-03-15

    As an alternative to species distribution diagrams (pM vs pH curves in aqueous solution) drawn for a fixed total metal concentration, this work has developed simple linear models for correlating the limiting pH of metal ion solubility -- in equilibrium with the least soluble amorphous metal hydroxide solid phase -- to the total metal concentration. Thus adsorptive metal removal processes in complex systems can be better designed once the limiting pH of heavy metal solubility (i.e., pH{sup *}) in such a complex environment can be envisaged by simple linear equations. pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} (M{sub t} = total metal concentration that can exist in aqueous solution in equilibrium with M(OH){sub 2(s)}) linear curves for uranyl-hydroxide, uranyl-carbonate-hydroxide, and mercuric-chloride-hydroxide simple and mixed-ligand systems and cupric-carbonate-hydroxide complexes in equilibrium with mixed hydroxide solid phases may enable the experimental chemist to distinguish true adsorption (e.g., onto hydrous oxide sorbents) from bulk precipitation removal of the metal and to interpret some anomalous metal fixation data -- usually attributed to pure adsorption in the literature -- with precipitation if the pM{sub t} at the studied pH is lower than that tolerated by pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} curves. This easily predictable pH{sup *} corresponding to a given pM{sub t} may aid the design of desorptive mobilization experiments for certain metals as well as their adsorptive removal with the purpose of simulating metal adsorption and desorption cycles in real complex environments with changing groundwater pH.

  19. Catalytic properties of ion-bombarded non-metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, G. K.; Zucholl, K.; Folger, H.

    1984-02-01

    Sputtering, ion implantation and ion beam mixing are useful new techniques for producing catalysts consisting of an active metal introduced in a non-active substrate. We studied the performance of implanted and ion beam mixed electrocatalysts containing platinum as the active component in graphite or RuO 2 substrates. The specimens were used as electrodes in electrochemical cells and their activity was studied for the oxidation of formic acid and methanol, the reduction of oxygen and the evolution of hydrogen. All reactions are important for fuel cells and hydrogen production. The intermixing of a thin Pt layer with a RuO 2 substrate by means of 150 keV Kr + beams did not change the activity, normalized to a standard Pt surface concentration, for formic acid oxidation and oxygen reduction. The activity for methanol oxidation, however, decreased with increasing mixing dose and was nearly zero for implanted Pt in RuO 2. For Pt on graphite substrates the activity for all reactions increased with the mixing dose up to 10 16{Kr +}/{cm 2}, and decreased or saturated above this value. The observed dependency of the activity on the individual chemical reaction as well as on the type of substrate was explained provisionally by a cooperation of small particle effects and metal-substrate interactions.

  20. Global transport and localized layering of metallic ions in the upper atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Global transport and localized layering of metallic ions in the upper atmosphere L. N. Carter1 , J of the physical and chemical processes aecting atmospheric metallics. Model output analysis con®rms the dominant history of observational work Metallic ions have been the focus of upper atmosphere scienti

  1. Negative Ion Laser Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Mass Selected Small Metal Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Ho

    1991-01-01

    Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study various small metal clusters. In these experiments, a mass-selected beam of metal cluster anions is probed by continuous monochromatic laser radiation, and the kinetic energy distribution of photoelectrons detached from the negative ions is measured. The photoelectron spectra provide important information on electronic and vibrational structure, as well as metal bonding properties.

  2. Liquid metal batteries : ambipolar electrolysis and alkaline earth electroalloying cells

    E-print Network

    Bradwell, David (David Johnathon)

    2011-01-01

    Three novel forms of liquid metal batteries were conceived, studied, and operated, and their suitability for grid-scale energy storage applications was evaluated. A ZnlITe ambipolar electrolysis cell comprising ZnTe dissolved ...

  3. Recent progress in fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors for detection of precious metal ions (silver, gold and platinum ions).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun Feng; Zhou, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung; Kim, Jong Seung

    2011-07-01

    Due to the wide range of applications and biological significance, the development of optical probes for silver, gold and platinum ions has been an active research area in the past few years. This tutorial review focuses on the recent contributions concerning the fluorescent or colorimetric sensors for these metal ions, and is organized according to their structural classifications (for Ag(+) detection) and unique mechanisms between the sensors and metal ions (for Au(3+) and Pt(2+) detection). PMID:21491036

  4. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of metal clusters, metal-organic clusters, metal oxides, and metal-doped silicon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weijun

    The techniques of time-of-flight mass spectrometry and negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized to study metal clusters (Mgn -, Znn-, Can -, Mnn-, CuAln -, LiAln-, and NmSn n-), metal-organic complexes (Tin(benzene) m-, Fn(benzene)m- , Nin(benzene)m-), metal oxides(AuO-, PtO-, TaOn -, HfO2-, and MnnO -), and metal-doped semiconductor clusters (CrSin -, GdmSin- and HoSi n-). The study of magnesium and zinc cluster anions shows that they have magic numbers at size 9, 19 and 34, and the closures and reopenings of the s-p band gap are related to the mass spectra magic numbers. The evolution of electronic structure in Can clusters resembles that of Mgn - and Znn- with band gap closure and reopening. However, the electronic structures Can- clusters are more complicated and the magic numbers are different from those of Mgn- and Znn -. That might due to the involvement of calcium's empty d orbitals. In Mn clusters, a dramatic change of electronic structure was observed at Mn5-. The transition of metallic and magnetic properties is strongly related to the s-d hybridization. The photoelectron study of LiAln- is consistent with theoretical predictions, which described LiAl13 as alkali-halide-like ionic entity, Li+(Al13)-. The results of CuAln- show that copper atom might occupy interior position in these clusters. The results of Nam Snn- implied that Na4Sn 4 and NaSn5- could be described as (Na +)4Sn44- and (Na +)Sn52-, respectively. The formation of these species indicates the existence of Zintl phase structure in the gas phase. Tin(Bz)n+1- clusters have multiple-decker sandwich structures with each titanium atom located between two parallel benzene rings. The structures of Fen(Bz)m - and Nin(Bz)m- are characterized with a metal cluster core caged by benzene molecules. The information for the electronic states of PtO, AuO, and TaOn (n = 1--3) were obtained from the photoelectron spectra of their corresponding negative ions. The coincidence between electron affinity and thermodynamic stability was observed in the investigation of ZrO2 - and HfO2-. The studies of MnnO- revealed that addition of oxygen atom could change the magnetic momentum and magnetic coupling in the Mn clusters. The photoelectron spectra of CrSin- (n = 8--12) support the earlier theoretical calculations which found CrSi 12 to be an enhanced stability cluster with its chromium atom encapsulated inside a silicon cage and with its magnetic moment completely quenched by the effects of the surrounding cage. The preliminary results of GdSi n- show that GdSi4, GdSi6 and GdSi9 might be different from their counterparts.

  5. Valence-shell double photoionization of alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheifets, A. S.; Bray, Igor

    2007-04-01

    We apply the convergent close-coupling formalism to describe direct double photoionization (DPI) of the valence ns2 shell of alkaline-earth-metal atoms: beryllium (n=2) , magnesium (n=3) , and calcium (n=4) . We consider the range of photon energies below the onset of resonant and Auger ionization processes where the subvalent and core electrons can be treated as spectators. By comparing alkaline-earth-metal atoms with helium, we elucidate the role of the ground state and final ionized state correlations in DPI of various quasi-two-electron atoms.

  6. Extraction of trivalent rare-earth metal nitrates from concentrated aqueous salt solutions by triisoamyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Pyartman, A.K.; Keskinov, V.A.; Puzikov, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Equations are proposed for describing isotherms of extraction of trivalent rare earth metal nitrates from concentrated aqueous salt solutions by neat triisoamyl phosphate, which allow for variations in the activity coefficients of the components in organic phase over a wide range of its compositions. The phase extraction constants have been determined, with a hypothetical 1 mol kg{sup {minus}1} aqueous solution of a rare-earth metal nitrate and the state of pure components in organic phase with a mole fraction of 1.0 taken as standard.

  7. Performance and Comparison of Lithium-Ion Batteries Under Low-Earth-Orbit Mission Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Gitzendanner, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The performance of two 28 V, 25 Ah lithium-ion batteries is being evaluated under low-Earth-orbit mission profiles for satellite and orbiter applications. The batteries are undergoing life testing and have achieved over 12,000 cycles to 40 percent depth-of-discharge.

  8. THE EFFECT OF SULFATE ION ON THE CRYSTAL SIZE OF PRECIPITATED RARE EARTH OXALATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Glasner; M. Steinberg; E. Levy

    1959-01-01

    In separating rare earths from other cations in the form of insoluble ; oxalatess it was found that well grown crystals were precipitated from solutions ; due to the effect of the sulfate ion. lt is pointed out that the precipitate from ; HNOâ solution is a collection of aggregates of small crystals, while those ; obtained from the sulfuric

  9. Influence of the Size of Rare Earth Ions on the Surface Crystallization of Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guolun Zhong; Binying Pu; Yu Feng; Kongzhang Yang

    1999-01-01

    ?-A isotherms of RE(TTA)3Phen (RE = La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Y; TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone; Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) mixing with arachidic acid (AA) in molar ratio of 1:1 and influence of rare earth ions in complexes on the surface crystallization of monolayers were studied in this paper.

  10. Sun–Earth geometry, geomagnetic activity, and planetary F2 layer ion density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaman-Lal

    2000-01-01

    Our previous quantitative analyses have shown that geomagnetic activity and planetary ion density of the F2 layer of the ionosphere seem to share the same parent cause, the solar wind, whose entry into geospace is controlled by the Sun–Earth geometry. The thrust of this paper is four fold: (a) to establish the reality of this not clearly recognized connection, (b)

  11. Matrix Elements and Operator Equivalents Connected with the Magnetic Properties of Rare Earth Ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K W H Stevens; K. W. H

    1952-01-01

    An account is given of the methods used to determine the matrix elements of crystal field potentials with particular reference to rare earth ions. Emphasis is laid on the importance of Wigner coefficients in such problems and the idea of using equivalent angular momentum operators is developed. For convenience in applying the results tables of matrix elements are included.

  12. An experimental test of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron instability within the earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Examples of propagating electromagnetic Alfven/ion cyclotron waves in plasma particle and magnetic field data observed by the ATS-6 geostationary satellite are discussed. These waves were viewed mainly near the afternoon and dusk regions of the earth's magnetosphere with normalized frequencies in the 0.05 to 0.5 range. Two wave events were analyzed: both appeared coincidentally with the encounter of cool plasma populations which joined the hot populations already present. An electromagnetic ion cyclotron instability was proposed as the wave generation mechanism; this theory was tested by evaluating the linear growth integrals under the measured anisotropic hot ion distribution.

  13. High-resolution mass spectrometer for liquid metal ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wortmann, Martin; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Meijer, Jan [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Universität Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)] [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Universität Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Recently, a mass spectrometer for liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) has been built and set into operation. This device uses an E×B-filter as mass dispersive element and provides sufficient resolution to analyse the emission of clusters from LMIS to much higher mass ranges (>2000 amu) than commercially available mass filters for focused ion beam systems. It has also been shown that for small masses the composition of clusters from different isotopes can be resolved. Furthermore, a rather high fluence of monodisperse clusters in the range of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} clusters/s can be achieved with this setup. This makes it a promising tool for the preparation of mass selected clusters. In this contribution, theoretical considerations as well as technical details and the results of first measurements are presented.

  14. Studies on Microbial Heavy Metal Retention from Uranium Mine Drainage Water with Special Emphasis on Rare Earth Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Merten; E. Kothe; G. Büchel

    2004-01-01

    Microbial heavy metal retention was studied using seepage water sampled from a former uranium mining site in Eastern Thuringia, Germany. The seepage water has a low pH and contains high concentrations of metals, including uranium, rare earth elements (REE), and other heavy metals. Microbial influence on sorption and\\/or active uptake of heavy metals was studied using REE patterns. Incubation of

  15. Spectropolarimetric titrimetry of metal ions and optically active chelating agents

    E-print Network

    Caldwell, Donald Lee

    1969-01-01

    in approximately 0. 001 N solu- tion is descrioed. Experimental conditions necessary for the successful applicatr~on of spcctropolarimetric titrimetry are listed and evaluated. Pari, ial optical rotatory dispersion curves of the i'ouz teen metal ion-1-PDTA... of an The citations on the following pages follow the style of Anal cical Chemist~r 1 J. B. Biot, Mem. de 1'Inst. , 1$, Part I, 1 (1812). (2) J. B. Biot, Mt. m. Aced. Sci. , 1), g9 (18/5). ($) J. B. B'ot, ibid, d lgd 9$ (18/8). (4) J. B. Blot, , ioid , 2, 41 (1817...

  16. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  17. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  18. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of bare transition metal dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Beau J.

    This thesis contains gas phase negative ion photoelectron spectra of Mo2, MoV, CrCu, MoCu and Cu2. Spectra were taken with 488 nm and 514 nm light at a resolution of 4-5 meV. Information such as electron affinities, vibrational frequencies, anharmonicities and bond dissociation energies are reported for the ground and excited electronic states of both the anion and neutral species. Theoretical calculations at the density functional level are also reported for these species. Experiment and theory are used to analyze the bonding in these bare transition metal dimers.

  19. Metal-ion metathesis in metal-organic frameworks: a synthetic route to new metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonghwi; Das, Sunirban; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Hong, Soonsang; Kim, Min Gyu; Yoon, Minyoung; Natarajan, Srinivasan; Kim, Kimoon

    2012-12-21

    A porous metal-organic framework, Mn(H(3)O)[(Mn(4)Cl)(3)(hmtt)(8)] (POST-65), was prepared by the reaction of 5,5',10,10',15,15'-hexamethyltruxene-2,7,12-tricarboxylic acid (H(3)hmtt) with MnCl(2) under solvothermal conditions. POST-65(Mn) was subjected to post-synthetic modification with Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu according to an ion-exchange method that resulted in the formation of three isomorphous frameworks, POST-65(Co/Ni/Cu), as well as a new framework, POST-65(Fe). The ion-exchanged samples could not be prepared by regular solvothermal reactions. The complete exchange of the metal ions and retention of the framework structure were verified by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface-area analysis. Single-crystal X-ray diffractions studies revealed a single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC)-transformation nature of the ion-exchange process. Hydrogen-sorption and magnetization measurements showed metal-specific properties of POST-65. PMID:23154964

  20. Role of metal ion incorporation in ion exchange resin on the selectivity of fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natrayasamy Viswanathan; S. Meenakshi

    2009-01-01

    Indion FR 10 resin has sulphonic acid functional group (H+ form) possesses appreciable defluoridation capacity (DC) and its DC has been enhanced by chemical modification into Na+ and Al3+ forms by loading respective metal ions in H+ form of resin. The DCs of Na+ and Al3+ forms were found to be 445 and 478mgF?\\/kg, respectively, whereas the DC of H+

  1. Low jitter metal vapor vacuum arc ion source for electron beam ion trap injections

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Glenn E.; Boyer, Craig N.; Seely, John F.; Tan, J.N.; Pomeroy, J.M.; Gillaspy, J.D. [SFA Inc., 2200 Defense Highway, Suite 405, Crofton, Maryland 21114 (United States); Praxis Inc., 2200 Mill Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314 (United States); Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2005-07-15

    We describe a metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) ion source containing eight different cathodes that are individually selectable via the control electronics which does not require moving components in vacuum. Inside the vacuum assembly, the arc plasma is produced by means of a 30 {mu}s pulse (26 kV,125 A) delivering 2.4 mC of charge to the cathode sample material. The trigger jitter is minimized (<200 ns) to improve the capture efficiency of the ions which are injected into an ion trap. During a single discharge, the over-damped pulse produces an ion flux of 8.4x10{sup 9} ions/cm{sup 2}, measured by an unbiased Faraday cup positioned 20 cm from the extractor grid, at discharge rates up to 5 Hz. The electronic triggering of the discharge is via a fiber optic interface. We present the design, fabrication details, and performance of this MeVVA, recently installed on the National Institute of Standards and Technology electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

  2. First-principles study of He point-defects in HCP rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yang; Chen, Ru; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Wu, Z.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao

    2011-05-01

    He defect properties in Sc, Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu were studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the formation energy of an interstitial He atom is smaller than that of a substitutional He atom in all hcp rare-earth metals considered. Furthermore, the tetrahedral interstitial position is more favorable than an octahedral position for He defects. The results are compared with those from bcc and fcc metals.

  3. Gas-phase formation of large neutral alkaline-earth metal tryptophan complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Marksteiner; Philipp Haslinger; Hendrik Ulbricht; Michele Sclafani; Harald Oberhofer; Christoph Dellago; Markus Arndt

    2008-01-01

    We report on the first observation of isolated large neutral metal amino acid complexes such as Trp\\u000a n\\u000a Me\\u000a k\\u000a , with Me = Ca, Ba, Sr, cluster combinations covering n = 1–33, k = 0..2 and masses beyond 6500 u. The cluster beam is generated using UV laser desorption from a mixed powder of alkaline-earth\\u000a metal salts and tryptophan

  4. The observation of photon echoes from evanescently coupled rare-earth ions in a planar waveguide

    E-print Network

    Sara Marzban; John G. Bartholomew; Stephen Madden; Khu Vu; Matthew J. Sellars

    2015-03-01

    We report the measurement of the inhomogeneous linewidth, homogeneous linewidth and spin state lifetime of Pr3+ ions in a novel waveguide architecture. The TeO2 slab waveguide deposited on a bulk Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal allows the 3H4 - 1D2 transition of Pr3+ ions to be probed by the optical evanescent field that extends into the substrate. The 2 GHz inhomogeneous linewidth, the optical coherence time of 70 +- 5 us, and the spin state lifetime of 9.8 +- 0.3 s indicate that the properties of ions interacting with the waveguide mode are consistent with those of bulk ions. This result establishes the foundation for large, integrated and high performance rare-earth-ion quantum systems based on a waveguide platform.

  5. Observation of Photon Echoes From Evanescently Coupled Rare-Earth Ions in a Planar Waveguide.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Sara; Bartholomew, John G; Madden, Stephen; Vu, Khu; Sellars, Matthew J

    2015-07-01

    We report the measurement of the inhomogeneous linewidth, homogeneous linewidth, and spin-state lifetime of Pr^{3+} ions in a novel waveguide architecture. The TeO_{2} slab waveguide deposited on a bulk Pr^{3+}?Y_{2}SiO_{5} crystal allows the ^{3}H_{4}?^{1}D_{2} transition of Pr^{3+} ions to be probed by the optical evanescent field that extends into the substrate. The 2-GHz inhomogeneous linewidth, the optical coherence time of 70±5???s, and the spin-state lifetime of 9.8±0.3??s indicate that the properties of ions interacting with the waveguide mode are consistent with those of bulk ions. This result establishes the foundation for large, integrated, and high performance rare-earth-ion quantum systems based on a waveguide platform. PMID:26182097

  6. THE HEATS OF FUSION AND TRANSITION OF ALKALINE EARTH AND RARE EARTH METAL HALIDES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Dworkin; M. A. Bredig

    1963-01-01

    The heats of fusion of fifteen rare earth and alkaline earth halides ; were measured by means of a copper block drop calorimeter. The salts and their ; heats of fusion in kcal mole⁻¹ are LaClâ, 13.0; PrClâ, 12.1; ; NdClâ, 12.0; C eIâ, 12.4; PrIâ, 12.7; NdIâ, 9.7; CaCl\\/sub ; 2\\/, 6.78; CaBrâ, 6.95; C aIâ, 10.0; SrClâ, 3.88;

  7. Metal Ion Dependence of the Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Makaroff, Katherine; Paz, Nicholas; Aitha, Mahesh; Crowder, Michael W; Tierney, David L

    2015-06-16

    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) plays crucial roles in disease-related physiologies and pathological processes in the human body. We report here solution studies of MMP-1, including characterization of a series of mutants designed to bind metal in either the catalytic site or the structural site (but not both). Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy of the mutants demonstrate the importance of the structural Zn(II) in maintaining both secondary and tertiary structure, while UV-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure show its presence influences the catalytic metal ion's coordination number. The mutants allow us to demonstrate convincingly the preparation of a mixed-metal analogue, CoCZnS-MMP-1, with Zn(II) in the structural site and Co(II) in the catalytic site. Stopped-flow fluorescence of the native form, ZnCZnS-MMP-1, and the mixed-metal CoCZnS-MMP-1 analogue shows that the internal fluorescence of a nearby Trp residue is modulated with catalysis and can be used to monitor reactivity under a number of conditions, opening the door to substrate profiling. PMID:26018933

  8. Coupling of a locally implanted rare-earth ion ensemble to a superconducting micro-resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisby, I.; de Graaf, S. E.; Gwilliam, R.; Adamyan, A.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Meeson, P. J.; Tzalenchuk, A. Ya.; Lindström, T.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of rare-earth ions locally implanted in a substrate (Gd3+ in Al2O3) to a superconducting NbN lumped-element micro-resonator. The hybrid device is fabricated by a controlled ion implantation of rare-earth ions in well-defined micron-sized areas, aligned to lithographically defined micro-resonators. The technique does not degrade the internal quality factor of the resonators which remain above 105. Using microwave absorption spectroscopy, we observe electron-spin resonances in good agreement with numerical modelling and extract corresponding coupling rates of the order of 1 MHz and spin linewidths of 50-65 MHz.

  9. Coupling of a locally implanted rare-earth ion ensemble to a superconducting micro-resonator

    E-print Network

    I. Wisby; S. E. de Graaf; R. Gwilliam; A. Adamyan; S. Kubatkin; P. J. Meeson; A. Ya. Tzalenchuk; T. Lindström

    2014-09-10

    We demonstrate the coupling of rare-earth ions locally implanted in a substrate (Gd$^{3+}$ in Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$) to a superconducting NbN lumped-element micro-resonator. The hybrid device is fabricated by a controlled ion implantation of rare-earth ions in well-defined micron-sized areas, aligned to lithographically defined micro-resonators. The technique does not degrade the internal quality factor of the resonators which remain above $10^{5}$. Using microwave absorption spectroscopy we observe electron-spin resonances in good agreement with numerical modelling and extract corresponding coupling rates of the order of $1$ MHz and spin linewidths of $50 - 65$ MHz.

  10. Adsorption of metal ions by pecan shell-based granular activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R Bansode; J. N Losso; W. E Marshall; R. M Rao; R. J Portier

    2003-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption effectiveness of pecan shell-based granular activated carbons (GACs) in removing metal ions (Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+) commonly found in municipal and industrial wastewater. Pecan shells were activated by phosphoric acid, steam or carbon dioxide activation methods. Metal ion adsorption of shell-based GACs was compared to the metal ion adsorption of a commercial

  11. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported chelating polymer resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ravikumar Reddy; K. Hussain Reddy

    2003-01-01

    Metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported chelating polymer resins functionalized with (i) glycine, (ii) hydroxy\\u000a benzoic acid, (iii) Schiff base and (iv) diethanol amine have been investigated. The effects of pH, time and initial concentration\\u000a on the uptake of metal ions have been studied. The uptake of metal ion depends on pH. The resins are more selective at pH\\u000a 10

  12. Cellular Response to Metallic Ions Released from Nickel-Chromium Dental Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Bumgardner; L. C. Lucas

    1995-01-01

    Concerns exist over the potential release of elevated levels of metal ions such as Ni and Be from Ni-Cr dental casting alloys, due to their susceptibility to accelerated corrosion. In this investigation, we evaluated the release of metal ions from four commercial Ni-Cr alloys, representing a range of compositions, in three-day cell culture tests. Metal ion release, as measured by

  13. Macroparticle free metal plasma immersion ion implantation and\\/or deposition in a multifunctional configuration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Zhang; B. Y Tang; Z. M Zeng; Q. C Chen; X. B Tian; T. K Kwok; P. K Chu; O. R Monteiro; I. G Brown

    2000-01-01

    For high-dose metal ion implantation, the use of plasma immersion offers the high-rate advantage, but the simultaneous formation of a surface film along with the sub-surface implanted layer is sometimes a detriment. In this work, we describe a metal plasma immersion approach in which pure and macro-particle free implantation (metal and\\/or gas ions), pure deposition without ion implantation, or dynamic

  14. Structure-property relationships in gas-phase protonated and metalated peptide ions 

    E-print Network

    Slaton, James Garrett

    2009-05-15

    Peptide synthesis and metal doping, combined with mass spectrometric and ion mobility spectrometric techniques, have provided a picture of the fragmentation behavior of a large field of homologous peptide ions, represented ...

  15. Selective exchange of divalent transition metal ions in cryptomelane-type manganic acid with tunnel structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, M. (Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan)); Komarneni, S. (Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Agronomy, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802-4801 (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The ion-exchange selectivity of divalent transition metal ions on cryptomelane-type manganic acid (CMA) with tunnel structure has been studied using the distribution coefficients ([ital K][sub [ital d

  16. Atomistic simulations of low energy ion assisted vapor deposition of metal multilayers

    E-print Network

    Wadley, Haydn

    Atomistic simulations of low energy ion assisted vapor deposition of metal multilayers X. W. Zhoua the first half of each new material layer was deposited without ion assistance, while the remainder of the layer was deposited with an optimum low ion energy assistance of 4 eV. Modulated low energy ion

  17. Blood metal ion testing is an effective screening tool to identify poorly performing metal-on-metal bearing surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sidaginamale, R. P.; Joyce, T. J.; Lord, J. K.; Jefferson, R.; Blain, P. G.; Nargol, A. V. F.; Langton, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this piece of work were to: 1) record the background concentrations of blood chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations in a large group of subjects; 2) to compare blood/serum Cr and Co concentrations with retrieved metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacings; 3) to examine the distribution of Co and Cr in the serum and whole blood of patients with MoM hip arthroplasties; and 4) to further understand the partitioning of metal ions between the serum and whole blood fractions. Methods A total of 3042 blood samples donated to the local transfusion centre were analysed to record Co and Cr concentrations. Also, 91 hip resurfacing devices from patients who had given pre-revision blood/serum samples for metal ion analysis underwent volumetric wear assessment using a coordinate measuring machine. Linear regression analysis was carried out and receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the reliability of metal ions to identify abnormally wearing implants. The relationship between serum and whole blood concentrations of Cr and Co in 1048 patients was analysed using Bland-Altman charts. This relationship was further investigated in an in vitro study during which human blood was spiked with trivalent and hexavalent Cr, the serum then separated and the fractions analysed. Results Only one patient in the transfusion group was found to have a blood Co > 2 µg/l. Blood/Serum Cr and Co concentrations were reliable indicators of abnormal wear. Blood Co appeared to be the most useful clinical test, with a concentration of 4.5 µg/l showing sensitivity and specificity for the detection of abnormal wear of 94% and 95%, respectively. Generated metal ions tended to fill the serum compartment preferentially in vivo and this was replicated in the in vitro study when blood was spiked with trivalent Cr and bivalent Co. Conclusions Blood/serum metal ion concentrations are reliable indicators of abnormal wear processes. Important differences exist however between elements and the blood fraction under study. Future guidelines must take these differences into account. PMID:23836464

  18. Long-lived artificial ion clouds in the earth's ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Milinevsky, G.P. (Kiev Univ., Ukraine (Russian Federation)); Kashirin, A.I. (NPO Typhoon, Obninsk (Russian Federation)); Romanovsky, Yu.A. (Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Stenbaek-Nielson, H.C. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)); Kelley, M.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1993-06-07

    The authors report on two observations made over the Caribbean during the summer of 1991 of barium ion cloud releases, ten hours after the clouds were released. One release was made in the morning twilight, and one in the evening twilight, and each was observed again in the following twilight period by a low light level TV imager and a TV spectrograph onboard a Russian research vessel. These observations were very surprising at the time, but the authors present arguments as to why in retrospect they may not be so unusual in practise. Such cloud releases may provide very sensitive tests of ionspheric convection models.

  19. Behaviour of zirconium, niobium, yttrium and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare-metal

    E-print Network

    Behaviour of zirconium, niobium, yttrium and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare-metal © Emma Rebecca Sheard, 2010 #12;i ABSTRACT The Thor Lake rare-metal (Zr, Nb, Y, REE, Ta, Be, Ga) deposit and the heavy rare earth elements in the world. Much of the potentially economic mineralization was concentrated

  20. Fluoride technology for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Buinovskii, A.S.; Sofronov, V.L.; Chizhikov, V.S.; Shtefan, Yu.P. [and others

    1995-10-20

    Unique specific properties of rare-earth metals (REMs) are to a large extent responsible for the technical progress in many branches of industry, science, and technology. A new fluoride procedure for obtaining high-energy magnetic alloys and ligatures based on rare-earth and transition metals has been proposed.

  1. Photoassociation spectroscopy of cold alkaline-earth-metal atoms near the intercombination line R. Ciurylo,1,2

    E-print Network

    Kotochigova, Svetlana

    Photoassociation spectroscopy of cold alkaline-earth-metal atoms near the intercombination line R interest in the properties of cold alkaline-earth-metal atoms. One of the main reasons for this interest of time [1,2]. In particular, optical clocks based on an intercom- bination transition of alkaline

  2. Investigation of the Structure of Yeast tRNAPhe by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Paramagnetic Rare Earth Ion Probes of Structure

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claude R.; Kearns, David R.

    1974-01-01

    The binding of paramagnetic rare earth ions to yeast tRNAPhe shifts some resonances in the low-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum that have been assigned to ring nitrogen protons of specific Watson-Crick base pairs. The changes in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum as the tRNA is titrated with Eu3+ indicate that 4 (or 5) Eu3+ ions are tightly bound, that the metal binding is in the fast exchange limit, and that the binding to different sites in the molecule is sequential rather than cooperative. The first metal bound simultaneously shifts resonances associated with the dihydrouridine and the -C-C-A stem. This permits us to conclude that the folding of the tRNAPhe in solution brings the phosphate backbone of the -C-C-A and the dihydrouridine stems into close proximity. A model of the three-dimensional structure of tRNAPhe incorporating this new information appears to be compatible with the results obtained from x-ray diffraction. PMID:4610573

  3. Computational study of the complexation of metal ion precursors in dendritic polymers 

    E-print Network

    Tarazona Vasquez, Francisco

    2009-05-15

    applications. Understanding the effect of the environment upon a metal ion-dendrimer system constitutes a step closer to the understanding of the liquid phase templated synthesis of metal nanoparticles. In this dissertation we have used computational techniques...

  4. Accumulation and removal of heavy metal ions by insolubilized-DNA and its interaction.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Kato, K; Nomizu, M; Sakairi, N; Ohkawa, K; Yamamoto, H; Nishi, N

    2000-01-01

    DNA was immobilized onto a porous glass bead by a treatment with UV irradiation. The immobilized DNA was insoluble in water and used for accumulation of heavy metal ion. When DNA-immobilized glass bead was added into aqueous solution containing heavy metal ions, such as Hg2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Fe3+, the concentration of these metal ions in the solution was decreased. However, the concentration of Mg2+ in the solution was not affected by the addition of the DNA-immobilized glass bead. These results suggested that UV-irradiated DNA selectively accumulated heavy metal ions. PMID:12903348

  5. Structure of the alkali-metal-atom + strontium molecular ions: Towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Aymar, M.; Dulieu, O. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, UPR3321, Ba circumflex t. 505, Univ Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Guerout, R. [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, CNRS, ENS, Univ Pierre et Marie Curie case 74, Campus Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-08-14

    The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold lithium or rubidium atom and a strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

  6. Study of double layer rare earth metal conversion coating on aluminum alloy LY12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Xingwen; Cao Chunan; Yao Zhiming; Zhou Derui; Yin Zhongda

    2001-01-01

    The process of the double layer rare earth metal (REM) conversion coating on aluminum alloy LY12 (2024) was introduced in this paper. The corrosion resistance of REM conversion coating was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the coating increased the corrosion resistance (Rp) of the alloy surface, thus reducing the driving force of corrosion. The morphologies of

  7. Energy position of 4f levels in rare-earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Börje Johansson

    1979-01-01

    The energy position of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels relative to the Fermi energy is studied for the rare-earth metals. This is done by treating the excited state as an impurity in an otherwise perfect crystal. This picture is first considered in the complete screening approximation. In this approximation thermochemical data can be used directly to give energy values

  8. Point-defect properties in HCP rare earth metals with analytic modified embedded atom potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wangyu Hu; Huiqiu Deng; Xiaojian Yuan; Masahiro Fukumoto

    2003-01-01

    The analytic embedded atom method (EAM) type many-body potentials of hcp rare earth metals (Dy, Er, Gd, Ho, Nd, Pr, and Tb) have been constructed. The hcp lattice is shown to be energetically most stable when compared with the fcc and bcc structure, and the hcp lattice with ideal c\\/a. The mechanical stability of the corresponding hcp lattice with respect

  9. Corrosion behavior of rare earth metal (REM) conversion coatings on aluminum alloy LY12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Xingwen; Cao Chunan; Yao Zhiming; Zhou Derui; Yin Zhongda

    2000-01-01

    The processes of the double layer rare earth metal (REM) conversion coating on aluminum alloy LY12 (2024) were introduced. The results of polarization tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the double layer REM conversion coating was superior to that of chromate conversion coating. The corrosion behavior of REM conversion coatings on LY12 alloy was studied with optical microscopy and

  10. Rare earth metal oxides: formation, characterization and catalytic activity Thermoanalytical and applied pyrolysis review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gamal A. M. Hussein

    1996-01-01

    This review provides a guide to the recent literature on the characterization of the decomposition routes of different precursors, especially carboxylates of rare earth metals (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y and Th), and the formation of the final oxide products. It also discusses the effects of 1.(1) the nature of

  11. Shaping of diamond films by etching with molten rare-earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jin; J. E. Graebner; M. McCormack; T. H. Tiefel; A. Katz; W. C. Dautremont-Smith

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for shaping and thinning of CVD diamond films which does not involve high pressures of hydrogen atmospheres; it instead makes use of such molten rare-earth metals as Ce or La to etch away the surface of the diamond film. The process yields appreciable results over periods of a few hours, and may render diamond film applications

  12. SOME EFFECTS OF ANISOTROPY ON SPIRAL SPIN-CONFIGURATIONS WITH APPLICATION TO RARE-EARTH METALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kaplan

    1961-01-01

    A theoretical study of effects of anisotropy on spiral spin-; configurations is presented, emphasizing the problem of the magnetic ordering in ; rare-earth metals. It is shown that the ferromagnetic spiral observed at low ; temperatures by Wilkinson, Koehler, Wollan, and Cable in erbium can be the ; classical ground state of a spin Hamiltonian containing exchange and anisotropy ;

  13. Extraction of rare earth metals from nitrate solutions with a binary extractant based on Cyanex 272

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Belova; A. A. Voshkin; N. S. Egorova; A. I. Khol’kin

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms for the extraction of rare earth metals with a binary extracting agent based on bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic\\u000a acid with the formation of various complexes in the organic phase were proposed. The compositions of the extracted compounds\\u000a were determined, and the distribution of these compounds was adequately described by calculated curves.

  14. Extraction of rare earth metals with a multistage mixer-settler extraction column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuroku Takahashi; Ahmed Abdel-Sattar Abdel-Tawab; Susumu Nii; Toshihiro Yajima; Fumio Kawaizumi

    2002-01-01

    Extraction behavior of rare earth metals within a mixer–settler extraction column has been analyzed with the stage efficiency calculated from mass transfer coefficients and interfacial area. The mass transfer coefficient within the dispersed drops is determined from a rigid sphere model by taking into account the residence time distribution of drops, and the coefficient around the drops is calculated by

  15. Effects of rare earth elements on the distribution of mineral elements and heavy metals in horseradish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihong Wang; Xiaohua Huang; Qing Zhou

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of rare earth elements (REEs) on horseradish, the distribution of the mineral elements and heavy metals in different organs of horseradish have been studied by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Meanwhile, three variable major parameters, namely the concentration of REEs, the type of REEs, and the growth stage of plant were chosen.

  16. Influence of rare-earth metals on electrophysical properties of glassy films, deposited from solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sechenov, D.A.; Savitskii, E.M.; Chupryakov, Yu.A.; Chistyakov, O.D.

    1986-12-01

    The possibility of altering the properties of solution-deposited, boron-doped, glassy films is demonstrated by the addition of rare-earth metals. The use of sublimated r.e.m.'s during the formation of the doped films improves the properties of the films considerably on the account of the decrease in the nonferrous-impurity contents in them.

  17. Depolarization theory of. mu. /sup +/-mesons in rare earth metals near the NEEL point

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanter, I.G.; Fomichev, S.V.

    1980-06-01

    The depolarization of ..mu../sup +/-mesons in heavy rare earth metals near the NEEL point is studied. A relationship between the depolarization rate and the temporal correlation functions is found for the varying magnetic field of the medium in the meson localization point. Equations for the polarization characteristics per unit of time in single crystals and in polycrystals are established.

  18. Rare earth–transition metal–magnesium compounds—An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ute Ch. Rodewald; Bernard Chevalier; Rainer Poettgen

    2007-01-01

    Intermetallic rare earth–transition metal–magnesium compounds play an important role as precipitations in modern light weight alloys and as host materials for hydrogen storage applications. Recent results on the crystal chemistry, the chemical bonding peculiarities, physical properties, and hydrogenation behavior of these materials are reviewed.

  19. Surface energetics of alkaline-earth metal oxides: Trends in stability and adsorption of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajdich, Michal; Nørskov, Jens K.; Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    We present a systematic theoretical investigation of the surface properties, stability, and reactivity of rocksalt type alkaline-earth metal oxides including MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The accuracy of commonly used exchange-correlation density functionals (LDA, PBE, RPBE, PBEsol, BEEF-vdW, and hybrid HSE) and random-phase approximation (RPA) is evaluated and compared to existing experimental values. Calculated surface energies of the four most stable surface facets under vacuum conditions, the (100) surface, the metal and oxygen terminated octopolar (111), and the (110) surfaces, exhibit a monotonic increase in stability from MgO to BaO. On the MgO(100) surface, adsorption of CO, NO, and CH4 is characterized by physisorption while H2O chemisorbs, which is in agreement with experimental findings. We further use the on-top metal adsorption of CO and NO molecules to map out the surface energetics of each alkaline-earth metal oxide surface. The considered functionals all qualitatively predict similar adsorption energy trends. The ordering between the adsorption energies on different surface facets can be attributed to differences in the local geometrical surface structure and the electronic structure of the metal constituent of the alkaline-earth metal oxide. The striking observation that CO adsorption strength is weaker than NO adsorption on the (100) terraces as the period of the alkaline-earth metal in the oxide increases is analyzed in detail in terms of charge redistribution within the ? and ? channels of adsorbates. Finally, we also present oxygen adsorption and oxygen vacancy formation energies in these oxide systems.

  20. Rare-earth orbital contribution to the Fe Kedge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in rare-earth transition-metal intermetallic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chaboy; M. A. Laguna-Marco; M. C. Sánchez; H. Maruyama; N. Kawamura; M. Suzuki

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) study performed at the Fe K-edge of the RFe11Ti intermetallic materials (R, rare earth). We have investigated the contribution of the rare-earth sublattice to the dichroism of the transition metal. The existence of a magnetic contribution of the rare earth has been identified and isolated from the whole spectrum. This contribution

  1. Quadrupole resonances in the rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Liberman, D.; Zangwill, A.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations that employ a relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation to atomic absorption are used to examine a recent claim to the observation of giant quadrupolar resonances in the electron-energy-loss spectrum of Ce metal near the 4p edge. We confirm the existence of 4p..-->..4f resonances in this energy range but find the polarization effects much smaller than in typical giant dipole resonances.

  2. Most spin-1/2 transition-metal ions do have single ion anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Koo, Hyun-Joo; Xiang, Hongjun; Kremer, Reinhard K; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2014-09-28

    The cause for the preferred spin orientation in magnetic systems containing spin-1/2 transition-metal ions was explored by studying the origin of the easy-plane anisotropy of the spin-1/2 Cu(2+) ions in CuCl2·2H2O, LiCuVO4, CuCl2, and CuBr2 on the basis of density functional theory and magnetic dipole-dipole energy calculations as well as a perturbation theory treatment of the spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin orientation observed for these spin-1/2 ions is not caused by their anisotropic spin exchange interactions, nor by their magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, but by the spin-orbit coupling associated with their crystal-field split d-states. Our study also predicts in-plane anisotropy for the Cu(2+) ions of Bi2CuO4 and Li2CuO2. The results of our investigations dispel the mistaken belief that magnetic systems with spin-1/2 ions have no magnetic anisotropy induced by spin-orbit coupling. PMID:25273418

  3. Most spin-1/2 transition-metal ions do have single ion anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jia; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan, E-mail: hxiang@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: mike-whangbo@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Koo, Hyun-Joo [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Xiang, Hongjun, E-mail: hxiang@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: mike-whangbo@ncsu.edu [Key Laboratory of Computational Physical Sciences (Ministry of Education), State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Kremer, Reinhard K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-09-28

    The cause for the preferred spin orientation in magnetic systems containing spin-1/2 transition-metal ions was explored by studying the origin of the easy-plane anisotropy of the spin-1/2 Cu{sup 2+} ions in CuCl{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, LiCuVO{sub 4}, CuCl{sub 2}, and CuBr{sub 2} on the basis of density functional theory and magnetic dipole-dipole energy calculations as well as a perturbation theory treatment of the spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin orientation observed for these spin-1/2 ions is not caused by their anisotropic spin exchange interactions, nor by their magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, but by the spin-orbit coupling associated with their crystal-field split d-states. Our study also predicts in-plane anisotropy for the Cu{sup 2+} ions of Bi{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} and Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}. The results of our investigations dispel the mistaken belief that magnetic systems with spin-1/2 ions have no magnetic anisotropy induced by spin-orbit coupling.

  4. Characteristics and design of metal vacuum arc plasma source power supply for pulsed-mode plasma immersion ion implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Wang; K. Y. Gan; X. B. Tian; B. Y. Tang; P. K. Chu

    2000-01-01

    Metal vacuum arc plasma sources enhance the capability of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) by providing a convenient and efficient means by which to introduce metallic ions into the plasma for metallic ion implantation and\\/or thin film deposition. The power supply of a metal vacuum arc plasma source is usually based on the artificial transformation line design, but it has

  5. Nanoparticles reduce nickel allergy by capturing metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Anderson, R. Rox; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 10% of the population in the USA suffer from nickel allergy, and many are unable to wear jewellery or handle coins and other objects that contain nickel. Many agents have been developed to reduce the penetration of nickel through skin, but few formulations are safe and effective. Here, we show that applying a thin layer of glycerine emollient containing nanoparticles of either calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate on an isolated piece of pig skin (in vitro) and on the skin of mice (in vivo) prevents the penetration of nickel ions into the skin. The nanoparticles capture nickel ions by cation exchange, and remain on the surface of the skin, allowing them to be removed by simple washing with water. Approximately 11-fold fewer nanoparticles by mass are required to achieve the same efficacy as the chelating agent ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Using nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 500 nm in topical creams may be an effective way to limit the exposure to metal ions that can cause skin irritation.

  6. Nanoparticles reduce nickel allergy by capturing metal ions.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Anderson, R Rox; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 10% of the population in the USA suffer from nickel allergy, and many are unable to wear jewellery or handle coins and other objects that contain nickel. Many agents have been developed to reduce the penetration of nickel through skin, but few formulations are safe and effective. Here, we show that applying a thin layer of glycerine emollient containing nanoparticles of either calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate on an isolated piece of pig skin (in vitro) and on the skin of mice (in vivo) prevents the penetration of nickel ions into the skin. The nanoparticles capture nickel ions by cation exchange, and remain on the surface of the skin, allowing them to be removed by simple washing with water. Approximately 11-fold fewer nanoparticles by mass are required to achieve the same efficacy as the chelating agent ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Using nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 500 nm in topical creams may be an effective way to limit the exposure to metal ions that can cause skin irritation. PMID:21460828

  7. Ion anisotropy driven waves in the earth`s magnetosheath and plasma depletion layer

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, R.E.; Hudson, M.K. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Anderson, B.J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Lab.; Fuselier, S.A. [Lockheed Palo Alto Research Labs., CA (United States); Gary, S.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Recent studies of low frequency waves ({omega}{sub r} {le} {Omega}{sub p}, where {Omega}{sub p} is the proton gyrofrequency) observed by AMPTE/CCE in the plasma depletion layer and magnetosheath proper arereviewed. These waves are shown to be well identified with ion cyclotron and mirror mode waves. By statistically analyzing the transitions between the magnetopause and time intervals with ion cyclotron and mirror mode waves, it is established that the regions in which ion cyclotron waves occur are between the magnetopause and the regions where the mirror mode is observed. This result is shown to follow from the fact that the wave spectral properties are ordered with respect to the proton parallel beta, {beta}{sub {parallel}p}. The later result is predicted by linear Vlasov theory using a simple model for the magnetosheath and plasma depletion layer. Thus, the observed spectral type can be associated with relative distance from the magnetopause. The anisotropy-beta relation, A{sub p} {triple_bond} (T{perpendicular}/T{sub {parallel}}){sub p} {minus} 1 = 0.50{beta}{sub {parallel}p}{sup {minus}0.48} results from the fact that the waves pitch angle scatter the particles so that the plasma is near marginal stability, and is a fundamental constraint on the plasma.

  8. Ternary rare earth and actinoid transition metal carbides viewed as carbometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Dashjav, Enkhtsetseg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Kreiner, Guido [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Schnelle, Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Wagner, Frank R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Kniep, Ruediger [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: Kniep@cpfs.mpg.de; Jeitschko, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 8, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: jeitsch@uni-muenster.de

    2007-02-15

    Ternary carbides A{sub x}T{sub y}C{sub z} (A=rare earth metals and actinoids; T=transition metals) with monoatomic species C{sup 4-} as structural entities are classified according to the criteria (i) metal to carbon ratio, (ii) coordination number of the transition metal by carbon atoms, and (iii) the dimensionality of the anionic network [T{sub y}C{sub z}]{sup n-}. Two groups are clearly distinguishable, depending on the metal to carbon ratio. Those where this ratio is equal to or smaller than 2 may be viewed as carbometalates, thus extending the sequence of complex anions from fluoro-, oxo-, and nitridometalates to carbometalates. The second group, metal-rich carbides with metal to carbon ratios equal to or larger than 4 is better viewed as typical intermetallics (''interstitial carbides''). The chemical bonding properties have been investigated by analyzing the Crystal Orbital Hamilton Population (COHP). The chemical bonding situation with respect to individual T-C bonds is similar in both classes. The main difference is the larger number of metal-metal bonds in the crystal structures of the metal-rich carbides.

  9. Influence of other rare earth ions on the optical refrigeration efficiency in Yb:YLF crystals.

    PubMed

    Di Lieto, Alberto; Sottile, Alberto; Volpi, Azzurra; Zhang, Zhonghan; Seletskiy, Denis V; Tonelli, Mauro

    2014-11-17

    We investigated the effect of rare earth impurities on the cooling efficiency of Yb³?:LiYF? (Yb:YLF). The refrigeration performance of two single crystals, doped with 5%-at. Yb and with identical history but with different amount of contaminations, have been compared by measuring the cooling efficiency curves. Spectroscopic and elemental analyses of the samples have been carried out to identify the contaminants, to quantify their concentrations and to understand their effect on the cooling efficiencies. A model of energy transfer processes between Yb and other rare earth ions is suggested, identifying Erbium and Holmium as elements that produce a detrimental effect on the cooling performance. PMID:25402099

  10. Ion velocity distributions in the vicinity of the current sheet in Earth's distant magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Ackerson, K. L.; Kokubun, S.; Kivelson, M. G.; Yamamoto, T.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the three-dimensional velocity distributions of positive ions and electrons have been recently gained for the first time in Earth's distant magnetotail with the Galileo and Geotail spacecraft. For this brief discussion of these exciting results the focus is on the overall character of the ion velocity distributions during substorm activity. The ion velocity distributions within and near the magnetotail current sheet are not accurately described as convecting, isotropic Maxwellians. The observed velocity distributions are characterized by at least two robust types. The first type is similar to the 'lima bean'-shaped velocity distributions that are expected from the nonadiabatic acceleration of ions which execute Speiser-type trajectories in the current sheet. The second distribution is associated with the presence of cold ion beams that presumably also arise from the acceleration of plasma mantle ions in the electric and weak magnetic fields in the current sheet. The ion velocity distributions in a magnetic field structure that is similar to that for plasmoids are also examined. Again the velocity distributions are not Maxwellian but are indicative of nonadiabatic acceleration. An example of the pressure tensor within the plasmoid-like event is also presented because it is anticipated that the off-diagonal elements are important in a description of magnetotail dynamics. Thus our concept of magnetotail dynamics must advance from the present assumption of co-moving electron and ion Maxwellian distributions into reformulations in terms of global kinematical models and nonadiabatic particle motion.

  11. Effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Jiang, Long; Wang, Yi; Su, Sheng; Sun, Lushi; Xu, Boyang; He, Limo; Xiang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to investigate effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures. The yield of CO, H2 and C2H4 was increased and that of CO2 was suppressed with increasing temperature. Increasing temperature could also promote depolymerization and aromatization reactions of active tars, forming heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, leading to decrease of tar yields and species diversity. Diverse performance of inherent AAEMs at different temperatures significantly affected the distribution of pyrolysis products. The presence of inherent AAEMs promoted water-gas shift reaction, and enhanced the yield of H2 and CO2. Additionally, inherent AAEMs not only promoted breakage and decarboxylation/decarbonylation reaction of thermally labile hetero atoms of the tar but also enhanced thermal decomposing of heavier aromatics. Inherent AAEMs could also significantly enhance the decomposition of levoglucosan, and alkaline earth metals showed greater effect than alkali metals. PMID:26005925

  12. Some aspects of metallic ion chemistry and dynamics in the mesosphere and thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the formation of sporadic layers of metallic ion and the dumping of these ions into the upper mesosphere is discussed in terms of the tidal wind, classical (i.e., windshear) and other more complex, perhaps highly nonlinear layer formation mechanisms, and a possible circulation mechanism for these ions. Optical, incoherent scatter radar, rocket, and satellite derived evidence for various layer formation mechanisms and for the metallic ion circulation system is reviewed. The results of simple one dimensional numerical model calculations of sporadic E and intermediate layer formation are presented along with suggestions for more advanced models of intense or blanketing sporadic E. The flux of metallic ions dumped by the tidal wind system into the mesosphere is estimated and compared with estimates of total particle flux of meteoric origin. Possible effects of the metallic ion flux and of meteoric dust on D region ion chemistry are discussed.

  13. Metal Ions, Not Metal-Catalyzed Oxidative Stress, Cause Clay Leachate Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Caitlin C.; Koehl, Jennifer L.; Solanky, Dipesh; Haydel, Shelley E.

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous leachates prepared from natural antibacterial clays, arbitrarily designated CB-L, release metal ions into suspension, have a low pH (3.4–5), generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and H2O2, and have a high oxidation-reduction potential. To isolate the role of pH in the antibacterial activity of CB clay mixtures, we exposed three different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to 10% clay suspensions. The clay suspension completely killed acid-sensitive and acid-tolerant E. coli O157:H7 strains, whereas incubation in a low-pH buffer resulted in a minimal decrease in viability, demonstrating that low pH alone does not mediate antibacterial activity. The prevailing hypothesis is that metal ions participate in redox cycling and produce ROS, leading to oxidative damage to macromolecules and resulting in cellular death. However, E. coli cells showed no increase in DNA or protein oxidative lesions and a slight increase in lipid peroxidation following exposure to the antibacterial leachate. Further, supplementation with numerous ROS scavengers eliminated lipid peroxidation, but did not rescue the cells from CB-L-mediated killing. In contrast, supplementing CB-L with EDTA, a broad-spectrum metal chelator, reduced killing. Finally, CB-L was equally lethal to cells in an anoxic environment as compared to the aerobic environment. Thus, ROS were not required for lethal activity and did not contribute to toxicity of CB-L. We conclude that clay-mediated killing was not due to oxidative damage, but rather, was due to toxicity associated directly with released metal ions. PMID:25502790

  14. Metal cation/anion adsorption on calcium carbonate: Implications to metal ion concentrations in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, J.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Resch, C.T.

    1990-05-01

    This chapter evaluates the sorption behavior of metallic ions on specimen calcite as a basis for determining the importance of calcite relative to other subsurface sorbents, such as layer silicates and oxides, in controlling metal ion concentration in calcareous groundwaters. A review of the literature shows the sorption of both metallic cations and anions on calcite over ranges in pH and CO{sub 2} partial pressure to be consistent with a surface-exchange process where cations exchange with surface Ca and anions exchange with surface CO{sub 3}. A general surface-exchange model was developed to account for the effects of Ca and CO{sub 3} concentrations, pH, and calcite surface area on cation and anion sorption onto calcite. The model was applied to recently developed experimental sorption data of Zn and SeO{sub 3} on specimen calcite in equilibrium CaCO{sub 3}(aq) suspensions. The surface-exchange model was able to describe the effects of pH on both cation and anion sorption, and provided good predictions of the effects of variable CO{sub 2}(g) pressure on Zn sorption and of PO{sub 4} on SeO{sub 3} sorption. The surface-exchange model, combined with sorption constants for other phases, was used to calculate Cd sorption to a hypothetical aquifer material containing a mixture of sorbents. The sorbent concentrations were fixed to those expected in groundwater zones. The multi-sorbent calculation documented the importance of calcite as a sorbent for metallic ions in groundwater.93 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Alkaline-earth metal cations as structure building blocks for molecular cages with entrapment and controlled release of quintuple ionic aggregates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Tsang; Shiu, Ler-Chun; Shiu, Kom-Bei

    2015-05-01

    Currently, main-group metal cations are totally neglected as the structure-building blocks for the self-assembly of supramolecular coordination metallocages due to the lack of directional bonding. However, here we show that a common Arrhenius acid-base neutralization allows the alkaline-earth metal cations to act as charged binders, easily connecting two or more highly directional anionic transition-metal-based metalloligands to coordination polymers. With a metal salt such as K(+) PF6 (-) added during the neutralization, the main-group metal-connected skeleton can be templated by the largest yet reported ionic-aggregate anion, K2 (PF6 )3 (-) , formed from KPF6 in solution, into molecular metallocages, encapsulating the ion. Crystal-structure details, DFT-calculation results, and controlled-release behavior support the presence of K2 (PF6 )3 (-) as a guest in the cage. Upon removal of PF6 (-) ions, the cage stays intact. Other ions like BF4 (-) can be put back in. PMID:25786666

  16. The t-matrix resistivity of liquid rare earth metals using pseudopotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Kamaldeep G.; Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Gohel, V. B.

    2015-06-01

    Present theoretical study of liquid metal resistivity of some trivalent (La,Ce,Gd) and divalent (Eu,Yb) rare earth metals using pseudopotential has been carried out employing Ziman's weak scattering and transition matrix (t-matrix) approaches. Our computed results of liquid metal resistivity using t-matrix approach are better than resistivity computed using Ziman's approach and are also in excellent agreement with experimental results and other theoretical findings. The present study confirms that for f-shell metals pseudopotential must be determined uniquely and t-matrix approach is more physical in comparison with Ziman's nearly free electron approach. The present pseudopotential accounts s-p-d hybridization properly. Such success encourages us to study remaining liquid state properties of these metals.

  17. Estimation of Heavy Ion Densities From Linearly Polarized EMIC Waves At Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-02-24

    Linearly polarized EMIC waves are expected to concentrate at the location where their wave frequency satisfies the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance condition as the result of a mode conversion process. In this letter, we evaluate absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance in the Earth geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of helium and azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers in dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentration, it only occurs for a limited range of azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Our results suggest that, at L = 6.6, linearly polarized EMIC waves can be generated via mode conversion from the compressional waves near the crossover frequency. Consequently, the heavy ion concentration ratio can be estimated from observations of externally generated EMIC waves that have polarization.

  18. Nonthermal ions and associated magnetic field behavior at a quasi-parallel earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, W. P.; Pardaens, A. K.; Schwartz, S. J.; Burgess, D.; Luehr, H.; Kessel, R. L.; Dunlop, M.; Farrugia, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to ion and magnetic field measurements at the earth's bow shock from the AMPTE-UKS and -IRM spacecraft, which were examined in high time resolution during a 45-min interval when the field remained closely aligned with the model bow shock normal. Dense ion beams were detected almost exclusively in the midst of short-duration periods of turbulent magnetic field wave activity. Many examples of propagation at large elevation angles relative to the ecliptic plane, which is inconsistent with reflection in the standard model shock configuration, were discovered. The associated waves are elliptically polarized and are preferentially left-handed in the observer's frame of reference, but are less confined to the maximum variance plane than other previously studied foreshock waves. The association of the wave activity with the ion beams suggests that the former may be triggered by an ion-driven instability, and possible candidates are discussed.

  19. MeRNA: a Database of Metal Ion Binding Sites in RNAStructures

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Liliana R.; Zhang, Rui; Levitan, Aaron G.; Hendrix, DonnaF.; Brenner, Steven E.; Holbrook, Stephen R.

    2005-10-05

    Metal ions are essential for the folding of RNA into stable tertiary structures and for the catalytic activity of some RNA enzymes. To aid in the study of the roles of metal ions in RNA structural biology, we have created MeRNA (Metals in RNA), a comprehensive compilation of all metal binding sites identified in RNA 3D structures available from the PDB and Nucleic Acid Database. Currently, our database contains information relating to binding of 9764 metal ions corresponding to 23 distinct elements, in 256 RNA structures. The metal ion locations were confirmed and ligands characterized using original literature references. MeRNA includes eight manually identified metal-ion binding motifs, which are described in the literature. MeRNA is searchable by PDB identifier, metal ion, method of structure determination, resolution and R-values for X-ray structure and distance from metal to any RNA atom or to water. New structures with their respective binding motifs will be added to the database as they become available. The MeRNA database will further our understanding of the roles of metal ions in RNA folding and catalysis and have applications in structural and functional analysis, RNA design and engineering. The MeRNA database is accessible at http://merna.lbl.gov.

  20. Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyver, J. F.; Aebischer, A.; Biner, D.; Gerner, P.; Grimm, J.; Heer, S.; Krämer, K. W.; Reinhard, C.; Güdel, H. U.

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the recent results on upconversion spectroscopy obtained in our group. After a brief introduction into the upconversion field, three different topics will be addressed. First, the near-infrared (NIR) to red/green or blue upconversion efficiencies are discussed for the very efficient upconversion lattice NaYF 4 codoped with Er 3+, Yb 3+/Er 3+ or Yb 3+/Tm 3+, respectively. It will be demonstrated that as much as 50% of the NIR excitation photons contribute to the upconversion emission. Possible application of such a phosphor for enhancing the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells will be discussed. Next, the upconversion spectroscopy of nanocrystalline solutions will be discussed. Most importantly, optically transparent solutions showing intense visible emission under near-infrared excitation, an essential first step for application in new luminescent nanolabels, will be presented. Finally, upconversion spectroscopy of mixed transition metal/rare earth systems will be discussed. Both systems where the sensitizer is the rare earth ion and upconversion occurs on the transition metal ion, and their counterparts (transition metal sensitized upconversion) are presented and their underlying mechanisms will be described. The possibilities for chemical tuning of upconversion properties in such systems are presented.

  1. First-Principles Calculation of Solution Energy of Alkaline-Earth Metal Elements to BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwake, Hiroki; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Tanaka, Isao

    2007-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of the solution energy of alkaline-earth metal elements to perovskite-type BaTiO3 was carried out by a first-principles calculation combined with thermodynamics theory. The solution energies of neutral solute and a compensated solute with an oxygen vacancy were systematically calculated. They were obtained for two cation sites and four thermodynamical conditions with different chemical potentials of constituent atoms. Both Ca and Sr preferably occupy the Ba site of BaTiO3. On the other hand, Mg occupies the Ti site. This corresponds well to the widely accepted experimental findings regarding site preference. Moreover, under the condition of coexising BaO, CaO and BaTiO3, energy difference between the Ba-site solution and O-vacancy compensated Ti-site solution of Ca ions has been found to be smaller than that of Sr. Under this condition, the O-vacancy compensated Ti-site solution of Ca should be favorable compared with that of Sr. The same number of oxygen vacancies as Ca ions occupying Ti sites can be introduced. This also explains well experimental feature of the Ca-doped BaTiO3-based nonreducible multilayer ceramics capacitor (MLCC) materials regarding solution site of the Ca ion and abundance of O-vacancy.

  2. Cognate and noncognate metal ion coordination in metal-specific metallothioneins: the Helix pomatia system as a model.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Oscar; Pérez-Rafael, Sílvia; Pagani, Ayelen; Dallinger, Reinhard; Atrian, Sílvia; Capdevila, Mercè

    2014-08-01

    The Helix pomatia metallothionein (MT) system, namely, its two highly specific forms, HpCdMT and HpCuMT, has offered once again an optimum model to study metal-protein specificity. The present work investigates the most unexplored aspect of the coordination behavior of MT polypeptides with respect to either cognate or noncognate metal ions, as opposed to the standard studies of cognate metal ion coordination. To this end, we analyzed the in vivo synthesis of the corresponding complexes with their noncognate metals, and we performed a detailed spectroscopic and spectrometric study of the Zn(2+)/Cd(2+) and Zn(2+)/Cu(+) in vitro replacement reactions on the initial Zn-HpMT species. An HpCuMTAla site-directed mutant, exhibiting differential Cu(+)-binding abilities in vivo, was also included in this study. We demonstrate that when an MT binds its cognate metal, it yields well-folded complexes of limited stoichiometry, representative of minimal-energy conformations. In contrast, the incorporation of noncognate metal ions is better attributed to an unspecific reaction of cysteinic thiolate groups with metal ions, which is dependent on their concentration in the surrounding milieu, where no minimal-energy structure is reached, and otherwise, the MT peptide acts as a multidentate ligand that will bind metal ions until its capacity has been saturated. Additionally, we suggest that previous binding of an MT polypeptide with its noncognate metal ion (e.g., binding of Zn(2+) to the HpCuMT isoform) may preclude the correct folding of the complex with its cognate metal ion. PMID:24687203

  3. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Chirayil, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Feenstra, Roeland (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  4. Source Distributions of Substorm Ions Observed in the Near-Earth Magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; El-Alaoui, M.; Peroomian, V.; Walker, R. J.; Raeder, J.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study employs Geotail plasma observations and numerical modeling to determine sources of the ions observed in the near-Earth magnetotail near midnight during a substorm. The growth phase has the low-latitude boundary layer as its most important source of ions at Geotail, but during the expansion phase the plasma mantle is dominant. The mantle distribution shows evidence of two distinct entry mechanisms: entry through a high latitude reconnection region resulting in an accelerated component, and entry through open field lines traditionally identified with the mantle source. The two entry mechanisms are separated in time, with the high-latitude reconnection region disappearing prior to substorm onset.

  5. Development of LIZ-MEV, a Low Impedance Z-discharge Metal Vapor ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Johnson; A. Hershcovitch; F. J. Wessel; A. Vandrie; F. Patton; N. Rostoker

    1998-01-01

    Existing heavy-ion sources can produce either high beam currents, but low charge states (e.g., the Metal-Vapor Vacuum Arc [MEVVA]) or high charge states, but low beam currents (e.g., the Electron Beam Ion Source [EBIS]). For heavy ion beam injection (e.g., into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [RHIC] at BNL) our goal is to develop an ion source that produces both

  6. Retention of metal ions in ultrafiltration of mixtures of divalent metal ions and water-soluble polymers at constant ionic strength based on Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignacio Moreno-Villoslada; Bernabé L Rivas

    2003-01-01

    The interactions of water-soluble polymers with metal ions are studied by ultrafiltration using a molecular-weight cut off of 5000Da polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membrane. The technique allowed analyzing mathematically the distribution of metal ions bound to previously fractionated high molecular-weight water-soluble polymers or free in the solution from variables experimentally measurable. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms for the system poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)

  7. High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2011-08-01

    High pressure x-ray diffraction studies have been performed on the heavy rare earth metal erbium (Er) in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to a pressure of 151 GPa and Er has been compressed to 40% of its initial volume. The rare earth crystal structure sequence {hcp} \\to {Sm}~ {type} \\to {dhcp} \\to {distorted} fcc (hcp: hexagonal close packed; fcc: face centered cubic; dhcp: double hcp) is observed in Er below 58 GPa. We have carried out Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 58 GPa and 151 GPa. We have examined various crystal structures that have been proposed for the distorted fcc (dfcc) phase and the post-dfcc phase in rare earth metals. We find that the hexagonal hR 24 structure is the best fit between 58 and 118 GPa. Above 118 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.9%. We have also established a clear trend for the pressure at which a post-dfcc phase is formed in rare earth metals and show that there is a monotonic increase in this pressure with the filling of 4f shell.

  8. Metal nanocrystal/metal-organic framework core/shell nanostructure from selective self-assembly induced by localization of metal ion precursors on nanocrystal surface.

    PubMed

    Ohhashi, Takashi; Tsuruoka, Takaaki; Matsuyama, Tetsuhiro; Takashima, Yohei; Nawafune, Hidemi; Minami, Hideto; Akamatsu, Kensuke

    2015-08-01

    Metal nanocrystal/metal-organic framework core/shell nanostructures have been constructed using metal ion-trapped nanocrystals as scaffolds through a selective self-assembly of framework components on the nanocrystal surfaces. The resulting nanostructures exhibit unique catalytic activity toward nitrophenol analogs. PMID:25898115

  9. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, suppliment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979,page C5-46 High-temperature Hall effect in rare earth metals

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -temperature Hall effect in rare earth metals M. V. Vedernikov, V. G. Dvunitkin and N. I. Moreva A. F. Ioffe. Abstract. - Up to date the Hall effect in rare earth metals (REM) was studied rather extensively below at http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jphyscol:1979518 #12;HIGH-TEMPERATURE HALL EFFECT IN RARE EARTH METALS C5

  10. Analysis of Supercritical-Extracted Chelated Metal Ions From Mixed Organic-Inorganic Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Organic and inorganic contaminants of an environmental sample are analyzed by the same GC-MS instrument by adding an oxidizing agent to the sample to oxidize metal or metal compounds to form metal ions. The metal ions are converted to chelate complexes and the chelate complexes are extracted into a supercritical fluid such as CO2. The metal chelate extract after flowing through a restrictor tube is directly injected into the ionization chamber of a mass spectrometer, preferably containing a refractory metal filament such as rhenium to fragment the complex to release metal ions which are detected. This provides a fast, economical method for the analysis of metal contaminants in a sample and can be automated. An organic extract of the sample in conventional or supercritical fluid solvents can be detected in the same mass spectrometer, preferably after separation in a supercritical fluid chromatograph.

  11. a Comprehensive Model of Global Transport and Localized Layering of Metallic Ions in the Upper Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Nelson Carter Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The physics and chemistry of atmospheric metallic ions have been an active area of research for many years; however, a number of issues remain unresolved. Numerical models have been developed and used to establish and validate theories of metallic ion dynamics. While agreement with observational measurements has generally been satisfactory, these models have embodied highly simplified pictures of the total

  12. Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Wan Ngah; M. A. K. M. Hanafiah

    2008-01-01

    The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from plant wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In general, chemically modified

  13. Catalytic Ozonation of Citric Acid by Metallic Ions in Aqueous Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed A. Abd El-Raady; Tsuyoshi Nakajima; Phuong Kimchhayarasy

    2005-01-01

    Ozonation of citric acid in water catalyzed by different ions from the first row of transition metals (Mn, Co, Ti, Fe, Cu, Ni and Zn) was investigated at room temperature. The results showed that at pH=2, where the decomposition of citric acid is negligible by only ozone, the following order of efficiency of metallic ions for the decomposition of citric

  14. Effects of Lability of Metal Complex on Free Ion Measurement Using DMT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liping Weng; Riemsdijk van W. H; Erwin J. M. Temminghoff

    2010-01-01

    Very low concentrations of free metal ion in natural samples can be measured using the Donnan membrane technique (DMT) based on ion transport kinetics. In this paper, the possible effects of slow dissociation of metal complexes on the interpretation of kinetic DMT are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The expressions of the lability parameter, , were derived for DMT. Analysis

  15. Ion implantation and deposition on the inner surfaces of cylinders by exploding metallic foils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ordal Demokan

    2000-01-01

    A novel scheme for ion deposition and possibly ion implantation on the inner surfaces of cylindrical targets is proposed and experimentally tested. A large current is passed through a coaxial cable-type structure, composed of a straight conductor and a thin metallic foil, surrounding it. The foil evaporates and ionizes forming a metallic plasma, which is pushed radially outward due to

  16. The Mutation F227I Increases the Coupling of Metal Ion Transport in DCT1*

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Nathan

    that low metal ion to proton trans- port of DCT1 resulting from a proton slippage is not a necessity in the same direction. It supports the idea that the proton slippage has a physiological advan- tage-dependent proton slippage (1, 9, 11). In contrast to DCT1, Smf1p showed a metal ion-independent sodium slip through

  17. Low sputter damage of metal single crystalline surfaces investigated with medium energy ion scattering spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae Won Moon; Yongho Ha; Hyun Kyung Kim; Kyung Joong Kim; Hong Seung Kim; Jeong Yong Lee; Sehun Kim

    1999-01-01

    It was observed clearly that the sputter damage due to Ar+ ion bombardment on metal single crystalline surfaces is extremely low and the local surface atomic structure is preserved, which is totally different from semiconductor single crystalline surfaces. Medium energy ion scattering spectroscopy (MEIS) shows that there is little irradiation damage on the metal single crystalline surfaces such as Pt(111),

  18. Effect of rare earth ions on the phase transition of Na2SO4 crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Ohta; Masakazu Sakaguchi

    1991-01-01

    The V &rlarr2; I phase transition of Na2SO4 crystals was investigated on a sample of pure Na2SO4 and on rare-earth-ion (Ln3+ = La3+, Eu3+, Tm3+)-doped Na2SO4 samples in various ambient gases (O2, N2, NH3) with high temperature X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. On heating in N2 flow, the initiating temperature for the V --> I transition was lowered by

  19. Optical spectra of rare earth ions in Mg-Al spinnel crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. T. Gritsyna; V. B. Kolner; N. A. Damburg; N. A. Mironova; V. N. Skvortsova

    1985-01-01

    X-ray luminescence and photoluminescence spectra have been obtained for MgO-nAl2O3 crystals doped with alkaline rare earth elements. The crystals were grown according to the Verneuil method. Transitions are presented in Tb3(+), Dy3(+), and Er(+), Er3(+) ions in nonstoichiometric crystals, and the parameters of the corresponding luminescence lines are given. Inhomogeneous broadening of the spectral lines is attributed to deformation of

  20. Extraction of scandium from ion-adsorptive rare earth deposit by naphthenic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunsheng Liao; Jiangtao Jia; Yi Zhang; Gang Xu; Chunhua Yan; Biaoguo Li; Guangxian Xu

    2001-01-01

    An extraction method for producing high purity Sc(III) from ion-adsorptive rare earth deposit (IARED) is presented. Naphthenic acid diluted with iso-octanol and sulfated kerosene is selected as the extractant, chloride acid as the scrubbing and stripping solution. By two extraction processes in naphthenic acid system, scandium is concentrated from 0.02–0.04% to 15–20% (wt.), and further purified to 99.99–99.999% grade. The